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Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

Brian C. O' Neill

2006-08-09

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Decomposing demographic change into direct vs. compositional components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present and prove a formula for decomposing change in a population average into two components. One component captures the effect of direct change in the characteristic of interest, and the other captures the effect of compositional change. The decomposition is applied to time derivatives of averages over age and over subpopulations. Examples include decomposition of the change over time in the average age at childbearing and in the general fertility rate for China, Denmark and Mexico. A decomposition of the change over time in the crude death rate in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands is also presented. Other examples concern global life expectancy and the growth rate of the population of the world.

2002-07-01

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Laser Peening For Improving Metallic Components  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Suitable variation of residual stress profiles, fatigue strength and frequently also corrosion resistance of a material, are key requirements to be fulfilled for usability and long life of a vital machine component. Laser Peening (LP) is an innovative surface treatment which was initially developed for the aeronautic industry as the method for the improvement of the fatigue cracking resistance of the turbine spades of an aircraft, such as Falcon F-16 and Rockwell F-22. LP is based on plasm...

Grum, Janez; Trdan, Uros; Ocan?a Moreno, Jose Luis; Porro Gonza?lez, Juan Antonio

2010-01-01

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The Demographic Component in the Development of a Metropolis. Case-Study: Ia?i  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several peculiarities make Ia?i an outstanding city: it is a first-rank city in the national settlement system and the capital of the historical province of Moldova, numbers over 300,000 inhabitants and holds the 2nd position in the national urban hierarchy by demographic size, and a national growth pole since 2008 (Government Decision 998/2008. In view of the above, Ia?i has a significant demographic potential, also discharging complex functions and polarizing a large influence area, being one of the pillars of urban development in Romania. The aim of this paper is to outline the urban development strategy in the light of demographic structures and evolution. The demography today in the peri-urban space shows two characteristic features, namely the urban–rural migration, on the one hand, and the dominant agricultural functionality, on the other hand, as mirrored by the structure of employment. The development–related factors are the positive natural demographic balance, low level of population ageing and supply of a large workforce, a potential well-balanced local labour market. Concluding, the provision of Ia?i integrated urban and peri-urban strategy are pointed out.

CLAUDIA POPESCU

2011-01-01

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Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models.Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites.In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and their limitations on epidemiological analyses. We review sources of detailed, contemporary, freely available and relevant spatial demographic data focusing on low income regions where such data are often sparse and highlight the value of incorporating these through a set of examples of their application in disease studies. Moreover, the importance of acknowledging, measuring, and accounting for uncertainty in spatial demographic datasets is outlined. Finally, a strategy for building an open-access database of spatial demographic data that is tailored to epidemiological applications is put forward. PMID:22591595

Tatem, Andrew J; Adamo, Susana; Bharti, Nita; Burgert, Clara R; Castro, Marcia; Dorelien, Audrey; Fink, Gunter; Linard, Catherine; John, Mendelsohn; Montana, Livia; Montgomery, Mark R; Nelson, Andrew; Noor, Abdisalan M; Pindolia, Deepa; Yetman, Greg; Balk, Deborah

2012-01-01

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Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and their limitations on epidemiological analyses. We review sources of detailed, contemporary, freely available and relevant spatial demographic data focusing on low income regions where such data are often sparse and highlight the value of incorporating these through a set of examples of their application in disease studies. Moreover, the importance of acknowledging, measuring, and accounting for uncertainty in spatial demographic datasets is outlined. Finally, a strategy for building an open-access database of spatial demographic data that is tailored to epidemiological applications is put forward.

Tatem Andrew J

2012-05-01

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Improved component mode synthesis and variants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey focuses on the two known model order reduction schemes being widely integrated in various commercial finite element packages, namely, the static and dynamic condensation methods. The advantages as well as the corresponding drawbacks have been extensively analyzed in several papers throughout the last decades. Based on combining the beneficial properties of the aforementioned methods, several alternative reduction methodologies are outlined in this paper, i.e., the generalized improved reduction system method, the generalized component mode synthesis and the improved component mode synthesis with its generalized version, which incorporate in a more efficient way the system’s inertia terms. Therefore, the associated error regarding higher frequency ranges of interest is better controlled. Basis of these methodologies is the so-called master and slave degrees of freedom partitioning, the right selection of which highly influences the reduced order model’s dynamics. The methods are tested and verified on a rather small three-dimensional bar structure and on the lever part of a turbocharger’s variable turbine geometry. Several reduced order models are generated by varying both the number of Craig–Bampton modes and the selection of the required master degrees of freedom. A comparison is conducted based on the modal criterion of the corresponding eigenvectors and the associated computation time required.

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Improved component mode synthesis and variants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This survey focuses on the two known model order reduction schemes being widely integrated in various commercial finite element packages, namely, the static and dynamic condensation methods. The advantages as well as the corresponding drawbacks have been extensively analyzed in several papers throughout the last decades. Based on combining the beneficial properties of the aforementioned methods, several alternative reduction methodologies are outlined in this paper, i.e., the generalized improved reduction system method, the generalized component mode synthesis and the improved component mode synthesis with its generalized version, which incorporate in a more efficient way the system's inertia terms. Therefore, the associated error regarding higher frequency ranges of interest is better controlled. Basis of these methodologies is the so-called master and slave degrees of freedom partitioning, the right selection of which highly influences the reduced order model's dynamics. The methods are tested and verified on a rather small three-dimensional bar structure and on the lever part of a turbocharger's variable turbine geometry. Several reduced order models are generated by varying both the number of Craig-Bampton modes and the selection of the required master degrees of freedom. A comparison is conducted based on the modal criterion of the corresponding eigenvectors and the associated computation time required.

Koutsovasilis, Panagiotis, E-mail: PKoutsovasilis@borgwarner.com [BorgWarner Turbo Systems Engineering GmbH, Structural Mechanics/Calculations and Simulations/Turbo Systems (Germany)

2013-04-15

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Improving the utilisation of demographic and health surveys as a source of health information.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many countries, existing health data sources are underutilised to inform health decision-making. Improving the capacity of public health officials to assess, analyse and interpret existing data is a primary means for overcoming this issue. One data source with much potential to inform health policy is the Demographic and Health Survey (OHS). The OHS, which has been conducted in over 90 countries, collects data in a standardised fashion that can produce a range of key indicators for health policy, including health outcomes, health service utilisation, environmental factors, and demographic and socio-economic factors. The OHS also allows for comparison of indicators over time within a country, as well as comparison of indicators between countries. This article details the type of data available in the OHS and details a range of indicators that can be produced from these data. A major advantage of the OHS is that the datasets are freely available for analysis. The OHS therefore provides much potential for harnessing existing skills of public health officials and researchers to assess, analyse and interpret its wealth of data. This article presents tools, for use in Stata software, to compute these indicators and analyse them according to geographic, socio-economic and other factors. Such tools can be adjusted to suit the type of information the analyst wishes to derive from the data. Improving the use of OHS data in settings where health data from other sources is lacking will strengthen the evidence-base for health policy. PMID:23240343

Adair, Tim

2012-04-01

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Influence of migrational components of the Srem district on demographic growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The areas of Srem, and other parts of Vojvodina, are characterized by the constant movement of the population. Most causes of migration are economic, social, ethnic or political reasons. Migration could be voluntarily or forced, mass or individual, occasional or planned. The stated causes of migration occurring in Srem since 1961 to 1991 were mainly routed to the cities for economic reasons. The cities have absorbed the largest number of migrants provided by the rural hinterland. More intensive population movement was towards larger regional centers, resulting in some differences between urban settlements. The intensity and direction of movement of the population is largely dependent on the economic developed area. At the end of the twentieth century there were mass migrations from the territory of the former Yugoslavia. These migrations have affected to the demographic growth of population of Srem district. .

Petkovi? Dara

2010-01-01

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Improvement of Component Integration Testing Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Component-based technology can increase reuse and productivity, but high-quality component-based systems are often difficult to implement. Component developers do not know the systems where the components will be used, while software engineers must develop new systems with limited knowledge on available components. We propose a new testing technique that generates, at the time of component development, integration test cases from the specification of the behavior expected from other components of the system. The technique presented in this paper supports both the component developer, who can early test the integration of the components with the system, and the software engineers, who can test concrete components at deployment time, simply re-using existing test cases.The technique presented in this paper supports both the component developer, who can early test the integration of the components with the system, and the software engineers, who can test components at deployment time. We used questionnaires to validate the proposed solution.

Khulood Salem Albeladi

2013-07-01

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The Effectiveness of Institutional Intervention on Minimizing Demographic Inertia and Improving the Representation of Women Faculty in Higher Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Women remain under-represented among full time tenured/tenure-track science and engineering faculty at research universities in the United States despite their increasing availability in the employment pool. In response, intervention strategies aimed at boosting their participation have been introduced at university and national levels. Efforts to improve women’s representation may be challenged by demographic inertia, the tendency for the maintenance of the entrenched population structure ...

Bakian, Amanda V.; Sullivan, Kimberly A.

2010-01-01

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The Effectiveness of Institutional Intervention on Minimizing Demographic Inertia and Improving the Representation of Women Faculty in Higher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women remain under-represented among full time tenured/tenure-track science and engineering faculty at research universities in the United States despite their increasing availability in the employment pool. In response, intervention strategies aimed at boosting their participation have been introduced at university and national levels. Efforts to improve women’s representation may be challenged by demographic inertia, the tendency for the maintenance of the entrenched population structure that favors men despite improvements in women’s vital parameters. Here, we investigate the effectiveness of the U.S. National Science Foundation’s ADVANCE institutional intervention program at curtailing demographic inertia at a research university dubbed ‘Snow State University’ (SSU. We found that demographic inertia’s impact on women’s representation was lessened during ADVANCE. Yet to achieve long-lasting improvements in women’s representation, universities will need to increase their recruitment of women at the associate and full professor ranks while maintaining promotion and retention probabilities favorable to women over the long-term.

Amanda V. Bakian

2010-06-01

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Various approaches to improve availability of a standby component  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamic test interval method and monitoring method are analyzed to improve component availability through the realistic equation that contains aging, test and repair effect. Dynamic test interval method is valuable for the component which has big aging rate, but not useful for the component which takes long time to be tested. For the effective monitoring method, highly reliable sensors and wide fault detection coverage are required. Many safety components in Nuclear Power Plant are in standby state. While waiting for the operation, the soundness of those components is quite difficult to be guaranteed because there is no signal to utilize for judgment. Currently, the only way to guarantee its integrity is the periodic inspection. In this study, more realistic availability equation which contains the test, repair and aging effects are adopted. Based on this equation, the dynamic test interval method which considers aging effect is adopted and analyzed. The monitoring method, detecting some portion of failure causes, is analyzed also

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Improvements for Image Compression Using Adaptive Principal Component Extraction (APEX)  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues of image compression and pattern classification have been a primary focus of researchers among a variety of fields including signal and image processing, pattern recognition, data classification, etc. These issues depend on finding an efficient representation of the source data. In this paper we collate our earlier results where we introduced the application of the. Hilbe.rt scan to a principal component algorithm (PCA) with Adaptive Principal Component Extraction (APEX) neural network model. We apply these technique to medical imaging, particularly image representation and compression. We apply the Hilbert scan to the APEX algorithm to improve results

Ziyad, Nigel A.; Gilmore, Erwin T.; Chouikha, Mohamed F.

1997-01-01

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Separating middle components by using improved pulse cascades  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new operation manner of pulse cascade was proposed. Compared with the pulse cascade without the improvement, smaller final pulse number and shorter transient time are needed, and it is more feasible in engineering. In separating multicomponent mixtures, compared with the conventional cascades, this improved pulse cascade is able to obtain the same degree of separation with shorter cascade lengths and fewer centrifuges. In the case that the cascade lengths and the total numbers of centrifuges are the same for separating a middle component, better performance is achieved, yielding higher concentration in the product and lower in the waste, in contrast to the conventional cascade. With an additional withdrawal at an appropriate middle stage chosen through optimization, a pulse cascade produces products with much higher concentration of the target middle component than a conventional cascade. (authors)

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Improvement in quantification of urine components: Alternate technique  

CERN Document Server

Urea and creatinine are two important diagnostic components of urine. The study of creatinine in liquid phase is difficult due to its feeble concentration in urine. To bring down the detection limit, DCD Raman spectroscopy was employed. Raman studies in association with partial least square algorithm of artificial urine samples gave improved results in dried phase as compared to liquid phase. These findings were further validated on real urine samples.

Kumar, S

2014-01-01

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Measures to improve the availability of nuclear components from the viewpoint of a component supplier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Basis Safety Concept (BSC) mandatory in Germany for pressure-retaining components in nuclear power plants provides a significant contribution towards improving plant availability. The use of tough materials with good welding properties satisfies basis safely requirements much in the same way as, being the result of process optimization, the application of narrow-gap welding for butt welds and of pulsed TIG welding for the tube to tube-sheet joints in steam generators of pressurized-water reactors

19

Could non-grade based selection improve medical student socio-demographic diversity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Students with lower socioeconomic backgrounds have been found to be underrepresented in medical education. There is little evidence as to whether the type of student admission strategy used could make a difference to diversity of medical students. The aim of this paper was to examine if selection strategy made a difference to the diversity of admitted medical students. Method: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The population was 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 at one medical school. Of these, 454 was admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected with a non-grade-based or ’non-cognitive’ admission program. The two admission groups were compared on seven social indices (doctor parent, ethnic origin, father’s education, mother’s education, parenthood, parents live together, parent on benefit). Result: Selection strategy made no difference to the social diversity of admitted medical students. The non-cognitive admission program studied was nota useful initiative for improving medical student diversity nor did it further disadvantaged educationally vulnerable population groups in these cohorts. Discussion: The social heritage and general intelligence of potential applicants from underrepresented groups may be far more influential on diversity in medical school than the choice of medical school selection strategy.

O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

2013-01-01

20

Improving reactor safety systems using component redundancy allocation technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the improvements to the reliability of the safety systems of nuclear reactors using redundancy allocation technique. The study has been carried out using the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). PSA involves, among others, the use of fault and event tree tools in the evaluation of the safety system failure probabilities and the quantification of annual occurrence probability of the accidental conditions postulated in the design of the nuclear reactors. The PSA has been presented and discussed. The Egypt Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2, has been used as a case study. The failure probability of the already existing safety systems has been reviewed. The effect of the allocation of more redundant components to the existing safety systems on the failure probability of the systems has been evaluated. The event trees for two selected initiating events, from those events postulated in the ETRR-2 design, have been studied considering the allocation of more redundant components to the safety systems. The result of the study showed that further improvement could be introduced to the reliability of the Confinement Ventilation System (CVS). (author)

 
 
 
 
21

Material Gradients in Oxygen System Components Improve Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxygen system components fabricated by Laser Engineered Net Shaping (TradeMark) (LENS(TradeMark)) could result in improved safety and performance. LENS(TradeMark) is a near-net shape manufacturing process fusing powdered materials injected into a laser beam. Parts can be fabricated with a variety of elemental metals, alloys, and nonmetallic materials without the use of a mold. The LENS(TradeMark) process allows the injected materials to be varied throughout a single workpiece. Hence, surfaces exposed to oxygen could be constructed of an oxygen-compatible material while the remainder of the part could be one chosen for strength or reduced weight. Unlike conventional coating applications, a compositional gradient would exist between the two materials, so no abrupt material boundary exists. Without an interface between dissimilar materials, there is less tendency for chipping or cracking associated with thermal-expansion mismatches.

Forsyth, Bradley S.

2011-01-01

22

Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

23

Improved methods of creep-fatigue life assessment of components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The improvement of life assessment methods contributes to a reduction of efforts at design and an effective long term operation of high temperature components, reduces technical risk and increases high economical advantages. Creep-fatigue at multi-stage loading, covering cold start, warm start and hot start cycles in typical loading sequences e.g. for medium loaded power plants, was investigated here. At hold times creep and stress relaxation, respectively, lead to an acceleration of crack initiation. Creep fatigue life time can be calculated by a modified damage accumulation rule, which considers the fatigue fraction rule for fatigue damage and the life fraction rule for creep damage. Mean stress effects, internal stress and interaction effects of creep and fatigue are considered. Along with the generation of advanced creep data, fatigue data and creep fatigue data as well scatter band analyses are necessary in order to generate design curves and lower bound properties inclusive. Besides, in order to improve lifing methods the enhancement of modelling activities for deformation and life time are important. For verification purposes, complex experiments at variable creep conditions as well as at creep fatigue interaction under multi-stage loading are of interest. Generally, the development of methods to transfer uniaxial material properties to multiaxial loading situations is a current challenge. For specific design purposes, a constitutive material model is introduced which is implemented as an user subroutine for Finite Element applications due to start-up and shut-down phases of components. Identification of material parameters have been performed by Neural Networks. (orig.)

Scholz, Alfred; Berger, Christina [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IfW), Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-07-01

24

Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P?=?.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

2013-01-01

25

Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

2013-01-01

26

Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure crisis that U.S. industry is ill prepared to handle which could further challenge U.S. competitiveness.

Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

2012-03-26

27

Improved stress prediction in adhesive bonded optical components  

Science.gov (United States)

Adhesives are widely used in optomechanical structures for bonding optical components to their mounts. The main advantage of using adhesives is the excellent strength to weight ratio. Adhesive bonding is seen as a desirable joining technique as it allows for greater flexibility in design. A disadvantage of adhesives however is the limited dimensional stability and loadability. To design stable optical mounts, accurate prediction of stresses and deformation is therefore needed. Adhesives show strong temperature and loading history dependent behavior. Viscoelastic material models are needed for accurate prediction of stresses and strains in bonded joints. However, representative material data for adhesives is difficult to find. In this research, an experimental framework is build up to determine relevant mechanical properties of adhesives for improving stress and deformation prediction. This paper shows the results of the characterization experiments and modeling techniques. Also the implementation of material models in finite element code is briefly discussed. The obtained models are used in the mount design in the EUCLID and TROPOMI programs as described in “Ultra stable isostatic bonded optical mount design for harsh environments, J.A.C.M Pijnenburg et al” (this conference).

de Vreugd, J.; te Voert, M. J. A.; Nijenhuis, J. R.; Pijnenburg, J. A. C. M.; Tabak, E.

2012-09-01

28

Demographic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic Research is a newly launched, peer-reviewed online journal of the population sciences published by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. The first article in Volume One (covering May 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999) has recently been posted: Cancer Rates over Age, Time, and Place: Insights from Stochastic Models of Heterogeneous Populations by James W. Vaupel and Anatoli I. Yashin. Articles are available in both HTML and .pdf formats. The Website provides detailed information about the journal's purpose, mission, submission guidelines, and review process.

29

Changing demographics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

30

Improved computation method in residual life estimation of structural components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work considers the numerical computation methods and procedures for the fatigue crack growth predicting of cracked notched structural components. Computation method is based on fatigue life prediction using the strain energy density approach. Based on the strain energy density (SED theory, a fatigue crack growth model is developed to predict the lifetime of fatigue crack growth for single or mixed mode cracks. The model is based on an equation expressed in terms of low cycle fatigue parameters. Attention is focused on crack growth analysis of structural components under variable amplitude loads. Crack growth is largely influenced by the effect of the plastic zone at the front of the crack. To obtain efficient computation model plasticity-induced crack closure phenomenon is considered during fatigue crack growth. The use of the strain energy density method is efficient for fatigue crack growth prediction under cyclic loading in damaged structural components. Strain energy density method is easy for engineering applications since it does not require any additional determination of fatigue parameters (those would need to be separately determined for fatigue crack propagation phase, and low cyclic fatigue parameters are used instead. Accurate determination of fatigue crack closure has been a complex task for years. The influence of this phenomenon can be considered by means of experimental and numerical methods. Both of these models are considered. Finite element analysis (FEA has been shown to be a powerful and useful tool1,6 to analyze crack growth and crack closure effects. Computation results are compared with available experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 174001

Maksimovi? Stevan M.

2013-01-01

31

In Some Components of Enterprise Management Quality Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses factors of influence upon efficiency of the organisation management system. In the result of the study the article identifies components of management quality provision as a condition of achievement of manageability and high level of organisational perfection by an enterprise. The article formulates principles of ensuring balanced development of an organisation. The prospect of further studies in this direction is formation of the national management model, which would rest upon the already existing anticipatory competitive advantages in humanitarian and geo-economic spheres and would facilitate effective modernisation for achieving a high level of organisational perfection of enterprises in general.

Denysenko Ihor P.

2014-02-01

32

Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs.

Ware, J.; Ferl, J.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; DeAngelis, G.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.J.

2002-05-08

33

Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs

34

Nursing home culture: a critical component in sustained improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the third in a series of articles exploring working conditions and quality improvement in nursing homes, 31 nursing homes were surveyed using an adaptation of the Competing Values Framework (CVF) Organizational Assessment. The CVF provides information about the organizational culture through describing dominant perceived values, distribution of values across organizational characteristics, and orientation of values toward flexibility. Staff reported a dominant group culture, reflecting a family and team orientation within their settings. Leaders, however, were more often reported to reflect a hierarchy value orientation, emphasizing efficiency of operations and following rules and procedures. PMID:16177586

Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Jones, Katherine; Moore, Laurie; Vojir, Carol

2005-01-01

35

High heat flux testing of beryllium components with improved diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beryllium is one of the most interesting materials to be used in nuclear fusion devices due to its promising properties. However, testing of beryllium components is quite challenging because of its toxicity and the required safety procedures. Within this paper an overview of high heat flux thermal fatigue tests carried out in the electron beam facility JUDITH 2 (Juelich Divertor Test Facility in the Hot Cells) at Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) on actively cooled beryllium mock ups is given. The performance of the mock ups was documented by temperature measurements as well as optical inspections before and after testing. Special attention was paid to the temperature diagnostics during the tests for two different reasons. Firstly, local overheating of the beryllium tiles, which are the proof of bonding failures, is detected by temperature measurements. Secondly, temperature information is exceptionally important to meet the required safety standards because of the toxicity of beryllium. In order to avoid evaporation of beryllium, a temperature limit for an automatic safety shut down of the electron beam facility JUDITH 2 was set to a certain value. Finally examples of the temperature distribution under different loading conditions for the beryllium mock ups are presented within this paper.

36

Joining of components of complex structures for improved dynamic response  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this work is to provide a method for choosing joining (e.g., bolt) locations for attaching structural reinforcements onto complex structures. The joining locations affect structural performance criteria such as the frequency response and the static compliance of the modified structure. One approach to finding improved/optimal joining locations is to place the joints such that the total amount of energy input into the structure (from external forces) is lowered/minimized, thus ensuring that the performance of the structure is least affected by the structural modifications. However, such an approach does not account for the stresses in the joints. Therefore, in this work, the amount of strain energy concentrated in the joints is also considered. The cost function for this optimization problem is then composed of two energies. These energies are different for the undamped and damped cases. Herein, the focus is on the (more realistic) damped case. The cost function is minimized by a modified optimality criteria method. This process is time consuming because it requires the calculation of sensitivities of the joint strain energy, which in turn requires the calculation of the displacements of all candidate joint locations by using the system-level mass and stiffness matrices and force vector (at each frequency in the range of interest). To address this issue, a series of complex algebraic manipulations and approximations are used to significantly reduce the computational cost. In addition, for the case where structural and geometrical variations are necessary, parametric reduced-order models are used to compute the cost function with further significant gains in computational speed. Numerical results for improved/optimal joining are presented for representative complex structures with structural variabilities.

Hong, Sung-Kwon; Epureanu, Bogdan I.; Castanier, Matthew P.

2012-09-01

37

Improved Principal Component Analysis and its Application in the Evaluation of the Industrial Structure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, improved principal component analysis method is put forward to avoid the shortage of comprehensive evaluation dealt with principal component analysis method. When the contribution rate of the first principal components is short of asks, we can choose to rotate factor loading matrix and select multiple main components and synthesize and weigh the variation coefficient and variance contribution as weight coefficient, to set up a comprehensive evaluation model. As an example of th...

Li, Fen-hong

2013-01-01

38

Large improvements in application throughput of long-running multi-component applications using batch grids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computational grids with multiple batch systems (batch grids) can be powerful infrastructures for executing long-running multi-component parallel applications. In this paper, we evaluate the potential improvements in throughput of long-running multi-component applications when the different components of the applications are executed on multiple batch systems of batch grids. We compare the multiple batch executions with executions of the components on a single batch system without increasing ...

Sundari, Sivagama M.; Vadhiyar, Sathish S.; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

2012-01-01

39

Improved Principal Component Analysis and its Application in the Evaluation of the Industrial Structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, improved principal component analysis method is put forward to avoid the shortage of comprehensive evaluation dealt with principal component analysis method. When the contribution rate of the first principal components is short of asks, we can choose to rotate factor loading matrix and select multiple main components and synthesize and weigh the variation coefficient and variance contribution as weight coefficient, to set up a comprehensive evaluation model. As an example of the main indicators of Shangluo city Industrial data, the comparative study uses factor analysis and improved model, systematic classification with cluster analysis. The result shows that comprehensive evaluation of the improved model in the practical problems is more reasonable and objective.

LI Fen-Hong

2013-06-01

40

INVESTIGATIONS TO IMPROVE THE TRANSFERABILITY OF SPECIMEN RESULTS BY REAL COMPONENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the improvement of the lifetime calculation of components made of the titanium alloy Ti-6-4, a closed loop methodology from specimen to the component is presented. Based on forged pre-material specimens fatigue tests are done as a basic research, which are presented as S/N-curves. With the determined material data a lifetime calculation with the program FEMFAT is done on a typically fitting element. Finally the results of the lifetime calculation are compared to real component tests, which are done to evaluate the results of the lifetime calculation. The component tests are performed with constant and variable load. Therewith the transferability of specimen results to real components is shown. Additional fracture analysis by light microscope and scanning electron microscope is carried out to give further information of the influence factor of the lifetime and a further description between fracture behaviour of specimen and components.

Martin Riedler

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Shortest Component Path Generation of C2-Style Architecture Using Improved A* Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are always more than one shortest paths between two components in software architecture, and in the application of path selection with additional constraints, several optimal or near optimal paths are desired. Traditional A* algorithm has been successfully used in software testing activities such as finding the shortest path, selecting test suites and test suites prioritization. Little work has been specifically targeted towards the shortest component path of software architecture applications. In this paper, we propose an improved A* algorithm, and combine with an example to explain the algorithm solving process. Finally, we implement the A* algorithm and the improved A* algorithm, and the results are compared. It is shown that the shortest component path using improved A* algorithm is completely feasible and effective.

Lijun Lun

2014-06-01

42

Magnetoencephalogram blind source separation and component selection procedure to improve the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease patients.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to improve the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients applying a blind source separation (BSS) and component selection procedure to their magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings. MEGs from 18 AD patients and 18 control subjects were decomposed with the algorithm for multiple unknown signals extraction. MEG channels and components were characterized by their mean frequency, spectral entropy, approximate entropy, and Lempel-Ziv complexity. Using Student's t-test,...

Escudero, J.; Hornero, R.; Aba?solo, D.; Ferna?ndez, A.; Poza, J.

2007-01-01

43

Multi-state component criticality analysis for reliability improvement in multi-state systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates and implements composite importance measures (CIM) for multi-state systems with multi-state components (MSMC). Importance measures are frequently used as a means to evaluate and rank the impact and criticality of individual components within a system yet they are less often used as a guide to prioritize system reliability improvements. For multi-state systems, previously developed measures sometimes are not appropriate and they do not meet all user needs. This study has two inter-related goals: first, to distinguish between two types of importance measures that can be used for evaluating the criticality of components in MSMC with respect to multi-state system reliability, and second, based on the CIM, to develop a component allocation heuristic to maximize system reliability improvements. The heuristic uses Monte-Carlo simulation together with the max-flow min-cut algorithm as a means to compute component CIM. These measures are then transformed into a cost-based composite metric that guides the allocation of redundant elements into the existing system. Experimental results for different system complexities show that these new CIM can effectively estimate the criticality of components with respect to multi-state system reliability. Similarly, these results show that the CIM-based heuristic can be used as a fast and effective technique to guide system reliability improvements

44

Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

2012-01-01

45

Biochemical component identification by plasmonic improved whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental data on detection and identification of variety of biochemical agents, such as proteins, microelements, antibiotic of different generation etc. in both single and multi component solutions under varied in wide range concentration analyzed on the light scattering parameters of whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor are represented. Multiplexing on parameters and components has been realized using developed fluidic sensor cell with fixed in adhesive layer dielectric microspheres and data processing. Biochemical component identification has been performed by developed network analysis techniques. Developed approach is demonstrated to be applicable both for single agent and for multi component biochemical analysis. Novel technique based on optical resonance on microring structures, plasmon resonance and identification tools has been developed. To improve a sensitivity of microring structures microspheres fixed by adhesive had been treated previously by gold nanoparticle solution. Another technique used thin film gold layers deposited on the substrate below adhesive. Both biomolecule and nanoparticle injections caused considerable changes of optical resonance spectra. Plasmonic gold layers under optimized thickness also improve parameters of optical resonance spectra. Biochemical component identification has been also performed by developed network analysis techniques both for single and for multi component solution. So advantages of plasmon enhancing optical microcavity resonance with multiparameter identification tools is used for development of a new platform for ultra sensitive label-free biomedical sensor.

Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

2014-05-01

46

An improved method for physician-certified verbal autopsy reduces the rate of discrepancy: experiences in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (NHDSS, Burkina Faso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Through application of the verbal autopsy (VA approach, trained fieldworkers collect information about the probable cause of death (COD by using a standardized questionnaire to interview family members who were present at the time of death. The physician-certified VA (PCVA, an independent review of this questionnaire data by up to three physicians trained in VA coding, is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO and is widely used in the INDEPTH Network. Even given its appropriateness in these contexts, a large percentage of causes of death assigned by VAs remains undetermined. As physicians often do not agree upon a final COD classification, there remains substantial room to improve the standard VA method, potentially leading to a reduction in physician discordance in COD coding. Methods We present an extension of the current method of PCVA and compare it to the standard WHO-recommended procedure. We used VA data collected in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (NHDSS between 2009 and 2010 using a locally-adapted version of an INDEPTH standard verbal autopsy questionnaire. Until 2009, physicians in the NHDSS followed the WHO method (Method 1. As an extension of Method 1, starting in 2010, the use of a panel of physicians was added to the coding process in the case where a third physician's final conclusions resulted in an undetermined COD (Method 2. Two independent samples of VA questionnaires were compared for the year 2009 (using Method 1 and the year 2010 (using Method 2. Results The WHO-recommended method used for 2009 yielded a high level of undetermined CODs, where the final coding was "undetermined" in 50.8% of all questionnaires due to disagreement among participating physicians (Method 1. By introducing a panel of physicians in 2010 for cases where the principal physicians disagreed on the cause of death, the revised method significantly reduced the proportion of undetermined CODs to 1.5% (Method 2. Conclusions As the extended method of PCVA significantly improved the accuracy of the VA procedure, we suggest the adoption of this method for those countries where alternatives like computer-based VA coding are not available. Based on the results of our study, further research should be pursued.

Bagagnan Cheik

2011-08-01

47

How the gender or morphological specific TKA prosthesis improves the component fit in the Chinese population?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the gender specific or morphological specific total knee prostheses improve the component fit in the distal femur of the Chinese population. The data showed that the perfect fit rate of the femoral component remarkably increased in both the male and female subjects when using the gender specific (Nexgen-LPS GSF, Zimmer) or morphological specific (Advance Stature Knee, Wright Medical Technology) knee prostheses, compared to their standard counterparts. The highest femoral component perfect fit rate was achieved when both the standard and the corresponding gender or morphological specific knee prostheses were available for selection. Additionally, the percentage of the gender or morphological specific prosthesis selection in the females was significantly higher than the males. PMID:23706908

Yue, Bing; Wang, Jun; Wang, You; Yan, Mengning; Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Yiming

2014-01-01

48

Improved E-ELT subsystem and component specifications, thanks to M1 test facility  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last 2 years ESO has operated the "M1 Test Facility", a test stand consisting of a representative section of the E-ELT primary mirror equipped with 4 complete prototype segment subunits including sensors, actuators and control system. The purpose of the test facility is twofold: it serves to study and get familiar with component and system aspects like calibration, alignment and handling procedures and suitable control strategies on real hardware long before the primary mirror (hereafter M1) components are commissioned. Secondly, and of major benefit to the project, it offered the possibility to evaluate component and subsystem performance and interface issues in a system context in such detail, that issues could be identified early enough to feed back into the subsystem and component specifications. This considerably reduces risk and cost of the production units and allows refocusing the project team on important issues for the follow-up of the production contracts. Experiences are presented in which areas the results of the M1 Test Facility particularly helped to improve subsystem specifications and areas, where additional tests were adopted independent of the main test facility. Presented are the key experiences of the M1 Test Facility which lead to improved specifications or identified the need for additional testing outside of the M1 Test Facility.

Dimmler, M.; Marrero, J.; Leveque, S.; Barriga, Pablo; Sedghi, B.; Kornweibel, N.

2014-07-01

49

Component improvement of free-piston Stirling engine key technology for space power  

Science.gov (United States)

The successful performance of the 25 kW Space Power Demonstrator (SPD) engine during an extensive testing period has provided a baseline of free piston Stirling engine technology from which future space Stirling engines may evolve. Much of the success of the engine was due to the initial careful selection of engine materials, fabrication and joining processes, and inspection procedures. Resolution of the few SPD engine problem areas that did occur has resulted in the technological advancement of certain key free piston Stirling engine components. Derivation of two half-SPD, single piston engines from the axially opposed piston SPD engine, designated as Space Power Research (SPR) engines, has made possible the continued improvement of these engine components. The two SPR engines serve as test bed engines for testing of engine components. Some important fabrication and joining processes are reviewed. Also, some component deficiencies that were discovered during SPD engine testing are described and approaches that were taken to correct these deficiencies are discussed. Potential component design modifications, based upon the SPD and SPR engine testing, are also reported.

Alger, Donald L.

1988-01-01

50

Improved quality control method for Danshen products--consideration of both hydrophilic and lipophilic active components.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study intends to provide an improved quality control analysis for Danshen product-a representative herbal product with known active components that are both hydrophilic and lipophilic in nature. A simple HPLC method with photodiode-array (PDA) ultraviolet detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of three major lipophilic components (cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA) and three major hydrophilic components (danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid B) of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). These six components were successfully separated using Radial-pak C18 cartridge with the elution gradient consisting of 0.5% acetic acid in water and 0.5% acetic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the analysis were within 2.32 and 2.0%, respectively. The detection limits were 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, 0.05, 0.005 and 0.02 microg/ml for cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid B, respectively. The developed method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of above six major components in Fufang Danshen Tablet and Dripping Pill products by extraction with methanol and water. It has been demonstrated that salvianolic acid B and danshensu are the major components among the eight commercial Fufang Danshen products studied. The current developed method with methanol as extraction solvent provides a simple and efficient method for simultaneous detection of both lipophilic and hydrophilic major components in Danshen products. PMID:16458472

Zhou, Limin; Chow, Moses; Zuo, Zhong

2006-06-01

51

Use of High Magnetic Fields to Improve Material Properties for Hydraulics, Automotive and Truck Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this CRADA, research and development activities were successfully conducted on magnetic processing effects for the purpose of manipulating microstructure and the application specific performance of three alloys provided by Eaton (alloys provided were: carburized steel, plain low carbon steel and medium carbon spring steel). Three specific industrial/commercial application areas were considered where HMFP can be used to provide significant energy savings and improve materials performance include using HMFP to: 1.) Produce higher material strengths enabling higher torque bearing capability for drive shafts and other motor components; 2.) Increase the magnetic response in an iron-based material, thereby improving its magnetic permeability resulting in improved magnetic coupling and power density, and 3.) Improve wear resistance. The very promising results achieved in this endeavor include: 1.) a significant increase in tensile strength and a major reduction in volume percent retained austenite for the carburized alloy, and 2.) a substantial improvement in magnetic perm respect to a no-field processed sample (which also represents a significant improvement over the nominal conventional automotive condition of no heat treatment). The successful completion of these activities has resulted in the current 3-year CRADA No. NFE-09-02522 Prototyping Energy Efficient ThermoMagnetic and Induction Hardening for Heat Treat and Net Shape Forming Applications .

Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Ahmad, Aquil [Eaton Corporation

2010-08-01

52

An improved principal components methodology for the valuation of natural gas storage contracts  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the increasing demand for natural gas, over the past fifteen years, a number of industry participants have attempted to value their storage contracts. A critical component of such valuation is the forecast of the term structure of natural gas forward prices. Leading industry firms have utilized Principal Component Analysis in conjunction with simulation to develop future values for natural gas forward contracts. In their approaches, they accept an evolution of the covariance matrix of forward returns generated by historical data on an ad-hoc monthly basis. In this work, we developed an improved procedure for applying the evolution of the historical covariance matrix. Our methodology involves the determination of a set of weights and the ensuing application of those weights on the results of Monte Carlo simulations under a variable-period switching of the VCV matrices used. We call our methodology Seasonal Principal Components-based Post-Weighted Monte Carlo Simulation or, SPCA-PWMC. When applied to the simulation of natural gas forwards and spreads for out-of-sample time horizons, our methodology results in a significantly improved approximation of the actual values of such forwards and spreads. Additionally, we developed procedures in Mathematica to determine the operational feasibility of any combination of forward contracts, as used in storage valuation. Finally, we developed a procedure, also in Mathematica, to calculate the present values of all operationally feasible combinations of spreads and European call options.

Demetriades, Elias A.

53

Improvement of oxaprozin solubility and permeability by the combined use of cyclodextrin, chitosan, and bile components.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the combined use of randomly methylated ?-cyclodextrin (RAMEB), chitosan (CS), and bile components (dehydrocholic (DHCA) or ursodeoxycholic (UDCA) acids and their sodium salts) on solubility and permeability through Caco-2 cells of oxaprozin (a very poorly water-soluble non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) has been investigated. Addition of CS, bile acids, and their sodium salts increased the RAMEB solubilizing power of 4, 2, and 5 times, respectively. Drug-RAMEB-CS co-ground systems showed very higher dissolution rate than corresponding drug-RAMEB systems. Addition of bile components further improved drug dissolution rate. The CS presence enabled a significant increase in drug permeability through Caco-2 cells with respect to drug-RAMEB systems. Moreover, CS and NaDHC showed a synergistic enhancer effect, enabling a 1.4-fold permeability increase in comparison with systems without bile salt. However, unexpectedly, no significant differences were found between physical mixtures and co-ground products, indicating that drug permeation improvement was due to the intrinsic enhancer effect of the carriers and not to drug-carrier interactions brought about by co-grinding, as instead found in dissolution rate studies. The combined use of RAMEB, CS, and NaDHC could be exploited to develop effective oral dosage forms of oxaprozin, with increased drug solubility and permeability, and then improved bioavailability. PMID:21439375

Maestrelli, F; Cirri, M; Mennini, N; Zerrouk, N; Mura, P

2011-08-01

54

Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability Conceptual Design Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) components and systems. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration platform. I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the system; treating I&C as an integral part of the system design is innovative and will allow significant improvement in capabilities and performance. As systems become more complex and greater performance is required, traditional I&C design techniques become inadequate and more advanced I&C needs to be applied. New I&C techniques enable optimal and reliable performance and tolerance of noise and uncertainties in the system rather than merely monitoring quasistable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in NPP components after the design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. By incorporating I&C at the beginning of the design phase, the control system can provide superior performance and reliability and enable designs that are otherwise impossible. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the platform to demonstrate the performance and reliability improvements enabled by advanced embedded I&C.

Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Burress, T.; Fugate, D.; Holcomb, D.; Wilgen, J.; Miller, J.; Wilson, D.; Silva, P.; Whitlow, L.; Peretz, F.

2012-09-15

55

Introduction of cooperating conductive components into the phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to improve the electric conductivity of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor with the least amount of conductive component so as to maximize the improvement in low voltage cathodoluminescence, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu nanowires (NWs) were simultaneously introduced to form Cu NWs/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-attached Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor. In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu NWs play different roles in the formation of electrically conductive network, i.e., Cu NWs are suitable as conductive channels for charge transmission due to their one-dimensional morphology with large slenderness ratios, while the island-like In{sub 2}O{sub 3} condensates form local conductive contacts joining the adjacent Cu NWs. Meanwhile, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} forms attachment between Cu NWs and the phosphor. Owing to the cooperating effects between Cu NWs/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} conductive components in the phosphor, the efficiency in low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved. -- Highlights: ? In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu NWs were introduced in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence. ? In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu NWs play different key roles in the formation of electrically conductive network. ? The cooperating effect was proved by comparing the experimental data and the calculated results. ? The low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved.

Shang, Chun Yu, E-mail: shang.chun.yu@163.com [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China); JiangSu Province Web TV Research and Development Center for Engineering Technology, Suzhou 215104 (China); Kang, Hui; Jiang, Hong Bo [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China); Bu, Shu Po [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Suzhou Institute of Industrial Technology, Suzhou 215104 (China); Shang, Xiao Hong; Wu, Yan [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China)

2013-06-15

56

Enhanced Steganography Algorithm to Improve Security by using Vigenere Encryption and First Component Alteration Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding information and an effort to conceal the existence of the embedded information. In recent years many steganography methods have been challenge by steganalysis . Steganalysis algorithm which detects the stego -message by the static analysis of pixel values [1]. In the proposed method, the secret message is encoded by using vigenere encryption method which guarantees the protection of hidden message. Then hiding the secret text in an image by using first component alteration technique .In this technique, 8 bits of blue components are replaced with secret data bits , then that image can be hidden in cover image in non sequential pixel by using variable hope value power of 2 [2,4,8,16].The Proposed method aim not only to provide improved security problems of simple LSB method but also the increased visual quality of stegoimage.

Deeksha Bharti

2014-07-01

57

Improvement of the Focusing Resolution of Photonic Crystal Negative Refraction Imaging with a Hollow Component Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The negative refraction and imaging effects in photonic crystals can be used to solve diffraction limit problem in near-field optics. Improving transmission efficiency and image resolution is a critical work for negative refraction imaging. We theoretically investigate the band structures, equi-frequency surfaces, electromagnetic wave propagation, and the image intensity distributions in a two-dimensional hexagonal photonic crystal consisting of hollow components. It is found that, in contrast to a hexagonal photonic crystal consisting of solid dielectric cylinders of the same radius, photonic crystals with hollow components can be used to optimize the all-angle negative refraction. Numerical simulations show that the transmission efficiency and resolution of image can be enhanced by changing the radii of the hollow air rods.

Chen, Shou-Xiang; Yang, Xiu-Lun; Meng, Xiang-Feng; Dong, Guo-Yan; Wang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Lin-Hui; Huang, Zhe

2013-05-01

58

Improving the accuracy: volatility modeling and forecasting using high-frequency data and the variational component  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we predict the daily volatility of the S&P CNX NIFTY market index of India using the basic ‘heterogeneous autoregressive’ (HAR and its variant. In doing so, we estimated several HAR and Log form of HAR models using different regressor. The different regressors were obtained by extracting the jump and continuous component and the threshold jump and continuous component from the realized volatility. We also tried to investigate whether dividing volatility into simple and threshold jumps and continuous variation yields a substantial improvement in volatility forecasting or not. The results provide the evidence that inclusion of realized bipower variance in the HAR models helps in predicting future volatility.

Manish Kumar

2010-06-01

59

Improved Differential Evolution Based on Stochastic Ranking for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS Components  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper introduces an improved differential evolution (DE) algorithm for robust layout synthesis of microelectromechanical system components subject to inherent geometric uncertainties. A case study of the layout synthesis of a combdriven microresonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less sensitive to geometric uncertainties than the typical designs. It is also demonstrated that the algorithm proposed in this paper cannot only obtain better results than the standard DE algorithm but also outperform some other state-of-art algorithms in constrained optimization.

Fan, Zhun; Liu, Jinchao

2009-01-01

60

Towards improved hardware component attenuation correction in PET/MR hybrid imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

In positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging attenuation correction (AC) of the patient tissue and patient table is performed by converting the CT-based Hounsfield units (HU) to linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of PET. When applied to the new field of hardware component AC in PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid imaging, this conversion method may result in local overcorrection of PET activity values. The aim of this study thus was to optimize the conversion parameters for CT-based AC of hardware components in PET/MR. Systematic evaluation and optimization of the HU to LAC conversion parameters has been performed for the hardware component attenuation map (µ-map) of a flexible radiofrequency (RF) coil used in PET/MR imaging. Furthermore, spatial misregistration of this RF coil to its µ-map was simulated by shifting the µ-map in different directions and the effect on PET quantification was evaluated. Measurements of a PET NEMA standard emission phantom were performed on an integrated hybrid PET/MR system. Various CT parameters were used to calculate different µ-maps for the flexible RF coil and to evaluate the impact on the PET activity concentration. A 511 keV transmission scan of the local RF coil was used as standard of reference to adapt the slope of the conversion from HUs to LACs at 511 keV. The average underestimation of the PET activity concentration due to the non-attenuation corrected RF coil in place was calculated to be 5.0% in the overall phantom. When considering attenuation only in the upper volume of the phantom, the average difference to the reference scan without RF coil is 11.0%. When the PET/CT conversion is applied, an average overestimation of 3.1% (without extended CT scale) and 4.2% (with extended CT scale) is observed in the top volume of the NEMA phantom. Using the adapted conversion resulting from this study, the deviation in the top volume of the phantom is reduced to -0.5% and shows the lowest standard deviation inside the phantom in comparison to all other conversions. Simulation of a µ-map misregistration shows acceptable results for shifts below 5 mm for the flexible surface RF coil. The adapted conversion from HUs to LAC at 511 keV within this study can improve hardware component AC in PET/MR hybrid imaging as shown for a flexible RF surface coil. Furthermore, these results have a direct impact on the improvement of the hardware component AC of the examined flexible RF coil in conjunction with position determination.

Paulus, D. H.; Tellmann, L.; Quick, H. H.

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

IMPROVING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR MULTIMODAL IMAGE FUSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to combine multiple images of a scene acquired by different sensors to create a new image with all important information from the input images. Recent studies show that bases trained using Independent Component Analysis (ICA is effective in multisensor fusion and has improved performance over traditional wavelet approaches. In the ICA based fusion, the coefficients of the input images are combined simply by selecting the coefficients with maximum magnitude. But this method resulted in fused images with poor contrast, due to the distortion introduced in constant background areas. The performance of ICA based fusion can be greatly improved by using a region based approach with intelligent decision making in order to choose the significant regions in the source images. Hence, a new region based image fusion algorithm for combining visible and Infrared (IR images using Independent Component Analysis and Support Vector Machines (SVM is proposed. Region based joint segmentation of the source images is carried out in the spatial domain and important features of each region are computed in spatial and transform domain. A Support Vector Machine is trained to select the regions from the source images with significant features and the corresponding ICA coefficients are combined to form the fused ICA representation. The proposed algorithm is applied to different sets of multimodal images to validate the robustness of the algorithm and compared with some standard image fusion methods. The fusion results demonstrate that the proposed scheme performs better than the state-of-the-art image fusion methods and show a significant improvement in Entropy, Petrovic and Piella evaluation metrics.

D. Egfin Nirmala

2013-01-01

62

Enhancing essential amino acids and health benefit components in grain crops for improved nutritional values.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving essential amino acids or protein content, along with other phytonutrients in the food crops, will affect a great portion of the world population, especially in developing countries where rice grain is the main source of protein. Malnutrition, including deficiencies in protein/energy, iron/zinc, vitamin A, and iodine, causes a total 24,000 deaths per day worldwide. The problem is severe where rice is the major staple food. Protein deficiency involves both the quantity (amount) and quality (the content in essential amino acids) of the dietary protein. Various interventions, such as distribution, fortification, dietary diversification, and measures against infectious diseases, have been applied to reduce deficiency disorders. The problem, however, remains unsolved. Developing genetically novel lines with elevated content of essential amino acids together with other health benefit components becomes more feasible for the enhancement of breeding techniques, genomics, molecular manipulations, and genetic engineering. Advancement in basic genetic and genetic engineering has resulted in successful enrichment of some essential amino acids, such as lysine (Lys), tryptophan (Trp), and methionine (Met). Successful genetic enhancement has been largely restricted to the maize crop through enrichment of grain Lys and to some extends Trp. Since rice is the main source of calories and protein intake for billions of people, enhancing essential amino acids in rice represents a tremendous challenge. This paper will discuss and review the current status in basic genetics, molecular genetics, and genetic engineering associated with the enhancement of amino acids and other health benefit components in major grain crop improvement. Patents and future efforts associated with enhancing nutritional quality of the grain will also be reviewed as a concerted effort to solve the malnutrition problem and improve the quality of life worldwide. PMID:19673700

Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Blanche, Sterling B; Linscombe, S D

2009-01-01

63

On performance improvement of vertex component analysis based endmember extraction from hyperspectral imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectral mixture analysis is one of the major techniques in hyperspectral remote sensing image analysis. Endmember extraction for spectral mixture analysis is a necessary step when endmember information is unknown. If endmembers are assumed to be pure pixels present in an image scene, endmember extraction is to search the most distinct pixels. Popular algorithms using the criteria of simplex volume maximization (e.g., N-FINDR) and spectral signature similarity (e.g., Vertex Component Analysis) belong to this type. N-FINDR is a parallel-searching method, where all the endmembers are determined simultaneously. VCA is a sequential-searching method, finding endmembers one after another, which can greatly save computational cost. In this paper, we focus on VCA-based endmember extraction. In particular, we propose a new searching approach that makes the extracted endmembers more distinct. Real data experiments show that it can improve the quality of extracted endmembers.

Du, Qian; Raksuntorn, Nareenart; Younan, Nicolas H.

2014-05-01

64

Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability: Conceptual Design Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall project objective is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant components. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration vehicle. The project s focus is not primarily on pump design, but instead is on methods to deeply embed I&C within a pump system. However, because the I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the pump, the I&C design cannot proceed in isolation from the other aspects of the pump. The pump will not function if the characteristics of the I&C are not embedded within the design because the I&C enables performance of the basic function rather than merely monitoring quasi-stable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in nuclear power plant (NPP) components after their design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the embedded I&C pump.

Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Silva, Pamela C [ORNL; Whitlow, Lynsie J [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL

2012-10-01

65

A method for socially evaluating the effects of long-run demographic paths on living standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The paper is motivated by the need for improved social evaluation of prospective demographic change in order to better inform policies that are designed to reduce the very long-run costs of population ageing and to achieve sustainable economic development. Objective: What is the very long-run social value of a given demographic path? What is the value of changes in mortality, immigration, fertility, and labour force participation? How important are shorter-term demographic changes relative to very long-term effects in determining the social value of the demographic path? Methods: A new simulation method is applied for socially evaluating demographic paths, by separating a demographic path into a stable population component and a transition path component. Sensitivity analyses are conducted with respect to demographic assumptions, labour force participation assumptions, and consumption needs by age, returns to scale, and intergenerational value judgements. Results: The application to Australia shows the considerable social cost, in terms of the loss of discounted consumption per capita, of improvements in mortality and gains from higher immigration and increased participation. The effect of fertility, however, is very sensitive to assumptions about the age-specific consumption needs of the population and social value judgements about intergenerational equity. Conclusions: Our method socially evaluates the very long-run implications of specified constant fertility, mortality, and migration, giving consideration to both the transition path and the ultimate stable state. Mortality improvement is costly and higher immigration is beneficial. The impact of higher fertility is sensitive to assumptions about consumption needs and intergenerational equity.

Nick Parr

2014-07-01

66

IMPROVEMENT OF THE FISCAL COMPONENT OF THE MECHANISM OF INCOME POPULATION STATE REGULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the present stage of the country development it is important to create such a tax system that would positively affected the economic growth. Under conditions of restructuring the national economy and state budget deficit it is important that the fiscal component of the relationship between the state and taxpayers should contribute to the development of partner relationships between the two parties and not hinder their development and self-realization. The objective of this study is to identify 'bottlenecks' of the mechanism of taxing population incomes and find ways to resolve them. As practice of European countries shows, the main role in eliminating inequality in the distribution of income and assets is progressive taxation and social costs of the state. Having researched the current mechanism of personal income tax in Ukraine (especially wages through using scientific methods of research, including analysis and synthesis, analogy and modeling, grouping and gene­ralization, induction and deduction, scientific abstraction, the author found a number of problems and regularities that exist in the current mechanism of taxation, which were the main reason for constructing five models of improving the current mechanism of taxation of income from wages. Each model has its anticipated positive socioeconomic effects from the introduction and from application of an adjustment factor to the basic tax rate of 15 %. Its use aims to "smooth out" the instability of the tax burden in the current tax mechanisms and balance tax contribution of every citizen according to the level of earnings. A stepwise progression model of taxation provides compliance with the principle of vertical equity in taxation and has clear economic explanation. From the point of view of fair taxation, the stepwise progression will be most fair in the case, where the tax rate will continuously increase with every additional hryvnia of the taxable income (this provision is taken into account in the construction of the five proposed models. Based on the research, the total tax effect of using each model was calculated, which shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the introduction of the proposed models. The ways of improvement of the fiscal component of state regulation of incomes from wages in Ukraine in the long run were identified.

L. Zhebchuk

2014-09-01

67

Improving the Effectiveness of the Bio-slurry Extension Component of National Biodigester Program in Cambodia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management. Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth. Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g. monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring)

Islam, M. F.

2009-10-15

68

Studies on the improvement of the components of essential oil of genus Mentha by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

M. arvensis L. var. piperascens M sub(AL). (2 n = 96, R sup(a)Rsup(a)SS JJ AA, main component menthol) as the material the elucidation of biosynthetic mechanisms of essential oil was attempted. As the result it has been demonstrated that the biosynthesis is completed between 84 - 86 days after placing individual cells in the culture medium, especially on 85 days. Such an elucidation serves as the criteria of the biosynthetic pathway elucidation and it is the first accomplishment in the world. Next, the irradiation with ?-rays of 55R/min, total dose 19.5 KR gives a marked effect, and by this method a new plant (rose mint) having aroma similar to rose oil has been established, and this new plant has been designated as ''rose mint.'' This new improved plant can yield about 1 Kg of essential oil from 30 Kg of plant, and in comparing to 1 Kg of essential oil obtained from about 106 rose flowers by the conventional method, the yield is enormously greater and its wide application can be expected in the future. This newly developed breeding method can be also applied to other plants where the extraction of the plant compositions is desired, and at present this method is applied to the Perilla by which a new plant having sweet taste has been successfully established. (author)

69

Wear Resistance Improvement of Small Dimension Invar Massive Molds for CFRP Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Invar alloy (Fe-36%Ni) is used in industrial applications that require high dimensional stability because of its exceptionally low thermal expansion coefficient. The purpose of this work is to improve the wear resistance of the molds in the production of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components applying thermal spray coatings. Four different kinds of commercial powders were coated on an Invar substrate: ZrO2-8Y2O3, Al2O3-13TiO2, and Cr2O3 by air plasma spray (APS) and WC-CoCr by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF). Metallographic microscopy observation and scanning electron microscopic analysis were carried out, microhardness and fracture toughness were evaluated using the microindentation method. Friction behavior and wear resistance were evaluated with pin-on-disk apparatus. Tungsten carbide coating had the lowest average coefficient of friction. Cermet and alumina-titania coatings showed the lowest wear mass loss. Among the APS ceramic coatings, alumina-titania exhibited the best wear behavior and the HVOF cermet coating exhibited the best behavior among all the coatings.

Giolli, C.; Turbil, M.; Rizzi, G.; Rosso, M.; Scrivani, A.

2009-12-01

70

Troposphere delay models in blind mode - towards improved predictions of the wet component  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of positioning products derived from space geodetic observations such as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) critically depends on a precise account of the microwave path delay caused by the troposphere and in particular the highly variable amount of humidity at altitudes below 10 km. Slant path delays, typically split into hydrostatic and wet components that have been mapped from the zenith to the observational elevation, are preferably modeled on the basis of local instantaneous pressure values, operational analysis data of numerical weather prediction systems, and zenith wet delay values determined within the least-squares adjustment. In case such a priori meteorological information is inaccessible, empirical or so-called 'blind' delay models provide a viable replacement in the form of grid point-wise mean parameter values and their seasonal variations. Here, we summarize the recent improvements made in this field of blind delay models by reference to GPT2 (Global Pressure and Temperature 2), which has been constructed upon 10 years of monthly climatological ERA-Interim data of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) and displays an excellent usability for GNSS applications as seen from comparisons to ray-traced delays during 2012. Particular emphasis is placed on a currently developed extension of GPT2 in terms of a priori estimates for zenith wet delays. While being potentially beneficial for real time positioning and navigation tasks, the effectiveness of such an extension largely relies on how accurate the water vapor decrease factor through the entire troposphere is represented locally. We resolve this intricacy by inverting ray-traced zenith wet delays from GPT2's ERA-Interim data and issuing mean, annual, and semi-annual components of the water vapor decrease factor on a global 1 degree grid. A tentative validation of the resulting zenith wet delays comprises 90 globally distributed GNSS sites during January 2013, for which 6-hourly, observed zenith total delays are reduced to proximate wet contributions by virtue of pressure values of nearby meteorological sites. Statistical comparisons of these measured delays to their corresponding blind predictions demonstrate the performance and limitations of GPT2's newly suggested extension.

Schindelegger, Michael; Möller, Gregor; Böhm, Johannes; Weber, Robert; Pain, Gregory

2014-05-01

71

A novel wide-area backup protection based on fault component current distribution and improved evidence theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP) algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance. PMID:25050399

Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiangping; Yin, Xianggen; Yang, Zengli; Wang, Lijun

2014-01-01

72

Sensitivity Analyses of Finite Element Parameters of Laser Shock Peening for Improving Fatigue Life of Metallic components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser shock peening(LSP) is an innovative surface treatment technique, and it has been successfully used to improve the fatigue performance of metallic components. It is widely known, that cracks caused by metal fatigue occur only at the location where the metal is subject to tension, and not at the location where the metal is subjected to compression. Therefore, LSP can be employed to improve fatigue life because it generates a high-magnitude compressive residual stress on the surface and interior of metallic components. In this study, we analyzed the applicability of the LSP method in improving fatigue performance and evaluated the various parameters that influence the compressive residual stress. Further, we analyzed the change in the mechanical properties such as surface dynamic stress and the compressive residual stress on the surface and interior of metallic components

73

Planning, demographics and Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the issue of demographics is presented as one of the most important factors in regard to the future development of Slovenia. We are still not fully aware of the consequences of the demographic development in the past, which has caused the current situation. The balance between the active and retired population is disturbed, as the percentage of retired persons is on the increase. This process will continue, because the number of retirements will increase in the future, mainly due to the demographic reasons. In regard to the current age the structure of the population in Slovenia, we can expect a huge and absolute increase in the number of elderly people and an even faster increase in the percentage of elderly people in the entire population. The number of retired persons will indirectly increase due to the longer life expectancy. In a demographic sense, the increase of elderly people means a significantly higher annual number of deaths and therefore a strong negative natural growth. This will be even more evident due to the significant decrease of the number of births in the last 30 years. This problem arises not only from low birth rates, but also due to the fact that the generations of women in their fertility period are less numerous.

Aleksander Jakoš

2009-01-01

74

Integrating Essential Components of Quality Improvement into a New Paradigm for Continuing Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuing education (CE) that strives to improve patient care in a complex health care system requires a different paradigm than CE that seeks to improve clinician knowledge and competence in an educational setting. A new paradigm for CE is necessary in order to change clinician behavior and to improve patient outcomes in an increasingly…

Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Meehan, Thomas P.

2011-01-01

75

Improved error-tradeoff and error-disturbance relations in terms of measurement error components  

Science.gov (United States)

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is quantified by error-disturbance tradeoff relations, which have been tested experimentally in various scenarios. Here we shall report various error-disturbance tradeoff relations by decomposing the measurement errors and disturbance into two different components, namely, operator bias and fuzziness. Our uncertainty relations reveal the tradeoffs between these two components of errors, and imply various conditionally valid error-tradeoff relations for the unbiased and projective measurements. We also design a quantum circuit to measure the two components of the error and disturbance.

Lu, Xiao-Ming; Yu, Sixia; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Oh, C. H.

2014-10-01

76

Hardened multi-functions chip carrier use to improve LSI-VLSI components reliability in an ionizing environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article features a new structure for LSI-VLSI chip encapsulation intended to simplify component utilization in space and military applications. This structure incorporates two basic sections: - a hardened, capacitive lid designed to simultaneously control the chip power supply due to the incorporation of a multilayer ceramic capacitor and to act as a screen against radiation, and - a hardened base promoting the heat transfer function using tungsten inserts intended to reduce radiation. After optimization, this encapsulation method for solid state components based upon the utilization of a local screen permits to obtain the same level of protection as that offered with standard processes and also provides weight and volume savings. Moreover, this method improves the operating conditions of the components because of a more efficient power supply control function and improved heat transfer and finally permits to increase the reliability of the equipment in an ionizing environment

77

Improving accuracy of total knee component cementation: description of a simple technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty represents a common orthopedic surgical procedure. Achieving proper alignment of its components with the predrilled patellar and tibial peg holes prior to polymerization of the bone cement can be challenging. Technique After establishing the femoral, patellar and tibial bone cuts, the cancellous bone around the tibial keel, as well as the peg holes for the patella and femoral components are marked with methylene blue u...

Dayton Michael R; Flierl Michael A; Lutes William B; Morgan Steven J

2009-01-01

78

Does improved instrumentation result in better component alignment in total knee arthroplasty?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate component alignment and joint line reproduction in total knee replacement (TKR is crucial for successful clinical outcome. Advances in instrumentation and better understanding of the biomechanics can help to achieve better three dimensional alignments of TKR components and joint line restoration. We compared the accuracy of component alignment and joint line restoration with the use of 2 different TKR instrumentation kits (an older Gobot and a newer Xcelerate. Retrospective study of 150 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKR had their pre and post-operative x-rays reviewed. Seventy-five patients (group A had their TKR using the older instrumentation kit (Gobot and 75 (group B had the newer version (Xcelerate. The positioning of the prosthesis components were assessed using the American Knee society radiographic evaluation method and the joint line position using the Figgie’s method. The results from the two groups were statistically compared. There was a significantly greater elevation of the joint line position in TKRs done with the Gobot instrumentation (mean 4.49 mm vs. 2.71 mm in group B, P=0.03, and significant differences in the mean tibial component angle cTCA (group A 88.6º, group B 90.1º, P=0.04 and the mean Q angle (group A 6.28º valgus, group B 8.45º valgus, P=0.04. Use of the newer Xcelerate instrumentation was associated with better restoration of joint line position, however the femoral component flexion and posterior slope of the tibial component ere found to be above the desired level. Hence the overall differences between the two groups were found to be small.

Ian Learmonth

2011-03-01

79

Demographics of Transition Objects  

CERN Document Server

The unusual properties of transition objects (young stars with an optically thin inner disc surrounded by an optically thick outer disc) suggest that significant disc evolution has occured in these systems. We explore the nature of these systems by examining their demographics, specifically their stellar accretion rates (Mdot) and disc masses (Mdisc) compared to those of accreting T Tauri stars of comparable age. We find that transition objects in Taurus occupy a restricted region of the Mdot vs. Mdisc plane. Compared to non-transition single stars in Taurus, they have stellar accretion rates that are typically ~10 times lower at the same disc mass and median disc masses ~4 times larger. These properties are anticipated by several proposed planet formation theories and suggest that the formation of Jovian mass planets may play a significant role in explaining the origin of at least some transition objects. Considering transition objects as a distinct demographic group among accreting T Tauri stars leads to a ...

Najita, Joan R; Muzerolle, James

2007-01-01

80

Black Hole Demographics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this contribution is to review the current status of black hole demographics in light of recent advances in the study of high redshift QSOs (section 2), local AGNs (section 3) and local quiescent galaxies (section 4). I will then outline the prospects for future progress (section 5), and discuss what I believe will be the challenges for the years to come [ABRIDGED].

Ferrarese, Laura

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Demographics in demand systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Household composition can be expected to affect the allocation of household expenditure among goods, at the very least because of economies of scale as household size increases and because different people have different needs (adults versus children, for example). Specifying demographic effects correctly in demand analysis is important both in order to estimate correct price and expenditure elasticities and for the purpose of making household welfare comparisons. A common way of including de...

Blow, Laura

2003-01-01

82

The Improved Methods of Critical Component Classification for the SSCs of New NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Functional Importance Determination (FID) process classifies the components of a plant into four groups: Critical A, Critical B, Minor and No Impact. The output of FID can be used as the decision-making tool for maintenance work priority and the input data for preventive maintenance implementation. FID applied to new Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) can be accomplished by utilizing the function analysis results and safety significance determination results of Maintenance Rule (MR) program. Using Shin-Kori NPP as an example, this paper proposes the advanced critical component classification methods for FID utilizing MR scoping results

Lee, Sang Dae; Yeom, Dong Un; Hyun, Jin Woo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-10-15

83

An improved procedure for the three-component synthesis of highly substituted pyridines using ionic liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

A basic ionic liquid, [bmIm]OH, efficiently promotes a one-pot, three-component condensation of aldehydes, malononitrile, and thiophenols to produce highly substituted pyridines in high yields at room temperature. This reaction does not involve any hazardous organic solvent and toxic catalyst. The ionic liquid is recovered and recycled for subsequent reactions. PMID:17367198

Ranu, Brindaban C; Jana, Ranjan; Sowmiah, S

2007-04-13

84

Combined principal component preprocessing and n-tuple neural networks for improved classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a combined principal component analysis/neural network scheme for classification. The data used to illustrate the method consist of spectral fluorescence recordings from seven different production facilities, and the task is to relate an unknown sample to one of these seven factories. The data are first preprocessed by performing an individual principal component analysis on each of the seven groups of data. The components found are then used for classifying the data, but instead of making a single multiclass classifier, we follow the ideas of turning a multiclass problem into a number of two-class problems. For each possible pair of classes we further apply a transformation to the calculated principal components in order to increase the separation between the classes. Finally we apply the so-called n-tuple neural network to the transformed data in order to give the classification system non-linear capabilities, and all derived two-class models are combined to facilitate multiclass classification. Validation results show that the combined scheme is superior to the individual methods. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

HØskuldsson, Agnar; Linneberg, Christian

2000-01-01

85

Product-Improvement Test of Component TBO Extension, UH-1( ) Helicopter.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of UH-1( ) dynamic components are replaced for overhaul or retirement at 1100-hour intervals. The UH-1( ) flying-hour program in the Republic of Vietnam (RVN) is 70 hours per month. Extension of the time between overhaul (TBO)of major dynamic...

1966-01-01

86

Improved ultrasonic inspection of austenitic stainless steel components by signal averaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ideo signals, spatial-, frequency-, directional averaging), the experimental set up (on-line signal averaging unit) and the results obtained at austenitic welds or castings with improvements in SNR up to 20 dB

87

[Cancer and demographic transition].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two phenomena, one of which relates to the area of human reproduction and the other to the frequency, distribution, and control of disease in a population have emerged in the previous century and continue intensively to develop nowadays. Both these phenomena are directly related to the changes which are occurring in the incidence and prevalence of malignant tumours, as well as to mortality from them and to the opportunities for cancer control. The first of these phenomena has been denominated as the demographic, and the second as the epidemiological transition. The commonly accepted definition of the demographic transition is currently applied to designate a sustainable change in the type of population reproduction, when an initial and abrupt acceleration of population growth is replaced by its rapid deceleration with a subsequent stabilization of a population and a sharp change in its age structure. Demographic transition develops in a brief historical space of time and has the character of a global process. Population ageing and disequilibrium between the younger and older generations are the most important consequences of the demographic transition, and must inevitably influence the strategy and implementation of national cancer control programs. As life expectancy increases, so does the certainty that people will become more and more prone to diseases that are more common among older age groups, i.e. noncommunicable diseases and cancer in particular, rather than being affected by epidemics of infectious diseases. This situation is known as the epidemiological transition and reflects spectacular shifts in the pattern and causes of death and morbidity that have taken place in the vast majority of countries over the previous century. Epidemiological transition results in accession by poor countries to the problems of the rich, and leads to the "double burden" of disease in countries whose economies are undergoing transition, because of the still continuing burden of endemic infectious diseases. Russia is entering the final stages both of the demographic and the epidemiological transition, a period when numerous reasons, increasing demands on the systems of social protection and public health are inevitable. During the years 1992 to 2001, cancer incidence increased from 271.8 up to 313.9 per 100,000 population, i.e. a growth of over 16% and an annual rate of growth of 1.7%. According to the global estimates provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer the number of new cancer cases in the year 2000 exceeded 10 million, and the number of deaths from cancer reached 6.2 million. The annual growth rate of global cancer incidence during the last 25-30 years was higher than the global population growth rate. Analysis of data available from population based cancer registries in Russia and abroad confirms the conclusion that cancer is mainly the fate of people belonging to the older age groups. Given the levels of exposure to specific carcinogens and genetic predisposition factors, the incidence of cancer should be considered as an exponential function of age. The unfeasibility of attempts to change, in the foreseeable future, the rate and trend of demographic transition and demographic ageing, in particular, is obvious. It would therefore be more feasible to envisage their probable consequences and to adapt the limited resources of national health and social support services to the needs of cancer control, which will significantly increase in the near future. PMID:15176213

Napalkov, N P

2004-01-01

88

Improved methods for enrichment of organic ultra trace components for analysis by gas chromatography  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes some new methods for analysis oforganic trace components from air and water by gaschromatography. The work is particularly focused on thedevelopment of new technologies for analyte enrichment, usingsorbent-based concepts. Short lengths of open tubular columnswere examined for their potential use as denuders.Polydimethylsiloxane-based stationary phases as well as anadsorbent-based column were evaluated in an equilibrium mode oftrapping. For the analytes selected, detectio...

Kloskowski, Adam

2003-01-01

89

Surface Protection and Improved Performance of Satellite Components as well as Mitigation of Space Environmental Pollution by Plasma Ion Implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three plasma processing systems based on PII technique have been used in the improvement of surface properties of different materials important for aerospace and space applications. Metal plasma PII of Al and Mg was used for surface protection of polymers used in space such as Kapton, Mylar and polyethylene. Al alloys were treated with nitrogen PII for improved resistance to corrosion aiming at aerospace applications. A rigid polymer UHMWPE was also treated in a nitrogen PII to produce a protective layer with DLC. Although not very light, SS304 stainless steel components are being used in a imaging camera in space, and some components made of this material showed endurance to vibration tests after nitrogen PII, therefore being qualified for on-board application.

90

Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

91

The GTE-65 gas turbine unit: Rig tests of the main components, possibilities of use and lines of further improvement  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a continuation of publication [1] on the project of a GTE-65 medium-capacity power-generating gas-turbine unit and describes rig tests of its components: the compressor, the turbine’s cooled blades, and the combustion chamber. Alternative versions for possible use of the GTE-65 unit in the schemes of combined-cycle plants and its further improvement are described.

Lebedev, A. S.; Simin, N. O.; Petrenya, Yu. K.; Mikhailov, V. E.

2008-04-01

92

Demographic aspects of aging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The contemporary world is undergoing demographic transition not only due to a decreased population growth, but also due to change in age-structure. The aging process is most prominent in the developed countries, while it is yet expected to commence in the European developing countries. The aging process is characterized by participation of persons older than 60 or 65 years in the overall population. USA Persons older than 65 make up 13 % of the US population. It is expected that their share will increase to 30% during the next 30 years. Europe European population in the world is systematically declining. By the year 2050, the population aged 65 and over will exhibit an increase of 60%. A nonlinear, ever increasing depopulation is expected to occur in Croatia, while FYR Macedonia has already been classified as a country in an advanced stage of population aging. Serbia During the second half of the 20th century, on average, the Serbian population was younger than the European, but aging was more prominent. Today, Serbia is among ten countries with the oldest population in the world. Vojvodina The worst demographic situation is found in Vojvodina. According to an assessment, its population has been among the world’s oldest for more than 30 years. The latest census shows a shift in the most numerous age group: from 35-39 to 40-45. Conclusion: Population aging is a worldwide reality. Differences among developed, developing and undeveloped countries are diminishing. Our population is among the oldest. Unless the state takes appropriate measures, we are heading towards a demographic catastrophe.

Turkulov Vesna

2007-01-01

93

Development of improved and corrosion-resistant surfaces for fossil power system components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this task is to develop the corrosion-resistant surfaces on a variety of fossil power system components. The Fe-Al alloys ranging in aluminum from 16 to 36 @ % are of interest. The surfaces of Fe-Al alloys can be produced by weld overlay. However, because of their limited room-temperature ductility, the production of weld wire for these compositions is not commercially feasible. The alloying element dilution during weld overlay also makes depositing exact surface composition rather difficult.

Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

1996-06-01

94

Improvement of ultrasonic testing methods of austeno-ferritic steel cast components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the low signal to noise ratio incountered in cast stainless steel components of P.W.R. reactor cooling system, usual ultrasonic testing aren't efficient. In order to enhance ultrasonics capabilities Electricite de France and C.E.A. have carried out a study main results of which are shown in this paper. These results include: Metallurgical structure effects: very high diffusion noise, beam distortion, low pass filter. Probe parameters that leed to examinations enhancement: focusing, aperture, damper. Efficient signal processing techniques: Split Spectrum, Image processing. Results of enhancement means on actual defects (shrinkage cavities). (authors). 2 refs., 9 figs

95

Ether components to improve diesel fuel quality: options for R-D and D  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cetane number data from the literature and diesel engine emissions were analyzed for several mono- and poly-ether families, using a multi-component fuel model to calculate the percentage range for safe blending of oxygenates in diesel fuel. The result of the analysis was a classification into four safety categories, i.e. gasoline-like ethers, diesel-like ethers, flammable ethers at any blending percentages, and ethers that can be safely blended up to a maximum limit. The implications of making and using ethers from natural gas are analyzed, and a menu of business options is offered for discussion. The impact of ethers on complementary activities, such as blending ethers versus changing refinery processes, or options for making or buying ether components, or use of ethers as diluents for pipe lining oil sands products are reviewed. An analysis of requirements that future fuel and engine standards and after-treatment may impose and the applications they suggest are summarized. A preliminary assessment is made of global warming of ethers and Fischer-Tropsch diesel for Canada. Future work at Battelle and Advanced Engine Technology Ltd, and co-funded by Natural Resources Canada to determine the safety, storage and ignition quality of ethers is also discussed. 46 refs., 2 tabs.

Pigeon, R. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Energy technology Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kaliaguine, S.; Xu, G. [Laval Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Bardon, M. [thermotech Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada); Picard, I. [Gaz Metropolitain, Natural Gas Technology Centre, Boucherville, PQ (Canada)

1999-08-01

96

An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

2009-05-31

97

Gamma regression improves Haseman-Elston and variance components linkage analysis for sib-pairs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing standard methods of linkage analysis for quantitative phenotypes rest on the assumptions of either ordinary least squares (Haseman and Elston [1972] Behav. Genet. 2:3-19; Sham and Purcell [2001] Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68:1527-1532) or phenotypic normality (Almasy and Blangero [1998] Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68:1198-1199; Kruglyak and Lander [1995] Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:439-454). The limitations of both these methods lie in the specification of the error distribution in the respective regression analyses. In ordinary least squares regression, the residual distribution is misspecified as being independent of the mean level. Using variance components and assuming phenotypic normality, the dependency on the mean level is correctly specified, but the remaining residual coefficient of variation is constrained a priori. Here it is shown that these limitations can be addressed (for a sample of unselected sib-pairs) using a generalized linear model based on the gamma distribution, which can be readily implemented in any standard statistical software package. The generalized linear model approach can emulate variance components when phenotypic multivariate normality is assumed (Almasy and Blangero [1998] Am. J. Hum Genet. 68: 1198-1211) and is therefore more powerful than ordinary least squares, but has the added advantage of being robust to deviations from multivariate normality and provides (often overlooked) model-fit diagnostics for linkage analysis. PMID:14748009

Barber, Mathew J; Cordell, Heather J; MacGregor, Alex J; Andrew, Toby

2004-02-01

98

IMPROVED SEARCH OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATABASES FOR SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC INVERSION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 2{sup 4n} bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of ''compatible'' models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 2{sup 4n} as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing.

Casini, R.; Lites, B. W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Ramos, A. Asensio [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, c/Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ariste, A. Lopez [THEMIS, CNRS UPS 853, c/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

2013-08-20

99

Improved quality of heavy steels and their welds as related to the integrity of reactor pressure components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The improvements of heavy structural steels and their welds for reactor pressure components (RPCs) of LWRs achieved in the past decade are reviewed. These included the steady improvement of the quality of specific properties of heavy structural steels for RPCs: uniformity and isotropy of mechanical properties, including less mass effect in the mid-section: fracture toughness; internal defects; weldability; degradation by neutron irradiation. Further, requirements of the easier execution of inspections such as: fewer weld seams in RPCs; larger and more integral design of component materials; change of cast steels to forged steels. As regards main welds, the experience of underclad cracking (UCC) and high levels of Cu content in the weld of some RPCs were two of the incentives for reviewing the welding techniques for RPCs. This has led to a change of SA508, Cl.2 steel to Cl.3 and a change of welding wire coating from Cu to Al or Cr. Recent progress was the application of narrow gap welding processes and control of welding residual stresses. UCCs of two different origins were basically solved by the improvement of base materials and proper welding sequences. The inspectability of RPCs was further secured by the improved internal quality of steels and welds. (orig./HP)

100

Demographics of transition objects  

Science.gov (United States)

The unusual properties of transition objects (young stars with an optically thin inner disc surrounded by an optically thick outer disc) suggest that significant disc evolution has occurred in these systems. We explore the nature of these systems by examining their demographics, specifically their stellar accretion rates and disc masses Mdisc compared to those of accreting T Tauri stars of comparable age. We find that the transition objects in Taurus occupy a restricted region of the versus Mdisc plane. Compared to non-transition single stars in Taurus, they have stellar accretion rates that are typically ~10 times lower at the same disc mass and median disc masses approximately four times larger. These properties are anticipated by several proposed planet formation theories and suggest that the formation of Jovian mass planets may play a significant role in explaining the origin of at least some transition objects. Considering transition objects as a distinct demographic group among accreting T Tauri stars leads to a tighter relationship between disc masses and stellar accretion rates, with a slope between the two quantities that is close to the value of unity expected in simple theories of disc accretion.

Najita, Joan R.; Strom, Stephen E.; Muzerolle, James

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Improvement of Mechanical Properties and Life Extension of High Reliability Structural Components by Laser Shock Processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is being consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals and is being developed as a practical process amenable to production engineering. The main acknowledged advantage of the laser shock pro...

Ocan?a Moreno, Jose Luis; Morales Furio?, Miguel; Porro Gonza?lez, Juan Antonio; Iordachescu, Danut; Diaz Mun?oz, Marcos; Ruiz Lara Luis, Leonardo; Correa Guinea, Carlos

2011-01-01

102

The Study on Network Intrusion Detection Technology Based on Improved Principal Component Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Targeting at various defects of the current intrusion detection technologies, such as the high omission ratio, poor self-learning ability and the relatively high error alarming rate, the paper proposed a intrusion detection algorithm based on improved neural network. According to the experimental results, the intrusion detection result makes full use of the advantages of KPCA and ICA and it boasts ideal intrusion detection performance and the fine learning ability.

Yu-Ting Lu

2013-01-01

103

Improvement of passive shielding to reduce background components to determinate radioactivity at low energy gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new system that has the ability to reduce background components to apply for environmental studies. This system uses gamma spectrometry with semi-empirical self-absorption correction and practical method for routine measurements of the mass activity radionuclides at low energy such as 210Pb (46.5 keV), 234Th (63.3 keV) and 226Ra (186.2 keV). The reliability and precision of proficiency test must pass for final scores all the analytical determinations of received ''acceptable'' for all radionuclides. Our work shows an experiment developed for the calculation of self-absorption correction in that case that the sample's chemical composition is unknown.

104

Drug delivery through a chronically implanted stomach catheter improves efficiency of evaluating wake-promoting components.  

Science.gov (United States)

To avoid the stress encountered during oral drug administration, we implanted chronically a catheter into the stomach, and recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram, in freely moving rats to evaluate their sleep-wake pattern. Rats with catheters in their stomach did not exhibit any changes in sleep-wake profiles in terms of sleep amount, number of episodes and EEG power spectra. When administered through the catheter, caffeine (6mg/kg) statistically increased wakefulness, as compared with the vehicle control. However, when given orally by hand restraint and gavage, it caused no increase in wakefulness, owing to the masking effect of this method, which caused increased wakefulness when saline was used by handling animals. These results indicate that oral administration through a chronic stomach catheter is a useful way for evaluating wake-promoting components. PMID:18761374

Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li; Matsumoto, Naomi; Xu, Xin-Hong; Urade, Yoshihiro

2008-10-30

105

Improvement of passive shielding to reduce background components to determinate radioactivity at low energy gamma rays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a new system that has the ability to reduce background components to apply for environmental studies. This system uses gamma spectrometry with semi-empirical self-absorption correction and practical method for routine measurements of the mass activity radionuclides at low energy such as {sup 210}Pb (46.5 keV), {sup 234}Th (63.3 keV) and {sup 226}Ra (186.2 keV). The reliability and precision of proficiency test must pass for final scores all the analytical determinations of received ''acceptable'' for all radionuclides. Our work shows an experiment developed for the calculation of self-absorption correction in that case that the sample's chemical composition is unknown.

Thanh, Tran Thien [VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Physics; Ton Duc Thang Univ., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Div. of Nuclear Physics; Loan, T.T.H.; Nhon, M.V.; Tao, C.V. [VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Physics

2014-06-15

106

Proportional hazards models for improving the analysis of light water reactor component failure data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications

107

Proportional-hazards models for improving the analysis of light-water-reactor-component failure data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications

108

Improvement of vanadium alloys by precipitate control for structural components of fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potential enhancement of mechanical properties of V-4Cr-4Ti by controlling precipitates of interstitial impurities (C, O and N) was investigated by means of various thermal and mechanical treatments. The increase in the cold working degree resulted in band structure of coarse Ti-CON precipitates having enhanced impact properties. Solid solution heat treatment followed by re-heating resulted in the formation of high density Ti-O-C precipitates enhancing high temperature strength. Combination of re-heating and cold rolling enhanced further the strength. Improvements in thermal and mechanical treatments are discussed for application of V-4Cr-4Ti to fusion structural materials. (orig.)

109

Beyond Demographic Proxies: How Psychometrics and Demographics Shape Perceived Discretion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Upper-echelons theory has provided a rich stream of research and correlations between the demographics of strategic leaders and firm outcomes are well documented. Despite repeated calls for more micro oriented research and research that explores not just if, but also how demographics shape outcomes, a lacuna remains. This paper takes on the challenge of defining and measuring the role that both demographics and psychometrics play in shaping, within the black-box processes. The paper is a rare...

Galavan, Robert J.

2011-01-01

110

Improvement of the wear behaviour of highly-loaded components and tools by multi-combined surface treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel multi-combined surface treatment consisting of the individual treatments of plasma nitriding (PN, physical vapour deposition (PVD and electron beam hardening (EBH. Using graded surface layers produced by such a combined surface treatment, it is possible to withstand the complex load conditions incurred by components and tools. It is shown, that the treatment sequences PN+EBH+PVD and EBH+PN+PVD are suitable for improving material properties. These multi-combined surface treatments lead to a significant improvement in load-supporting capacity. Critical load values of cohesive failure measured by scratch tests are tripled when compared to the individual treatment of PVD, and increased by at least 20% in comparison to the duplex treatments of EBH+PVD or PN+PVD. The metallurgical compatibility of the single treatments is essential for the success of combined treatments. Material-specific limitations are defined, which exclude failure due to crack initiation, the occurrence of retained austenite, and tempering effects. Based on the model wear-test assembly block-on-cylinder, it was proved, that the specific wear rate of multi-combined treated specimens is reduced about 20-50% while wear of counterpart components is decreased as well. The triplex surface heat treatment introduced opens up new prospects for highly-loaded components and tools.

Gundis Grumbt

2014-01-01

111

Demographic Change and Transport  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findings from relevant fields of basic research, focusing on the increasingly heterogeneous nature of the ageing population. All CONSOL partners contributed to the report by writing parts of the report (authors), participating in the literature research and/or commenting to earlier versions of this report. We would like to give special thanks to Heather Ward for constructive suggestions and inspiring comments to an earlier version of this report.

Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina

2013-01-01

112

Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herval mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. In addition, these extracts induced the same effects on the peritoneal macrophages. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression - IL-1{beta}, IL-6, LT and iNOS-were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. (author). 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Chonan (Korea)

1999-04-01

113

Improvement of yield components in food legumes using the technique of induced mutations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a study of the effectiveness of gamma rays in the induction of variability in Phaseolus vulgaris, a dose of 30 krad, used either singly or recurrently, was found to increase variability and to change the means of the components of yield. Selection on the basis of seed size and starting with the M2 generation was successful in identifying mutants with increased seed size (with the increase being of the order of 8-15% over the unirradiated original), as well as in identifying a high yielding genotype, which expressed an increase in seed size as well as in the number of pods per plant. The technique was extended to Arachis hypogaea, with two minor modifications, namely five irradiation doses were used (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 krad) and with selection on the basis of the number of pods per plant in the M2 generation. So far (at the M3 generation), two mutants from the 20 krad treatment have been found to show an increase of 32-42% over the unirradiated original in seed size and an increase of 1-18% in the kernel yield per plant. On the basis of bulked population, the four lower irradiation doses in a replicated field trial showed better performance than the unirradiated control in terms of the percentage of survival at harvest, the number of pods per plant and the dry weight of the pods per plot, although the differences were not statistically significant. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

114

Improvement of the detectability of near surface cracks in cladded components by combined NDT-methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience in the use of eddy current testing as a selected compliment to a sensitive ultrasonic test confirm the physically justified expectation that the total efficiency of the non-destructive test can be increased for detection of flaws near the surface and near the plating by the fact that this approach very reliably guarantees that a component is free of cracks in the area monitored by both of these methods. Using the eddy current test to check ligaments under practical conditions makes it possible to use an ultrasonic test with SEL 70 technique adjusted for high sensitivity for the reliable detection of cracks. The SEL technique lacks precision as far as the depth and depth extension is concerned. Therefore, this technique supplies many indications when adjusted for sensitivity in detecting cracks below plating without countertesting by means of eddy current which would have to be interpreted as cracks if this could not be unambiguously ruled out for each position with the eddy current test. It was possible to show how effective this combination is at many places during our work in summer 1995. Checking the entire plating for potential cracks using the combination of eddy current testing to monitor ligaments, and surface crack testing with an ultrasonic test set with high sensitivity guarantees detection of faults. (orig.)

115

Improvement of the fatigue characteristics of steel components through selective application of surface residual stresses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Higher pressure residual stresses and therefore improved fatigue strength characteristics can be achieved by an overlaid prestress during surface treatment; the preceding research project has shown this. Shot peening, stress peening, and rolling were the surface treatment techniques used. Between the applied prestress and the achieved pressure residual stress, a relationship had been found that could be described by a formula. On the one hand, a good correspondence resulted between the precalculated pressure residual stresses achieved in the case of shot-peened soft material states and rolled annealed material states; on the other hand, computation and reality in the case of shot peening of annealed steels deviated from each other. To clear up this discrepancy, the superposition of load burden stresses and residual stresses was monitored after the individual treatment steps and during release in the present investigation. (orig./MM)

116

Use of independent component analysis to improve signal-to-noise ratio in multi-probe fluorescence microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In conventional multi-probe fluorescence microscopy, narrow bandwidth filters on detectors are used to avoid bleed-through artefacts between probes. The limited bandwidth reduces the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection, often severely compromising one or more channels. Herein, we describe a process of using independent component analysis to discriminate the position of different probes using only a dichroic mirror to differentiate the signals directed to the detectors. Independent component analysis was particularly effective in samples where the spatial overlap between the probes is minimal, a very common case in cellular microscopy. This imaging scheme collects nearly all of the emitted light, significantly improving the image signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, we focused on the detection of two fluorescence probes used in vivo, NAD(P)H and ANEPPS. The optimal dichroic mirror cutoff frequency was determined with simulations using the probes spectral emissions. A quality factor, defined as the cross-channel contrast-to-noise ratio, was optimized to maximize signals while maintaining spatial discrimination between the probes after independent component analysis post-processing. Simulations indicate that a ?3 fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio using the independent component analysis approach can be achieved over the conventional narrow-band filtering approach without loss of spatial discrimination. We confirmed this predicted performance from experimental imaging of NAD(P)H and ANEPPS in mouse skeletal muscle, in vivo. For many multi-probe studies, the increased sensitivity of this 'full bandwidth' approach will lead to improved image quality and/or reduced excitation power requirements. PMID:25159193

Dao, L; Lucotte, B; Glancy, B; Chang, L-C; Hsu, L-Y; Balaban, R S

2014-11-01

117

Can assessing for potential contribution of soil organic and inorganic components for butachlor sorption be improved?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sorption of butachlor to various types of common soil components was investigated. Six pure minerals (montmorillonite [Mont], kaolinite [Kaol], Ca homoionic montmorillonite [Ca-Mont] and kaolinite [Ca-Kaol], amorphous hydrated Al and Fe oxides [AHOs-Al, AHOs-Fe]), four soil alkali-extractable pure humic acids (HAs), and the four corresponding HAs originated real unmodified and HO-treated soils were selected as the representative sorbents. Results showed that the HAs played a crucial role, and clay minerals (especially Mont) also showed an important effect in butachlor sorption. The AHOs may likely influence only in a mediator way by enhancing the availability of sorption domains of HAs. By removing 78% (on average) of the total organic carbon (TOC) from the soils with HO, the content ratio of clay to TOC (RCO) increased by an average of 367% and became >60. This change simultaneously decreased the sorption capacity of soils (40%, on average). Considering that the surface sorption domain on clay minerals may be highly exposed and more competitive after the partial removal of soil organic matter (SOM), this reaffirmed the potential contribution from clay minerals. It can thus be inferred that in the real soil where SOM and clay minerals are associated, the coating of clay minerals may have weakened the partition function of SOM or blocked some sorption domain within SOM, resulting in a decreased sorption of butachlor. Therefore, clay minerals, especially 2:1 type expanding minerals, may play a dual function vs. SOM content for the sorption of butachlor in soil. PMID:22031552

He, Yan; Liu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Haizhen; Shi, Jiachun; Xu, Jianming

2011-01-01

118

Plasma Performance Improvement with Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in NSTX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lithium as a plasma-facing material has many attractive features, including a reduction in the recycling of hydrogenic species and the potential for withstanding high heat and neutron fluxes in fusion reactors. Recent NSTX experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and recurring benefits of lithium coatings on plasma-facing components (PFC's) to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. They included decreases in the plasma density and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate. Extended periods of MHD quiescence were also achieved, and measurements of the visible emission from the lower divertor showed a reduction in the deuterium, carbon, and oxygen line emission. Other salient results with lithium evaporation included a broadening of the electron temperature profile, and changes in edge density gradients that benefited electron Bernstein wave coupling. There was also a reduction in ELM frequency and amplitude, followed by a period of complete ELM suppression. In general, it was observed that both the best and the average confinement occurred after lithium deposition and that the increase in WMHD occurs mostly through an increase in We. In addition, a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) is being installed on NSTX this year. As the first fully-toroidal liquid metal divertor target, experiments with the LLD can provide insight into the behavior of metallic ITER PFC's should they liquefy during high-power divertor tokamak operations. The NSTX lithium coating and LLD experiments are important near-term steps in demonstrating the potential of liquid lithium as a solution to the first-wall problem for both magnetic and inertial fusion reactors.

Kaita, R., et. al.

2008-09-29

119

Female athlete triad and its components: toward improved screening and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

As female athletic participation has increased, the positive effects of exercise on health have become evident. However, with this growth in sports activity, a set of health problems unique to the female athlete has emerged. The female athlete triad as first described in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine consisted of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis; the definition was updated in 2007 to include a spectrum of dysfunction related to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. For this review, a comprehensive search of databases-MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus, from earliest inclusive dates to January 2013-was conducted by an experienced librarian with input from the authors. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords such as female athlete triad, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, fracture, osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone disease, anorexia, bulimia, disordered eating, low energy availability was used to search for articles on female athlete triad. Articles addressing the prevalence, screening, and management of the female athlete triad were selected for inclusion in the review. This article reviews the current definitions of the triad components, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and recommended screening and management guidelines. The lack of efficacy of current screening of athletes is highlighted. Low energy availablity, from either dietary restriction or increased expenditure, plays a pivotal role in development of the triad. Athletes involved in "lean sports" (those that emphasize weight categories or aesthetics, such as ballet, gymnastics, or endurance running) are at highest risk. Treatment is centered on restoring energy availability to reverse adverse changes in the metabolic milieu. Prevention and early recognition of triad disorders are crucial to ensure timely intervention. Caregivers and physicians of female athletes must remain vigilant in education, recognition, and treatment of athletes at risk. PMID:24001492

Javed, Asma; Tebben, Peter J; Fischer, Philip R; Lteif, Aida N

2013-09-01

120

Are Demographic Diversity Effects Spurious?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The substantial literature on the relationship between demographic diversity and team performance yields weak and/or inconsistent results. Using match-level data of all games played in the German soccer league Bundesliga over six seasons, this paper analyzes age, race and tenure diversity of the fielded team under different model specifications to test the robustness of demographic diversity effects. The empirical results reveal that the correlations between demographic diversity and the outcome of the game are confounded by mean values of the demographic attributes and contextual covariates.

Stephan Nüesch

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

122

Basic demographic processes on the Kvarner islands 1991-2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the basic demographic processes on the Kvarner islands in the last twenty years. The census data from this period show a constant population growth on the Kvarner islands and promote them into one of the most vital sub-regions of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County. The results of the analysis show that the mechanical component of the total population change, i.e. immigration, which managed to overcome the negative natural demographic trend, was the cause of this positive demographic trend. As a result, natural population change on the Kvarner islands 1991-2011 belongs to the "regeneration by immigration" type. However, since increased immigration did not influence the reduction of the negative natural demographic trend, it is safe to presume that "fictive" residents dominate the immigration contingent. This hypothesis is supported by the comparison of the census change index 2011/2001 and the type of demographic resources index in 2001.

Ivan Laji?

2013-06-01

123

Estimation of Variance Components for Litter Size in the First and Later Parities in Improved Jezersko-Solcava Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of this study was to estimate variance components for litter size in Improved Jezersko-Solcava sheep. Analysis involved 66,082 records from 12,969 animals, for the number of lambs born in all parities (BA, the first parity (B1, and later parities (B2+. Fixed part of model contained the effects of season and age at lambing within parity. Random part of model contained the effects of herd, permanent effect (for repeatability models, and additive genetic effect. Variance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The average number of lambs born was 1.36 in the first parity, while the average in later parities was 1.59 leading also to about 20% higher variance. Several models were tested in order to accommodate markedly different variability in litter size between the first and later parities: single trait model (for BA, B1, and B2+, two-trait model (for B1 and B2+, and single trait model with heterogeneous residual variance (for BA. Comparison of variance components between models showed largest differences for the residual variance, resulting in parsimonious fit for a single trait model for BA with heterogeneous residual variance. Correlations among breeding values from different models were high and showed remarkable performance of the standard single trait repeatability model for BA.

Dubravko Škorput

2011-10-01

124

Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

2010-01-01

125

Mortality versus Morbidity in the Demographic Transition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The link between the mortality and epidemiological transitions is used to identify the effect of the former on the fertility transition: a mortality transition that is not accompanied by improving morbidity causes slower demographic and economic change. In a model where children may die from infectious disease, childhood health affects human capital and noninfectious-disease-related adult mortality. When child mortality falls from lower prevalence, as it did in western Europe, labor productiv...

Aksan, Anna-maria; Chakraborty, Shankha

2014-01-01

126

Wear mechanisms and improvements of wear resistance in cobalt-chromium alloy femoral components in artificial total knee joints  

Science.gov (United States)

Wear is one of the major causes of artificial total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. Wear debris can cause adverse reactions to the surrounding tissue which can ultimately lead to loosening of the prosthesis. The wear behavior of UHMWPE tibial components have been studied extensively, but relatively little attention has been paid to the CoCrMo femoral component. The goal of the present study was to investigate the wear mechanisms of CoCrMo femoral components, to study the effect of CoCrMo alloy surface roughness on the wear of UHMWPE, and to determine the effect of heat treatments on the wear resistance of the CoCrMo implant alloys. The surface roughness of twenty-seven retrieved CoCrMo femoral components was analyzed. A multiple station wear testing machine and a wear fixture attached to an MTS 858 bionix system were built and used for in vitro wear studies of the CoCrMo/UHMWPE bearing couple. Solution and aging treatments were applied to the CoCrMo alloys. A white light interference surface profilometer (WLISP) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to measure the surface roughness and to study wear mechanisms of CoCrMo alloy. An optical microscope was used for alloy microstructure study. X-ray diffraction tests were performed to identify alloy phase transformation after aging. The micro-structure, hardness, and wear resistance of the alloys were studied. Surface roughness was used to quantify alloy wear, and the minimum number of surface roughness measurements required to obtain a reliable and repeatable characterization of surface roughness for a worn alloy surface was determined. The surfaces of the retrieved CoCrMo femoral components appeared to be damaged by metal particles embedded in the UHMWPE tibial component and metal-on-metal wear due to UHMWPE tibial component through-wear. Surface roughness of the femoral components was not correlated with patient age, weight, sex, or length of implantation. In vitro wear tests showed that when the CoCrMo alloy surface roughness was higher than 0.022 mum Ra (surface roughness average), UHMWPE wear increased with increasing CoCrMo alloy surface roughness. Bone and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement abrasive particles created scratches on the alloy via a ploughing mechanism, and resulted in significantly rougher surfaces than controls without particles (P < 0.01). Solution treatments at 1230sp°C and 1245sp°C reduced the hardness and wear resistance of the as-cast F75 CoCrMo alloy. Aging at 700sp°C caused recrystallization of the forged F799 alloy and improved wear resistance. Thermo-mechanical treatments have the potential to increase the lifetime of artificial joints by increasing the wear resistance of CoCrMo components.

Que, Like

127

Improving the Prompt Electromagnetic Energy Component of Jet Energy Resolution with pi0 Fitting in High Granularity Electromagnetic Calorimeters  

CERN Document Server

We investigate improving the hadronic jet energy resolution using mass-constrained fits of pi0 decays using high granularity electromagnetic calorimeters. Single pi0 studies have indicated a large potential for improvement in the energy resolution of pi0's, typically reducing the average energy resolution by a factor of two for 4 GeV pi0's. We apply this method to fully simulated multi-hadronic events with multiple pi0's with widely varying energies using the ILD00 detector model. Several methods for identifying the correct pairings of photons with parent pi0's were explored. The combinatorics become challenging as the number of pi0's increases and we employ the Blossom V implementation of Edmonds' matching algorithm for handling this. For events where both photons of the pi0 are detected, the resulting solutions lead to an improvement in the pi0 component of the event energy resolution for 91.2 GeV Z0 events from 18.0%/sqrt(E) to 13.9%/sqrt(E) using the ILD00 detector and its reconstruction algorithms. This ...

van Doren, Brian

2012-01-01

128

Demographics and remote locations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

129

Demographic development in an Indian state: a case study of Rajasthan.  

Science.gov (United States)

"The paper attempts to analyse the patterns of and trends in demographic development in Rajasthan state [India] by employing the indices of urbanization, literacy and occupational diversification.... An effort has also been made to define the concept of demographic development...." Demographic development is defined as improvement in the quality of the population in a given area. PMID:12179039

Kant, S

1990-01-01

130

Improved quality evaluation of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza through simultaneous quantification of seven major active components by high-performance liquid chromatography and principal component analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel method, using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with principal component analysis, was developed for the quality evaluation of danshen through simultaneous determination of seven components, namely danshensu, protocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA. These seven components were simultaneously separated on a Zorbax SB-C(18) column. The mobile phase consisted of 0.05% phosphoric acid water and methanol:acetonitrile (1:1) with a gradient elution, and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Thirty samples of danshen and its substitutes from different sources were investigated by the established method. The results showed that the content of each analyte varied considerably in different danshen samples. Among the seven components tested, salvianolic acid B, tanshinone IIA, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, danshensu and protocatechuic aldehyde were proved suitable and representative as chemical markers for the quality control of danshen except for protocatechuic acid. Moreover, principal component analysis was used for the similarity evaluation of different samples, and it could be straightforward and reliable to differentiate danshen samples of different origins. In conclusion, simultaneous quantification of multiple components by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with principal component analysis would be a better strategy for the quality evaluation of danshen. PMID:17474138

Ma, Hong-Liang; Qin, Min-Jian; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wu, Gang; Shu, Pan

2007-09-01

131

Estimation of Properties of Pure Components Using Improved Group-Contribution+ (GC+) Based Models and Uncertainty Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components are needed to carry out tasks such as process design and computer aided molecular/mixture design among others. The experimental values of properties of many important pure components have not been measured due to many reasons, and hence they must be estimated. Predictive methods such as the group-contribution+ (GC+) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) are generally suitable to estimate the needed property values. For assessing the quality and reliability of the selected property prediction method, an engineer needs to know the uncertainties in the estimated property values obtained from that method. With this information, the engineer can then perform better- informed design calculations by taking into account these uncertainties. Hence, given the importance of reliable estimation of properties and uncertainties in the property estimates in the engineering calculations, this work aims to revise and improve GC+ method based estimation of properties as well as to estimate the confidence intervals of estimated property values. To this end, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis, in general, is developed and used. In total 21 properties of pure components, which include normal boiling point, critical constants, normal melting point among others have been analysed. The statistical analysis of the model performance for these properties is highlighted through several illustrative examples. Important issues related to property modeling such as thermodynamic consistency of the predicted properties (relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature etc.) are analysed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only the estimated property values using the GC+ approach, but also the uncertainties in the estimated property values. This feature allows one to evaluate the effects of these uncertainties on the product-process design calculations thereby contributing to better-informed and reliable engineering solutions.

Hukkerikar, Amol; Abildskov, Jens

132

Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m{sup ?2}, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material.

Vignal, N., E-mail: nicolas.vignal@cea.fr; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

2013-10-15

133

Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m?2, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material

134

Improved accuracy of component alignment with the implementation of image-free navigation in total knee arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accuracy of implant positioning and reconstruction of the mechanical leg axis are major requirements for achieving good long-term results in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether image-free computer navigation technology has the potential to improve the accuracy of component alignment in TKA cohorts of experienced surgeons immediately and constantly. One hundred patients with primary arthritis of the knee underwent the unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The cohort of 50 TKAs implanted with conventional instrumentation was directly followed by the cohort of the very first 50 computer-assisted TKAs. All surgeries were performed by two senior surgeons. All patients received the Zimmer NexGen total knee prosthesis (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA). There was no variability regarding surgeons or surgical technique, except for the use of the navigation system (StealthStation) Treon plus Medtronic Inc., Minnesota, MI, USA). Accuracy of implant positioning was measured on postoperative long-leg standing radiographs and standard lateral X-rays with regard to the valgus angle and the coronal and sagittal component angles. In addition, preoperative deformities of the mechanical leg axis, tourniquet time, age, and gender were correlated. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software package. Independent t-tests were used, with significance set at P mechanical alignment between the two cohorts. To compute the rate of optimally implanted prostheses between the two groups we used the chi(2) test. The average postoperative radiological frontal mechanical alignment was 1.88 degrees of varus (range 6.1 degrees of valgus-10.1 degrees of varus; SD 3.68 degrees ) in the conventional cohort and 0.28 degrees of varus (range 3.7 degrees -6.0 degrees of varus; SD 1.97 degrees ) in the navigated cohort. Including all criteria for optimal implant alignment, 16 cases (32%) in the conventional cohort and 31 cases (62%) in the navigated cohort have been implanted optimally. The average difference in tourniquet time was modest with additional 12.9 min in the navigated cohort compared to the conventional cohort. Our findings suggest that the experienced knee surgeons can improve immediately and constantly the accuracy of component orientation using an image-free computer-assisted navigation system in TKA. The computer-assisted technology has shown to be easy to use, safe, and efficient in routine knee replacement surgery. We believe that navigation is a key technology for various current and future surgical alignment topics and minimal-invasive lower limb surgery. PMID:18157493

Rosenberger, Ralf E; Hoser, Christian; Quirbach, Sebastian; Attal, Rene; Hennerbichler, Alfred; Fink, Christian

2008-03-01

135

Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and in-vessel components towards ITER construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the preparation of the procurement specifications for long lead-time items, several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements are being pursued, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, adding a separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints, and revising the VV support system to gain a more comfortable structural performance margin. Improvements to the blanket design are also under investigation, an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and nondestructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. In FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block, and the divertor components, have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

136

Australia's uncertain demographic future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The techniques of probabilistic population forecasting are increasingly being recognised as a profitable means of overcoming many of the limitations of conventional deterministic variant population forecasts. This paper applies these techniques to present the first comprehensive set of probabilistic population forecasts for Australia. We stress the disadvantages of directly inputting net migration into the cohort component model in probabilistic forecasting, and propose a gross migration flows model which distinguishes between permanent and non-permanent immigration and emigration. Our forecasts suggest that there is a two thirds probability of Australia?s population being between 23.0 and 25.8 million by 2026 and between 24.4 and 31.8 million by 2051. Comparisons with the latest official population projections of the Australian Bureau of Statistics are made.

Tom Wilson

2004-09-01

137

Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and In-vessel components towards ITER construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints and revised VV support system to gain a more comfortable margin in the structural performance. The blanket design has been updated; an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet-outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and non destructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. With regard to the R and D for the FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block and the divertor components have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

138

IMPROVED REAL-TIME FACE RECOGNITION BASED ON THREE LEVEL WAVELET DECOMPOSITION-PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of research in the field of real-time face recognition is a study that is being developed in the last decade. Face recognition is used to identify person from an image or video. Recognition rate and computation time of real-time face recognition is one of the big challenges that must be developed. This study proposes a model of face recognition using the method of feature extraction by combining three level wavelet decomposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA and using the method of mahalanobis distance for the classification section (3WPCA-MD. A 3-level wavelet decomposition is used to decompose images by reducing the resolution used for those images. Using wavelet decomposition up to level 3 will produce an image with a very low resolution so as to reduce the value of the resulting computation time to be processed using PCA. Mahalanobis distance method is used to determine the degree of similarity among the features to produce a more optimal face recognition. Based on the results of experiments that have been done, they generated improved face recognition with high face recognition accuracy of up to 96% in average and produced faster computation results of face recognition if compared to ordinary PCA method. The average computation speed value obtained using the method of 3WPCA-MD was 5-7 milli-second (ms for each face recognition process.

Edy Winarno

2014-01-01

139

Managing demographic risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

In developed nations, the workforce is aging rapidly. That trend has serious implications. Companies could face severe labor shortages in a few years as workers retire, taking critical knowledge with them. Businesses may also see productivity decline among older employees, especially in physically demanding jobs. The authors, partners at Boston Consulting Group, offer managers a systematic way to assess these dual threats--capacity risk and productivity risk--at their companies. It involves studying the age distribution of their employees to see if large percentages fall within high age brackets and then projecting--by location, unit, and job category--how the distribution will change over the next 15 years. Managers must also factor in both the impact of strategic moves on personnel needs and the future supply of workers in the market. When RWE Power analyzed its trends, the company learned that in 2018 almost 80% of its workers would be over 50. What's more, in certain critical areas its labor surplus was about to become a sizable shortfall. For instance, a shortage of specialized engineers would develop in the company just as their ranks in the job market thinned and competition to hire them intensified. Reversing its downsizing course, RWE Power took steps to increase its supply of workers in those key positions. The authors show how companies that face talent gaps, as RWE Power did, can close them through training, transfers, recruitment, retention, productivity improvements, and outsourcing. They also describe measures that companies can take to keep older workers productive, including workplace accommodations, revised compensation structures, performance incentives, and targeted health care management. The key is to identify and address potential problems early. Firms that do so will gain an edge on rivals that are still relentlessly focused on reducing head count. PMID:18314640

Strack, Rainer; Baier, Jens; Fahlander, Anders

2008-02-01

140

DEMOGRAPHIC DATA FOR CENSUS 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include ...

 
 
 
 
141

[Recent demographic trends in Luxembourg].  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic trends in Luxembourg over the period 1970-1980 are reviewed. Data are presented separately ¿for the Luxembourg and foreign populations and cover fertility, mortality, natural increase, age and sex distribution, marriage and divorce, and family allowance legislation. PMID:12338704

1981-01-01

142

Focusing probes for the improvement of flaw size determination at the ultrasonic inspection of thick walled reactor components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The focusing of sound fields from circular piston sources by curved transducers or lenses can reduce the natural sound field concentration at the end of the nearfield to the range of 1 wavelength. This enables us to determine flaw sizes by scanning the borderline of an reflector, which is especially difficult at thick walled components using normal techniques. This constribution summarises the basic principles for to calculate and build up focusing probes for flaw size determination in thick walled components and their characteristics in laboratory and in practice. Especially regarded are problems of angle beams and the coupling in direct contact. (orig.)

143

Our Demographically Divided World, Worldwatch Paper 74.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing demographic analyses do not explain the negative relationship between population growth and life-support systems that are now emerging in scores of developing countries. The demographic transition, a theory first outlined by demographer Frank Notestein in 1945, classified all societies into one of three stages. Drawing heavily on the…

Brown, Lester R.; Jacobson, Jodi L.

144

Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

145

THE ROLE OF THE EXERCISES IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE PSYCHOMOTRICITY COMPONENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUPILS  

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Full Text Available The cognitive activities support an obvious intellectual development, also influenced by a special plasticity of the cognitive system – a functional advantage that offers a great receptivity to the child in comparison with the adults. The purpose of choosing the theme By the chosen theme we want to contribute at the highlighting of the importance of the exercises as a game in order to achieve the purposes of the physical education and sports and to optimize the psychomotricity components and also the multilateral development of the pupil. Starting from the idea that the game is an efficient and pleasant way to solve many objectives of the physical education and sports, we suppose that the didactic strategies based on the game help to optimize the psychomotricity components and also the multilateral development of the pupil. Ways of research: the analysis of the specialized literature, the complementary fields, the interdisciplinary, the pedagogical observation, investigation, the way of somatic measures, the movement measures. Results: The psychomotor components measure a normal psychomotor behavior of the child and of the teenager that is why the objectives of the physical education have to aim the education of these components at a high level. Conclusion: The selection of the most efficient ways of the dynamic games by the contribution brought to the education of the main psychomotricity components, but also by their structure and their degree of accessibility for the age of research represents the steps of the didactic strategy of development of the psychomotricity at little scholar age, 6-8 years old and also the personal contribution to solve this problem.

Macri Aura

2014-03-01

146

Chronological objects in demographic research  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

Frans J. Willekens

2013-03-01

147

Progress report on improved technology for ceramic engine components. Progress report for the period ending August, 1976  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To increase the efficiency of power turbines, vehicular turbines, and other combustion engines, higher operating temperatures are required. More refractory materials will be necessary for components in the resulting hostile thermal, physical, and chemical environments. Two ceramic materials, silicon nitride and silicon carbide, are currently candidates for such components. Optimum properties are obtained only when these compounds are fabricated to full density. Pressure sintering, or hot pressing, is necessary for full densification. Both the dense nitride and carbide of silicon are very hard and must be machined by diamond grinding; consequently, manufactured articles could be very expensive. The object of the present program is to develop techniques capable of producing dense hardware near to finish size and contour while maintaining desirable material properties; hence, an acceptable product at a minimum cost

148

Demographic future of Serbia from a different angle  

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Full Text Available Based on the assessment of the empirical errors in the official population forecasts of Serbia, the paper shows why forecast users might want a change of the current official concept. The article consists of three parts. The first gives a brief chronological overview of the methods and hypotheses in the official population forecasts of Serbia during the last 60 years. The second refers to the quantification of the past forecast errors in projecting total fertility rate, life expectancy at birth and total population aiming at assessment of the empirical variability. The third part shows the probabilistic population forecast of Serbia based on Bayesian hierarchical models of vital components, as implemented in the 2012 revision of United Nations World population prospects. The empirical error served as an evaluation tool of the probabilistic distributions of total population. In spite of the increased availability and quality of input data and developing of advanced projection techniques during the period, there was no obvious improvement noted neither in accuracy nor in the expression of the uncertainty inherent to forecasting in the official population forecasts in Serbia up to date. In general, fertility has been overestimated while improvements in mortality have been underestimated. It has been shown that accuracy largely depends on the stability of demographic processes throughout the projection horizon, which confirms findings from similar studies in other countries. The uncertainty in the demographic trends remains a major challenge for forecasters. A typical judgment that the smallest error will be made if a recently observed trend is assumed to continue has been linked to the low fertility variant in the past Serbian forecasts. The target level of the medium fertility, interpreted as "most likely" outcome, was firmly bound to replacement fertility until recently thus reflecting desirable rather than realistic future. Therefore, the reversal in the trend of the total population of Serbia came as a surprise or much earlier than expected for the forecasters. The probabilistic population forecast of Serbia provides results that users can clearly understand and use along with attached information on error magnitude. Before running the projection model, it was necessary to adjust the 2012 UN estimates for Serbia to suit the current official estimates and recent relevant studies on demographic trends in the country. The comparison of probabilistic hypotheses and results with the current official projection aims to highlight the key benefits of the new approach in terms of reduced subjectivity, improved accuracy and quantified uncertainty. The latter could be particularly relevant for decision makers allowing them to calculate the expected costs involved in wrong decisions. From the perspective of the forecast based on "UN model", the strong optimism of the current official projection appears to be groundless. Besides, the empiric evaluation of the probabilistic distributions of total population suggests that it fully reflects the pattern of observed uncertainty in the past forecasts of Serbian population. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006: Istraživanje demografskih fenomena u funkciji javnih politika u Srbiji

Nikitovi? Vladimir

2013-01-01

149

Wheat signature modeling and analysis for improved training statistics: Supplement. Simulated LANDSAT wheat radiances and radiance components  

Science.gov (United States)

Simulated scanner system data values generated in support of LACIE (Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment) research and development efforts are presented. Synthetic inband (LANDSAT) wheat radiances and radiance components were computed and are presented for various wheat canopy and atmospheric conditions and scanner view geometries. Values include: (1) inband bidirectional reflectances for seven stages of wheat crop growth; (2) inband atmospheric features; and (3) inband radiances corresponding to the various combinations of wheat canopy and atmospheric conditions. Analyses of these data values are presented in the main report.

Malila, W. A.; Cicone, R. C.; Gleason, J. M.

1976-01-01

150

Use of computed tomography slices 3D-reconstruction as a powerful tool to improve manufacturing processes on aeroengine components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TURBOMECA has been using computed tomography for several years as an inner-health analysis powerful tool for engine components. From 2D slices of the examined part, detailed information about lacks or inclusions could easily be extracted. But, measurements on internal features were quickly required because no other NDT methods were able to do it. CT has thus logically become a powerful 2D dimensional measuring tool. Recently, with new software and the latest computers able to deal with huge files, CT has become a powerful 3D digitization tool and now, TOMO ADOUR can offer a complete solution for reverse engineering of complex parts. Several months ago, TURBOMECA introduced CT into many development, validation and industrialization processes and has demonstrated how to take corrective actions to process deviation on their aeroengine components by: extracting the nonexisting CAD model of a part, generating CAD compatible data to check dimensional conformity and, eventually correct design misfits or manufacturing drifts, highlighting the metallurgical health of first article parts, making the decision of repairing the defining the appropriate method, generating a file (.STL) to build a rapid prototype or a file to pilot tool parts for machining, calculating physical properties such as behavior or flow analysis on a 'real' model. The image also allows a drawing to be made of a part that was originally produced by a supplier or competitor. This paper will be illustrated wipetitor. This paper will be illustrated with a large number of examples

151

Modification of the Douglas Neumann program to improve the efficiency of predicting component interference and high lift characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Douglas Neumann method for low-speed potential flow on arbitrary three-dimensional lifting bodies was modified by substituting the combined source and doublet surface paneling based on Green's identity for the original source panels. Numerical studies show improved accuracy and stability for thin lifting surfaces, permitting reduced panel number for high-lift devices and supercritical airfoil sections. The accuracy of flow in concave corners is improved. A method of airfoil section design for a given pressure distribution, based on Green's identity, was demonstrated. The program uses panels on the body surface with constant source strength and parabolic distribution of doublet strength, and a doublet sheet on the wake. The program is written for the CDC CYBER 175 computer. Results of calculations are presented for isolated bodies, wings, wing-body combinations, and internal flow.

Bristow, D. R.; Grose, G. G.

1978-01-01

152

Development and validation of an improved creep-fatigue interaction rule for lifetime determination of high temperature components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

nce, that dislocation controlled deformation is less damaging than grain boundary sliding. With increasing holdtime corresponding with decreasing interaction between creep and fatigue the term c(t) tends to unity. In case of pure creep the improved rule turns over to the modified one. The improved rule has been validated by evaluation of uniaxial low-cycle fatigue holdtime experiments. The following materials have been investigated: Inconel 617 (NiCr22Co12Mo); AISI 304ss (X6CrNi1811); 12%Cr-Mo-V-steel (X20CrMoV121). A comparison with the results of the unmodified rule is given. (author). 2 refs, 11 figs

153

Do demographics affect marital satisfaction?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of age, education, number of children, employment status, and length of marriage on marital satisfaction. Seven hundred and eighty-seven nonrandomly selected married adults from the Flanders region in Belgium completed the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) (Arrindell, Boelens, & Lambert, 1983a). The results indicated a statistically significant difference between the marital satisfaction of the first married and remarried adults. A gender-level analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the marital satisfaction of men and women. Among the demographic variables, the effect of length of marriage was highly significant with marital satisfaction. In a separate analysis, we found that the effect of age and number of children had a statistically significant effect on the sexual adjustment of the respondents. Accordingly, we found that age, number of children, and length of marriage were significantly positively correlated with sexual adjustment (MMQ-S) and educational attainment with general-life adjustment (MMQ-GL) problems. PMID:17162490

Jose, Orathinkal; Alfons, Vansteenwegen

2007-01-01

154

Demographic dynamics and environmental change in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In its first part, the text examines the evolution of research on demographic dynamics and environmental change in Brazil. While concern for the deforestation of the Amazon region was an important starting point for the concerns of demographers, the first systematic studies dealt with the "brown agenda." It was a question of urban environmental quality which motivated specialists to enter this field. In the second part, the text presents a preliminary analysis of demographic dynamics in the p...

Hogan Daniel Joseph

2001-01-01

155

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

156

On-line monitoring for improving performance of nuclear power plants. Part 2: Process and component condition monitoring and diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA's work in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management is aimed at enhancing the capability of Member States to utilize good engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports activities such as improving nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational licence renewal, and modernization of the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants in Member States. The subject of improving the performance of nuclear power plants by utilizing on-line condition monitoring of instrumentation and control systems in plants was suggested by the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in 2003. It was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2004-2007. This is the second report on the use of on-line monitoring (OLM) in nuclear power plants. The first report, On-Line Monitoring for Improving Performance of Nuclear Power Plants, Part 1: Instrument Channel Monitoring (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-1.1), focused on application of OLM to verify the static (calibration) and dynamic (response time) performance of process instruments in nuclear power plants. This second report extends the application of OLM to equipment and process condition monitoring encompassing an array of technologies, including vibration monitoring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts mooring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts monitoring, motor current signature analysis and noise diagnostics, as well as vibration analysis of the reactor core and the primary circuit. Furthermore, this report includes the application of modelling technologies for equipment and process condition monitoring. A majority of these technologies depend on existing data from existing sensors and first principles models to estimate equipment and process behaviour using empirical and physical modelling techniques. In doing so, pattern recognition tools such as neural networks, fuzzy classification of data, multivariate state estimation and other means are used. These means are described in this report, and examples of their application and implementation are provided. It should be pointed out that OLM data are routinely collected in nuclear power plants for a variety of purposes, but that these data are not often trended or used for long term predictive maintenance purposes. This report promotes the idea of trending such data and provides guidance on how this trending may be performed to yield a new maintenance tool for nuclear power plants. This report was produced by experts and advisors from numerous IAEA Member States

157

Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain with Imperfect Quality of Commodity Components in Uncertain State  

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Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a mathematical model for four-level defective goods supply chain with imperfect quality of commodity components in an uncertain state to maximize profit of supply chain. It is assumed that the inspection of incoming parts in suppliers is randomly done and incomplete. This lead some of the manufactured products will not be properly manufactured because of defective parts and are considered as defective goods and in most cases, the defective products can be repaired by replacing with the good parts. The defective parts will be collected and then returned to the suppliers for repairing. Out proposed model considers defective parts problem by optimizing the costs of production, maintenance, shipping, reworking on the defective goods and parts, shortage in retailers due to the production of defective goods and cost of capital incurred by the companies. The model can anticipate the active suppliers/manufacturers/distributors and the quantity of parts and goods that must be exchanged between them. Our proposed model is novel and we used MINOS solver and LINGO software to solve the problem. The results ascertained the correctness and fine function of the proposed model.

Salah Alden Ghasimi

2013-07-01

158

Independent component analysis-based artefact reduction: application to the electrocardiogram for improved magnetic resonance imaging triggering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is required during magnetic resonance (MR) examination for monitoring patients under anaesthesia or with heart diseases and for synchronizing image acquisition with heart activity (triggering). Accurate and fast QRS detection is therefore desirable, but this task is complicated by artefacts related to the complex MR environment (high magnetic field, radio-frequency pulses and fast switching magnetic gradients). Specific signal processing has been proposed, whether using specific MR QRS detectors or ECG denoising methods. Most state-of-the-art techniques use a connection to the MR system for achieving their task, which is a major drawback since access to the MR system is often restricted. This paper introduces a new method for on-line ECG signal enhancement, called ICARE, which takes advantage of using multi-lead ECG and does not require any connection to the MR system. It is based on independent component analysis (ICA) and applied in real time. This algorithm yields accurate QRS detection for efficient triggering

159

The Importance of Demographic Data in Astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The most effective astronomical workforce will be one that comprises a diverse and inclusive community. The “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” Decadal Survey, with input from its Infrastructure Study Group on Demographics, provided an overview of recent demographic trends. Demographics in astronomy have undergone significant changes over the past two generations in several, but not all, categories. Maintaining records of demographics regarding age, gender, and minority status, as well as trends by discipline and career choices, is vital in planning for the future training and employment of astronomers.

Elmegreen, Debra M.

2014-01-01

160

Macroergonomic intervention for work design improvement and raw materials waste reduction in a small footwear components company in Rio Grande do Sul-Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a macroergonomic intervention carried out in a small footwear components company located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The company's demand was related to the waste of the expensive raw-material (thermoplastic polyurethane or TPU) used to manufacture the components (high heels pegs). According to the managerial staff, the waste was workers responsibility due to the craft characteristic of the process. A participative method was used to evaluate the problems, propose and implement solutions, as well as evaluate their impact on the workers and the Company. Improvements in the work conditions resulted in increase of workers' satisfaction with the work and in 31.5% waste reduction. PMID:22317629

Cornelli, Renata; Guimarães, Lia Buarque de Macedo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Using demographic data to better interpret pitfall trap catches  

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Full Text Available The results of pitfall trapping are often interpreted as abundance in a particular habitat. At the same time, there are numerous cases of almost unrealistically high catches of ground beetles in seemingly unsuitable sites. The correlation of catches by pitfall trapping with the true distribution and abundance of Carabidae needs corroboration. During a full year survey in 2006/07 in the Lake Elton region (Volgograd Area, Russia, 175 species of ground beetles were trapped. Considering the differences in demographic structure of the local populations, and not their abundances, three groups of species were recognized: residents, migrants and sporadic. In residents, the demographic structure of local populations is complete, and their habitats can be considered “residential”. In migrants and sporadic species, the demographic structure of the local populations is incomplete, and their habitats can be considered “transit”. Residents interact both with their prey and with each other in a particular habitat. Sporadic species are hardly important to a carabid community because of their low abundances. The contribution of migrants to the structure of carabid communities is not apparent and requires additional research. Migrants and sporadic species represent a “labile” component in ground beetles communities, as opposed to a “stable” component, represented by residents. The variability of the labile component substantially limits our interpretation of species diversity in carabid communities. Thus, the criteria for determining the most abundant, or dominant species inevitably vary because the abundance of migrants in some cases can be one order of magnitude higher than that of residents. The results of pitfall trapping adequately reflect the state of carabid communities only in zonal habitats, while azonal and disturbed habitats are merely transit ones for many species of ground beetles. A study of the demographic structure of local populations and assessment of the migratory/residential status of particular carabid species are potential ways of increasing the reliability of pitfall trap information.

Mikhail Makarov

2011-05-01

162

Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System  

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Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

Seth Owusu-Agyei

2012-12-01

163

THE PENSIONS AND DEMOGRAPHIC IMBALANCES IN ROMANIA  

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Full Text Available Socio-demographic and economic processes that characterize the last period (aging population, reducing the working population, mainly macroeconomic problems of countries in transition, and so on and will increase in the coming decades transform the problem of social protection for the elderly and special management problem better pension systems a fundamental challenge for both developed countries and those in transition. We can say that for Romania the problem is aggravadet by the alarming delay reform of wrong decisions, lack of vision and coherent strategy in the field. In this context, in addition to the major problems of all former communist countries that have experienced economic decline and a reduction in the number of employees (those who support pension contributions Romania faces and incompleteness pension system that summarizes the pillar, voluntary and privately managed occupational components are still in draft form and require years to implement and the appearance of effects. Also, phenomena encountered in other transition countries (and even in Western developed countries in recent decades and early retirements and lower average real retirement age or Pillar I support budget funds were more apparent to us and led an excessive increase in the number of retirees and fewer alarming average real retirement age

FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

2013-02-01

164

Asia's demographic miracle: 50 years of unprecedented change.  

Science.gov (United States)

The demographic landscape of Asia has seen unprecedented changes over the past 50 years. The transition from high to low mortality and fertility rates has made the eventual stabilization of the world's population a real possibility. The demographic success of Asia is associated with the stunning economic and social changes that have taken place during this period. Aside from social and economic improvements, population and health policies also played a major part in shaping the region's demographic transformation. National programs made a substantial contribution to increasing contraceptive use, lowering fertility, and slowing population growth. The success of family planning programs was frequently supported by positive changes in the demand for children. As the initial impact of the recent financial and economic crisis has shown, the Asian demographic miracle cannot be taken for granted. Since mid-1997, the crisis has interrupted and reversed the region's remarkable development gains. Economic downturns often tend to affect the social sectors unevenly. Strengthening the provision of basic social services, including reproductive health and care of the elderly, particularly in poor nations, will remain a challenge in the next century. The establishment of goals, including in areas such as HIV/AIDS, will help Asian countries realize the vision of the International Conference on Population and Development¿s 20-year Programme of Action. PMID:12349488

Leete, R; Alam, I

1999-12-01

165

Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relevance of the study lies in the acute need to modernise the tools for a more accurate and comparable reflection of the demographic reality of spatial objects of different scales. This article aims to test the methods of “demographic rankings” developed by Yermakov and Shmakov. The method is based on the principles of indirect standardisation of the major demographic coefficients relative to the age structure.The article describes the first attempt to apply the method to the analysis of birth and mortality rates in 1995 and 2010 for 140 countries against the global average, and for the Baltic Sea states against the European average. The grouping of countries and the analysis of changes over the given period confirmed a number of demographic development trends and the persistence of wide territorial disparities in major indicators. The authors identify opposite trends in ranking based on the standardised birth (country consolidation at the level of averaged values and mortality (polarisation rates. The features of demographic process development in the Baltic regions states are described against the global and European background. The study confirmed the validity of the demographic ranking method, which can be instrumental in solving not only scientific but also practical tasks, including those in the field of demographic and social policy.

Sluka N.

2014-10-01

166

Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relevance of the study lies in the acute need to modernise the tools for a more accurate and comparable reflection of the demographic reality of spatial objects of different scales. This article aims to test the methods of “demographic rankings” developed by Yermakov and Shmakov. The method is based on the principles of indirect standardisation of the major demographic coefficients relative to the age structure.The article describes the first attempt to apply the method to the analysis of birth and mortality rates in 1995 and 2010 for 140 countries against the global average, and for the Baltic Sea states against the European average. The grouping of countries and the analysis of changes over the given period confirmed a number of demographic development trends and the persistence of wide territorial disparities in major indicators. The authors identify opposite trends in ranking based on the standardised birth (country consolidation at the level of averaged values and mortality (polarisation rates. The features of demographic process development in the Baltic regions states are described against the global and European background. The study confirmed the validity of the demographic ranking method, which can be instrumental in solving not only scientific but also practical tasks, including those in the field of demographic and social policy.

Ivanov D.

2014-05-01

167

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. (1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. (2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. (3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. (4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. (5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. (6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR.

Suh, Jeong Hun; Kim, J. S.; Han, J. H.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, S. S

2000-08-01

168

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR

169

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials on materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a power feeding system for the primary system. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phase of the clad. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clad. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR. (author)

170

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials on materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a power feeding system for the primary system. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phase of the clad. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clad. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR. (author)

Suh, Jeong Hun; Kim, J. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Lim, Y. S

1999-08-01

171

Unemployment among Black Youths, Demographics, and Crime.  

Science.gov (United States)

Erroneous conclusions relating to the interrelationship among unemployment rates, demographics, and crime rates of Black youths are discussed. A reexamination of the data shows that crime by Black youths bears a close relationship with prevailing economic conditions. (Author/RC)

Calvin, Allen D.

1981-01-01

172

Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters’ demographic behaviour. Referring these results to statistical data on this issue, that are to be found in the Statistical Annual of Bihor County, we tried to reveal the trends of the evolution of birth-rate and to make the difference between objective statistical data and subjective echoes of 18 year old high school students way of thinking, regarding the potential impact of religion – nowadays studied in the Romanian schools – on the demographic behaviour.

Florica Stefanescu

2009-12-01

173

The demographics of global corporate champions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Working Paper presents a novel dataset documenting the demographics of the world’s 500 largest companies by market capitalisation, as of 30 September 2007. Assigning a birth date to a large company is not a straightforward exercise and involves a measure of judgment, which possibly explains why data on corporate demographics have not been more widely researched in spite of their potential interest to policymakers. However, our methodology, based on the collection of narrative data whic...

Ve?ron, Nicolas

2008-01-01

174

Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters&rs...

Florica Stefanescu

2009-01-01

175

IMPROVING SOFTWARE QUALITY IN THE SERVICE PROCESS INDUSTRY USING AGILITY WITH SOFTWARE REUSABLE COMPONENTS AS SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF INDIAN SERVICE PROVIDERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a software – based business process outsourcing (BPO environment, the quality of services delivered to clients hinges on the quality of software used in processing the service. Software quality attributes have been defined by ISO/IEC standards but different organisations give priorities to specific attributes based on client’s requirements and the prevailing environment. The aim of this study is to identify and demonstrate the particular software development process that guarantees an acceptable level of software quality within a specific domain that would translate to desired quality of services delivered to clients. Therefore, this study through a mixed method approach investigated BPO service providers in India to ascertain what software quality means to their respective organisations, what software quality attributes are given priority and how it could be improved. The findings suggest that software quality is highly dependent on the software development process. The vast majority of successful organisations operated in-house software development through the establishment of software product line as a platform to embed software reusable components within an agile framework. Through this process, there is significant reduction in defect density, thereby improving the software quality. This software quality is also translated to the quality of services delivered to clients

Charles Ikerionwu

2014-07-01

176

Comparing Simple Quasar Demographics Models  

CERN Document Server

This paper explores several simple model variations for the connections among quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos for redshifts 1 < z < 6. A key component of these models is that we enforce a self-consistent black hole (BH) history by tracking both BH mass and BH growth rate at all redshifts. We connect objects across redshift with a simple constant-number-density procedure, and choose a fiducial model with a relationship between BH and galaxy growth rates that is linear and evolves in a simple way with redshift. Within this fiducial model, we find the quasar luminosity function (QLF) by calculating an "intrinsic" luminosity based on either the BH mass or BH growth rate, and then choosing a model of quasar variability with either a lognormal or truncated power-law distribution of instantaneous luminosities. This gives four model variations, which we fit to the observed QLF at each redshift. With the best-fit models in hand, we undertake a detailed comparison of the four fiducial models, and explore...

Veale, Melanie; Conroy, Charlie

2014-01-01

177

Demographics, energy and our homes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The projected growth in households in the UK is a key factor in future domestic energy consumption, particularly electricity consumption. While every household needs a home and its heating, lighting and appliances, increasing incomes have historically led to significantly higher appliance ownership, higher expectations of levels of energy service and greater usage. In the past this trend was combined with increasing household numbers to drive growth in domestic electricity demand. Official projections for population growth and household composition indicate significant drivers for future growth in energy demand. Curbing this will require policies to reverse the tendency for energy-efficiency improvements to be overwhelmed by growing numbers of households, more widespread appliance ownership and increased service expectations

178

Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([11C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [11C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

179

Improved low-cloud simulation from a multiscale modeling framework with a third-order turbulence closure in its cloud-resolving model component  

Science.gov (United States)

In the original multiscale modeling framework (MMF), the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.5) is used as the host general circulation model (GCM), and the System for Atmospheric Modeling model with a first-order turbulence closure is used as the cloud resolving model (CRM) for representing cloud physical processes in each grid column of the GCM. This study introduces an upgrade of the MMF in which the first-order turbulence closure scheme is replaced by an advanced third-order turbulence closure in its CRM component. The results are compared between the upgraded and original MMFs, CAM3.5, and observations. The global distributions of low-level cloud amounts in the subtropics in the upgraded MMF show substantial improvement relative to the original MMF when both are compared with observations. The improved simulation of low-level clouds is attributed not only to the representation of subgrid-scale condensation in the embedded CRM but also is closely related to the increased surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, the increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS), and stronger longwave radiative cooling. Both MMF simulations show close agreement in the vertical structures of cloud amount and liquid water content of midlatitude storm-track clouds and subtropical low-level clouds, compared with observations, with the upgraded MMF being better at simulating the low-level cumulus regime. Since the upgraded MMF produces more subtropical low-level clouds and does not produce an excessive amount of optically thick high-level clouds in either the tropics or midlatitudes as the original MMF does, the global mean albedo decreases. The positive bias in albedo and longwave cloud radiative forcing (CRF) and negative bias in shortwave CRF are reduced in the tropical convective regions.

Cheng, Anning; Xu, Kuan-Man

2011-07-01

180

Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease  

Science.gov (United States)

This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([11C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [11C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

Razifar, Pasha; Engler, Henry; Blomquist, Gunnar; Ringheim, Anna; Estrada, Sergio; Långström, Bengt; Bergström, Mats

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

[Demographic changes and health management].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since our Constitution declaration in 1978 and General Law for Health in 1986, to date, the Spanish society has undergorne marked social changes. Socio-economic and health indicators in Spain have also improved as to an increased life expectancy, important reduction in infant mortality, and favourable changes reported in the national Health Survey. Risk factors influence the main causes of death, thus it is said that "man does not die but it kills himself". Healthy health practices are specified, and there is empirical evidence of greater disability-adjusted life years, a better adherence to Mediterranean diet, no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, enough time of sleeping, weight control, avoiding obsity and overweight, and increased physical activity, all the above practices achieving a healthier life. At a global scale in the world we live, famine has no frontiers, and fighting against this plague can not await longer. Overall, health and poverty are correlated and it must be overcome for reasons of human dignity, universal rights (even in ius gentium), and ethical dimension as normative of new socio-economic structures. Present must be transformed to recover hope in ou global world, still hungry, and in need of justice, enlightenment and solidarity. PMID:17172218

Calero, Juan del Rey

2006-01-01

182

Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

Adriana Veronica Litra

2006-04-01

183

The second demographic transition and the development level of Colombia departments, 2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the behavior of some demographic characteristics for each department to identify the state of demographic transition and its relationship to the development level. Methodology: descriptive study based on secondary information sources published by the National Statistics Department and the National Planning Department. Results: the global fertility rate of the country was 2.5 in 2005. Chocó reported the highest rate whereas Bogotá reported the lowest. A total of 67% of Colombian states registered higher rates than the average rate in the country. Mortality rate of children in the country was 24.5, with the lowest rates registered in El Valle, Caldas, and Bogotá. The highest rates were registered in Arauca and Chocó. 26.6% of Colombian states show some advance in the demographic transition process. By contrast, 67% of the states are classified as lagged behind. There is a relation between the demographic transition index and the development indicators. Conclusion: Although some departments reach an advanced level of demographic transition, most of them still show high rates of infant mortality or fecundity which keep them behind in this process. Inequalities in living conditions of the country’s departments could be influencing the behavior of the demographic components analyzed.

Isabel C. Grajales A

2010-11-01

184

Demographic situation and development in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nepal economic development has not kept pace with population growth. The government must develop a vigorous dual program to promote economic development and to reduce population growth. Previous efforts to promote economic development, using a macrolevel approach, failed to improve the economic conditions for the majority of Nepal's citizens. The macrolevel approach required large capital outlays and resulted in an influx of foreign investors and the importation of inappropriate technologies from the developed countries. As a result, urbanization and pollution increased, and both the proportion and the absolute number of poor persons increased. A microlevel approach is now being instituted by the government, and an emphasis is being placed on meeting the basic needs of the poor and on promoting economic self-sufficiency. The country has extensive water resources which can be tapped for irrigation purposes. Nepal also has rich mineral deposits which should be exploited in such a way as to ensure that the profits accrue to the Nepalese. The country has an abundance of manpower resources, but there is a dearth of skilled workers. Unemployment, especially in rural areas, is a serious problem, and efforts should be made to either develop the agricultural sector or create new jobs in other sectors. Nepal's demographic problems include rapid population growth, the influx of a large number of migrants from India, and a high rural to urban migration rate. In 1981, the population size was 15 million, the annual growth rate was 2.6%, the crude birth rate was 38.5, the crude death rate was 18.4, and life expectancy was 47.5 years. The government is currently developing plans 1) to promote the development of core sectors of the economy, 2) to provide family planning services for the poor, 3) to meet the basic needs of rural residents in order to stem the flow of migration to urban areas, 4) to mobilize women to play an active role in the country's development and population programs, 5) to introduce population education into the school curriculum, 6) to promote economic development research, and 7) to coordinate the work of the numerous family planning agencies and organizations which are operating in the country. Many voluntary, international, foreign, and government agencies are involved in Nepal's economic and population endeavors. These organizations are listed. PMID:12339820

Pradhanang, A L

1983-01-01

185

The role of migration in demographic development of the community of Valjevo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participation of migration component in demographic development of the community Valjevo, is significant in the past, as well as nowadays. First part of this paper is related with historical development of migration to the end of World War II, while the next part comprise modern migratory movements.

Sre?kovi? Jelena

2002-01-01

186

Current demographical processes in the Penza region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the basic ethnic groups of the Penza region and identifies the demographic processes taking place within each group. The author comes to a conclusion that these processes are determined by the features of the historical development and socioeconomic standing of the ethnic groups.

Pronin Ye.

2013-01-01

187

Demographic development in ASEAN: a comparative overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative overview of recent demographic developments in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is presented. Countries discussed include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Separate consideration is given to mortality; fertility; and migration, spatial distribution, and employment. A final section is concerned with emerging issues and directions for population policy. PMID:12178278

Herrin, A N; Pardoko, H; Lim, L L; Hongladorom, C

1981-01-01

188

Second demographic transition de-blocked?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

Bobi? Mirjana

2011-01-01

189

Changing demographics and shrinking engineering enrollments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that changing U.S. population demographics, poor academic preparation, and a decreasing interest in engineering among college student indicate possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. If we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S., the engineering talent pool must be enlarged to include women and minority men

190

Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

Peng, Xizhe

2013-01-01

191

Demographic determinants of formation and use of human capital in Ukraine: differential analysis and forecast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the problem that is little investigated in domestic economics. It assesses the impact of demographic processes on the prospects of accumulation and productivity of human capital. The author argues that focusing only in the quality of education and training that is inherent in most modern research, minimizes the effectiveness of human capital management as an economic asset. A man is a demographic basis of human capital accumulation. Accordingly, the particular demographic processes such as fertility, mortality, migration, development and disintegration of families, require careful analysis. The main objectives of the study related to the specification of the impact of demographic situation on the effectiveness of formation and use of human capital. It was found that due to the increasing demographic crisis in Ukraine initial conditions of accumulation of human capital at all levels of the economic system deteriorated significantly. It was substantiated that the renovation of demographic policy is a key factor for improving the efficiency of social investment; it also causes optimization of relations in various spheres of social interaction.

Melnychuk, Dmytro Petrovych

2014-05-01

192

The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey  

CERN Document Server

In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

Price, C Aaron

2012-01-01

193

Education and lifetime income during demographic transition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper studies the power of educational investments in relation to transfers for fostering lifetime income and for reducing income inequality in Germany. The welfare analysis is based on a model of age-dependent human capital accumulation, featuring dynamic complementarities in skill formation over the life cycle, and calibrated for the period of ongoing demographic transition until 2080. If policy aims at reducing the inequality of lifetime income among people of the same g...

Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Reuß, Karsten

2013-01-01

194

Demographic changes in towns in Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with population growth and changes in towns in Slovenia, whose characteristics are small towns. The latest population indicators show a decline in growth, which doesn t necessarily represent stagnation but development in a new direction. In view of the present demographic trends, growth of larger towns in Slovenia will have to be qualitative and under no circumstances an account of smaller towns.

Aleksander Jakoš

1993-01-01

195

Soft selective sweeps in complex demographic scenarios.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adaptation from de novo mutation can produce so-called soft selective sweeps, where adaptive alleles of independent mutational origin sweep through the population at the same time. Population genetic theory predicts that such soft sweeps should be likely if the product of the population size and the mutation rate toward the adaptive allele is sufficiently large, such that multiple adaptive mutations can establish before one has reached fixation; however, it remains unclear how demographic processes affect the probability of observing soft sweeps. Here we extend the theory of soft selective sweeps to realistic demographic scenarios that allow for changes in population size over time. We first show that population bottlenecks can lead to the removal of all but one adaptive lineage from an initially soft selective sweep. The parameter regime under which such "hardening" of soft selective sweeps is likely is determined by a simple heuristic condition. We further develop a generalized analytical framework, based on an extension of the coalescent process, for calculating the probability of soft sweeps under arbitrary demographic scenarios. Two important limits emerge within this analytical framework: In the limit where population-size fluctuations are fast compared to the duration of the sweep, the likelihood of soft sweeps is determined by the harmonic mean of the variance effective population size estimated over the duration of the sweep; in the opposing slow fluctuation limit, the likelihood of soft sweeps is determined by the instantaneous variance effective population size at the onset of the sweep. We show that as a consequence of this finding the probability of observing soft sweeps becomes a function of the strength of selection. Specifically, in species with sharply fluctuating population size, strong selection is more likely to produce soft sweeps than weak selection. Our results highlight the importance of accurate demographic estimates over short evolutionary timescales for understanding the population genetics of adaptation from de novo mutation. PMID:25060100

Wilson, Benjamin A; Petrov, Dmitri A; Messer, Philipp W

2014-10-01

196

Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global) is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global) is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global) is the populat...

Cohen, Joel E.

2008-01-01

197

Demographic and transportation parameters in RADTRAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent efforts at Sandia National Laboratories have focused not only on modification of the RADTRAN transportation risk analysis code but also on updating the default parameters for population, land use, and roadway characteristics used by the code. Changes to the code have been discussed earlier in this Conference. This paper summarizes the results of a review of transportation and demographic parameters, performed to complement recent model modifications

198

Unrealistic demographic scenarios should not be published  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Demographers often wonder "what would happen if ...", for instance, by forecasting the world population in 2100 under various scenarios. Some articles make predictions that have not any chance to be observed, because they are totally unrealistic from a biological viewpoint. Objective: Some examples of unrealistic scenarios are provided. This article argues that such unrealistic scenarios are a source of confusion and should not be published.

Le Bourg, Eric

2014-01-01

199

Exile and demographic population growth in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data of the 2002 population census on refugee population are analyzed in this paper with a basic aim to determine the significance (contribution of refugee corpus in demographic development of the Republic of Serbia. By analyzing the data, it has been determined that the refugee corpus does not significantly differ from the domicile population in the basic, above all demographic and other qualitative characteristics. The differences which can be noticed with certain (primarily socio-economic characteristics, due to the proportionally small participation of refugee persons in relation to the total (domicile population, could not significantly influence the total demographic, socio-economic and other characteristics of the population of central Serbia and Vojvodina. The most significant contribution of refugee (classifying the refugee corpus in the country's total population is reflected in the mitigation of the depopulation trend, namely population growth, not only both micro-entities, but also lower administrative-territorial entities (districts depending on the enumerated refugee population in them. However, population projections indicate that by the middle of this century (2050 the positive effects of the basically larger number of inhabitants will be lost caused by the inflow of refugee population.

Stevanovi? Radoslav

2005-01-01

200

Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

Devedži? Mirjana M.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

2008-02-01

202

Education, Elderly Health, and Differential Population Aging in South Korea: A Demographic Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Mare and Maralani 2006 by using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA. Results: First, improvements in education lead to improvements in health among the elderly. Intermediate demographic factors make positive contributions to this improvement. Second, improvements in education lead to a decline in the ratios of offspring to the elderly because better-educated people have fewer children. However, this decrease is not substantial. Third, improvements in education increase the ratio of college-educated offspring to the unhealthy elderly because of improvements in both offspring's education and elderly health. Conclusions: The results suggest that improvements in education change configurations of the elderly and their offspring's generations, mitigating the negative consequences of population aging, such as increasing burdens of elderly support.

Bongoh Kye

2014-03-01

203

Fuel components QC reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fuel Components Operation (FCO) of General Electric's Wilmington Manufacturing Department manufactures nuclear fuel bundle components. The Fuel Components Quality Control (FCQC) Reporting System is the method by which Quality information is captured, processed, and fed back to management and responsible individual contributors. The system recognizes, separates, and addresses the needs of all levels of users. The manner in which Quality information is communicated and utilized to improve yields and reduce manufacturing losses is the key to its success

204

Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions. (letter)

205

Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit  

Science.gov (United States)

Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions.

Harper, Sarah

2012-03-01

206

Independent component analysis in non-hypothesis driven metabolomics : Improvement of pattern discovery and simplification of biological data interpretation demonstrated with plasma samples of exercising humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a non-hypothesis driven metabolomics approach plasma samples collected at six different time points (before, during and after an exercise bout) were analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS). Since independent component analysis (ICA) does not need a priori information on the investigated process and moreover can separate statistically independent source signals with non-Gaussian distribution, we aimed to elucidate the analytical power of ICA for the metabolic pattern analysis and the identification of key metabolites in this exercise study. A novel approach based on descriptive statistics was established to optimize ICA model. In the GC-TOF MS data set the number of principal components after whitening and the number of independent components of ICA were optimized and systematically selected by descriptive statistics. The elucidated dominating independent components were involved in fuel metabolism, representing one of the most affected metabolic changes occurring in exercising humans. Conclusive time dependent physiological changes of the metabolic pattern under exercise conditions were detected. We conclude that after optimization ICA can successfully elucidate key metabolite pattern as well as characteristic metabolites in metabolic processes thereby simplifying the explanation of complex biological processes. Moreover, ICA is capable to study time series in complex experiments with multi-levels and multi-factors.

Li, Xiang; Hansen, Jakob

2012-01-01

207

Research: Detailed and Selective Follow-up of Students for Improvement of Programs/Program Components in Business & Office Education and Marketing & Distributive Education. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kentucky student follow-up system was studied to identify the current status of follow-up activities in business and office education and marketing and distributive education; to identify the impact of follow-up data on these programs; to identify program components for which detailed follow-up can provide information to assist in program…

Scott, Gary D.; Chapman, Alberta

208

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. Methodology: A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Results were expressed as percentages. Results: Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. Conclusion: SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions. (author)

209

Prospective Demographic Study of Cosmetic Surgery Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The authors sought to examine and assess cosmetic surgery patient demographics as well as age in relation to partner, in a prospective manner, analyzing data for any significant correlations. Design: The authors conducted a prospective study utilizing a survey. Setting: The study was conducted in a private, nonacademic dermatological practice. Participants: Three hundred thirty-six patients participated in this study. Results: Demographics of onabotulinumtoxinA/abobotulinumtoxinA (neurotoxins), fillers, and laser hair removal users were studied. The data show that the average private practice cosmetic surgery patient in this study is a married (67.5%), college-educated or greater (66.9%), employed (74.3%), mother (74.5%). In the fillers category, 50 percent of women were older than their partners, as opposed to 14.8 percent in 2008 Census data. Additionally, women were more educated and employed to a higher percentage than similar women in 2008 Census data. Data on motivations were statistically not significant. Conclusion: Data from this study show potential correlations with Census data norms in marital status and motherhood status categories, but not in the age in relation to partner, education, and employment level categories. Motivations of individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery will need further analysis in future studies. PMID:21103314

Schlessinger, Daniel; Schlessinger, Bernard

2010-01-01

210

Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable accuracy, demographic parameters from three simulated data sets that vary in the magnitude of a founder event and a skew in the effective population size of the X chromosome relative to the autosomes. The behavior of the Markov chain is also examined and shown to convergence to its stationary distribution, while also showing high levels of parameter mixing. The analysis of three pairwise comparisons of sub-Saharan African human populations with non-African human populations do not provide unequivocal support for a strong non-African founder event from these nuclear data. The estimates do however suggest a skew in the ratio of X chromosome to autosome effective population size that is greater than one. However in all three cases, the 95% highest posterior density interval for this ratio does include three-fourths, the value expected under an equal breeding sex ratio. Conclusion The implementation of composite and approximate likelihood methods in a framework that includes MCMCMC demographic parameter estimation shows great promise for being flexible and computationally efficient enough to scale up to the level of whole-genome polymorphism and divergence analysis. Further work must be done to characterize the effects of the assumption of linkage equilibrium among genomic regions that is crucial to the validity of applying the composite likelihood method.

Garrigan Daniel

2009-11-01

211

Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from these data, suggesting that the ABC approach will be a useful tool for analyzing large genome-wide datasets.

Li Sen

2012-03-01

212

Studies, analyses, available materials and technologies for plasma facing components - Applications and future improvements for negative Ion sources of neutral beam injectors  

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One of the most critical issues for present fusion machines, and even more for next generation ITER and fusion reactor prototypes, is the reliability and fatigue & wearing resistance of plasma facing components. The engineering problem is very challenging and the research in this field requires a number of multidisciplinary competences such as thermo-mechanics, thermo-hydraulics and the knowledge of materials capable of resisting to thermal fatigue cycles under intense irradiation for very lo...

Pavei, Mauro

2012-01-01

213

Improving in molybdenum monocrystals quality when decreasing of partial pressures for carbon- and oxygen-containing components in melting charmber atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possibility to decrease carbon and oxygen concentrations by means of decreasing the content of their compounds easily decomposed during melting in the atmosphere of working chamber has been studied. Composition of atmosphere in the installation for zone melting affects the quality of molybdenum monocrystals. Decrease of partial pressure of the components, containing carbon and oxygen permits to increase the purity of metal and affects its physical characteristics

214

Component testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for non-destructive testing of an industrial component to ascertain if it is a single crystal, and to find the crystal orientations of those parts of the component which are single crystals, involves irradiating the component with a monochromatic collimated neutron beam. Diffracted neutron beams are observed live by means of LiF/ZnS composite screen, an image intensifier and a television camera and screen. (author)

215

Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession. Conclusion The Finnish chiropractic profession is relatively young. Consequently, many of the practitioners have a university-degree, which reflects recent developments in undergraduate chiropractic education. Their practice profile and the manner in which they practice appear to be fairly traditional.

Malmqvist Stefan

2008-08-01

216

Demographic and Familial Predictors of Early Executive Function Development: Contribution of a person-centered perspective  

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Executive function (EF) skills are integral components of young children’s growing competence, but little is known about the role of early family context and experiences in their development. We examined how demographic and familial risks during infancy predicted EF competence at 36 months in a large, predominantly low-income sample of non-urban families from Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Using latent class analysis, six ecological risk profiles best captured the diverse experiences of t...

Rhoades, Brittany L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Blair, Clancy

2011-01-01

217

Coaching as a Key Component in Teachers' Professional Development: Improving Classroom Practices in Head Start Settings. OPRE Report 2012-4  

Science.gov (United States)

Head Start CARES (Classroom-based Approaches and Resources for Emotion and Social Skill Promotion) is a large-scale, national research demonstration that was designed to test the effects of a one-year program aimed at improving pre-kindergarteners' social and emotional readiness for school. To facilitate the delivery of the program, teachers…

Lloyd, Chrrishana M.; Modlin, Emmily L.

2012-01-01

218

Improvement of ultrasonic testing methods of austeno-ferritic steel cast components; Amelioration des methodes de controle US des composants moules en acier austenoferritique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the low signal to noise ratio incountered in cast stainless steel components of P.W.R. reactor cooling system, usual ultrasonic testing aren`t efficient. In order to enhance ultrasonics capabilities Electricite de France and C.E.A. have carried out a study main results of which are shown in this paper. These results include: Metallurgical structure effects: very high diffusion noise, beam distortion, low pass filter. Probe parameters that leed to examinations enhancement: focusing, aperture, damper. Efficient signal processing techniques: Split Spectrum, Image processing. Results of enhancement means on actual defects (shrinkage cavities). (authors). 2 refs., 9 figs.

Serre, M.; Viard, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Mathan, N. de; Villard, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 77 - Ecuelles (France)

1994-12-31

219

Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity  

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Full Text Available To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global is the population-weighted mean of the life expectancy at birth of all countries, then B(global x e(global always exceeds P(global unless all countries have the same life expectancy at birth.

Joel E. Cohen

2008-05-01

220

Land use and demographic grids in Cosyma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatial distribution of the population, agricultural production, economic activity, and the position of land and sea, are important elements of accident consequence codes. These data are necessary in evaluating the health effects within the population arising from the external dose, inhalation and ingestion pathways. These distributions are also essential in calculating the economic impact of implementing countermeasures, such as relocation and food bans. This paper includes a discussion of the agricultural production and population distribution information available for EC countries, their resolution, availability and sources. The gridded data included in the COSYMA system are described. Particular aspects, such as the difficulties involved with using economic land use information, are also explained. Future developments, and their effect on the requirements for land use and demographic grids, are outlined

 
 
 
 
221

Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations  

CERN Document Server

Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-01

222

Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is ?the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms?. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

Asghar Mirfardi

2011-01-01

223

Improved estimation of parametric images of cerebral glucose metabolic rate from dynamic FDG-PET using volume-wise principle component analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Parametric images can represent both spatial distribution and quantification of the biological and physiological parameters of tracer kinetics. The linear least square (LLS) method is a well-estimated linear regression method for generating parametric images by fitting compartment models with good computational efficiency. However, bias exists in LLS-based parameter estimates, owing to the noise present in tissue time activity curves (TTACs) that propagates as correlated error in the LLS linearized equations. To address this problem, a volume-wise principal component analysis (PCA) based method is proposed. In this method, firstly dynamic PET data are properly pre-transformed to standardize noise variance as PCA is a data driven technique and can not itself separate signals from noise. Secondly, the volume-wise PCA is applied on PET data. The signals can be mostly represented by the first few principle components (PC) and the noise is left in the subsequent PCs. Then the noise-reduced data are obtained using the first few PCs by applying 'inverse PCA'. It should also be transformed back according to the pre-transformation method used in the first step to maintain the scale of the original data set. Finally, the obtained new data set is used to generate parametric images using the linear least squares (LLS) estimation method. Compared with other noise-removal method, the proposed method can achieve high statistical reliability in the generated parametric images. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated both with computer simulation and with clinical dynamic FDG PET study.

Dai, Xiaoqian; Tian, Jie; Chen, Zhe

2010-03-01

224

Hyperbolic Components  

CERN Document Server

Consider polynomial maps $f:\\C\\to\\C$ of degree $d\\ge 2$, or more generally polynomial maps from a finite union of copies of $\\C$ to itself. In the space of suitably normalized maps of this type, the hyperbolic maps form an open set called the hyperbolic locus. The various connected components of this hyperbolic locus are called hyperbolic components, and those hyperbolic components with compact closure (or equivalently those contained in the "connectedness locus") are called bounded hyperbolic components. It is shown that each bounded hyperbolic component is a topological cell containing a unique post-critically finite map called its center point. For each degree $d$, the bounded hyperbolic components can be separated into finitely many distinct types, each of which is characterized by a suitable reduced mapping scheme $\\bar S_f$. Any two components with the same reduced mapping scheme are canonically biholomorphic to each other. There are similar statementsfor real polynomial maps, for polynomial maps with m...

Milnor, John

2012-01-01

225

A Study Of Demographic Profile Of Aurangabad District  

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Full Text Available This paper analyses the demographic situation in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra State, whereas, experiencing substantive changes in its demographic profile. The study analyses inter-tahsils variation in population growth, sex-ratio and density of population as well caste and ethnic composition changes. The most striking changes in the demographic scene of Aurangabad is seen in the sphere of higher degree of male female disparity index is visualized because of socio-economic factors.

H.N.Rede

2012-09-01

226

Predicting website audience demographics based on browsing history  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives of the Study: The objective of the study was to explore the possibility to predict demographics from browsing behavior of web users. To achieve this objective, the issue of predicting online audience demographics was addressed from three different perspectives. Firstly, the study addressed quality of input data for models and its impact on the accuracy of predictions. Then, it was analyzed how demographics of web users influences their online behavior and, finally, the focus la...

Ivanova, Eleonora

2013-01-01

227

Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward on...

Nardali, Sinan

2011-01-01

228

Design, fabrication and testing of an improved high heat flux element, experience feedback on steady state plasma facing components in Tore Supra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC) have been developed and used in Tore Supra since 1985. One of the main technological problem is due to the expansion mismatch between graphite armour and metallic heat sink material. A first technology used graphite tiles with or without a reinforcement and a compliant layer, brazed with titanium copper-silver (TiCuAg) alloy. The next technology used carbon fiber material (CFC) tiles with a 2 mm pure copper compliant layer, since the good mechanical strength of the CFC allowed the reinforcement layer to be suppressed. No destructive inspection during the manufacturing procedure was found to be essential to insure a good reliability of the elements. (orig.)

229

Blood Components  

Science.gov (United States)

... mineral salts, sugars, fats, hormones and vitamins. Cryoprecipitated AHF Cryoprecipitated Antihemophilic Factor (Cryo) is a portion of ... Whole Blood Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma Cryoprecipitated AHF COLOR OF THIS BLOOD COMPONENT Red Red Colorless ...

230

Under-5 Mortality in Tanzania: A Demographic Scenario  

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Full Text Available Background: The government of the United Republic of Tanzania has initiated the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness program to improve the health and wellbeing of children.Methods: Tanzania’s under-five mortality rate is still 1.7 times higher than the world average and, in order to achieve its Millennium Development Goal 4 target, its annual reduction rate is quite low at 2.2. The main aim of the study is to examine under-five mortality combined with the Data from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2008 data was used. Odds ratios for infant and under-five mortality were estimated using logistic regression; crude and adjusting models were adopted.Results: Mortality cases (18.3% have been reported to children born with an interval of <24 months. Mothers with no education reported 14.6%, primary education mothers reported 11.1% and higher education reported only 5.3% (P<0.001. Therefore, maternal education plays is a major role on fertility and infant and under-five mortality behavior.Conclusion: Maternal education also influences a mother’s behavior in her usage of available health services to improve the health of the children. Further in-depth analysis is immensely needed in this situation.

A Sathiya Susuman

2012-12-01

231

Causes of death and demographic characteristics of victims of meteorological disasters in Korea from 1990 to 2008  

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Abstract Background Meteorological disasters are an important component when considering climate change issues that impact morbidity and mortality rates. However, there are few epidemiological studies assessing the causes and characteristics of deaths from meteorological disasters. The present study aimed to analyze the causes of death associated with meteorological disasters in Korea, as well as demographic and geographic vulnerabilities and their changing trends, to establi...

Jang Jae-Yeon; Myung Hyung-Nam

2011-01-01

232

Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multitude of environmental problems abound in Tanzania. The problems range from declining land resources, de-vegetation, urban and air pollution, degradation of the marine environment to the destruction of biological diversity. A thorough analysis of these manifestations of environments decline reveal the presence of linkages to economic, political, cultural and demographic constraints which have been at the crux of Tanzania's efforts towards emancipation. We attested that societies are always dialect and integral parts of the global entity. As such the analysis of any societal problem can not be sufficiently tackled by basing on a 'micro level' societal specific factors. We need to expand our horizon and include 'macro level' elements which impinges on the society under study. Imperatively, influences on any environment, social or biophysical, whether positive or negative, emanates either or both from within the specific society and or from without. In our study we set out to provide an insight into the nature and character of man and environment interaction in Arumeru district, Northern Tanzania. We intended to investigate the extent to which changes in the household production patterns as a result of environmental stress and the consequent resource management strategies influence and are hitherto influenced by population growth. The aspects of demographic changes especially patterns of growth and settlement, agrarian production such as land tenure, food and cash uction such as land tenure, food and cash crop interventions, non-farm activities and management of the commons were studies. Further, local adaptation to crisis including environmental stress and emerging markets were explored. he theoretical model adopted in analysing the man-land environment relationship in Arumeru district and the ensuing findings, give legitimacy to the position that issues of population growth or decline cannot be separated from questions of economic and social development, or from the environmental concerns related to the management of resources both at global and local levels. We found out empirically that despite the dwindling natural resource base, the people in Arumeru still maintain their demographic dynamism. For them, it is a rational thing to do. The explanation for this phenomenon is not discrete, but spans the whole range of the population-resource continuum. From the demographic transition point of view, the society has not reached the threshold where child labour is valueless. In Arumeru, the children are still valued for their labour as they participate in both agro-pastoral related income generating activities. Further, children are still old age insurers. Thus, the age long traditions which favour the persistence of high fertility regimes are still in force. Having children is still a pleasure which costs nothing and hence the family size is rarely determined by the household's income. The interplay of proximate determinants of fertility is found to have an effect on the population increase in the district. People enter into marriage unions at very young ages, while the breastfeeding duration has drastically decreased in recent years. Furthermore, postpartum abstinence is no longer observed and incidences of pathological infertility have been tremendously reduced, thanks to modern medicine. All these factors support high fertility regimes. The argument that rapid population growth always leads to environmental decline and thus forces rural economies into diminishing returns, over-utilisation of resource and pauperisation is rejected. Despite the population increase and dwindling resource base in Arumeru, food security, rural incomes and standard of living have consistently improved throughout the century. The situation in the study area somehow accommodate the Boserupian model, where population growth triggers agricultural intensification, but in this case, the forces which triggers change did not emanate from within, but were externally generated. Institutional arrangements and the markets played a significant role in

233

Development of functional foods for radiation workers - Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herbal mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts (Him-I, Him-II) which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Some fractions of Him-I and Him-II increased the proliferation of bone marrow cells irradiated {gamma}-ray(4Gray). Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. 20 refs., 23 figs. (Author)

Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea)

2000-04-01

234

Eruca sativa and its flavonoid components, quercetin and isorhamnetin, improve skin barrier function by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? and suppression of inflammatory cytokines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atopic dermatitis, which is related to dermatologic disorders and is associated with skin barrier dysfunction, represents an epidemic problem demanding effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we showed that the treatment with Eruca sativa extract resulted in a significant increase in the transactivation activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element such as PPAR-? and suppression in the expression of inflammatory cytokine and antimicrobial peptides. In addition, E. sativa extract promotes the expression of filaggrin related to skin barrier protection. Quercetin and isorhamnetin, flavonoids' constituents of E. sativa, also promoted PPAR-? activity. These results indicate that E. sativa extract may be an appropriate material for improving skin barrier function as a skin therapeutic agent for atopic dermatitis. PMID:24610745

Kim, Bora; Choi, Yoon-E; Kim, Hyun-Soo

2014-09-01

235

Epidemiology and demographics of aggressive periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis have used different study designs and a range of examination methods and case definitions, and this greatly complicates the study of disease prevalence in populations. The wide range of disease case definitions, in particular, profoundly impacts the reported rate of disease, and the use of a standard disease definition is strongly recommended. Surveys of aggressive periodontitis that use only clinical examinations, without radiographic examination to confirm the presence of a distinctive pattern of tissue loss, may overestimate the prevalence of this disease, particularly when a low threshold of attachment loss is used. The prevalence of aggressive periodontitis varies significantly between populations, and differences in race/ethnicities seem to be a key factor. Studies consistently show that aggressive periodontitis is most prevalent in Africa and in populations of African descent and is least prevalent in Caucasians in Europe and North America. Among children and young adults the prevalence of this disease is higher in older than in younger age groups. Most studies show comparable disease prevalence in male and female subjects. These findings show that aggressive periodontitis is a significant health problem in certain populations. This review also highlights a lack of information on the epidemiology and demographics of this disease in many parts of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis in high-risk populations are important and could provide vital data on the determinants of this disease, and this information is needed for the establishment of effective health-promotion measures. PMID:24738585

Susin, Cristiano; Haas, Alex N; Albandar, Jasim M

2014-06-01

236

Demographic and clinical profile of myelopathy patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This descriptive type of cross sectional study was aimed to identify the demographic profile, clinical presentations of myelopathy and to find out the etiological factors associated with myelopathy. Total 65 patients having clinical features of myelopathy, admitted in Neurology and Medicine ward of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital from February 2009 to December 2010 were purposively studied. Patients underwent a detailed clinical evaluation followed by laboratory investigations and neuro-imaging studies. Out of 65 cases, 80.0% were male and 20.0% were female with mean age 39.15 ± 16.8 years. Highest number of cases (41.6%) was farmers. Most of the cases (72.3%) hailed from rural area. Mean duration of illness was 7.74 ± 15.8 months. 41.54% patients presented with paraplegia/paraparesis and 58.46% with quadriparesis/quadriplegia. 63.1% patients had sensory disturbance. It is observed that 58.5% had urinary sphincter disturbance and 21.5% had bowel sphincter disturbance. Among the causes of myelopathy found in this study, 29.23% patients had spondylotic myelopathy and 24.62% had transverse myelitis (ATM). In 12.31% patients the cause of myelopathy could not be identified. Myelopathy is more common in males and most of the patients are farmers. Spondylotic and Transverse myelopathy is the main etiology of compressive and non-compressive myelopathy respectively. PMID:22561764

Uddin, M J; Rahman, K M; Bhattacharjee, M; Dey, S K; Alam, M N; Barman, K K; Mondal, G D

2012-04-01

237

Risk society and the second demographic transition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EnglishProminent "risk society" theorists such as Giddens and Beck have identifiedrisk as a fundamental organizing principle of contemporary society. Importantly, a major cause of riskawareness and anxiety in modern society is individualism . . a concept Lesthaeghe linked to changes infamily formation. In this regard, of the types of risk discussed in the sociological literature,"interpersonal risks" associated with cohabitation, marriage, and parenting are of obvious salience.This paper explores how the modern "risk society" thesis, and the concept of interpersonal risk couldmaterially contribute to understanding the second demographic transition.FrenchDes theorists connu tells que Giddens et Beck qui promeuvent "la société de risqué" ont identifié le risqué comme un principe fundamental de l'organisation de la société contemporaine. De l'importance est que l'individualisme, … un concept que Lesthaeghe a relié aux changements dans la formation de la famille, est une cause majeuire de la reconnaissance du risqué et de l'anxiété dans la société moderne. En ce qui concerne le risqué, de tous les genres de risqué discutés dans la literature sociologique, les risques "interpersonnels" associés à la cohabitation, le marriage et l'élevement des enfants sont plus communs. Ce papier examine la possibilité que l'idée d'une "société de risqué" moderne, et le concept du risqué interpersonnel pourraient contribuer à la comprehension de la deuxiéme transition démographique.

Hall, David R.

2002-01-01

238

Measuring Trust Component in Patient-Physician Relationship in Dermatology  

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Full Text Available Background and Design: Patient’s trust is an essential component of the patient-physician relationship. The aim of this study was to measure the level of trust of the patients in physicians, to determine factors affecting trust level and to propose some suggestions in order to improve trust component in patient-physician relationship. Material and Method: Three hundred five patients participated in the survey. A questionnaire was prepared to evaluate the level of patients’ trust in physician and satisfaction to the dermatology department and patients’ socio-demographic variables. Analyses of data obtained from questionnaires were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Science, version 15.0. Results: Patients have an average of 3.72±0.54 trust level (out of 5 in their physicians. This reveals the patients have a trust slightly above the medium level for their physicians. There are no statistically significant relationships between the trust level and other socio-demographic variables such as age, sex and income. Patients’ satisfaction level towards the dermatology department was 4.17±0.65. There was a positive and statistical significantly correlation between trust and satisfaction. Patients choose more cheerful and well-informed physicians. Trust had been determined as an important factor in the patient-physician relationship. Patients trust well-informed, sympathetic and honest physicians. Nevertheless, disrespectfulness and lack of information had been determined as the most distrusted physician behaviors.Conclusion: Although there are many studies to evaluate this subject in the literature as far as we determine this is the first study in dermatology practice in Turkey. Because there are many chronic diseases in dermatology to provide concordance of patients’ treatment and continuity to same physicians or medical clinics may be obtained by building the patient’s trust. In this sense, trust component in patient-physician relationship in dermatology must not be neglected. Also must be avoided for the distrusted attitudes and behaviors.

Sad?k Y?lmaz

2009-09-01

239

Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (? 4400 ?g DM1/m2) and 30 mg/kg (? 6000 ?g DM1/m2) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 ?g DM1/m2). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic activity. • When conjugated in T-DM1, higher doses of DM1 can be tolerated. • Antibody-drug conjugates may improve the therapeutic window for cytotoxic agents

240

Family practice in Ontario: How physician demographics affect practice patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the demographics of practising physicians change, especially as the number of women doctors in an area increases, it is important that those planning for the provision of medical care in the future understand the relationships between the demographics and changes in practice patterns.

Norton, Peter G.; Dunn, Earl V.; Bed, Liane Soberman

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization  

Science.gov (United States)

Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

Aggarwal, Raj

2011-01-01

242

Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

2012-01-01

243

Christian Schools and Demographic Change: Two Case Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores how two Christian school systems have responded to neighborhood demographic change. Researchers conducted interviews, attended meetings, and reviewed documents to explore two case studies--one of a school struggling to redefine its identity, purpose, and vision in response to demographic change, and another school that has…

Huyser, Mackenzi; Boerman-Cornell, Bill; DeBoer, Kendra

2011-01-01

244

The Impact of Job Satisfaction and Some Demographic Variables on Employee Turnover Intentions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to competition for scarce skills, the attraction and retention of teachers in rural schools is probably the biggest challenge in the education sector today. It is imperative for the education department to have knowledge of the impact of job satisfaction and some demographic variables on employee turnover intentions to improve the attraction and retention of teachers especially those with scarce skills. Self administered questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 300 teachers. A strat...

Trust Kabungaidze; Nomakholwa Mahlatshana; Hlanganipai Ngirande

2013-01-01

245

[Doctoral thesis: Demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali].  

Science.gov (United States)

A doctoral thesis is described analyzing the relationships between demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali. The hypothesis is stated that demographic growth impedes economic development and any improvement in populations¿ standards of living. The hypothesis was verified using data for the period from 1960 to the present. Over that period, Mali conducted two general population censuses in 1976 and 1987, as well as several demographic research studies. The thesis is comprised of 4 parts, of which the first generally describes Mali. The second part analyzes the relationship between population growth and economic and social development in Mali. Study results are presented, followed by an analysis of the effects of economic and social development upon population growth in Mali through factors such as urbanization, education level, literacy, income, employment, occupation, gross domestic or gross national product by inhabitant, infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, contraceptive practice, fertility opinions and desires, women¿s status, and migration in Mali. Analysis indicates that Mali has not completely begun its demographic transition, but that traditional pronatalist behaviors are changing. Population policies and programs are explored in the third part of the thesis, followed by the fourth part which focuses upon methodological questions. PMID:12296197

Dabo, K

1999-12-01

246

THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC METHODS OF IMPACT ON DEMOGRAPHIC INSTALLATIONS AND POPULATION ORIENTATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In article the comparative characteristic of social and economic methods of impact on demographic installations and population orientations is carried out. Theoretical results of research are confirmed by empirical data. As a result the author comes to a conclusion that only social methods are significant at impact on demographic installations and population orientations. They have more expressed and steady result on time. While the economic – are only way of ensuring realization of social measures. Thus among economic methods more effective are the indirect economic methods which haven't been connected with direct payments. In article it is noted that the long-term investments which are really raising a standard of living, significantly influence demographic installations in society. The author gives France which cut down expenses on children's grants and has increased expenses as an example, connected with creation and the maintenance of the developed infrastructure on care of children. In article the detailed analysis of measures which are directed on improvement of a demographic situation in Russia is given. However the author notes that many privileges to mothers and large families are thought insufficiently over and therefore not all can use them fully.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-40

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2013-10-01

247

Índices de seleção no aprimoramento simultâneo dos componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro / Selection index for simultaneously improving fruit production components of assai palm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a estratégia seletiva mais adequada para o incremento simultâneo de componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea). Implantou-se um experimento com 25 progênies de meio-irmãos, no Município de Santa Izabel, PA, tendo-se utilizado o delineam [...] ento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcela de cinco plantas. Os índices de seleção de Smith & Hazel, Williams, e Mulamba & Mock foram aplicados em três estratégias seletivas. Foram utilizados, como pesos econômicos, os coeficientes de variação genéticos, a herdabilidade, a razão entre a correlação genética do caráter selecionado com a produção de frutos, e a somatória de todos os caracteres que compõem o índice e a produção de frutos. Aponderação pela razão das correlações permitiu que os índices de seleção discriminassem as melhores progênies nas diferentes estratégias de seleção avaliadas. A seleção simultânea por meio do índice de Mulamba & Mock, quanto ao número de meses em frutificação, ao número de cachos colhidos, à produção de frutos e ao número de ráquilas no cacho, estima ganhos de forma mais robusta. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the most appropriate strategy to simultaneously increase fruit production components of assai palm (Euterpe oleracea). An experiment with 25 half-sib progenies was carried out in the county of Santa Isabel, PA, Brazil, using a randomized complete block des [...] ign with four replicates and five plants per plot. The Smith & Hazel, Williams, and Mulamba & Mock's selection indexes were applied in three selective strategies. The coefficients of genetic variation, heritability, the ratio between the genetic correlation of the trait under selection and fruit yield, and the sum of all genetic correlations between the traits that comprise the index and fruit yield were used as economic weights. Weighting of the correlation ratio allowed the selection indexes to discriminate the best progenies in the different selection strategies evaluated. Simultaneous selection by the Mulamba & Mock index, as to the number of fruiting months, number of bunches harvested, fruit yield, and number of rachilles per bunch, robustly estimates genetic gains.

Davi Henrique Lima, Teixeira; Maria do Socorro Padilha de, Oliveira; Flávia Maria Avelar, Gonçalves; José Airton Rodrigues, Nunes.

248

Índices de seleção no aprimoramento simultâneo dos componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro Selection index for simultaneously improving fruit production components of assai palm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a estratégia seletiva mais adequada para o incremento simultâneo de componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea. Implantou-se um experimento com 25 progênies de meio-irmãos, no Município de Santa Izabel, PA, tendo-se utilizado o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcela de cinco plantas. Os índices de seleção de Smith & Hazel, Williams, e Mulamba & Mock foram aplicados em três estratégias seletivas. Foram utilizados, como pesos econômicos, os coeficientes de variação genéticos, a herdabilidade, a razão entre a correlação genética do caráter selecionado com a produção de frutos, e a somatória de todos os caracteres que compõem o índice e a produção de frutos. Aponderação pela razão das correlações permitiu que os índices de seleção discriminassem as melhores progênies nas diferentes estratégias de seleção avaliadas. A seleção simultânea por meio do índice de Mulamba & Mock, quanto ao número de meses em frutificação, ao número de cachos colhidos, à produção de frutos e ao número de ráquilas no cacho, estima ganhos de forma mais robusta.The objective of this work was to determine the most appropriate strategy to simultaneously increase fruit production components of assai palm (Euterpe oleracea. An experiment with 25 half-sib progenies was carried out in the county of Santa Isabel, PA, Brazil, using a randomized complete block design with four replicates and five plants per plot. The Smith & Hazel, Williams, and Mulamba & Mock's selection indexes were applied in three selective strategies. The coefficients of genetic variation, heritability, the ratio between the genetic correlation of the trait under selection and fruit yield, and the sum of all genetic correlations between the traits that comprise the index and fruit yield were used as economic weights. Weighting of the correlation ratio allowed the selection indexes to discriminate the best progenies in the different selection strategies evaluated. Simultaneous selection by the Mulamba & Mock index, as to the number of fruiting months, number of bunches harvested, fruit yield, and number of rachilles per bunch, robustly estimates genetic gains.

Davi Henrique Lima Teixeira

2012-02-01

249

Índices de seleção no aprimoramento simultâneo dos componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro / Selection index for simultaneously improving fruit production components of assai palm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a estratégia seletiva mais adequada para o incremento simultâneo de componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea). Implantou-se um experimento com 25 progênies de meio-irmãos, no Município de Santa Izabel, PA, tendo-se utilizado o delineam [...] ento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcela de cinco plantas. Os índices de seleção de Smith & Hazel, Williams, e Mulamba & Mock foram aplicados em três estratégias seletivas. Foram utilizados, como pesos econômicos, os coeficientes de variação genéticos, a herdabilidade, a razão entre a correlação genética do caráter selecionado com a produção de frutos, e a somatória de todos os caracteres que compõem o índice e a produção de frutos. Aponderação pela razão das correlações permitiu que os índices de seleção discriminassem as melhores progênies nas diferentes estratégias de seleção avaliadas. A seleção simultânea por meio do índice de Mulamba & Mock, quanto ao número de meses em frutificação, ao número de cachos colhidos, à produção de frutos e ao número de ráquilas no cacho, estima ganhos de forma mais robusta. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the most appropriate strategy to simultaneously increase fruit production components of assai palm (Euterpe oleracea). An experiment with 25 half-sib progenies was carried out in the county of Santa Isabel, PA, Brazil, using a randomized complete block des [...] ign with four replicates and five plants per plot. The Smith & Hazel, Williams, and Mulamba & Mock's selection indexes were applied in three selective strategies. The coefficients of genetic variation, heritability, the ratio between the genetic correlation of the trait under selection and fruit yield, and the sum of all genetic correlations between the traits that comprise the index and fruit yield were used as economic weights. Weighting of the correlation ratio allowed the selection indexes to discriminate the best progenies in the different selection strategies evaluated. Simultaneous selection by the Mulamba & Mock index, as to the number of fruiting months, number of bunches harvested, fruit yield, and number of rachilles per bunch, robustly estimates genetic gains.

Davi Henrique Lima, Teixeira; Maria do Socorro Padilha de, Oliveira; Flávia Maria Avelar, Gonçalves; José Airton Rodrigues, Nunes.

2012-02-01

250

THE EVOLUTION OF THE MAIN DEMOGRAPHIC PHENOMENA IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The trends of the main demographic phenomena provide useful information about the future evolution of the number and age structure of Romania’s population. The mutations in the social-economic structure of the country have led to a dynamic territorial mobility of the population; at the same time, they have direct consequences upon the socio-demographic structure of the population. In the past years, demographic migration has become a common fact. The young and mature population migrates from the rural to the urban environment, motivated by the living and working conditions in the urban centers. Consequently, the remaining rural inhabitants are mostly old-aged. The aging of the rural population is also caused by a series of demographic and social-economic factors. The economic effects of the demographic evolution will be seen in time and will bring about changes in the various subpopulations (school children, fertile population, inhabitants able to work.

MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

2013-12-01

251

An Eco-Evolutionary Model for Demographic and Phenological Responses in Migratory Birds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many migratory birds have changed their timing of arrival at breeding grounds in response to recent climate change. Understanding the adaptive value and the demographic consequences of these shifts are key challenges. To address these questions we extend previous models of phenological adaptation to climate change under territory competition to include feedback from population dynamics, winter survival and habitat productivity. We study effects of improved pre-breeding survival and of earlier food abundance peak. We show that phenological responses depend strongly on equilibrium population density via effects on territory competition. When density is high, improved pre-breeding survival affects selection pressures more than shifts of the resource peak. Under certain conditions, an advanced food peak can even select for later arrival due to competitive release. Improved pre-breeding survival has positive effects on population density that in many cases is stronger than negative effects of an advanced food peak. The fraction of young in the population decreases in all scenarios of change, but food peak shifts only affect population structure marginally unless population density is low. This work thus provides several missing links between phenological adaptation and demographic responses, and augments the toolbox for interpreting ongoing phenological shifts in migratory birds. We illustrate the utility of our model by explaining different patterns in demographic trends and phenological shifts in populations of Pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca across Western Europe.

Niclas Jonzén

2012-11-01

252

Experience and further improvement of ISI on steam generator tubing and RPVs with equipment and software developed by Siemens, applicable to all types of LWR components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experience with mechanized in-service inspections of light water reactors in Germany, along with that with in-service inspections abroad following different code requirements, has been encompassing the past 16 years. New experience and results were obtained recently by the implementation of advanced inspection systems for LWR pressure vessel and primary circuits. The system comprises a streamlined manipulating concept, e.g. for RPV inspection, such as the central mast manipulator, which proves to be easily adaptable to different RPV types and geometries along with that with the WWER type. The so-called ALOK technique has also been put into practice providing complete A-scan information and allowing sensitive detection of defects and clear discrimination of background noise. Other problem areas are associated with complex geometries such as those of the nozzles or with materials which do not lend themselves easily to a standard inspection such as trimetal welds. The solution to these problems is offered by the phased array technique with UT tomography as the signal processing technique. Another significant area of PWR-ISI is the inspection of SG tubing. An automated defect detection system has been developed and field-proven for further reliability and performance improvement or optimization. This system is based on a specifically developed multifrequency mixing method which has demonstrated high capacity for signal to noise ratio enhancement (e.g., by suppression of tube sheet and roller expansion signals) as well as for close-margin determination of tube wall degradation. The automated system also helps to eliminate the influence of the human factor in the tedious scanning through all the tube data available. The modular design of the channel head manipulator also allows for tube repair and UT inspection of welds. (author). 20 figs

253

Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective  

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Full Text Available Background: Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis. Objective: Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii unfolded as a component of it. Methods: Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk. Results: Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred. Conclusions: Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

Gordon Carmichael

2014-03-01

254

Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

255

Population demographics of two local South Carolina mourning dove populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count index had a significant (P 2,300 doves and examined >6,000 individuals during harvest bag checks. An age-specific band recovery model with time- and area-specific recovery rates, and constant survival rates, was chosen for estimation via Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), likelihood ratio, and goodness-of-fit criteria. After-hatching-year (AHY) annual survival rate was 0.359 (SE = 0.056), and hatching-year (HY) annual survival rate was 0.118 (SE = 0.042). Average estimated recruitment per adult female into the prehunting season population was 3.40 (SE = 1.25) and 2.32 (SE = 0.46) for the 2 study areas. Our movement data support earlier hypotheses of nonmigratory breeding and harvested populations in South Carolina. Low survival rates and estimated population growth rate in the study areas may be representative only of small-scale areas that are heavily managed for dove hunting. Source-sink theory was used to develop a model of region-wide populations that is composed of source areas with positive growth rates and sink areas of declining growth. We suggest management of mourning doves in the Southeast might benefit from improved understanding of local population dynamics, as opposed to regional-scale population demographics.

McGowan, D.P., Jr.; Otis, D.L.

1998-01-01

256

Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105?000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. PMID:25186307

Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

2014-10-01

257

GCS component development cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

2012-09-01

258

How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation, t-test, Anova and Tukey analysis. As a result of this research; it has been seen that, there is no statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees work at hotel establishments considering their gender and marital status. Besides, it has been understood that, there is a statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees considering their ages, education levels, incomes, and length of time in tourism sector.

Derya KARA

2010-12-01

259

Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology  

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Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

Dejan Mar?i?

2007-01-01

260

Demographics of Giant Planets--Insights from Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The demographics of giant planets arise from a combination of the physical properties and evolution of protoplanetary disks, the planet formation process itself, and the dynamical evolution of planets post-formation. In this talk, I will review each of these contributions to giant planet demographics with an emphasis on how future discoveries can be used to separate and constrain their effects. I will particularly discuss how giant planet demographics will constrain the mechanism by which giant planets form, an old theoretical problem on the cusp of an observational breakthrough.

Murray-Clay, Ruth

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart  

CERN Document Server

The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

Wilder, Stanley

2013-01-01

262

Labour force sustainability under conditions of demographic ageing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the impact of demographic ageing on the size and age composition of the labour force in Serbia. With an unchanged rate of activity, demographic ageing will lead to a reduction in the size of work force. After leaving the working age of baby-boom generations after 2010 a continuous decline of working age population is expected. Even expected immigration after 2020 in 90% cases will not prevent its further decline. Certain institutional measures, such as moving the age limit for leaving the labour force, can mitigate the negative effects of demographic trends. .

Radivojevi? Biljana

2010-01-01

263

Demographic Trends in Texas Bond Elections  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to hold a successful bond election is a vital part of the superintendency in Texas. Aging facilities, increasing student enrollments, and technological needs exacerbate the need to gain community support for capital improvement projects. Appropriate facilities are needed not only for the physical space they provide, but also because…

Hickey, Wesley D.; Bingham Linn, Genie; Vaughn, Vance

2008-01-01

264

A study on socio-demographic correlates of maternal health care utilization in a rural area of West Bengal, India  

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Full Text Available Background: Improving health of the mother is a global concern. However there is a wide regional variation in maternal health care utilization. The present study was planned to explore the prevailing condition at local level. Objectives: To estimate the proportion of women who had utilized maternal health care services and to explore relevant socio-demographic, behavioral and biological co-variates. Methods: It was a community based cross-sectional study using cluster sampling technique. The respondents were interviewed with a pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Most of the respondents were below 25 years, primary educated, primi-para house wives. 80% had early pregnancy registration, 88% had four or more antenatal checkups and 93.6% women had institutional delivery. Most women went to government institutes for their ante-natal checkups and delivery. Majority of the utilization variables were significantly associated with age, education and household wealth index of the respondents. Conclusions: utilization of all the components of maternal health care was lower among younger age, lower education and poorer household wealth index.

Mousumi Datta

2012-07-01

265

Demographics of Investigators Involved in OSSA-Funded Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The birth of the U.S. civil space program and the subsequent, dramatic growth in the ranks of the space science research population occurred in the 1950s and 1960s'. The large, post- Sputnik/ Apollo buildup in space program manpower is now approximately one career-lifetime in the past. It is therefore natural to anticipate that a large fraction of the space program engineers, scientists, and managers who pioneered the early exploration of space are approaching retirement. Such a "retirement wave" bodes both a loss of manpower and, more fundamentally, a loss of experience from the civil-space manpower base. Such losses could play a critical role constraining in NASA's ability to expand or maintain its technical capabilities. If this indeed applies to the NASA space science research population, then the potential for problems is exacerbated by the anticipated growth in flight rates, data volume, and data-set diversity which will accompany the planned expansion in the OSSA science effort during the 1990s and 2000s. The purpose of this study was to describe the OSSA PI/Co-I population and to determine the degree to which the OSSA space science investigator population faces a retirement wave, and to estimate the future population of PIs in the 1990-2010 era. To conduct such a study, we investigated the present demographics of the PI and Co-1 population contained in the NASA/OSSA Announcement of Opportunity (AO) mailing list. PIs represent the "leadership" class of the OSSA scientific researcher population, and Co-Is represent one important, oncoming component of the "replacement" generation. Using the PI population data, we then make projection estimates of the future PI population from 1991 through 2010, under various NASA growth/PI demand scenarios.

Stern, S. Alan; Konkel, Ronald; Habegger, Jay; Byerly, Radford, Jr.

1991-01-01

266

Assessing patterns of fish demographics and habitat in stream networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

267

[Integration of demographic variables into development plans in the Sahel].  

Science.gov (United States)

A founding principle of the Program of Action of N'Djamena is the interdependence of population and development and the need for development strategies to take demographic factors into account. The concept of integration of population variables into development has evolved since its introduction in the 1974 World Population Plan of Action from a simple description of population size, growth rates, and distribution to a stress on harmonizing population policies and development policies with macroeconomic variables. The essence of the concept is the consideration given by development policies and programs to the interrelations between population, resources, the environment, and development factors. Population variables and goals should ideally be treated as endogenous variables in development planning, but in practice the extreme complexity of such a systematic approach limits its ability to be made operational. Usually the most crucial problems only are included. Integrated planning is composed of explicit or implicit population policies intended to influence demographic variables and of socioeconomic policies intended to adapt to demographic change. In the Sahel, only Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali have formal population policies, but around 1980 several countries of the region began to show interest in influencing demographic variables as they did economic variables. Fundamental principles for developing an integration strategy can be applied regardless or whether the plan is based on projections, analysis of interaction of a demographic variable with factors specific to a sector, or a monosectorial or multisectorial demoeconomic planning model. Demographic data is used more frequently in diagnosing problems than in developing projections or formulating objectives. The level of disaggregation of demographic projections and estimates tends to be low, despite the great potential utility of demographic projections in planning. Demographic projections can be useful in analyses of the extent of changes and the implications of alternative scenarios of development planning. The most frequently used demographic variables in development planning have been spatial distribution of the population and mortality. An examination of past development plans in Mali relating to population and nutrition and population and health reveals several inconsistencies between stated goals and strategies intended to achieve them. The incoherence can be explained in part by the absence of a coherent national population policy, the failure to translate the population policy into programs that take into account reciprocal effects of demographic trends and economic perspectives and their social effects, and the absence of disaggregated population projections. An example from Senegal demonstrates the constraints imposed by structural adjustment programs on the entire planning process. PMID:12344768

Wane, H R

1992-07-01

268

The Correlation between Effective Factors of E-learning and Demographic Variables in a Post-Graduate Program of Virtual Medical Education in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an  attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc) studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60); a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test) by using SPSS (V.16). The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05); whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (P<0.05). Knowing the extent to which these factors can influence effective e-learning can help managers and designers to make the right decisions about educational components of e-learning, i.e. content, educator, system and learner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners. PMID:25415821

Golband, Farnoosh; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mirhosseini, Fakhrossadat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

2014-11-01

269

Demographics of cattle movements in the United Kingdom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The United Kingdom (UK) government has been recording the births, deaths, and movements of cattle for the last decade. Despite reservations about the accuracy of these data, they represent a large and valuable body of information about the demographics of the UK cattle herd and its contact structure. In this article, a range of demographic data about UK cattle, and particularly their movements, are presented, as well as yearly trends in the patterns of mov...

Vernon Matthew C

2011-01-01

270

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spiritualit...

Huma Ali; Hina Ali

2011-01-01

271

ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc.) for the tourism economy. We know that the b...

2011-01-01

272

Analysis of the demographic potential in function of tourism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features. In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc.) for the tourism economy. We know that the ...

Mijalce Gjorgievski

2011-01-01

273

Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using more robust estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national level. We also take into account the urbanization rate and the average household size neglec...

Neumayer, Eric

2004-01-01

274

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had sig...

Said Pournaghash-Tehrani; Zahra Feizabadi

2007-01-01

275

Structure of Employment of Population under Conditions of a Demographic Crisis in Ukraine ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???????  

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Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and practical aspects of formation of the structure of employment of population under conditions of a demographic crisis. It specifies definition of the “employment structure” notion, in which its changeability, multilevel structure of components and capacity to adapt to external conditions of functioning are underlined. It studies socio-economic conditions, which are established at the moment, and pays special attention to the demographic crisis in Ukraine and its specific features. It justifies goals of the society on the issues of the employment policy and marks features of violation of the structural balancing of employment. It justifies the policy of employment of population under conditions of the demographic crisis and offers practical recommendations on its regulation. It generalises types and forms of employment of population. It justifies a necessity of additional allocation of such features of employment structure classification as territorial belonging, types of economic activity, level of differentiation of income, which would facilitate a justified selection of methods of employment regulation.?????? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????. ???????? ??????????? ??????? «????????? ?????????», ? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????, ???????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????????????. ??????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ?? ????????????. ?????????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?? ?????????????. ???????? ???? ? ????? ????????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????????? ??????????????, ???? ????????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????.

Tsizhma Yuriy I.

2013-05-01

276

A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

Jamal Abdul Nasir

2011-09-01

277

Improved long-term expression from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors packaged using combinations of mutated HSV-1 proteins that include the UL13 protein kinase and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 gene expression is thought to shut off recombinant gene expression from HSV-1 vectors; however, in a helper virus-free HSV-1 vector system, a number of promoters support only short-term expression. These results raise the paradox that recombinant gene expression remains short-term even in the absence of almost all (~99% of the HSV-1 genome, HSV-1 genes, and HSV-1 gene expression. To resolve this paradox, we hypothesized that specific proteins in the HSV-1 virus particle shut off recombinant gene expression. In two earlier studies, we examined the effects on recombinant gene expression of packaging vectors using specific mutated HSV-1 proteins. We found that vectors packaged using mutated UL13 (a protein kinase, or VP16, or UL46 and/or UL47 (components of the VP16 transcriptional complex supported improved long-term expression, and vectors packaged using mutated UL46 and/or UL47 also supported improved gene transfer (numbers of cells at 4 days. These results suggested the hypothesis that specific proteins in the HSV-1 particle act by multiple pathways to reduce recombinant gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined combinations of mutated proteins that included both UL13 and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex. Results A HSV-1 vector containing a neuronal-specific promoter was packaged using specific combinations of mutated proteins, and the resulting vector stocks were tested in the rat striatum. For supporting long-term expression, the preferred combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins was mutated UL13, UL46, and UL47. Vectors packaged using this combination of mutated proteins supported a higher efficiency of gene transfer and high levels expression for 3 months, the longest time examined. Conclusion Vector particles containing this combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins improve recombinant gene expression. Implications of these results for strategies to further improve long-term expression are discussed. Moreover, long-term expression will benefit specific gene therapy applications.

Geller Alfred I

2009-06-01

278

Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

279

Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of USDA quality and yield grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef chuck.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Additionally, the impact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Quality and Yield Grade may have on such factors was investigated. Ultimately, these data will be used in the USDA - Nutrient Data Laboratory's (NDL) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). To represent the current United States beef supply, seventy-two carcasses were selected from six regions of the country based on USDA Yield Grade, USDA Quality Grade, gender, and genetic type. Whole beef chuck primals from selected carcasses were shipped to three university laboratories for subsequent retail cut fabrication, raw and cooked cut dissection, and proximate analyses. The incorporation of these data into the SR will improve dietary education, product labeling, and other applications both domestically and abroad, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate and relevant beef nutrient data. PMID:24769877

West, S E; Harris, K B; Haneklaus, A N; Savell, J W; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C; Pool, J K; Luna, A M; Engle, T E; Schutz, J S; Woerner, D R; Arcibeque, S L; Belk, K E; Douglass, L; Leheska, J M; McNeill, S; Howe, J C; Holden, J M; Duvall, M; Patterson, K

2014-08-01

280

Demographic changes and pension system in Czech Republic Przeobra?enia demograficzne a system emerytalny Republiki Czeskiej  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of both demographic structure and normative changes influence on the pension system in the Czech Republic between 2000 and 2005 was conducted. In the researched period the number of population was characterised by a falling tendency and the population growth rate had negative values in the interval from –0.6% to –1.8%. However, the demographic dynamics rate had a growing tendency. Between 2000 and 2005 the share of population at productive age (of 15-64 and non-productive age (65 and more increased. Moreover, in the investigated period the system dependency ratio fell. It comes from a higher number of insured in comparison to beneficiaries. Simultaneously the revenues and expenditures preserve an increasing tendency. It can be stated that the demographic situation was improved and together with the introduced reform of pension system, it led to its financial stability.

Lidia Jab?o?ska-Porzuczek

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. Objective: To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Design: Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. Results: The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Conclusion: Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care.

Vreni Jean-Richard

2014-02-01

282

The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. Objective To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Design Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months) using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. Results The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Conclusion Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care. PMID:24499744

Jean-Richard, Vreni; Crump, Lisa; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Hattendorf, Jan; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

2014-01-01

283

Improving the Accuracy of Density Functional Theory (DFT Calculation for Homolysis Bond Dissociation Energies of Y-NO Bond: Generalized Regression Neural Network Based on Grey Relational Analysis and Principal Component Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose a generalized regression neural network (GRNN approach based on grey relational analysis (GRA and principal component analysis (PCA (GP-GRNN to improve the accuracy of density functional theory (DFT calculation for homolysis bond dissociation energies (BDE of Y-NO bond. As a demonstration, this combined quantum chemistry calculation with the GP-GRNN approach has been applied to evaluate the homolysis BDE of 92 Y-NO organic molecules. The results show that the full-descriptor GRNN without GRA and PCA (F-GRNN and with GRA (G-GRNN approaches reduce the root-mean-square (RMS of the calculated homolysis BDE of 92 organic molecules from 5.31 to 0.49 and 0.39 kcal mol?1 for the B3LYP/6-31G (d calculation. Then the newly developed GP-GRNN approach further reduces the RMS to 0.31 kcal mol?1. Thus, the GP-GRNN correction on top of B3LYP/6-31G (d can improve the accuracy of calculating the homolysis BDE in quantum chemistry and can predict homolysis BDE which cannot be obtained experimentally.

Zhong Min Su

2011-04-01

284

Improving the accuracy of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation for homolysis bond dissociation energies of Y-NO bond: generalized regression neural network based on grey relational analysis and principal component analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) approach based on grey relational analysis (GRA) and principal component analysis (PCA) (GP-GRNN) to improve the accuracy of density functional theory (DFT) calculation for homolysis bond dissociation energies (BDE) of Y-NO bond. As a demonstration, this combined quantum chemistry calculation with the GP-GRNN approach has been applied to evaluate the homolysis BDE of 92 Y-NO organic molecules. The results show that the ull-descriptor GRNN without GRA and PCA (F-GRNN) and with GRA (G-GRNN) approaches reduce the root-mean-square (RMS) of the calculated homolysis BDE of 92 organic molecules from 5.31 to 0.49 and 0.39 kcal mol(-1) for the B3LYP/6-31G (d) calculation. Then the newly developed GP-GRNN approach further reduces the RMS to 0.31 kcal mol(-1). Thus, the GP-GRNN correction on top of B3LYP/6-31G (d) can improve the accuracy of calculating the homolysis BDE in quantum chemistry and can predict homolysis BDE which cannot be obtained experimentally. PMID:21731439

Li, Hong Zhi; Tao, Wei; Gao, Ting; Li, Hui; Lu, Ying Hua; Su, Zhong Min

2011-01-01

285

Assessing population viability while accounting for demographic and environmental uncertainty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the future trend and viability of populations is an essential task in ecology. Because many populations respond to changing environments, uncertainty surrounding environmental responses must be incorporated into population assessments. However, understanding the effects of environmental variation on population dynamics requires information on several important demographic parameters that are often difficult to estimate. Integrated population models facilitate the integration of time series data on population size and all existing demographic information from a species, allowing the estimation of demographic parameters for which limited or no empirical data exist. Although these models are ideal for assessments of population viability, they have so far not included environmental uncertainty. We incorporated environmental variation in an integrated population model to account for both demographic and environmental uncertainty in an assessment of population viability. In addition, we used this model to estimate true juvenile survival, an important demographic parameter for population dynamics that is difficult to estimate empirically. We applied this model to assess the past and future population trend of a rare island endemic songbird, the Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi, which is threatened by volcanic activity. Montserrat Orioles experienced lower survival in years with volcanic ashfall, causing periodic population declines that were compensated by higher seasonal fecundity in years with high pre-breeding season rainfall. Due to the inclusion of both demographic and environmental uncertainty in the model, the estimated population growth rate in the immediate future was highly imprecise (95% credible interval 0.844-1.105), and the probability of extinction after three generations (in the year 2028) was low (2.1%). This projection demonstrates that accounting for both demographic and environmental sources of uncertainty provides a more realistic assessment of the viability of populations under unknown future environmental conditions. PMID:25163115

Oppel, Steffen; Hilton, Geoff; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fenton, Calvin; Daley, James; Gray, Gerard; Vickery, Juliet; Gibbons, David

2014-07-01

286

Bayesian spatial analysis of demographic survey data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the spatial patterns of the risk of unprotected sexual intercourse for Italian women during their initial experience with sexual intercourse. We rely on geo-referenced survey data from the Italian Fertility and Family Survey, and we use a Bayesian approach relying on weakly informative prior distributions. Our analyses are based on a logistic regression model with a multilevel structure. The spatial pattern uses an intrinsic Gaussian conditional autoregressive (CAR error component. The complexity of such a model is best handled within a Bayesian framework, and statistical inference is carried out using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. In contrast with previous analyses based on multilevel model, our approach avoids the restrictive assumption of independence between area effects. This model allows us to borrow strength from neighbors in order to obtain estimates for areas that may, on their own, have inadequate sample sizes. We show that substantial geographical variation exists within Italy (Southern Italy has higher risks of unprotected first-time sexual intercourse. The findings are robust with respect to the specification of the prior distribution. We argue that spatial analysis can give useful insights on unmet reproductive health needs.

2003-02-01

287

Computing Principal Components Dynamically  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present closed-form solutions for efficiently updating the principal components of a set of $n$ points, when $m$ points are added or deleted from the point set. For both operations performed on a discrete point set in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, we can compute the new principal components in $O(m)$ time for fixed $d$. This is a significant improvement over the commonly used approach of recomputing the principal components from scratch, which takes $O(n+m)$ time. An important application of the above result is the dynamical computation of bounding boxes based on principal component analysis. PCA bounding boxes are very often used in many fields, among others in computer graphics for collision detection and fast rendering. We have implemented and evaluated few algorithms for computing dynamically PCA bounding boxes in $\\mathbb{R}^3$. In addition, we present closed-form solutions for computing dynamically principal components of continuous point sets in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ and $\\mathbb{R}^3$. In both cases, disc...

Dimitrov, Darko; Knauer, Christian; Kriegel, Klaus

2009-01-01

288

Review on the demographic and social impact of methadone-medication therapy on Malaysian patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is an observational cross-sectional study aimed to examine the possible demographic and social characteristics of patients enrolled at the Methadone Maintenance Therapy Adherence Clinic (MMTAC) in Malaysia. Medical records from year 2009 - 2011 were Reviewed. Demographic, social characteristics and laboratory examinations such as age, gender, race, clinic attendances and urine analysis were recorded. Subjects were selected by means of convenient sampling but based on the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were analyzed by either Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test Mann-Whitney U-test, with the limit of significance was set at p Malaysia. Their starting age for drug use was between 14-35 years and the age to enrolment between 30-58 years. Socially, many are unemployed, lowly educated and married. Most are drug users with a high percentage of HCV accompanied with impaired liver function. Retention rate was 87% but illicit drug use was at 57.50%. However, percentage of employment increased significantly after therapy. The study managed to identify several demographical and social distributions of patients attending the MMTAC. Although attendance rate was high, many were on illicit drug use. Nevertheless, employment rate improved significantly. PMID:23811468

Manan, Mohamed Mansor; Ali, Salmiah Mohd; Khan, Muhammad Anwar Nawab; Jafarian, Sara; Hameed, Mohammed Abdul

2013-07-01

289

China’s Savings and Current Account Balance: A Demographic Transition Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we build an overlapping generation model to analyze how China’s family planning policy affects the demographic structure and the dependency ratios. We also employ the Cointegration Test and Granger Causality Test to examine the relationship between Chinese population dependency ratios and the national savings rate, as well as the relationship between relative productivity differences and the national current account balance. We find that the family planning policy can be sustainable with respect to these metrics. The current account balance reflects the transfer of savings over time and space. We posit that the demographic structure determines the savings transfer over time, while the relative productivity difference determines the savings transfer across the space. This transfer does not change the total welfare calculated on a national or generational basis. Consequently, focusing on improving the consumption rate to boost the economy without consideration of demographic structure transition warrants further serious discussion. Similarly, too much attention to short-term current account surplus or deficit is not productive.

Chao Zhu

2011-11-01

290

Component Compatibility in Component Based Development?  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a research on component compatibility in component based development. Component-based software engineering is a process that emphasizes the design and construction of computer-based systems using reusable software components. Commercial components repositories contain hundred thousand components that make component selection an extremely difficult and time expensive task. Often component selected by functional features are incompatible or the integration effort required is too high. Adding a selection of components based also on compatibility can simplify the integration task. This work focuses on the study of component compatibility using various metrics as parameters.

Dr. Hardeep Singh

2014-06-01

291

Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies. PMID:24916007

Hope, Andrew G; Ho, Simon Y W; Malaney, Jason L; Cook, Joseph A; Talbot, Sandra L

2014-09-01

292

Genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds by microsatellite markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds was carried out utilizing 40 microsatellite markers. Allelic polymorphism was observed at 20 loci in the Indian dromedary breeds. A total of 66 alleles were scored. The average number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content were, respectively, 3.25?±?0.27, 0.56?±?0.04 and 0.49?±?0.04 in Bikaneri; 3.25?±?0.25, 0.53?±?0.03 and 0.46?±?0.03 in Jaisalmeri; 3.0?±?0.21, 0.53?±?0.04 and 0.45?±?0.03 in Kachchhi and 3.1?±?0.19, 0.51?±?0.03 and 0.44?±?0.03 in Mewari breed. Higher genetic variation was observed in most numerous Bikaneri breed. Genetic distances were least between the breed pair Bikaneri and Jaisalmeri which was closely placed with the Kachchhi breed. The Mewari camels had relatively higher genetic distance from the other three Indian dromedary breeds. The bottleneck analysis revealed the presence of genetic bottleneck in all four breeds of Indian dromedary. However, the qualitative graphical method resulted in normal L-shaped distribution of allele frequencies in Jaisalmeri breeds and shifted mode in Bikaneri, Kachchhi and Mewari breeds. The demographic bottleneck analysis revealed minimum reduction (-9.65 %) in the population of camels in Jaisalmeri breeding tract as compared to that of Bikaneri (-14.18 %), Kachchhi (-27.78 %) and Mewari (-32 %) breeding tracts. Conclusively, the genetic bottleneck analysis could explain the demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. Therefore, appropriate conservation and improvement efforts are needed in all four dromedary breeds with immediate attention on Mewari and Kachchhi breeds. The present study is the first report in demonstrating the genetic basis of demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. PMID:25134805

Mehta, Sharat Chandra

2014-12-01

293

Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kombewa HDSS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) grew out of the Kombewa Clinical Research Centre in 2007 and has since established itself as a platform for the conduct of regulated clinical trials, nested studies and local disease surveillance. The HDSS is located in a rural part of Kisumu County, Western Kenya, and covers an area of about 369 km(2) along the north-eastern shores of Lake Victoria. A dynamic cohort of 141 956 individuals drawn from 34 718 households forms the HDSS surveillance population. Following a baseline survey in 2011, the HDSS continues to monitor key population changes through routine biannual household surveys. The intervening period between set-up and baseline census was used for preparatory work, in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping. Routine surveys capture information on individual and households including residency, household relationships, births, deaths, migrations (in and out) and causes of morbidity (syndromic incidence and prevalence) as well as causes of death (verbal autopsy). The Kombewa HDSS platform is used to support health research activities, that is clinical trials and epidemiological studies evaluating diseases of public health importance including malaria, HIV and global emerging infectious diseases such as dengue fever. PMID:25009309

Sifuna, Peter; Oyugi, Mary; Ogutu, Bernhards; Andagalu, Ben; Otieno, Allan; Owira, Victorine; Otsyula, Nekoye; Oyieko, Janet; Cowden, Jessica; Otieno, Lucas; Otieno, Walter

2014-08-01

294

Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

Sinan NARDALI

2011-06-01

295

Demographic marginalization, social integration, and adolescents' educational success.  

Science.gov (United States)

Links between schools' demographic composition and students' achievement have been a major policy interest for decades. Using a racially/ethnically diverse sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,302; 54 % females; 53 % White, 21 % African American, 15 % Latino, 8 % Asian American, 2 % other race/ethnicity), we examined the associations between demographic marginalization, students' later social integration (loneliness at school, school attachment), and educational performance and attainment. Adolescents who were socioeconomically marginalized at school [i.e., having socioeconomic status (SES) peers] had lower cumulative grade point averages across high school and lower educational attainment. A similar disadvantage was observed among students who were both socioeconomically and racially/ethnically marginalized at school (i.e., having educational barriers associated with demographic marginalization and suggest potential targets for future intervention efforts. PMID:25034249

Benner, Aprile D; Wang, Yijie

2014-10-01

296

ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM  

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Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

Mijalce Gjorgievski

2011-06-01

297

Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

Abdoul Hossain Madani

2010-01-01

298

Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions  

CERN Document Server

A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

2014-01-01

299

Combining gene expression, demographic and clinical data in modeling disease: a case study of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a retrospective statistical study on the newly-released data set by the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium on gene expression in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This data set contains gene expression data as well as limited demographic and clinical data for each subject. Previous studies using statistical classification or machine learning algorithms have focused on gene expression data only. The present paper investigates if such techniques can benefit from including demographic and clinical data. Results We compare six classification algorithms: support vector machines (SVMs, nearest shrunken centroids, decision trees, ensemble of voters, naïve Bayes, and nearest neighbor. SVMs outperform the other algorithms. Using expression data only, they yield an area under the ROC curve of 0.92 for bipolar disorder versus control, and 0.91 for schizophrenia versus control. By including demographic and clinical data, classification performance improves to 0.97 and 0.94 respectively. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that SVMs can distinguish bipolar disorder and schizophrenia from normal control at a very high rate. Moreover, it shows that classification performance improves by including demographic and clinical data. We also found that some variables in this data set, such as alcohol and drug use, are strongly associated to the diseases. These variables may affect gene expression and make it more difficult to identify genes that are directly associated to the diseases. Stratification can correct for such variables, but we show that this reduces the power of the statistical methods.

Dobrin Seth

2008-11-01

300

Evaluating improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluating quality improvement interventions requires a variety of methods. These range from quantitative methods, such as randomised controlled trials, to quasi-experimental (controlled before-and-after and interrupted time series) and uncontrolled before-and-after studies, including clinical audits, to determine whether improvement interventions have had an effect. Qualitative methods are often also used to understand how or why an intervention was successful and which components of a complex or multifaceted intervention were most effective. Finally, mixed methods designs such as action research or case study methods are widely used to design and evaluate improvement interventions. PMID:24762315

Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Gillam, Steve

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Potentials of pre-school institutions in the field of demographic development of Vojvodina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preschool institutions, as principal institutions for social child care, with their three main functions - education, preventive health and social care represent a significant support to modern families in the field of improving protection, acculturation, socialisation and providing happy and carefree childhood and development of children at the preschool age. Such institutions also represent an important agent for motivating, that is encouraging and supporting spouses and other partners of different gender in having children which can be a positive factor of significant demographic development and instrument of the pronatalist population policy.

Prentovi? Risto

2006-01-01

302

Student Satisfaction and Service Quality: Any Differences in Demographic Factors?  

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Full Text Available Previously, very less research done to test demographic factors that contribute towards satisfaction and service quality. This study attempts to examine the differences of selected demographic factors (gender, races and semester of studies on the students’ satisfaction and service quality. Furthermore, this study is also to examine any relationship between age and students’ satisfaction and service quality. This study was conducted using a set of questionnaire to 200 Bachelor Degree students from two private higher education institutions. The study will provide results from empirical test of these differences and relationships. The empirical results of this study can provide any differences, which related to students’ satisfaction on service quality.

Azleen Ilias Ilias

2009-02-01

303

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spirituality. At the end, discussion and conclusion of the study is given.

Huma Ali

2011-10-01

304

Do we need numbers? The demographic fingerprint on crisis evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic revolution that took place in the world through globalization and through the industrial revolution made a deep and lasting impression that continues to haunt current visions on the future, leaving aside the importance of understanding demographic dynamics. The tendency towards a purely economic “reading” of contemporary reality pays scant regard to the demographic conditions of its production. Put simply, if we are to understand the contemporary crisis and if we desire for our current system to survive we should focus on a reconciliation of demography within the analysis of the actual functioning society.

Drago? Lucian IVAN

2012-01-01

305

Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [{sup 11}C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([{sup 11}C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [{sup 11}C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

Razifar, Pasha [Molecular Imaging and CT Research, GE Healthcare, WI 53188, Waukesha (United States); Engler, Henry [Department of Medical Science, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Blomquist, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Ringheim, Anna; Estrada, Sergio [Uppsala Imanet AB, GE Healthcare, Box 967, SE-751 09, Uppsala (Sweden); Laangstroem, Bengt [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergstroem, Mats [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-06-07

306

Advanced Power Electronics Components  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

Schwarze, Gene E.

2004-01-01

307

Applying the Gurson model for improved description of the flow and fracture performance of motor vehicle components made of aluminium; Verbesserte Beschreibung des Fliess- und Bruchverhaltens von Aluminium-Automobilkomponenten mit Hilfe des Gurson-Modells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gurson model is of help in improving the information value of crash test simulations with respect to the critical load bearing capacity, or failure, resp., of a vehicle structural component. The damage parameters of relevance to crash simulation can be determined via flat tensile tests and subsequent simulation. The Gurson model delivers the data representing the contributions of multiaxial stresses to the damaging processes. A clear strain rate dependence of the real stress-strain curve, and in particular of the strain-to-fracture curve, was observed in the base material AlMgSiO.5 and in a welded joint and therefore should be taken into account in real crash simulations. (orig./MM) [German] Die Anwendung des Gurson-Modells kann die Aussagefaehigkeit von Crashsimulationen bezueglich der kritischen Tragfaehigkeit bzw. der Schwachstellen eines Bauteils erweitern. Die fuer Crashsimulationen relevanten Schaedigungsparameter koennen durch Versuche an Flachzugproben und anschliessende Simulationen bestimmt werden. Mit dem Gurson-Modell werden die Einfluesse der Spannungsmehrachsigkeit auf die Schaedigungsentwicklung erfasst. Allerdings muesste das Modell zur Simulation des Schubversagens erweitert werden. Das extrudierte Aluminium-Profil weist eine senkrechte Anisotropie auf, die bei der Simulation duennwandiger Strukturen beruecksichtigt werden muss. Eine deutliche Dehnratenabhaengigkeit der wahren Spannungs-Dehnungskurve und insbesondere der Bruchdehnung wurde bei einem Grundwerkstoff AlMgSi0.5 und einem Schweissgut festgestellt und sollte in realen Crashsimulationen beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

Sun, D.Z.; Boehme, W.; Andrieux, F. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Christlein, J. [Audi NSU Auto Union AG, Neckarsulm (Germany)

1999-07-01

308

Valor nutritivo de los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala / Nutritive value of the forage components of an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En una vaquería de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas, con el objetivo de determinar algunos indicadores del valor nutritivo en los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas (Cynodon nlemfuensis y Panicum maximum) y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham en condiciones comerciales, [...] se selecciona­ron las especies más representativas de la composición florística y se evaluaron por la degradación in situ de la materia seca y la técnica de producción de gas in vitro en función del momento de muestreo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar la degradación de la materia seca de P. maximum cv. Likoni y L. leucocephala a las 48 y 72 horas (P Abstract in english In a dairy unit of the Genetic Enterprise of Matanzas, with the objective of determining some indicators of the nutritive value in the forage components of an association of improved grasses (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Panicum maximum) and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham under commercial condition [...] s, the most representative species of the floristic composition were selected and evaluated by the in situ degradation of dry matter and the in vitro gas production technique regarding the sampling moment. Significant differences were found when comparing the dry matter degradation of P. maximum cv. Likoni and L. leucocephala after 48 and 72 hours (P

Tania, Sánchez; E.R, Ørskov; L, Lamela; R, Pedraza; O, López.

2008-09-01

309

The Relationship between Background Demographics and Motivational Orientation for Learning of Adult Education Students and Their Career Choices and Educational Aspirations  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated what components of background demographics and motivation orientation in learning impact career selection and educational aspirations for adult students participating in a post-secondary institution in West Virginia, one of the Washington, DC, metropolitan areas. The research boundaries set for the area of learning…

Bostwick, Dana T.

2010-01-01

310

Doctoral Accounting Candidates: A Profile of Demographics and Perceptions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents information on minority doctoral students in accounting, drawing on surveys completed by 47 such students. Outlines demographic characteristics, and identifies respondents' rankings of costs and benefits of pursuing a doctorate in accounting. Most respondents were professionally certified and were interested in academic careers. (SLD)

Backmon, Ida Robinson

1998-01-01

311

Demographic Advertising Analysis and Marginal Status: A Preliminary Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the use of the newly developed Demographic Advertising Analysis in assessing social positions and their presentations in advertising. Young adults (N=45) rated 12 television commercials and found little difference in prestige of sexual or marital status or occupation. Outwardly religious, political, ethnic, or lower-class representation…

Dean, R. Gary

1981-01-01

312

France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.  

Science.gov (United States)

Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources. PMID:12341875

Roussel, L; Thery, I

1988-09-01

313

Homeschool Progress Report 2009: Academic Achievement and Demographics  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007, the Home School Legal Defense Association commissioned Dr. Brian D. Ray of the National Home Education Research Institute to conduct a nationwide study of homeschooling in America. The study's purpose was to develop a current picture of homeschool students and their families--capturing their demographics and educational background--and…

Ray, Brian D.

2009-01-01

314

A Demographic Analysis of Students and Their GTA Instructors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic data were collected from college students and their graduate teaching assistant (GTA) instructors and analyzed for the impact of these characteristics on the students' ratings of teacher communication effectiveness. Data collected from the approximately 1,000 students and 60 GTAs included age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, home…

Daniel, Arlie

315

Adolescent Health in Hong Kong: Disturbing Socio-Demographic Correlates  

Science.gov (United States)

Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…

Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

2009-01-01

316

Demographic trends in Hungary at the twin of the millenium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hungary belonging more and more to the pestigious group of developed countries can be characterized more and more by the demographic characteristics of those. Aging population, decreasing live birth, decreasing figure of the population are commonly used terms characterizing the demographic profile of our country. This simplified picture can be modulated and coloured with the help of spatial data. In spite of the comparatively small size, and relatively homogenous structure of Hungary several differences can be found. The network of small towns could be an obvious and representative sample for the spatial investigations as the elements of that almost totally cover the area of Hungary, it is numerous enough, but still easy to handle. Within a Hungarian geographical context settlements having a maximum of 30,000 inhabitants and possessing city rank can be defined as small towns. Because of their size and functions they are sensitive enough to illustrate the national demographic tendencies, but they are numerous enough to split into different gropus according to their remarkably diverse character. Traditional historic small towns widely differ from the ones located in the rapidly urbanizing agglomerations, even though the socialist new towns having similar origin reflect significant demographic variants.

Pirisi Gábor

2006-01-01

317

Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets  

Science.gov (United States)

This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

2010-01-01

318

Tempo Effects and their Relevance in Demographic Analysis  

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Full Text Available Demographic period indicators like the total fertility rate or life expectancy are well known since more than a century and until recently there were only minor discussions about their usefulness. This changed with a series of publications by Bongaarts and Feeney (BF in which they claimed that these indicators are inappropriate for describing current demographic conditions when the average age at childbearing respective death is changing. Therefore, BF proposed alternative tempo-adjusted indicators for such situations which can be very useful for demographic analysis. The still existing scepticism against the BF approach and the general rejection of mortality tempo adjustment in particular have their origin in a set of misunderstandings and misinterpretations of tempo-adjusted indicators. This paper systematically describes the basic idea of tempo effects, how they can distort the commonly used conventional period indicators and how the proposed methods approximate the idea of tempo adjustment, illustrated with empirical data for West Germany. We also summarize the critiques against tempo adjustment and try to put the tempo approach in the right perspective. Finally, the paper strives for providing a better understanding when tempo-adjusted measures should be used as alternative or in addition to the commonly used conventional demographic indicators.

Marc Luy

2010-01-01

319

Age Differences in Demographic Predictors of Retirement Investment Decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased longevity coupled with inadequate savings makes retirement savings and investment research increasingly important. A policy-capturing method was used to examine the relative importance of 6 demographic predictors on the retirement investment decisions of 64 working adults. All predictors were significant predictors of the investment. In…

Davis, Guyla D.; Chen, Yiwei

2008-01-01

320

Animal Cruelty Motivations: Assessing Demographic and Situational Influences  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have examined childhood and adolescent animal cruelty motives. Using a sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the impact of demographic attributes and situational factors relating specifically to a range of animal cruelty motivations. Almost half of the…

Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Changing Faces: Suburban School Response to Demographic Change  

Science.gov (United States)

As minority populations continue to grow, suburban school systems will bear a larger responsibility for educating students of color. Rapid demographic change may mean that students of color could walk into suburban schools ill prepared to address their academic and social needs. The focus of this study was to examine how and why several suburban…

Evans, Andrea E.

2007-01-01

322

The re-identification risk of Canadians from longitudinal demographics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The public is less willing to allow their personal health information to be disclosed for research purposes if they do not trust researchers and how researchers manage their data. However, the public is more comfortable with their data being used for research if the risk of re-identification is low. There are few studies on the risk of re-identification of Canadians from their basic demographics, and no studies on their risk from their longitudinal data. Our objective was to estimate the risk of re-identification from the basic cross-sectional and longitudinal demographics of Canadians. Methods Uniqueness is a common measure of re-identification risk. Demographic data on a 25% random sample of the population of Montreal were analyzed to estimate population uniqueness on postal code, date of birth, and gender as well as their generalizations, for periods ranging from 1 year to 11 years. Results Almost 98% of the population was unique on full postal code, date of birth and gender: these three variables are effectively a unique identifier for Montrealers. Uniqueness increased for longitudinal data. Considerable generalization was required to reach acceptably low uniqueness levels, especially for longitudinal data. Detailed guidelines and disclosure policies on how to ensure that the re-identification risk is low are provided. Conclusions A large percentage of Montreal residents are unique on basic demographics. For non-longitudinal data sets, the three character postal code, gender, and month/year of birth represent sufficiently low re-identification risk. Data custodians need to generalize their demographic information further for longitudinal data sets.

Neisa Angelica

2011-06-01

323

CpG oligonucleotides and recombinant interferon-? in combination improve protection in chickens to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis challenge as an adjuvant component, but have no effect in reducing Salmonella carriage in infected chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common cause of human salmonellosis in many developed nations. It is frequently associated with both poultry meat and eggs. In the present study we have determined whether CpG oligonucleotides that stimulate the immune system via Toll like-receptors 15 and 21 in the chicken can be used as immunomodulatory agents to break carriage of S. Enteritidis in in vitro and in vivo infection models. We also investigated its use as a component in an adjuvant to stimulate cell mediated immunity with a killed vaccine preparation. Following infection of the chicken macrophage-like cell line HD11 with Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum, cells were stimulated with an oligonucleotide containing a CpG motif, or with a non-CpG oligonucleotide control at concentrations ranging from 0 to 80 µM. Addition of the CpG oligonucleotide greatly enhanced clearance of S. Enteritidis in dose-dependent manner, whilst the control oligonucleotide had no significant effect. In contrast, stimulation of cells infected with S. Gallinarum had no effect. The CpG or control oligonucleotide with recombinant chicken interferon-? was administered intramuscularly into chickens experimentally colonized with S. Enteritidis, although neither preparation produced any change in intestinal colonization levels to that in untreated control birds. Finally, CpG oligonucleotides were incorporated with recombinant interferon-?, double-stranded RNA (Poly I:C) and squalene as a Th1-stimulating combined adjuvant for synergistic activation of cellular immunity (CASAC) together with whole killed Salmonella as the antigen as an experimental vaccine. Following vaccination and challenge of chickens with S. Enteritidis, CASAC gave significant protection to intestinal colonization whereas the same antigen given with a proprietary adjuvant did not. Neither adjuvant increased protection to systemic infection. The data suggest that adjuvants incorporating CpG motifs and interferon-? may improve protection afforded by killed-Salmonella vaccines. PMID:22845324

Hartley, Catherine; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Wigley, Paul

2012-01-01

324

Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?  

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Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains in life expectancy from the 1950s through the 1990s in a context of preponderant communicable diseases in all African countries; 5 the salient role of adult mortality, mostly ascribed to HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities, since the 1990s in reversing trends in mortality decline, its interruption of life expectancy improvements, and its reversal of gender differences in life expectancies disadvantaging women in several countries with the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS; 6 the huge impact of wars in reversing the trends in under-five mortality decline in sub-Saharan countries in the 1990s and beyond. These assessments of these transition frameworks and these phenomena were not well documented to date for all five regions and 57 countries of Africa. Conclusion: Prevailing frameworks of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions as descriptive and predictive models are incomplete or irrelevant for charting the population and health experiences and prospects of national populations in the African context.

Barthélémy Kuate Defo

2014-05-01

325

Components Interaction Markup Language for Mediator Connector  

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Full Text Available The concern of interaction or collaboration between components can be found when evolution of software engineering came a long way from machine-level language to procedural programming and then to object-oriented programming and now to component-based software development. An interaction is a set of activities that happens for a specific use case in a system, based on the ability of components (requires and provides services to send messages to each other. This study introduces Component Interaction Markup Language (CIML as an improvement of the attachment uses by mediator connector we proposed in earlier study. CIML aims to make the attachment well-formed as a generic framework for component composition based on interactions between components. CIML supports component composition based on interactions between components and has language constructs for description of component instantiations, component initializations and component interactions.

H. Sanatnama

2009-01-01

326

RTD Component 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall objective of RTD Component 2 is to improve our knowledge on radionuclide retention processes which are currently not well understood in order to judge if they have to be considered for predictive analysis of the far field of geological repositories. The main topics dealt with in RTD Component 2 are the effect of the presence of inorganic/organic colloids, mineral redox processes and several aspects of microbiologically mediated processes on the transport of radionuclide. Knowledge gained in RTDC-2 will be transferred as direct input parameters for the host rock specific RTDC's 3-5. Scientific work in the nanometer resolution range with trace radionuclide concentrations expected to be found in far-field environments are a big analytical challenge and progress of scientific process understanding therefore relies inter alia on further development of analytical methods as well as on molecular modeling approaches. RTD Component 2 has been structured in 4 work packages and results obtained in the second project year are briefly summarized for each WP. Further, in detail information can be found in the Scientific and Technical contributions and publications listed in chapter 4. Advances within the work packages are reported: WP2.1: Formation, migration and transport processes of inorganic colloids; WP2.2: Formation migration and transport processes of organic/humic colloids; WP2.3: Radionuclide redox transformation on minerals; WP2.4: Impact of biogeochemical processes

327

[The demographic consequences of austerity in Latin America: methodological aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reviews evidence in the literature of possible demographic effects of the austerity programs imposed on Latin American countries in the 1980s. The work focuses on methodological problems involved in assessing demographic changes and ascertaining that they were indeed attributable to the economic crisis. An introductory section describes the recession of the 1980s in Latin America, the declines in employment and living standards, and the health and social consequences of the deepening poverty. But the author argues that evaluation of health conditions, levels of nutrition, and especially factors such as infant mortality, fertility, marriage patterns, and migration as indicators of the impact of the economic depression is full of pitfalls that are not always obvious. Few Latin American countries have civil registration systems capable of providing accurate and up-to-date mortality and fertility data. Indirect methods currently in use were intended to analyze longterm levels and trends and are of little use for short-term fluctuations. Data on internal migration are scarce even in developed countries. Even when recent data are available it is often difficult or impossible to obtain data for comparison. Infant mortality and malnutrition levels, for example, are serious problems in many parts of Latin America, but series of data capable of demonstrating that they are truly consequences of the economic crisis are lacking. Another challenge is to separate the demographic effects of the debt crisis from longterm structural processes. The possibility of time lags and of different time frames may increase confusion. Almost a year must pass before effects on birth rates can be expected, for example. Neutralizing mechanisms may obscure the effects sought. Thus, the most impoverished urban sectors may return to the countryside to seek refuge in subsistence agriculture; their departure would in some measure diminish the consequences of recession in the urban economy. The type of cross-sectional analysis of differential fertility and mortality that is currently stressed in demographic studies is of limited utility for understanding the demographic impact of economic oscillations, for which a longitudinal approach is required. The next section of the article compares evidence of the effects of the recession of the 1980s with the Great Depression of the 1930s and with historical crises, suggesting that contemporary economic recessions have little in common in terms of causes or demographic consequences with historic crises. Specific studies and available data are then examined in the areas of fertility and mortality, longterm consequences of the economic recession, and migration. PMID:12317738

Hakkert, R

1991-01-01

328

Prevalence, Health and Demographic Characteristics of Emergency Department Patients with Diabetes  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of diabetes in Southern California emergency department (ED patients and describe the self-reported general health, demographic and social characteristics of these patients with diabetes. Methods: Between April 2008 and August 2008, non-critical patients at two Southern California EDs completed a 57-question survey about their chronic medical conditions, general health, social and demographic characteristics. Results: 11.3% of the 1,303 patients surveyed had diabetes. Patients with diabetes were similar to ED patients without diabetes with respect to gender, ethnicity and race. However, patients with diabetes were older (51 vs. 41, less likely to have a high school education (64.0% vs. 84.7%, less likely to speak English (44.9% vs. 55.4%, and less likely to be uninsured (33.3% vs. 49.5%. Additionally, patients with diabetes had markedly lower self-reported physical health scores (37.1 vs. 45.8 and mental component score and mental health scores (42.0 vs. 47.4 compared with ED patients without diabetes. Conclusion: In this study of two Southern California EDs, 11.3% of surveyed patients had diabetes. These patients were often poorly educated, possessed limited English language skills and poor physical health. ED personnel and diabetes educators should be mindful of these findings when designing interventions for ED patients with diabetes. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:419-422.

Menchine, Michael D

2010-12-01

329

A study on relevance of demographic factors in investment decisions  

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Full Text Available This study attempts to find out the significance of demographic factors of population such as gender, age, education, occupation, income, savings and family size over several elements of investment decisions like priorities based on characteristics of investments, period of investment, reach of information source, frequency of investment and analytical abilities. The study was made by conducting a survey in Nagapattinam district of Tamilnadu, South India and the statistical inferences were deduced using computer software tools. The study reveals that the demographic factors have a significant influence over some of the investment decision elements and insignificant in others elements too. The study also discloses a general view of investors perception over various investment avenues.

M. Ramesh

2012-05-01

330

DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCES ON MENTAL HEALTH OF COLLEGE STUDENTS  

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Full Text Available Students mental health is a public issues, public health policy makes at the international level, are very well concerned about this issue become of the increasing rate of suicide, among students their amenity, depression and involvement in high risk behavior .The aim of the study was to understand the influences of demographic variables on mental health of college students. The mental health scale (MHS constructed and standardized by Kamlesh Sharma (2002 was used to measure the mental health. 500 samples were taken based on Purposive sampling method .Statistical method such as t- test, and correlation analysis was used in the present study to test the hypothesis and interpret the data. The findings of the study were there is an influence of demographic variables on mental health of college students

G. RAMANATHAN

2013-03-01

331

ROMANIAN DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND THE INVESTMENTS ON CAPITAL MARKET  

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Full Text Available The growing interest for investments in capital markets creates the need for studies focused on monitoring and analysing demographic environment in which the investors operate. Its analysis may represent a starting point for finding out opportunities and threats brought by environment for the evolution of Financial Investment Services Companies in Romania. Our paper starts from the assumption that the behaviour of the investor in financial services is influenced by the demographic factors. We focus on some of them, in a descriptive manner. Specifically, they are: monthly net average incomes, gender, age, employment rate and education level of the population. This study also presents a short case of a Financial Investment Services Company named Target Capital.

Petric Ioana Ancuta

2010-07-01

332

Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits--short turnover times--are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L

2014-05-01

333

What Future Expects Humanity After the Demographic Transition Time?  

CERN Document Server

The variant of phenomenological theory of humankind future existence after time of demographic transition based on treating the time of demographic transition as a point of phase transition and taking into account an appearing of the new phase of mankind is proposed. The theory based on physical phenomenological theories of phase transitions and classical equations for system predatory-preys for two phases of mankind, take into account assumption about a multifractal nature of the set of number of people in temporal axis and contains control parameters. The theory includes scenario of destroying of existent now human population by new phase of humanity and scenario of old and new phases co-existence. In particular cases when the new phase of mankind is absent the equations of theory may be formulated as equations of Kapitza, Foerster, Hoerner, Kobelev and Nugaeva, Johansen and Sornette phenomenological theories of growth of mankind.

Kobelev, L Yu

2000-01-01

334

Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

Swiaczny F.

2010-01-01

335

Influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the quality of life  

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Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of life is a multidimensional concept, which is best expressed by the subjective well-being. Evaluation of the quality of life is the basis for measuring the well-being, and the determination of factors that determine the quality of life quality is the basis for its improvement Objective. To evaluate and assess the determinants of the perceived quality of life of group distinguishing features which characterize demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the population in Serbia aged over 20 years (9479 examinees. The quality of life was expressed by the perception of well-being (pleasure of life. Data on the examinees (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected by using a questionnaire for adults of each household. To process, analyze and present the data, we used the methods of parametric descriptive statistics (mean value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, variance analysis and factor analysis. Results. Although men evaluated the quality of life with a slightly higher grading, there was no statistically significant difference in the evaluation of the quality of life in relation to the examinee’s gender (p>0.005. Among the examinees there was a high statistically significant difference in grading the quality of life depending on age, level of education, marital status and type of job (p<0.001. In relation to the number of children, there was no statistically significant difference in he grading of the quality of life (p>0.005. Conclusion. The quality of life is influenced by numerous factors that characterize each person (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individual. Determining factors of the quality of life are numerous and diverse, and the manner and the strength of their influence are variable.

Grbi? Gordana

2011-01-01

336

Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The food/feed quality of a variety of genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab Bt-toxin was tested over the life-cycle of Daphnia magna, an arthropod commonly used as model organism in ecotoxicological studies. Demographic responses were compared between animals fed GM or unmodified (UM) near isogenic maize, with and without the addition of predator smell. Age-specific data on survival and birth rates were integrated and analysed using life tables and Leslie matrices. Survival, fecun...

Bøhn, Thomas; Traavik, Terje; Primicerio, Raul

2010-01-01

337

Achievement and Demographics of Home School Students: 1998  

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This report presents the results of the largest survey and testing program for students in home schools to date. In Spring 1998, 20,760 K-12 home school students in 11,930 families were administered either the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) or the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency (TAP), depending on their current grade. The parents responded to a questionnaire requesting background and demographic information. Major findings include: the achievement test scores of this group of home sc...

Rudner, Lawrence M.

1999-01-01

338

Optimal Sustainable Policies under Pollution Ceiling: The Demographic Side  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study optimal sustainable policies in a benchmark logistic world (where both population and technological progress follow logistic laws of motion) subject to a pollution ceiling. The main policy in the hands of the benevolent planner is pollution abatement, ultimately leading to the control of a dirtiness index as in the early literature of the limits to growth literature. Besides inclusion of demographic dynamics, we also hypothesize that population size affects negatively the natural reg...

Boucekkine, Raouf; Marti?nez, Blanca; Ruiz-tamarit, Ramon

2014-01-01

339

Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Substance Abuse Comorbidity in Schizophrenia  

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Seventy patients of schizophrenia were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of substance abusing history in them. Two groups were compared on various socio-demographic and clinical variables. Thirty-eight (54.3%) patients could be diagnosed as having comorbid alcohol/substance abuse/dependence. Seventeen (24.3%) of them were poly-substance abusers. Comorbid substance abusers were predominantly represented by positive syndrome while non-abusers by negative syndrome. In cont...

Aich, Tapas K.; Sinha, Vinod K.; Khess, Christoday R. J.; Singh, Shailja

2004-01-01

340

The re-identification risk of Canadians from longitudinal demographics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The public is less willing to allow their personal health information to be disclosed for research purposes if they do not trust researchers and how researchers manage their data. However, the public is more comfortable with their data being used for research if the risk of re-identification is low. There are few studies on the risk of re-identification of Canadians from their basic demographics, and no studies on their risk from their longitudinal data. O...

Neisa Angelica; Tamblyn Robyn; Buckeridge David; El Emam Khaled; Jonker Elizabeth; Verma Aman

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Demographic spatial genetic structure of the Neotropical tree, Jacaranda copaia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used genotypes from six microsatellite loci and demographic data from a large mapped forest plot to study changes in spatial genetic structure across demographic stages, from seed rain to seedlings, juveniles, and adult diameter classes in the Neotropical tree, Jacaranda copaia. In pairwise comparisons of genetic differentiation among demographic classes, only seedlings were significantly differentiated from the other diameter classes; F(ST) values ranged from 0.006 to 0.009. Furthermore, only seedlings showed homozygote excess suggesting biparental inbreeding in the large diameter reproductive adults. We found very low levels of relatedness in the first distance class of trees, 1-26 cm diameter (F(ij) = 0.011). However, there was a 5- to 10-fold rise in relatedness in the smallest distance class, from the smallest to the largest tree diameter classes (F(ij) = 0.110 for individuals > 56 cm diameter). A variety of non-mutually exclusive mechanisms have been invoked perviously to explain such a pattern, including natural selection, history, or nonequilibrium population dynamics. The long-term demographic data available for this species allow us to evaluate these mechanisms. Jacaranda is a fast-growing, light-demanding species with low recruitment rates and high mortality rates in the smaller diameter classes. It successfully regenerates only in large light gaps, which occur infrequently and stochastically in space and time. These factors contribute to the nonequilibrium population dynamics and observed low genetic structure in the small size classes. We conclude that the pattern of spatial genetic transitions in Jacaranda is consistent with overlapping related generations and strong but infrequent periods of high recruitment, followed by long periods of population decline. PMID:16968265

Jones, F A; Hubbell, S P

2006-10-01

342

Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing and research in the USA. People with a domination value orientation believe wildlife should be managed for human benefit and are more likely to prioritize human well-being over wildlife in t...

Vaske, J. J.; Jacobs, M. H.; Sijtsma, M. T. J.

2011-01-01

343

Outcomes of cause related marketing: a demographic analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study determines the cause related marketing practices in Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry. Further this study investigates the relationship among the determinants of CRM and demographic variables. The sample size of this study was 629. The concern respondents were the post graduate students and employees of different universities and organizations. SPSS was used to analyze the data. This study finds that CRM is proven as strategic tool with multi-dimensional objective...

Ahmad, Syed Tauqeer; Batool, Irem; Quarshi, Salman Ali; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran; Niazi, Ghulam Shabbir Khan

2010-01-01

344

Demographical and Clinical Characteristics of Behcet's Disease in Southeastern Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We aimed to determine the demographic and clinical features of patients with Behcet’s disease (BD) in Southeastern Turkey. Methods In this study, files of 132 patients with BD (76 females and 56 males) who were diagnosed with BD according to the International Study Group criteria at the Department of Dermatology of Dicle University Faculty of Medicine from 2005 to 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Demographical and clinical characteristics of the cases were recorded. Results Mean age of the cases was 32.40 ± 9.4 years (range 15 - 59 years) and male/female ratio was 0.73. The mean age at diagnosis was 28.71 ± 9.1 years. Six cases were diagnosed as juvenile BD (4.45%). Oral aphthous lesions (100%) and genital ulcers (94%) were found to be the most common findings of the disease, followed by pathergy positivity (75%), papulopustular lesions (74.2%), erythema nodosum (43.2%), thrombophlebitis (6.8%) and extragenital ulcers (6.1%). Systemic involvement was noted as joint involvement in 79.5%, ocular involvement in 28.8%, vascular involvement in 9.8%, pulmonary involvement in 2.3%, neurologic involvement in 2.3% and genitourinary system involvement in 0.8%. There was no significant difference between mucocutaneous findings and systemic involvement ratios of male and female cases. Conclusion Demographic and clinical features of BD may vary according to geographical region, gender and ethnicity. We hope that this study will contribute to the epidemiologic data of BD which may exhibit different clinical and demographic features in different parts of the world. PMID:25247023

Sula, Bilal; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Ucmak, Derya; Yolbas, Ilyas; Akdeniz, Sedat

2014-01-01

345

Preface to the Rostock Debate on Demographic Change  

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Full Text Available The first Rostock Debate on Demographic Change, which took place on February 21, 2006, centered on the following question: Should governments in Europe push much more aggressively for gender equality to raise fertility? The four debaters were Laurent Toulemon from the Institut National d'Etudes Demograhiques (France, Dimiter Philipov from the Vienna Institute of Demography (Austria, Livia Oláh from Stockholm University (Sweden, and Gerda Neyer from the Max Planck Institute (Germany

Laura Bernardi

2011-02-01

346

The role of demographics in small business loan pricing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To sustain growth in an aging economy, it is important to ease the financing of small firms by bank loans. Using bank internal data of small business loans in Germany, we examine the determinants of loan rates in the period 1995-2010. Beyond characteristics of the firm, the loan contract, and the lending relationship, demographic aspects matter. However, collateral and relationship lending play a larger role in loan pricing than the entrepreneur's age. Banks do not seem to discriminate older ...

Neuberger, Doris; Ra?thke-do?ppner, Solvig

2014-01-01

347

DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCES ON MENTAL HEALTH OF COLLEGE STUDENTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Students mental health is a public issues, public health policy makes at the international level, are very well concerned about this issue become of the increasing rate of suicide, among students their amenity, depression and involvement in high risk behavior .The aim of the study was to understand the influences of demographic variables on mental health of college students. The mental health scale (MHS) constructed and standardized by Kamlesh Sharma (2002) was used to measure the mental heal...

Ramanathan, G.; Venkatammal, P.

2013-01-01

348

Living arrangements of Canada's elderly : changing demographic and economic factors  

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Originally presented at the symposium "Innovations in Housing and Living Arrangements for Seniors" sponsored by the Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University and the Canadian Association on Gerontology. The objectives in organizing the symposium were to examine existing housing forms and policies in the light of current demographic and economic trends, sensitize participants to current problems with the development process as it relates to seniors housing and to examine innovative ...

Priest, Gordon E.

1985-01-01

349

Socio- Demographic Factors And Non- Immunization In Children  

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Full Text Available An Investigation was conducted to evaluate various socio- demographic variables and non- immunization in children of this region. Among all the children brought to well baby clinics, 20% were not immunized against any of the six killer diseases. Eighty two percent these were from social class I and II. Mothers of 50% and fathers of 40% non â€" immunized children were illiterate. Common factors for non- immunization were illness, ignorance and indifference.

Singh H

1992-01-01

350

Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

Akeredolu Patricia

2004-11-01

351

Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

Leposavi? Ljubica

2006-01-01

352

Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption  

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Full Text Available This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that most of the sampled NHIS patrons and non patrons were literate, engaged in meaningful employment, mostly married with average income, and were still in their active ages, and demonstrated meaningful exposure to insurance health information, which enable them to be or not to be active participants of the scheme. From the regression analysis, it was evident that all the variables except religion influenced insurance consumption positively whereas religion affects health insurance consumption negatively. Based on this, we recommended among other things, a re-alignment of health insurance marketing strategies with consumers socio-economic and demographic characteristics, as a measure to boost patronage.Key words: Socio-Economic; Demographic; Health insurance; Consumption

Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

2012-10-01

353

Demographic and Attitudinal Factors Influencing Doctoral Student Satisfaction  

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Full Text Available Higher education administrators face challenges in providing a welcoming environment for doctoral students in higher education institutions, as they must identify factors influencing students’ satisfaction in order to provide a supportive environment, reduce attrition rates, and promote persistence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of doctoral student satisfaction from demographics and attitudes concerning the campus environment. Participants were 132 (33 male, 99 female doctoral students from two private nonprofit universities in the New York metropolitan area of the United States who completed either a web-based or paper/pencil survey in which demographics and opinions regarding student satisfaction were sought. Regression analysis on participant attitudes found that university services, advisor, and students were all significant predictor variables. Other demographic predictor variables included years in graduate school, race, and ethnicity. Of particular importance, as doctoral students progress in their program by year, dissatisfaction increases. This could be due to the increasing pressures of successfully completing the dissertation, the progress of which can be heavily influenced by advisor-student relationship. Overall findings may assist education administrators and institutional planners in making campus environments welcoming to students thereby increasing both student satisfaction and retention.

Sabina Nwenyi

2013-12-01

354

Socio-demographic determinants and access to prenatal care in Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Many governments have made commitments to examine inequalities in healthcare access based on studies assessing the association between several socio-demographic factors and late initiation or fewer prenatal examinations. This study addressed the question of whether socio-demographic determinants were significant in explaining differences in prenatal care in one administrative region of Italy, Umbria. Methods Data were obtained from the administrative source of the regional Standard Certificate of Live Births between 2005 and 2010, and were merged with Census data to include a socio-economic deprivation index. Standard and multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the magnitude of various individual-level maternal characteristics and socio-demographic indicators, such as nationality, employment status, education with respect to late access to the first examination, and low number of medical visits. Results The study involved approximately 37,000 women. The heterogeneous effects of socio-demographic variables were documented on the prenatal care indicators analyzed. A multivariate model showed that women born outside Italy had a higher probability of making their first visit later than the 12th week of pregnancy and low numbers of prenatal medical visits; the estimated odds ratio for the analyzed indicators range from 2.25 to 3.05. Inadequate prenatal healthcare use was also observed in younger and pluriparous women and those with low education; in addition, having a job improved the use of services, possibly through transmission of information of negative consequences due to delayed or few prenatal visits. Interestingly, this study found a substantial reduction in the number of pregnant women who do not use prenatal healthcare services properly. Conclusions The aim of this research is to provide more accurate knowledge about the inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in Italy. Results highlight the existence of differences in healthcare use during pregnancy, especially for women from less advantaged social classes (i.e., unemployed or poorly educated). Such inequalities should be examined in all areas of public policy and public services, to ensure equal opportunity for their use. PMID:24735757

2014-01-01

355

Socio-demographic predictors of high support needs in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.  

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This study aimed to identify high support needs and their socio-demographic predictors to improve supportive care for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. A cross-sectional study measured patients' needs and unsatisfied support needs by the supportive care needs survey (SCNS-34), administered after surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Socio-demographic, disease and treatment characteristics completed data collection. A total of 308 questionnaires were completed with a response rate of 88%. The most frequent support needs (73.3% of patients) related to information and the highest unsatisfied support needs to the management of emotions and daily life (36.3-39.6% of patients). Younger age predicted high and dissatisfied support needs (P < 0.05). Patients born outside Switzerland or with a lower level of education had more needs in daily living and psychological domains (P < 0.05). Being born outside Switzerland also predicted dissatisfaction with information provided. Being parent was a predictor of significant needs in the daily living domain after adjusting for disease and treatment characteristics (P= 0.01). Therefore, information, psychological and daily living support for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients should be strongly reinforced, particularly in patients being born outside Switzerland, those with children or being younger. For the latter, support in sexuality domain should also be emphasised. PMID:20477860

Griesser, A-C; Vlastos, G; Morel, L; Beaume, C; Sappino, A-P; Haller, G

2011-07-01

356

The Predictive Role of Happiness, Optimism and Demographical Status in Engagement in Health-related Behaviors  

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Full Text Available Introduction: With regard to the importance of life style for health promotion, this research aimed to investigate the predictive role of happiness, optimism and demographical status in engagement in health-related Behaviors for high school students in Semnan. Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive design, 217 (104 boys and 113 girls high school students in Semnan were selected through a two-stage cluster sampling and completed the Demographical Information Questionnaire, The Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI, Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R and The Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHP. Data analysis was performed through correlation and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS.Results: Results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status, and engagement in health-related behaviors (P0/05.Conclusion: Happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status are important for engagement in health-related behaviors by high school students. The principal implication of this research is set an agenda of intervention for improvement of these factors as an important foundation to engagement in health-related behaviors and health promotion of high school students.

Isaac Rahimian Boogar

2013-01-01

357

Climate change underlies global demographic, genetic, and cultural transitions in pre-Columbian southern Peru.  

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Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ?840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ?640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (?1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole. PMID:24979787

Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus

2014-07-01

358

Determinants and treatment of hypertension in South Africans: The first Demographic and Health Survey  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To identify the groups of patients with high prevalence and poor control of hypertension in South Africa. METHODS: In the first national Demographic and Health Survey, 12 952 randomly selected South Africans aged 15 years and older were surveyed. Trained interviewers completed questionna [...] ires on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and the management of hypertension. This cross-sectional survey included blood pressure, height and weight measurements. Logistic regression analyses identified the determinants of hypertension and the treatment status. RESULTS: A high risk of hypertension was associated with less than tertiary education, older age groups, overweight and obese people, excess alcohol use, and a family history of stroke and hypertension. Hypertension risk was lowest in rural blacks and significantly higher in obese black women than in women with a normal body mass index. Improved hypertension control was found in the wealthy, women, older persons, Asians, and persons with medical insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Rural black people had lower hypertension prevalence rates than the other groups. Poorer, younger men without health insurance had the worst level of hypertension control.

Krisela, Steyn; Debbie, Bradshaw; Rosana, Norman; Ria, Laubscher.

2008-05-01

359

MCFC component development at ANL.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing advanced cathode and electrolyte components for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Working in support of the MCFC developers, the goal of this effort is to extend the life of the MCFC cell and to improve its performance.

Bloom, I.

1998-09-15

360

Child disaster mental health interventions: therapy components.  

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Children face innumerable challenges following exposure to disasters. To address trauma sequelae, researchers and clinicians have developed a variety of mental health interventions. While the overall effectiveness of multiple interventions has been examined, few studies have focused on the individual components of these interventions. As a preliminary step to advancing intervention development and research, this literature review identifies and describes nine common components that comprise child disaster mental health interventions. This review concluded that future research should clearly define the constituent components included in available interventions. This will require that future studies dismantle interventions to examine the effectiveness of specific components and identify common therapeutic elements. Issues related to populations studied (eg, disaster exposure, demographic and cultural influences) and to intervention delivery (eg, timing and optimal sequencing of components) also warrant attention. Pfefferbaum B , Sweeton JL , Nitiéma P , Noffsinger MA , Varma V , Nelson SD , Newman E . Child disaster mental health interventions: therapy components. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-9. PMID:25225954

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A; Varma, Vandana; Nelson, Summer D; Newman, Elana

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
361

Demographic processes drive increases in wildlife disease following population reduction.  

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Population reduction is often used as a control strategy when managing infectious diseases in wildlife populations in order to reduce host density below a critical threshold. However, population reduction can disrupt existing social and demographic structures leading to changes in observed host behaviour that may result in enhanced disease transmission. Such effects have been observed in several disease systems, notably badgers and bovine tuberculosis. Here we characterise the fundamental properties of disease systems for which such effects undermine the disease control benefits of population reduction. By quantifying the size of response to population reduction in terms of enhanced transmission within a generic non-spatial model, the properties of disease systems in which such effects reduce or even reverse the disease control benefits of population reduction are identified. If population reduction is not sufficiently severe, then enhanced transmission can lead to the counter intuitive perturbation effect, whereby disease levels increase or persist where they would otherwise die out. Perturbation effects are largest for systems with low levels of disease, e.g. low levels of endemicity or emerging disease. Analysis of a stochastic spatial meta-population model of demography and disease dynamics leads to qualitatively similar conclusions. Moreover, enhanced transmission itself is found to arise as an emergent property of density dependent dispersal in such systems. This spatial analysis also shows that, below some threshold, population reduction can rapidly increase the area affected by disease, potentially expanding risks to sympatric species. Our results suggest that the impact of population reduction on social and demographic structures is likely to undermine disease control in many systems, and in severe cases leads to the perturbation effect. Social and demographic mechanisms that enhance transmission following population reduction should therefore be routinely considered when designing control programmes. PMID:24784544

Prentice, Jamie C; Marion, Glenn; White, Piran C L; Davidson, Ross S; Hutchings, Michael R

2014-01-01

362

Les démographes et le temps Demographers and Time  

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Full Text Available Cet article présente la façon dont les démographes ont pris en compte la question du temps dans leurs travaux depuis l’après seconde guerre. Le temps, dimension centrale de la démographie, est à la fois un él?ment constitutif des instruments de mesure des phénom?nes démographiques et  un objet d’étude en soi. Les modalités de la prise en compte du temps ont considérablement évolué depuis les années 1950. L approche synchronique, la plus fréquente alors, va être complétée par l’approche longitudinale, puis biographique et enfin multi-niveaux. A chacune de ces étapes, la question du temps (individuel ou collectif, de sa mesure et de sa signification, fait l’objet d’une réflexion qui rappellera la complexité de son appréhension. Après avoir mis en lumière ces étapes, l’article examine différents travaux démographiques qui ont pris le temps et les temporalités sociales comme objet d’étude, notamment au travers du repérage de l’âge, de l’appartenance générationnelle ou encore des marqueurs de transitions.This article shows how demographers have dealt with the question of time since WWII. Time, a central dimension of demography, has been both a tool for measuring demographic phenomena and an object of study in itself, and the ways it has been taken into account have considerably developed since the 1950s. The most usual point of view at the time, which was synchronic, was later to be completed by a longitudinal, then biographical and finally multi-faceted approach. At each of these stages, the question of time (individual or collective, as well as of how to measure it and how to evaluate its significance, came under more scrutiny, reminding use how complex an object it is to grasp. After a review of these various stages, the paper examines those demographic studies that have focused on time and social temporalities, particularly through the factors of age, generation or transition markers.

Olivia Samuel

2009-07-01

363

Demographic analysis of Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity.  

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Hubbell's neutral model is increasingly applied in both theoretical and empirical studies but so far little attention has been paid to the ecological mechanisms that determine species diversity in neutral communities. In this contribution we use a stochastic individual-based Markovian model to provide an explicit derivation of Hubbell's local community model from the fundamental processes of reproduction, mortality, and immigration, and show that such derivation provides important insights on the mechanisms regulating species diversity that cannot be obtained from the original model and its previous extensions. One important insight is that the basic parameters of Hubbell's model, community size (J) and the probability that a dying individual will be replaced by an immigrant (m), cannot be considered independent and that their interdependency leads to a counterintuitive trade-off between community size and species diversity. We further demonstrate that Hubbell's treatment of community size as a free parameter hides fundamental mechanisms that influence species diversity through their effect on the size of the community. For example, while in Hubbell's model immigration can only increase species diversity by promoting colonization rates, the demographic derivation shows that immigration can also promote species diversity by reducing extinction rates. Our demographic derivation also unifies previous contrasting predictions about the effect of reproduction on species diversity by showing that both positive and negative effects are possible, and that the balance between the two effects depends on the size of the community. The demographic derivation also reconciles an apparent contradiction between Hubbell's theory and patch occupancy theory, and integrates three previously proposed mechanisms of species diversity, the More Individuals Hypothesis, the rescue effect, and the dilution effect, within a single, unified framework. PMID:19168081

Allouche, Omri; Kadmon, Ronen

2009-05-21

364

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

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The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had significant effect on physical violence; specifically, hitting and psychological violence; specifically, denying choices and cessation of intermarital intercourse. Also, the level of education had significant effect on the physical (e.g., throwing objects) and psychological (e.g., Cessation of marital intercourse and denying choices). Finally, present results indicated that the level of income, by itself, did not have any effects on experiencing any types of violence by men but its effect was visible and significant in the presence of the other two factors, the age and the level of education. The results in the present study are, in fact, only of their kinds in that the characteristics of abused men by their wives are assessed in male victims of domestic violence and can contribute to further understanding of the types of men susceptible to victimization by their wives. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that other demographic variables such as the number of children, the type of housing (ownership of the house or renting) and so on, were also determined in this study, but given their lack of any significant effects on the occurrence of violence of any kind against men, were not mentioned in the study.

Pournaghash-Tehrani, Said; Feizabadi, Zahra

365

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

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Full Text Available The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had significant effect on physical violence; specifically, hitting and psychological violence; specifically, denying choices and cessation of intermarital intercourse. Also, the level of education had significant effect on the physical (e.g., throwing objects and psychological (e.g., Cessation of marital intercourse and denying choices. Finally, present results indicated that the level of income, by itself, did not have any effects on experiencing any types of violence by men but its effect was visible and significant in the presence of the other two factors, the age and the level of education. The results in the present study are, in fact, only of their kinds in that the characteristics of abused men by their wives are assessed in male victims of domestic violence and can contribute to further understanding of the types of men susceptible to victimization by their wives. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that other demographic variables such as the number of children, the type of housing (ownership of the house or renting and so on, were also determined in this study, but given their lack of any significant effects on the occurrence of violence of any kind against men, were not mentioned in the study.

Said Pournaghash-Tehrani

2007-01-01

366

The demographic cequence of the Chernobyl' NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1990 the total population evacuated due to the ChNPP accident was questionared. The analysis of the data obtained became the initial base for the demographic characteristics of this population. In 1991 about 40.000 people were planned to move. The estimation of the age of the moved, their marital status makes it possible to prognose their social child-bearing and economic value for the places where they were moved. In 1991 it was supposed that not only the moved population might have given birth to regenerations the necessary rate but also their mortality might play a significant role in the increase of the death rate

367

Assessing the demographic and public service impacts of repository siting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Demographic and public service impacts are likely to be among the most evident of those changes resulting from nuclear waste repository development. Knowledge of the characteristics of such impacts and of the means to assess them is critical. The first section of this chapter examines those likely to be unique to repositories. The second section describes the alternatives for assessing such impacts and the particular difficulties likely to affect the assessments. Given the state of development of techniques for assessing impacts and the range of factors that must be considered, perhaps their best use is as a means of sensitizing decision makers to the potential implications of their decisions. 2 tables

368

The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement  

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Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

Rosemary A. Venne

2011-01-01

369

Biology and demographic growth parameters of cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora) on faba bean (Vicia faba) cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on five faba bean, Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) cultivars was evaluated. Colony development, biology, and demographic parameters were studied to measure the cowpea aphid performance. Two methods, whole plant and detached leaf, were used in these experiments. After 14 d , the number of apterous adult, nymphs, and total cowpea aphids were significantly lower in cultivar Gazira2 and highest on cultivar Misr1. Assuming that low aphid numbers per plant represented high resistance, the order of resistant cultivars was as follows: Gazira2 > Misr > Giza3 Improved > Goff1 > Misr1. Aphid infestation significantly inhibited plant growth compared with uninfested plants, as indicated by factorial analysis using plant height (F = 41.38, P cowpea aphid performed differently on the whole plant as compared with detached leaves. The detached-leaf biological assay is recommended for future experiments because it is more accurate and efficient and it produces reliable data. PMID:25368064

Soffan, A; Aldawood, A S

2014-01-01

370

Demographic Properties of the First 200 Radiotherapy Patients in the Southeast Anatolia  

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Full Text Available Cancer rates are increasing globally in the 21st century and this situation is more pronounced in developing countries. One of the main treatment modality of cancer is radiotherapy and underdeveloped countries are especially problematic in terms of radiotherapy facilities. Radiotherapy has a long-standing history in Turkey but there are inadequacies because of the developmental inequalities between regions in the country. We wanted to evaluate the patient profile of our radiotherapy center as it is the only center in Southeast Anatolia. Clinical and demographic properties of the patients has been investigated and interpreted with comparing the data with literature. Lung cancer in males and breast cancer in females constitude the largest group of patients but urological malignancies were seldom. In conclusion less than expected cancer patients are admitted to our center and general pattern of care in cancer patients must be improved in Southeast part of our country.

Bilgehan Karaday?

2006-01-01

371

A REVIEW OF RESEARCH ARTICLES ON INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON GREEN BUYING BEHAVIOR  

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Full Text Available It is imperative to study demographic factors while studying buying behavior of customers as demographic factors are the major determinants of buying behavior. To verify the green buying behavior of customers and to evaluate the influence of demographic factors on green buying behavior, researchers have critically analyzed, research articles, research papers and research reports of this aspect. The review found thirty three articles that studied demographic factors from various perspectives of green buying behavior. Review has been presented in the synthesized format. Studying the relationship between impacts of demographic parameters on green buying behaviour has seen three major results. Few researchers conclude to have significant relationship between demographic parameters and green buying behaviour. Few researchers outcome is against this. Some researchers arouse controversial findings stating different demographic parameters has different role to play in the determination of green buying behavior.

Dipti S. Barge

2014-08-01

372

An Analysis of Competencies and Moderating Influence of Demographic Profiles – Evidence From Exporting Organizations  

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Full Text Available The increasing numbers of organizations involved in exporting intensifies the competition level. Therefore, to manage the competition effectively, organizations need the necessary competencies. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between competencies and export performance. The competencies tested are in the area of personal traits, management, production and marketing. The results showed that except for personal traits, all the competencies have an influence on export performance. Demographic characteristics (key decision makers’ demographics and organizational demographics are also tested to identify whether they have moderating effects on the relationship between competencies and export performance. These include key decision makers’ demographics (age, education, overseas exposure and employment experience and organizational demographics (age, size of organization and export experience. The result showed age and education (key decision maker’s demographics have an effect in the relationship between competencies and export performance. However, all the organizational demographics tested have a moderating effect.

R.N. Anantharaman

2008-12-01

373

Wielowymiarowa Analiza Zmian Demograficznych W Polsce W ?wietle Koncepcji Zrównowa?onego Rozwoju / Multivariate Data Analysis of Demographic Change in Poland in the Light of Sustainable Development Concept  

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Full Text Available Sustainable development assumes improvement in the quality of living of present and future generations by achieving social, economic and environmental balance. Demographic changes play a significant role in this process due to their long-term impact on social and economic outcomes. The population of Poland is relatively young in comparison to other EU members but it is ageing very rapidly. This demographic process raises challenges for social policy, which include changes in the quality of life of the elderly population. The aim of the paper is to compare Polish voivodships (NUTS-2 territorial units with respect to main features of both the demographic change and of economic situation of population aged 55 and over. We use selected indicators characterizing the demographic situation of the ageing Polish population, as well as the financial and occupational status of the elderly. Based on these indicators, we calculate synthetic measures of development. The results enable us to evaluate the demographic situation of Polish regions as well as distinguish main trends of the changes.

Justyna Wilk

2013-10-01

374

Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences  

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Full Text Available Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS, and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results of exploratory factor analyses revealed a new five-factor structure, with four factors remarkably similar to those derived from a pan-cultural solution of 40 cultural groups (Leung & Bond, 2004. A distinctive factor named “Interpersonal Relations” replaced the “Social Complexity” factor found in previous research, and represented beliefs about the impact of interpersonal relations on life events and how to maintain good relations with others. Canonical correlation revealed that people of older age, lower education, and lower income endorsed stronger beliefs in “Social Cynicism” and “Religiosity”. After controlling for the effects of age, education, and income, females reported stronger endorsement of the “Religiosity”, “Interpersonal Relations”, and “Fate Control” dimensions than males; widowed participants scored significantly higher than married, divorced and unmarried groups on both “Religiosity” and “Fate Control”. By reflecting on the characteristics of Romanian society, we discussed these findings in terms of the life experience and social status of different social groups. Based on this analysis, questions were proposed for future research.

Guan, Yanjun

2010-12-01

375

Islamic Credit Card: Are Demographic Factors a Good Indicator?  

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Full Text Available This study investigates on the relationship between demographic factors and the usage of Islamic credit card as well as Conventional credit card demonstrates their interdependencies. The debatable issues as been addressed by many authorities not only in terms of the numbers of credit card flooding the nation’s economy, but the amount of transactions that end up with payment default and the numbers of credit card fraud as been recorded which threatened the economy should be seriously focused. Nevertheless the advances and changing habits in purchasing activities significantly contributed the diffusion of credit card as becoming more important and relevant in maintaining the purchasing activities. The study was conducted involving 305 respondents as a sample of study. While 26 items were used for addressing the research questions. Section A of the questionnaire seeks for information concerning the demographic profile of the respondents whilst section B and C that used Likert scale aimed to investigate information related to income and usage of credit card. The results of the study offer certain important managerial implications for the policy makers, finance institutions and the authorities bodies that take controls the credit card activities.

Norudin Mansor

2009-11-01

376

Demographic history and gene flow during silkworm domestication  

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Background Gene flow plays an important role in domestication history of domesticated species. However, little is known about the demographic history of domesticated silkworm involving gene flow with its wild relative. Results In this study, four model-based evolutionary scenarios to describe the demographic history of B. mori were hypothesized. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation method and DNA sequence data from 29 nuclear loci, we found that the gene flow at bottleneck model is the most likely scenario for silkworm domestication. The starting time of silkworm domestication was estimated to be approximate 7,500 years ago; the time of domestication termination was 3,984 years ago. Using coalescent simulation analysis, we also found that bi-directional gene flow occurred during silkworm domestication. Conclusions Estimates of silkworm domestication time are nearly consistent with the archeological evidence and our previous results. Importantly, we found that the bi-directional gene flow might occur during silkworm domestication. Our findings add a dimension to highlight the important role of gene flow in domestication of crops and animals. PMID:25123546

2014-01-01

377

Demographic increase in the context of divorce and extramarital partnership  

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Full Text Available The basic goal of this paper is to point to the scope and significance of the share of divorce and extramarital partnership in the issues related to demographic increase. The paper consists of three parts. The first part discusses the relevant demographic data which - through the increase of the divorce rates and the rates of children born extramaritally, as well as through the specification of general indicators within these categories of population (age, marriage length, education, job - indirectly point to the reduction and impoverishment of the reproductive potentials in this subpopulation. The second part of the paper presents contemporary theoretical-research argumentation which tends to explain the dynamics of the functioning of the pattern of family and heterosexual partnership (postulates of evolution psychology, psychology of sex roles, psychology of reproductive behaviour and sociology of family. The third part presents the concluding remarks and the standpoints of the author herself about the need to construct a new thinking area and discourse which would follow the created changes and processes, as well as to preserve in them the idea of longstanding co-operative relations in which man and woman, in new life conditions and realities, contribute to the benefit of the descendents.

Polovina Nada

2006-01-01

378

Association between Social and Demographic Factors with Feeding Methods in  

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Full Text Available Background: Healthy Nutrition has an important role in childhood. Food habits of a child probably will continue to adulthood and increase the risk of many chronic diseases. Role of parents in child nutrition as a food producer and eating pattern has recognized to most important factor of child nutrition. Recent studies have shown that the methods used by parents to child feeding have an important role in the child’s diet and BMI. This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children’s nutrition. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools. Measures included demographic and social factors and aspects of child feeding practices.Results: Results showed that stay at home mothers used more modeling practices. Mothers of sons used more pressure to eat than others. Older mothers used less pressure to eat. Mothers with higher BMI used more emotion regulation strategy and less modeling. And mothers with more education used more modeling.Conclusion: The results showed a significant relationship between demographic and social factors with aspects of the feeding practices.

Maryam Gholamalizadeh

2013-03-01

379

Managing diversity: Changing demographics in the engineering workplace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technological development creates a need for better educated workers with increased basic, analytical, and interpersonal skills. At the same time, both the population of 22-yr olds and the numbers of traditional students who are choosing careers in engineering and science are decreasing, creating a gap between engineering and construction needs and available trained resources. If more and better caliber students are not attracted to engineering, industry is expected to face selective shortages in the future. There is no question that the demographic composition of the next generation of engineers will significantly differ from that of today's engineers. Industry must recognize the changes that are occurring and take action to ensure that there continues to be an adequate supply of technically qualified workers in light of these demographic changes. In its role as adviser and coordinator of industry action, ANS can play a vital role in ensuring that the industry actions are timely and effective. The ANS should form a committee to study the changing composition of future engineers and constructors and formulate an effective action plan that industry can use to continue to attract able, top-performing students to the engineering field

380

Contrasting demographic histories of the neighboring bonobo and chimpanzee  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Pleistocene epoch was a period of dramatic climate change that had profound impacts on the population sizes of many animal species. How these species were shaped by past events is often unclear, hindering our understanding of the population dynamics resulting in present day populations. We analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes representing all four recognized chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo to infer the recent demographic history and used simulations to exclude a confounding effect of population structure. Our genus-wide Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed surprisingly dissimilar demographic histories of the chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo, despite their overlapping habitat requirements. Whereas the central and eastern chimpanzee subspecies were inferred to have expanded tenfold between around 50,000 and 80,000 years ago and today, the population size of the neighboring bonobo remained constant. The changes in population size are likely linked to changes in habitat area due to climate oscillations during the late Pleistocene. Furthermore, the timing of population expansion for the rainforest-adapted chimpanzee is concurrent with the expansion of the savanna-adapted human, which could suggest a common response to changed climate conditions around 50,000-80,000 years ago.

Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Demographic and Economic Dependency Ratios – Present and Perspectives  

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Full Text Available In the present research article, we outline the distinction between the demographic dependency ratio and the economic dependency ratio and present its evolution in Romania within the European Union, but not restrictive to the EU27. The evolution of demographic dependency ratio changed dramatically in Romania in the last 15 years comparing to the UE27. On the other hand, the evolution of economic dependency ratios is much more relevant because it also reflects the problems the economy is facing and should be brought to the fore in the political debates and to decision makers. In the paper we present the factors that are leading to the increase of the economic dependency ratio and we conclude with the solutions which a state has to adopt in order to prevent excessive public debt and structural gaps due to long term rise in economic dependency ratio. Moreover, policy-makers must face up the painful inter-temporal transfer choices that have to be done. Our concern about Eastern-European Countries is strengthened by the global results reached by OECD through Minilink Model Study, IMF Study of G7 and QUEST II Model that suggest the fall of the living standards over the next 50 years due to economic dependency ratio. For Romania we considered two main solution to this problem: increasing birth rate (long term solution and lowering the unemployment rate through investment and a high rate of EU funds absorption (medium term solution.

Mihail Titu

2012-10-01

382

Demographic dynamics and population issues in the Mediterranean  

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Full Text Available Abstract: The Mediterranean Basin is an area of sharply contrasting trends in demographic growth and socio-economic development; the effects of their interactions are becoming increasingly urgent and difficult to manage. Fewer children are being born - whether this is due, as Adolphe Landry would have said, to an individual principle of rationalising life or, as for Frank Notestein and Kingsley Davis, supporters of the demographic transition theory, to the emergence of a modern form of economic development - and it is causing population aging that is both marked and rapid. When fewer children join the sustained trend towards longer lifespan, this aging can soon become a major challenge for the societies involved. Aging is nothing new in the Mediterranean; it has long affected the populations of the northern littoral. But now it touches them all, whatever its speed, pattern and effects, which vary by country; and it is due to intensify in the next few decades, albeit at varying rates. And as globalisation increases with the emergence of new centres, competition heats up between economies subject to successive crises, as some countries fall short in political stability and governance, while others ignore or attack each other, aging requires careful attention.

Roberta PACE

2014-09-01

383

Demographic and Clinical Outcomes of the Patients with Shoulder Pain  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Localized shoulder pain is one of the most important pathologies of musculoskeletal system. A prevalence study has revealed that it is the third most common pathology among the locomotor system diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the statistical results of the demographic and clinical information regarding patients, who applied to our clinic with shoulder pain. Methods: Information of 68 patients with shoulder pain, who were registered in the first 6 months of 2011 to our Physical medicine and rehabilitation Clinique were examined. Patients' demographic data and information regarding their complaints were obtained (e.g. duration, diagnosis, treatment, and so on. and statistical analyses were performed on these findings. Results: Totally findings of 42 patients were obtained. The majority of patients were female, who were housewives. A large proportion of complaints were chronic with multiple diagnoses. Almost all patients received combined treatments. Conclusion: Even though our findings are in accordance with the literature, the low sampling size was a significant limitation. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 170-173

Bayram Kelle

2013-04-01

384

The Impact of Demographic and Academic Characteristics on Academic Performance  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore students’ demographic and academic characteristics that are associatedwith students’ academic performance during their undergraduate studies. Demographic and academiccharacteristic such as age, gender, nationality, high school major and high school GPA were studied as potentialdeterminants of academic performance. A sample of 700 students from the College of Business Studies at thePublic Authority for Applied Education was examined. Descriptive statistics, T-test and multiple regressionswere used. The results of the study reveal that students’ age, gender, high school major and high school GPA aresignificantly related to students’ academic performance. Our research has some implications. The findings revealthat student’s age, gender, high school major and high school GPA are significantly related to business students’academic performance. Interestingly, the findings highlight the positive and significant influence of sciencebackground on the academic performance of business students. This study contributes to the literature of theundergraduates business students academic performance. The findings of this study may be useful for educationsector, educators, college’s management and future researchers.

Nout M. Alhajraf

2014-03-01

385

Formal Component-Based Semantics  

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Full Text Available One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

Ken Madlener

2011-08-01

386

The demographic and academic profile of Irish dental school faculty members.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

AIM: This paper reviews the demographic, academic and professional profile of Irish dental school faculty members. Faculty duties are explored. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Custom-designed questionnaires were distributed to faculty members for self-completion, adopting a \\'mixed-method\\' approach with quantitative and qualitative components. Response rate was 64.60%. RESULTS: Demographic profile reveals a male-dominated regime (64%). Males also occupy a disproportionate number of senior academic positions. The age profile mirrors international trends with 75% of staff over 40 and c.33% over 50, including 78% of professorial staff (p < 0.001). Dental school faculties are comprised of highly educated professionals with the following qualifications: 89% BDS, 43% FDS, 39% Masters, 16% Doctorates. Most (77%) have 10+ years of clinical experience, while 47% have over 20 years\\' experience. Clinical experience varied by age, rank (p < 0.001) and gender (p < 0.05). A review of contractual agreements and duties confirms the major role of part-time clinical staff in dental education, comprising the largest single group (48%) delivering the bulk of the clinical teaching. However, 54% of part-time clinical staff have less than five years teaching experience. This study also explores staff views of various faculty roles. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides a benchmark profile of Irish dental school faculty members. It reflects on the heavily skewed age groups of our current dental educators and the impending retirement of many senior academics. Educational organisations need to explore ways to make a career in dental education financially and sociologically attractive and provide adequate support for existing faculty to ensure their development during these challenging times.

O'Sullivan, Eleanor M

2010-04-23