WorldWideScience
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Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

Brian C. O' Neill

2006-08-09

2

Demographic Component-Support of Regional Economic Development. Case Study: Tecuci Plain  

OpenAIRE

Regional economic development is strongly conditioned by the demographic component,the analysis of demographic trends and demographicprojections serving to substantiate properdevelopment plans and strategies. This study aims to determine the demographic trend of humansettlements in the Tecuci Plain, a space that can get the future status of micro-region, to identify thefavorability and/or restriction factors, to draw upuseful demographic projections for policy makers atlocal and regional level.

Iulian Sorcaru

2012-01-01

3

Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432-917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420-990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347-1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm) whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species. PMID:25870776

Rohner, Christoph A; Richardson, Anthony J; Prebble, Clare E M; Marshall, Andrea D; Bennett, Michael B; Weeks, Scarla J; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Pierce, Simon J

2015-01-01

4

When celibacy matters: incorporating non-breeders improves demographic parameter estimates.  

Science.gov (United States)

In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans). In this species, the breeding cycle lasts almost a year and birds that succeed a given year tend to skip the next breeding occasion while birds that fail tend to breed again the following year. Most non-breeders remain unobservable at sea, but still a substantial number of observable non-breeders (ONB) was identified on breeding sites. Using multi-state capture-mark-recapture analyses, we used several measures to compare the performance of demographic estimates between models incorporating or ignoring ONB: bias (difference in mean), precision (difference is standard deviation) and accuracy (both differences in mean and standard deviation). Our results highlight that ignoring ONB leads to bias and loss of accuracy on breeding probability and survival estimates. These effects are even stronger when studied in an age-dependent framework. Biases on breeding probabilities and survival increased with age leading to overestimation of survival at old age and thus actuarial senescence and underestimation of reproductive senescence. We believe our study sheds new light on the difficulties of estimating demographic parameters in species/taxa where a significant part of the population does not breed every year. Taking into account ONB appeared important to improve demographic parameter estimates, models of population dynamics and evolutionary conclusions regarding senescence within and across taxa. PMID:23555965

Pardo, Deborah; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

2013-01-01

5

Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-07-01

6

Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-08-01

7

Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models.Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites.In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and their limitations on epidemiological analyses. We review sources of detailed, contemporary, freely available and relevant spatial demographic data focusing on low income regions where such data are often sparse and highlight the value of incorporating these through a set of examples of their application in disease studies. Moreover, the importance of acknowledging, measuring, and accounting for uncertainty in spatial demographic datasets is outlined. Finally, a strategy for building an open-access database of spatial demographic data that is tailored to epidemiological applications is put forward. PMID:22591595

Tatem, Andrew J; Adamo, Susana; Bharti, Nita; Burgert, Clara R; Castro, Marcia; Dorelien, Audrey; Fink, Gunter; Linard, Catherine; John, Mendelsohn; Montana, Livia; Montgomery, Mark R; Nelson, Andrew; Noor, Abdisalan M; Pindolia, Deepa; Yetman, Greg; Balk, Deborah

2012-01-01

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Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and their limitations on epidemiological analyses. We review sources of detailed, contemporary, freely available and relevant spatial demographic data focusing on low income regions where such data are often sparse and highlight the value of incorporating these through a set of examples of their application in disease studies. Moreover, the importance of acknowledging, measuring, and accounting for uncertainty in spatial demographic datasets is outlined. Finally, a strategy for building an open-access database of spatial demographic data that is tailored to epidemiological applications is put forward.

Tatem Andrew J

2012-05-01

9

The Demographic Component in the Development of a Metropolis. Case-Study: Ia?i  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several peculiarities make Ia?i an outstanding city: it is a first-rank city in the national settlement system and the capital of the historical province of Moldova, numbers over 300,000 inhabitants and holds the 2nd position in the national urban hierarchy by demographic size, and a national growth pole since 2008 (Government Decision 998/2008. In view of the above, Ia?i has a significant demographic potential, also discharging complex functions and polarizing a large influence area, being one of the pillars of urban development in Romania. The aim of this paper is to outline the urban development strategy in the light of demographic structures and evolution. The demography today in the peri-urban space shows two characteristic features, namely the urban–rural migration, on the one hand, and the dominant agricultural functionality, on the other hand, as mirrored by the structure of employment. The development–related factors are the positive natural demographic balance, low level of population ageing and supply of a large workforce, a potential well-balanced local labour market. Concluding, the provision of Ia?i integrated urban and peri-urban strategy are pointed out.

CLAUDIA POPESCU

2011-01-01

10

Laser Peening For Improving Metallic Components  

OpenAIRE

Suitable variation of residual stress profiles, fatigue strength and frequently also corrosion resistance of a material, are key requirements to be fulfilled for usability and long life of a vital machine component. Laser Peening (LP) is an innovative surface treatment which was initially developed for the aeronautic industry as the method for the improvement of the fatigue cracking resistance of the turbine spades of an aircraft, such as Falcon F-16 and Rockwell F-22. LP is based on plasm...

Grum, Janez; Trdan, Uros; Ocan?a Moreno, Jose Luis; Porro Gonza?lez, Juan Antonio

2010-01-01

11

Engine component improvement program: Performance improvement. [fuel consumption  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuel consumption of commercial aircraft is considered. Fuel saving and retention components for new production and retrofit of JT9D, JT8D, and CF6 engines are reviewed. The manner in which the performance improvement concepts were selected for development and a summary of the current status of each of the 16 selected concepts are discussed.

Mcaulay, J. E.

1979-01-01

12

Improving the Components of Speaking Proficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main concerns of language learners is how to improve their speaking proficiency in general and different components of speaking proficiency such as fluency, accuracy, accent, vocabulary, comprehension, and communication in particular. Accordingly, the present research attempts to investigate the effect of listening to different TV programs on improving different components of speaking proficiency. To achieve this purpose, a sample speaking test was given to twenty language learners as a pre-test. During the study, the participants had exposure to different programs from TV. After a period of three months, a post-test was administered. Then, the scores of each component in the pre-test were compared with that of the post-test. The result showed that the use of vocabulary as a component of speaking proficiency improves more. On the contrary, accuracy improves less than the other components.
Key words: Speaking proficiency; Improve; Vocabulary; Accuracy

Résumé: L'une des préoccupations principales des apprenants de langue est de savoir comment améliorer l'expression orale en général et maîtriser de différents composants de la compétence de l’expression orale comme la fluidité, la précision, l'accent, le vocabulaire, la compréhension et la communication en particulier. En conséquence, la présente recherche tente d'étudier l'effet d'écouter des émissions de différents programmes à la télé sur l'amélioration de la maîtrise de différents éléments de l'expression orale. Pour atteindre ce but, un test de langue a été donnée à vingt apprenants de langue comme un pré-test. Au cours de l'étude, les participants ont été exposés à de différents programmes de la télévision. Après une période de trois mois, un post-test a été donné. Ensuite, les scores de chaque composant dans le pré-test ont été comparés avec ceux du post-test. Le résultat a montré que l’un des éléments de compétence orale, l'utilisation du vocabulaire, s'améliore le plus. Au contraire, la précision s'améliore moins que les autres composants.
Mots-clés: Compétence de l’expression orale; Améliorer; Vocabulaire; Précision

Taher Bahrani

2011-07-01

13

Using online platforms for competence tests: A component of the demographic policy of Germany  

OpenAIRE

Lifelong learning represents a key response to the demographic challenge in Germany. In terms of professional success, not only hard skills but also soft skills hold importance. Indeed, the OECD competence tests PISA and PIAAC have come to the fore, although acquired skills are still relevant. Given the increasing skills shortages and the reduced half-life of qualifications, training continues to gain importance, including in the context of employer branding and companies´ corporate social r...

Spermann, Alexander

2014-01-01

14

Improved component mode synthesis and variants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey focuses on the two known model order reduction schemes being widely integrated in various commercial finite element packages, namely, the static and dynamic condensation methods. The advantages as well as the corresponding drawbacks have been extensively analyzed in several papers throughout the last decades. Based on combining the beneficial properties of the aforementioned methods, several alternative reduction methodologies are outlined in this paper, i.e., the generalized improved reduction system method, the generalized component mode synthesis and the improved component mode synthesis with its generalized version, which incorporate in a more efficient way the system’s inertia terms. Therefore, the associated error regarding higher frequency ranges of interest is better controlled. Basis of these methodologies is the so-called master and slave degrees of freedom partitioning, the right selection of which highly influences the reduced order model’s dynamics. The methods are tested and verified on a rather small three-dimensional bar structure and on the lever part of a turbocharger’s variable turbine geometry. Several reduced order models are generated by varying both the number of Craig–Bampton modes and the selection of the required master degrees of freedom. A comparison is conducted based on the modal criterion of the corresponding eigenvectors and the associated computation time required.

15

When celibacy matters: Incorporating non-breeders improves demographic parameter estimates  

OpenAIRE

In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exula...

Pardo, Deborah; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

2013-01-01

16

The Effectiveness of Institutional Intervention on Minimizing Demographic Inertia and Improving the Representation of Women Faculty in Higher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women remain under-represented among full time tenured/tenure-track science and engineering faculty at research universities in the United States despite their increasing availability in the employment pool. In response, intervention strategies aimed at boosting their participation have been introduced at university and national levels. Efforts to improve women’s representation may be challenged by demographic inertia, the tendency for the maintenance of the entrenched population structure that favors men despite improvements in women’s vital parameters. Here, we investigate the effectiveness of the U.S. National Science Foundation’s ADVANCE institutional intervention program at curtailing demographic inertia at a research university dubbed ‘Snow State University’ (SSU. We found that demographic inertia’s impact on women’s representation was lessened during ADVANCE. Yet to achieve long-lasting improvements in women’s representation, universities will need to increase their recruitment of women at the associate and full professor ranks while maintaining promotion and retention probabilities favorable to women over the long-term.

Amanda V. Bakian

2010-06-01

17

Formal and substantial Internet information skills: The role of socio-demographic differences on the possession of different components of digital literacy  

OpenAIRE

The literature about digital inequality has pointed out the role of so-called "digital skills" in contributing to a full exploitation of the opportunities of the Web for individuals. Research has started to measure the differences in online skills on a socio-demographic base, finding relevant disparities. Since different components of digital skills have been described in theory, it is not clear which of them are influenced by specific social variables and which are not. This study goes a ste...

Gui, Marco

2007-01-01

18

Microinjection molding of microsystem components: new aspects in improving performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Microinjection molding (µIM) is considered to be one of the most flexible, reliable and cost effective manufacturing routes to form plastic micro-components for microsystems. The molding machine, mold tool fabrication, material selection and process controlling in this specific field have been greatly developed over the past decades. This review aims to present the new trends towards improving micro-component performance by reviewing the latest developments in this area and by considering potential directions. The key concerns in product and mold designing, essential factors in simulation, and micro-morphology and resultant properties are evaluated and discussed. In addition, the applications, variant processes and outlook for µIM are presented. Throughout this review, decisive considerations in seeking improved performance for microsystem components are highlighted.

Yang, Can; Yin, Xiao-Hong; Cheng, Guang-Ming

2013-09-01

19

Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated,...

Tatem Andrew J; Adamo Susana; Bharti Nita; Burgert Clara R; Castro Marcia; Dorelien Audrey; Fink Gunter; Linard Catherine; John Mendelsohn; Montana Livia; Montgomery Mark R; Nelson Andrew; Noor Abdisalan M; Pindolia Deepa; Yetman Greg

2012-01-01

20

Could non-grade based selection improve medical student socio-demographic diversity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Students with lower socioeconomic backgrounds have been found to be underrepresented in medical education. There is little evidence as to whether the type of student admission strategy used could make a difference to diversity of medical students. The aim of this paper was to examine if selection strategy made a difference to the diversity of admitted medical students. Method: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The population was 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 at one medical school. Of these, 454 was admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected with a non-grade-based or ’non-cognitive’ admission program. The two admission groups were compared on seven social indices (doctor parent, ethnic origin, father’s education, mother’s education, parenthood, parents live together, parent on benefit). Result: Selection strategy made no difference to the social diversity of admitted medical students. The non-cognitive admission program studied was nota useful initiative for improving medical student diversity nor did it further disadvantaged educationally vulnerable population groups in these cohorts. Discussion: The social heritage and general intelligence of potential applicants from underrepresented groups may be far more influential on diversity in medical school than the choice of medical school selection strategy.

O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

2013-01-01

21

Measures to improve the availability of nuclear components from the viewpoint of a component supplier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Basis Safety Concept (BSC) mandatory in Germany for pressure-retaining components in nuclear power plants provides a significant contribution towards improving plant availability. The use of tough materials with good welding properties satisfies basis safely requirements much in the same way as, being the result of process optimization, the application of narrow-gap welding for butt welds and of pulsed TIG welding for the tube to tube-sheet joints in steam generators of pressurized-water reactors

22

Managerial improvement efforts after finding unreported cracks in reactor components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2002 TEPCO found that there were unreported cracks in reactor components, of which inspection records had been falsified. Stress Corrosion Cracking indications found in Core Shrouds and Primary Loop Re-circulation pipes at some plants were removed from the inspection records and not reported to the regulators. Top management of TEPCO took the responsibility and resigned, and recovery was started under the leadership of new management team. First of all, behavioral standards were reconstituted to strongly support safety-first value. Ethics education was introduced and corporate ethics committee was organized with participation of external experts. Independent assessment organization was established to enhance quality assurance. Information became more transparent through Non-conformance Control Program. As for the material management, prevention and mitigation programs for the Stress Corrosion Cracking of reactor components were re-established. In addition to the above immediate recovery actions, long term improvement initiatives have also been launched and driven by our aspiration to excellence in safe operation of nuclear power plants. Vision and core values were set to align the people. Organizational learning was enhanced by benchmark studies, better systematic use of operational experience, self-assessment and external assessment. Based on these foundation blocks and with strong sponsorship from the top management, work processes were analyzed and improved by P processes were analyzed and improved by Peer Groups. (author)

23

Improved temperature regulation of APS linac RF components.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The temperature of the APS S-Band linac's high-power rf components is regulated by water from individual closed-loop deionized (DI) water systems. The rf components are all made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper and respond quickly to temperature changes. The SLED cavities are especially temperature-sensitive and cause beam energy instabilities when the temperature is not well regulated. Temperature regulation better than {+-} 0.1 F is required to achieve good energy stability. Improvements in the closed-loop water systems have enabled them to achieve a regulation of {+-} 0.05 F over long periods. Regulation philosophy and equipment are discussed and numerical results are presented.

Dortwegt, R.

1998-09-21

24

A method for improving test rig performance using passive components  

Science.gov (United States)

The time waveform replication (TWR) algorithm is presently used in industry for calculating the actuation force needed to replicate a certain reference sensor output in a test rig. Power and force rate limitations restrict the feasible range of that actuation force. If the input force distribution of the reference test cannot be replicated in the test rig, the required test rig input force magnitudes may be large or the replication properties poor due to lack of controllability. To circumvent this, a theory of passive components to improve replication and limit the input force demands of dynamic test rigs is developed. The theory fits within the framework of the TWR algorithm.

Johansson, Anders T.; Abrahamsson, Thomas J. S.

2015-02-01

25

Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

2013-01-01

26

Holometric Testing Applications For Vehicle Component Structural Improvement  

Science.gov (United States)

Holometric testing of vehicle components to improve their structural characteristics is now a proven methodology. The inherent advantages of a full-field, high sensitivity measurement capability are emphasized for the iterative improvement of prototype structures (static and dynamic) and the timely application to understanding structure related concerns on vehicles in production. Successful acquisition of usable and valid test results requires considerable thought and effort to create a test set-up that recreates as closely as possible the test subject boundary and loading or excitation conditions existing in-vehicle. The recent addition of advanced Computer Aided Holometry (CAH) has significantly enhanced the understanding and utilization of holometric testing by Ford engineering. Recent examples of studies that address both the static and dynamic behavior of components are presented. Continuous wave and pulsed laser holometric techniques have been applied to study the following subjects: (1) self generated brake noise, (2) engine block noise radiation, (3) steering column vibration, (4) engine structure deformation under fastener torque loads and (5) cylinder head deformation under simulated combustion chamber pressure loads.

Brown, Gordon M.; Cummins, D. L.; Marchi, Mitchell M.; Wales, Raymond R.

1989-03-01

27

Codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components to improve Jewett transform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jewett Transform is not yet, it is being. First ideas on this metaphor are from 1980 while monitoring cerebral function. It was conceived in contrast with Fourier Transform. Its application is limited to Auditory Brain Stem Responses. It uses a non-orthogonal physiologically rooted basis. Non-orthogonal basis has limited power in front of orthogonal basis: no analytical method exists to evaluate the corresponding transforms and numerical methods are required. In previous works, numerical methods were replaced for by trained artificial neural networks. Jewett transform was applied to increase the training set. Being a physiologically inspired basis, it promises better understanding of analysis of these evoked responses. It is envisioned that diverse new transforms, tailored to different problem specificity are to emerge. Considering the short temporal influence of Jewett components, it is stated that codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components can be used to improve Jewett Transform. Previously used neural network was modified. Output vector codes are built up by grouping components instead of grouping parameters. This allows synaptic pruning in the artificial neural network. Only a fraction (0.49) of the previous network weights is used. Mean square error in fitting signal to model are acceptable (mean ?<0.3%, n= 600). Memorization is eliminated

28

Improved Joining of Metal Components to Composite Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems requirements for complex spacecraft drive design requirements that lead to structures, components, and/or enclosures of a multi-material and multifunctional design. The varying physical properties of aluminum, tungsten, Invar, or other high-grade aerospace metals when utilized in conjunction with lightweight composites multiply system level solutions. These multi-material designs are largely dependent upon effective joining techAn improved method of joining metal components to matrix/fiber composite material structures has been invented. The method is particularly applicable to equipping such thin-wall polymer-matrix composite (PMC) structures as tanks with flanges, ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liners for high heat engine nozzles, and other metallic-to-composite attachments. The method is oriented toward new architectures and distributing mechanical loads as widely as possible in the vicinities of attachment locations to prevent excessive concentrations of stresses that could give rise to delaminations, debonds, leaks, and other failures. The method in its most basic form can be summarized as follows: A metal component is to be joined to a designated attachment area on a composite-material structure. In preparation for joining, the metal component is fabricated to include multiple studs projecting from the aforementioned face. Also in preparation for joining, holes just wide enough to accept the studs are molded into, drilled, or otherwise formed in the corresponding locations in the designated attachment area of the uncured ("wet') composite structure. The metal component is brought together with the uncured composite structure so that the studs become firmly seated in the holes, thereby causing the composite material to become intertwined with the metal component in the joining area. Alternately, it is proposed to utilize other mechanical attachment schemes whereby the uncured composite and metallic parts are joined with "z-direction" fasteners. The resulting "wet" assembly is then subjected to the composite-curing heat treatment, becoming a unitary structure. It should be noted that this new art will require different techniques for CMC s versus PMC's, but the final architecture and companion curing philosophy is the same. For instance, a chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) fabrication technique may require special integration of the pre-form and

Semmes, Edmund

2009-01-01

29

A comparative method for improving the reliability of brittle components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculating the absolute reliability built in a product is often an extremely difficult task because of the complexity of the physical processes and physical mechanisms underlying the failure modes, the complex influence of the environment and the operational loads, the variability associated with reliability-critical design parameters and the non-robustness of the prediction models. Predicting the probability of failure of loaded components with complex shape for example is associated with uncertainty related to: the type of existing flaws initiating fracture, the size distributions of the flaws, the locations and the orientations of the flaws and the microstructure and its local properties. Capturing these types of uncertainty, necessary for a correct prediction of the reliability of components is a formidable task which does not need to be addressed if a comparative reliability method is employed, especially if the focus is on reliability improvement. The new comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws proposed here is based on an assumed failure criterion, an equation linking the probability that a flaw will be critical with the probability of failure associated with the component and a finite element solution for the distribution of the principal stresses in the loaded component. The probability that a flaw will be critical is determined directly, after a finite number of steps equal to the number of finite elements into which thhe number of finite elements into which the component is divided. An advantage of the proposed comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws is that it does not rely on a Monte Carlo simulation and does not depend on knowledge of the size distribution of the flaws and the material properties. This essentially eliminates uncertainty associated with the material properties and the population of flaws. On the basis of a theoretical analysis we also show that, contrary to the common belief, in general, for non-interacting flaws randomly located in a stressed volume, the distribution of the minimum failure stress is not necessarily described by a Weibull distribution. For the simple case of a single group of flaws all of which become critical beyond a particular threshold value for example, the Weibull distribution fails to predict correctly the probability of failure. If in a particular load range, no new critical flaws are created by increasing the applied stress, the Weibull distribution also fails to predict correctly the probability of failure of the component. In these cases however, the probability of failure is correctly predicted by the suggested alternative equation. The suggested equation is the correct mathematical formulation of the weakest-link concept related to random flaws in a stressed volume. The equation does not require any assumption concerning the physical nature of the flaws and the physical mechanism of failure and can be applied in any situation of locally initiated failure by non-interacting entities

30

A comparative method for improving the reliability of brittle components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculating the absolute reliability built in a product is often an extremely difficult task because of the complexity of the physical processes and physical mechanisms underlying the failure modes, the complex influence of the environment and the operational loads, the variability associated with reliability-critical design parameters and the non-robustness of the prediction models. Predicting the probability of failure of loaded components with complex shape for example is associated with uncertainty related to: the type of existing flaws initiating fracture, the size distributions of the flaws, the locations and the orientations of the flaws and the microstructure and its local properties. Capturing these types of uncertainty, necessary for a correct prediction of the reliability of components is a formidable task which does not need to be addressed if a comparative reliability method is employed, especially if the focus is on reliability improvement. The new comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws proposed here is based on an assumed failure criterion, an equation linking the probability that a flaw will be critical with the probability of failure associated with the component and a finite element solution for the distribution of the principal stresses in the loaded component. The probability that a flaw will be critical is determined directly, after a finite number of steps equal to the number of finite elements into which the component is divided. An advantage of the proposed comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws is that it does not rely on a Monte Carlo simulation and does not depend on knowledge of the size distribution of the flaws and the material properties. This essentially eliminates uncertainty associated with the material properties and the population of flaws. On the basis of a theoretical analysis we also show that, contrary to the common belief, in general, for non-interacting flaws randomly located in a stressed volume, the distribution of the minimum failure stress is not necessarily described by a Weibull distribution. For the simple case of a single group of flaws all of which become critical beyond a particular threshold value for example, the Weibull distribution fails to predict correctly the probability of failure. If in a particular load range, no new critical flaws are created by increasing the applied stress, the Weibull distribution also fails to predict correctly the probability of failure of the component. In these cases however, the probability of failure is correctly predicted by the suggested alternative equation. The suggested equation is the correct mathematical formulation of the weakest-link concept related to random flaws in a stressed volume. The equation does not require any assumption concerning the physical nature of the flaws and the physical mechanism of failure and can be applied in any situation of locally initiated failure by non-interacting entities.

Todinov, M.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX33 1HX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mtodinov@brookes.ac.uk

2009-02-15

31

Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

32

Residual stress improving method for reactor structural component and residual stress improving device therefor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention is applied to a BWR type reactor, in which a high speed jetting flow incorporating cavities is collided against the surface of reactor structural components to form residual compression stresses on the surface layer of the reactor structural components thereby improving the stresses on the surface. Namely, a water jetting means is inserted into the reactor container filled with reactor water. Purified water is pressurized by a pump and introduced to the water jetting means. The purified water jetted from the water jetting means and entraining cavities is abutted against the surface of the reactor structural components. With such procedures, since the purified water is introduced to the water jetting means by the pump, the pump is free from contamination of radioactive materials. As a result, maintenance and inspection for the pump can be facilitated. Further, since the purified water injection flow entraining cavities is abutted against the surface of the reactor structural components being in contact with reactor water, residual compression stresses are exerted on the surface of the reactor structural components. As a result, occurrence of stress corrosion crackings of reactor structural components is suppressed. (I.S.)

33

Improved Throughput with Cooperating Futuristic Airspace Management Components  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to integrate airspace management tools that would typically be confined to either the en route or the terminal airspace to explore the potential benefits of their communication to improve arrival capacity. A NAS-wide simulation was configured with a new concept component that used the information to reconfigure the terminal airspace to the capacity benefit of the airport. Reconfiguration included a dynamically expanding and contracting TRACON area and a varying number of active arrival runways, both automatically selected to accommodate predicted volume of traffic. ATL and DFW were selected for the study. Results showed significant throughput increase for scenarios that are considered to be over-capacity for current day airport configurations. During periods of sustained demand for ATL 2018, throughput increased by 26 operations per hour (30%) and average delay was reduced from 18 minutes to 8 minutes per flight when using the dynamic TRACON. Similar results were obtained for DFW with 2018 traffic levels and for ATL with 2006 traffic levels, but with lower benefits due to lower demand.

Glaab, Patricia C.

2013-01-01

34

The utility of ancient human DNA for improving allele age estimates, with implications for demographic models and tests of natural selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The age of polymorphic alleles in humans is often estimated from population genetic patterns in extant human populations, such as allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium, and rate of mutations. Ancient DNA can improve the accuracy of such estimates, as well as facilitate testing the validity of demographic models underlying many population genetic methods. Specifically, the presence of an allele in a genome derived from an ancient sample testifies that the allele is at least as old as that sample. In this study, we consider a common method for estimating allele age based on allele frequency as applied to variants from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project. We view these estimates in the context of the presence or absence of each allele in the genomes of the 5300 year old Tyrolean Iceman, Ötzi, and of the 50,000 year old Altai Neandertal. Our results illuminate the accuracy of these estimates and their sensitivity to demographic events that were not included in the model underlying age estimation. Specifically, allele presence in the Iceman genome provides a good fit of allele age estimates to the expectation based on the age of that specimen. The equivalent based on the Neandertal genome leads to a poorer fit. This is likely due in part to the older age of the Neandertal and the older time of the split between modern humans and Neandertals, but also due to gene flow from Neandertals to modern humans not being considered in the underlying demographic model. Thus, the incorporation of ancient DNA can improve allele age estimation, demographic modeling, and tests of natural selection. Our results also point to the importance of considering a more diverse set of ancient samples for understanding the geographic and temporal range of individual alleles. PMID:25467111

Sams, Aaron J; Hawks, John; Keinan, Alon

2015-02-01

35

Does intraoperative fluoroscopy improve component positioning in total hip arthroplasty?  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate placement of components is imperative for successful outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Although technology-assisted techniques offer the potential for greater accuracy in prosthesis positioning, the need for additional resources prevents their widespread use. The goal of this study was to compare primary THA procedures performed with and without intraoperative fluoroscopic guidance with regard to accuracy of prosthesis placement, operative time, and postoperative complications. The authors reviewed 341 consecutive cases (330 patients) undergoing primary THA at the authors' institution from September 2007 to January 2010. Postoperative anteroposterior radiographs were used to measure acetabular inclination angle, leg length discrepancy, and femoral offset discrepancy. Operative time and postoperative complications related to implant positioning were recorded. Mean acetabular inclination angle, leg length discrepancy, and offset discrepancy for control vs study groups were 43.0° (range, 32.2°-61.4°) vs 43.8° (range, 29.0°-55.1°), 4.75 mm (range, 0-25) vs 4.24 mm (range, 0-27), and 8.47 mm (range, 0-9.7) vs 7.70 mm (range, 0-31), respectively. Complication rates were not significantly different between the control (8.1%) and study (5.3%) groups. Mean operative time was significantly higher in the study group compared with the control group (59.8 vs 52.8 minutes) (P<.0001). The findings showed that intraoperative fluoroscopy may not improve prosthesis accuracy or decrease postoperative complication rates compared with a freehand technique. Because of significantly increased operative time and cost associated with fluoroscopic guidance, the authors discourage the use of this technique in uncomplicated primary THA performed at high-volume arthroplasty institutions. PMID:25611413

Tischler, Eric H; Orozco, Fabio; Aggarwal, Vinay K; Pacheco, Haroldo; Post, Zachary; Ong, Alvin

2015-01-01

36

Improving airborne strapdown vector gravimetry using stabilized horizontal components  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating the deflections of the vertical along the flight line can yield geoid profiles which are valuable in the study of geodesy and geophysics, fortunately, the deflections can be measured directly by vector gravimetry. Airborne vector gravimetry using a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System and the Global Navigation Satellite System (SINS/GNSS) has shown promising results in previous studies. However, the quality of the SINS and GNSS is a major limitation; in particular, the attitude errors induced by the gyros will result in large measurement errors to the horizontal components of the gravity disturbance, and these measurement errors represent the behavior of low-frequency trend. An airborne vector gravimetry method used to remove the bias and low-frequency trends in the gravity disturbance estimated for each survey line has been developed. This method uses the horizontal components of the gravity disturbance computed from EGM2008 (Earth Gravitational Model 2008) as a reference. Firstly, the horizontal measurement results obtained from the gravimeter are divided into high- and low-frequency components according to the resolution of the EGM2008, and then, the bias and low-frequency trends of the low-frequency components are corrected using a linear fit to the EGM2008 reference data. Finally, the ultimate results can be acquired after combining the high-frequency components and the corrected low-frequency components. The data used was obtained from the SGA-WZ, which is the first strapdown airborne gravimeter developed in China. The results of this method are promising. The internal accuracy of the gravity disturbance's horizontal components for repeated survey lines exceeds 3.5 mGal, and the corresponding resolution is approximately 4.8 km based on 160-s data smoothing and an airplane averaging speed of approximately 216 km/h. After applying the WCF (Wavenumber Correlation Filter), the internal accuracy of the horizontal components exceeds 2 mGal. This can satisfy the requirement of the application in geodesy and solid earth geophysics.

Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Wu, Meiping

2013-11-01

37

Improved dependent component analysis for hyperspectral unmixing with spatial correlations  

Science.gov (United States)

In highly mixed hyerspectral datasets, dependent component analysis (DECA) has shown its superiority over other traditional geometric based algorithms. This paper proposes a new algorithm that incorporates DECA with the infinite hidden Markov random field (iHMRF) model, which can efficiently exploit spatial dependencies between image pixels and automatically determine the number of classes. Expectation Maximization algorithm is derived to infer the model parameters, including the endmembers, the abundances, the dirichlet distribution parameters of each class and the classification map. Experimental results based on synthetic and real hyperspectral data show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Tang, Yi; Wan, Jianwei; Huang, Bingchao; Lan, Tian

2014-11-01

38

Improvement of BCI Performance Through Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG recordings provide an important means of brain-computer communication, but their classification accuracy and transfer rate are limited by unexpected signal variations due to artifacts and noises. In this paper, a nonlinear independent component analysis (NICA extraction method for brain signal based EEG-P300 are proposed. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through a comparison of well known extraction methods (i.e., AAR, JADE, and SOBI algorithms. Finally, the promising results reported here reflect the considerable potential of EEG for the continuous classification of mental states.

Arjon Turnip

2014-03-01

39

Improving tag/seal technologies: the vulnerability assessment component  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, has sponsored the development of numerous tag and seal technologies for high-security/high-valued applications. One important component in this technology development effort has been the continuous integration of vulnerability assessments. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been the lead laboratory for vulnerability assessments of fiber-optic-based tag/seal technologies. This paper presents a brief historical overview and the current status of the DOE high-security tag/seal development program and discusses INEL's adversarial role and assessment philosophy. Verification testing criteria used to define ''successful'' tampering attempts/attacks are discussed. Finally, the advantages of integrating a vulnerability assessment into the development of commercial security tag/seals are presented

40

Problem and improvement of accelerator components at SACLA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SACLA is under user operation after the lasing at 0.06 nm in July 2011. The demanded rf temporal stabilities of an injector cavities should be within 50 - 100 fs and the trip rate of high-power rf sources should also be less than twice a hour for the stable practical user operation of SACLA, respectively. In the present, since the day and night user operation is already established by smidgen trimming by operators to the phases of the injector's cavities, we can say the demand previously mentioned is almost satisfied. However there are some problems after the end of the construction of SACLA, as follows. 1. Even thorough, an environment temperature around accelerator active components is controlled within 0.1 K, The X-ray laser intensity of SACLA is drifted by the effect of outside air temperature. Such intensity drift is caused by the insufficient rf phase stabilities of the water cooled cavities in the injector. 2. The unignorable trip rate of thyratrons by self-arcing, the trouble of an inverter power supply for a klystron modulator and the arcing of a high-voltage transformer for the klystron exist. 3. Deposition of oxidized copper in cooling waterlines is happen by the effect of dissolve oxygen in the water. Countermeasures to the problems are replacing LLRF components having poor thermal phase dependence, changing deuterium density of the thyratron to reduce the number of the self-arcing, reinforcement of high-voltage insulation ability to the inverter power supply and the high-voltage transformer, and installation of oxygen reduction equipment in to the cooling-water line. We expect the temporal drift of the laser intensity and the rf temporal stabilities are going to reduce within the demanded value after the countermeasures. (author)

41

Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCARâ??s test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of imported oil, that much less air pollution, and an equivalent reduction in the trade deficit, which is expected to lower the inflation rate.

N.B. Elsner; J.C. Bass; S. Ghamaty; D. Krommenhoek; A. Kushch; D. Snowden; S. Marchetti

2005-03-31

42

INVESTIGATIONS TO IMPROVE THE TRANSFERABILITY OF SPECIMEN RESULTS BY REAL COMPONENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the improvement of the lifetime calculation of components made of the titanium alloy Ti-6-4, a closed loop methodology from specimen to the component is presented. Based on forged pre-material specimens fatigue tests are done as a basic research, which are presented as S/N-curves. With the determined material data a lifetime calculation with the program FEMFAT is done on a typically fitting element. Finally the results of the lifetime calculation are compared to real component tests, which are done to evaluate the results of the lifetime calculation. The component tests are performed with constant and variable load. Therewith the transferability of specimen results to real components is shown. Additional fracture analysis by light microscope and scanning electron microscope is carried out to give further information of the influence factor of the lifetime and a further description between fracture behaviour of specimen and components.

Martin Riedler

2010-12-01

43

An improved method for nonstationary signals components extraction based on the ICI rule  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes an improved adaptive algorithm for components localization and extraction from a noisy multicomponent signal time-frequency distribution (TFD). The algorithm, based on the intersection of confidence intervals (ICI) rule, does not require any a priori knowledge of signal components and their mixture. Its efficiency is significantly enhanced by using high resolution and reduced cross-terms TFDs. The obtained results are compared for different signal-to-n...

Lerga, J.; Sucic, V.; Boashash, B.

2011-01-01

44

Methodology for Process Improvement Through Basic Components and Focusing on the Resistance to Change.  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes a multi-model methodology that implements a smooth and continuous process improvement, depending on the organization's business goals and allowing users to establish their improvement implementation pace. The methodology focuses on basic process components known as ‘best practices’. Besides, it covers following the topics: knowledge management and change management. The methodology description and the results of a case study on project management process are included.

Calvo-manzano Villalon, Jose Antonio; Cuevas Agustin, Gonzalo; Go?mez, Gerzo?n; Mejia, Jezreel; Mun?oz, Mirna; San Feliu Gilabert, Tomas

2010-01-01

45

Engine component improvement: Performance improvement, JT9D-7 3.8 AR fan  

Science.gov (United States)

A redesigned, fuel efficient fan for the JT9D-7 engine was tested. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of the 3.8 AR fan on performance, stability, operational characteristics, and noise of the JT9D-7 engine relative to the current 4.6 AR Bill-of-Material fan. The 3.8 AR fan provides increased fan efficiency due to a more advanced blade airfoil with increased chord, eliminating one part span shroud and reducing the number of fan blades and fan exit guide vanes. Engine testing at simulated cruise conditions demonstrated the predicted 1.3 percent improvement in specific fuel consumption with the redesigned 3.8 AR fan. Flight testing and sea level stand engine testing demonstrated exhaust gas temperature margins, fan and low pressure compressor stability, operational suitability, and noise levels comparable to the Bill-of-Material fan.

Gaffin, W. O.

1980-01-01

46

Biochemical component identification by plasmonic improved whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental data on detection and identification of variety of biochemical agents, such as proteins, microelements, antibiotic of different generation etc. in both single and multi component solutions under varied in wide range concentration analyzed on the light scattering parameters of whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor are represented. Multiplexing on parameters and components has been realized using developed fluidic sensor cell with fixed in adhesive layer dielectric microspheres and data processing. Biochemical component identification has been performed by developed network analysis techniques. Developed approach is demonstrated to be applicable both for single agent and for multi component biochemical analysis. Novel technique based on optical resonance on microring structures, plasmon resonance and identification tools has been developed. To improve a sensitivity of microring structures microspheres fixed by adhesive had been treated previously by gold nanoparticle solution. Another technique used thin film gold layers deposited on the substrate below adhesive. Both biomolecule and nanoparticle injections caused considerable changes of optical resonance spectra. Plasmonic gold layers under optimized thickness also improve parameters of optical resonance spectra. Biochemical component identification has been also performed by developed network analysis techniques both for single and for multi component solution. So advantages of plasmon enhancing optical microcavity resonance with multiparameter identification tools is used for development of a new platform for ultra sensitive label-free biomedical sensor.

Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

2014-05-01

47

Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2012-01-01

48

Introduction of cooperating conductive components into the phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to improve the electric conductivity of Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor with the least amount of conductive component so as to maximize the improvement in low voltage cathodoluminescence, In2O3 and Cu nanowires (NWs) were simultaneously introduced to form Cu NWs/In2O3-attached Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor. In2O3 and Cu NWs play different roles in the formation of electrically conductive network, i.e., Cu NWs are suitable as conductive channels for charge transmission due to their one-dimensional morphology with large slenderness ratios, while the island-like In2O3 condensates form local conductive contacts joining the adjacent Cu NWs. Meanwhile, In2O3 forms attachment between Cu NWs and the phosphor. Owing to the cooperating effects between Cu NWs/In2O3 conductive components in the phosphor, the efficiency in low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved. -- Highlights: ? In2O3/Cu NWs were introduced in Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence. ? In2O3/Cu NWs play different key roles in the formation of electrically conductive network. ? The cooperating effect was proved by comparing the experimental data and the calculated results. ? The low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved

49

IMPROVING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR MULTIMODAL IMAGE FUSION  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study is to combine multiple images of a scene acquired by different sensors to create a new image with all important information from the input images. Recent studies show that bases trained using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is effective in multisensor fusion and has improved performance over traditional wavelet approaches. In the ICA based fusion, the coefficients of the input images are combined simply by selecting the coefficients with maximum magnitude. But...

Egfin Nirmala, D.; Bibin Sam Paul, A.; Vaidehi, V.

2013-01-01

50

Improved E-ELT subsystem and component specifications, thanks to M1 test facility  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last 2 years ESO has operated the "M1 Test Facility", a test stand consisting of a representative section of the E-ELT primary mirror equipped with 4 complete prototype segment subunits including sensors, actuators and control system. The purpose of the test facility is twofold: it serves to study and get familiar with component and system aspects like calibration, alignment and handling procedures and suitable control strategies on real hardware long before the primary mirror (hereafter M1) components are commissioned. Secondly, and of major benefit to the project, it offered the possibility to evaluate component and subsystem performance and interface issues in a system context in such detail, that issues could be identified early enough to feed back into the subsystem and component specifications. This considerably reduces risk and cost of the production units and allows refocusing the project team on important issues for the follow-up of the production contracts. Experiences are presented in which areas the results of the M1 Test Facility particularly helped to improve subsystem specifications and areas, where additional tests were adopted independent of the main test facility. Presented are the key experiences of the M1 Test Facility which lead to improved specifications or identified the need for additional testing outside of the M1 Test Facility.

Dimmler, M.; Marrero, J.; Leveque, S.; Barriga, Pablo; Sedghi, B.; Kornweibel, N.

2014-07-01

51

Component improvement of free-piston Stirling engine key technology for space power  

Science.gov (United States)

The successful performance of the 25 kW Space Power Demonstrator (SPD) engine during an extensive testing period has provided a baseline of free piston Stirling engine technology from which future space Stirling engines may evolve. Much of the success of the engine was due to the initial careful selection of engine materials, fabrication and joining processes, and inspection procedures. Resolution of the few SPD engine problem areas that did occur has resulted in the technological advancement of certain key free piston Stirling engine components. Derivation of two half-SPD, single piston engines from the axially opposed piston SPD engine, designated as Space Power Research (SPR) engines, has made possible the continued improvement of these engine components. The two SPR engines serve as test bed engines for testing of engine components. Some important fabrication and joining processes are reviewed. Also, some component deficiencies that were discovered during SPD engine testing are described and approaches that were taken to correct these deficiencies are discussed. Potential component design modifications, based upon the SPD and SPR engine testing, are also reported.

Alger, Donald L.

1988-01-01

52

Wave-shaping of pulse tube cryocooler components for improved performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The method of wave-shaping acoustic resonators is applied to an inertance type cryogenic pulse tube refrigerator (IPTR) to improve its performance. A detailed time-dependent axisymmetric experimentally validated computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the PTR is used to predict its performance. The continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved for both the refrigerant gas (helium) and the porous media regions (the regenerator and the three heat-exchangers) in the PTR. An improved representation of heat transfer in the porous media is achieved by employing a thermal non-equilibrium model to couple the gas and solid (porous media) energy equations. The wave-shaped regenerator and pulse tube studied have cone geometries and the effects of different cone angles and the orientation (nozzle v/s diffuser mode) on the system performance are investigated. The resultant spatio-temporal pressure, temperature and velocity fields in the regenerator and pulse tube components are evaluated. The performance of these wave-shaped PTRs is compared to the performance of a non wave-shaped system with cylindrical components. Better cooling is predicted for the cryocooler using wave-shaped components oriented in the diffuser mode.

Antao, Dion Savio; Farouk, Bakhtier

2014-11-01

53

Introduction of cooperating conductive components into the phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to improve the electric conductivity of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor with the least amount of conductive component so as to maximize the improvement in low voltage cathodoluminescence, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu nanowires (NWs) were simultaneously introduced to form Cu NWs/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-attached Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor. In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu NWs play different roles in the formation of electrically conductive network, i.e., Cu NWs are suitable as conductive channels for charge transmission due to their one-dimensional morphology with large slenderness ratios, while the island-like In{sub 2}O{sub 3} condensates form local conductive contacts joining the adjacent Cu NWs. Meanwhile, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} forms attachment between Cu NWs and the phosphor. Owing to the cooperating effects between Cu NWs/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} conductive components in the phosphor, the efficiency in low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved. -- Highlights: ? In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu NWs were introduced in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence. ? In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu NWs play different key roles in the formation of electrically conductive network. ? The cooperating effect was proved by comparing the experimental data and the calculated results. ? The low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved.

Shang, Chun Yu, E-mail: shang.chun.yu@163.com [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China); JiangSu Province Web TV Research and Development Center for Engineering Technology, Suzhou 215104 (China); Kang, Hui; Jiang, Hong Bo [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China); Bu, Shu Po [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Suzhou Institute of Industrial Technology, Suzhou 215104 (China); Shang, Xiao Hong; Wu, Yan [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China)

2013-06-15

54

Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability Conceptual Design Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) components and systems. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration platform. I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the system; treating I&C as an integral part of the system design is innovative and will allow significant improvement in capabilities and performance. As systems become more complex and greater performance is required, traditional I&C design techniques become inadequate and more advanced I&C needs to be applied. New I&C techniques enable optimal and reliable performance and tolerance of noise and uncertainties in the system rather than merely monitoring quasistable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in NPP components after the design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. By incorporating I&C at the beginning of the design phase, the control system can provide superior performance and reliability and enable designs that are otherwise impossible. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the platform to demonstrate the performance and reliability improvements enabled by advanced embedded I&C.

Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Burress, T.; Fugate, D.; Holcomb, D.; Wilgen, J.; Miller, J.; Wilson, D.; Silva, P.; Whitlow, L.; Peretz, F.

2012-09-15

55

Independent component regression for seasonal climate prediction: an efficient way to improve multimodel ensembles  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this study is to improve the seasonal climate prediction of multimodel ensembles. The conventional principal component regression has been used to build a statistical relation between observations and multimodel ensembles. It predicts future climate values when there are a large number of variables, which is a typical issue in climate research field. However, principal component analysis which is prerequired to perform principal component regression assumes that information of the data should be retained by the second moment. This condition would be stringent to climate data. In this paper, we present a new prediction method that is efficient to adapt to non-Gaussian and high-dimensional data. The proposed method is based on a combination of independent component analysis and regularized regression approach. The main benefits of the proposed method are as follows. (1) It explains a statistical relationship between multimodel ensembles and observations, when either one is not normally distributed; and (2) it is capable of evaluating the contribution of climate models for prediction by selecting some specific models that are appropriate. The superiority of the proposed method is demonstrated by the prediction of future precipitation in boreal summer (June-July-August; JJA) for 20 years (1983-2002) on both global and regional scales.

Lim, Yaeji; Lee, Jaeyong; Oh, Hee-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk

2015-02-01

56

Improving the accuracy: volatility modeling and forecasting using high-frequency data and the variational component  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we predict the daily volatility of the S&P CNX NIFTY market index of India using the basic ‘heterogeneous autoregressive’ (HAR and its variant. In doing so, we estimated several HAR and Log form of HAR models using different regressor. The different regressors were obtained by extracting the jump and continuous component and the threshold jump and continuous component from the realized volatility. We also tried to investigate whether dividing volatility into simple and threshold jumps and continuous variation yields a substantial improvement in volatility forecasting or not. The results provide the evidence that inclusion of realized bipower variance in the HAR models helps in predicting future volatility.

Manish Kumar

2010-06-01

57

Enhanced Steganography Algorithm to Improve Security by using Vigenere Encryption and First Component Alteration Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding information and an effort to conceal the existence of the embedded information. In recent years many steganography methods have been challenge by steganalysis . Steganalysis algorithm which detects the stego -message by the static analysis of pixel values [1]. In the proposed method, the secret message is encoded by using vigenere encryption method which guarantees the protection of hidden message. Then hiding the secret text in an image by using first component alteration technique .In this technique, 8 bits of blue components are replaced with secret data bits , then that image can be hidden in cover image in non sequential pixel by using variable hope value power of 2 [2,4,8,16].The Proposed method aim not only to provide improved security problems of simple LSB method but also the increased visual quality of stegoimage.

Deeksha Bharti

2014-07-01

58

Improved Differential Evolution Based on Stochastic Ranking for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS Components  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper introduces an improved differential evolution (DE) algorithm for robust layout synthesis of microelectromechanical system components subject to inherent geometric uncertainties. A case study of the layout synthesis of a combdriven microresonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less sensitive to geometric uncertainties than the typical designs. It is also demonstrated that the algorithm proposed in this paper cannot only obtain better results than the standard DE algorithm but also outperform some other state-of-art algorithms in constrained optimization.

Fan, Zhun; Liu, Jinchao

2009-01-01

59

Improvement of residual stress in reactor components by laser peening method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a laser peening method to prevent stress corrosion cracking (SCC) as a process for preventive maintenance of core components in nuclear reactors. This method, which utilizes the impulsive effect of underwater irradiation by intense laser pulses to improve residual stress on the material surface, requires no preconditioning of the material surface and is suitable for maintenance work in narrow spaces. Through experiments, we confirmed the effect of the laser peening method in improving the residual stress of stainless steel and suppressing SCC. A laser delivery system, remote maintenance equipment, and an on-line monitoring system were developed and the feasibility of the laser peening method was confirmed through full-scale mockup tests simulating maintenance work on the core shroud of a boiling water reactor (BWR). (author)

60

Infrared non destructive test of plasma facing components. Defect detection improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to control actively water cooled plasma facing components before their installation in Tore Supra, an infrared test bed called SATIR has been developed since 1994 by CEA. In 1998, the test bed was used industrially to test 60 High Heat Flux (HHF) elements for antenna limiters, designed to sustain an incident flux of 10 MW/m2. In the future, approximately 1000 HHF elements will be controlled on SATIR. Since the beginning, some technical improvements have been performed on SATIR: increase of the temperature gradient, development of a new software for infrared data analysis, increase of control capacity. This paper points out the facility improvement and the application to HHF elements testing. Experimental results have been compared with a 3-D Finite Element calculation and show a good correlation. (author)

61

Demographic Dividend or Demographic Threat in Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

Population growth and size have remained the focus of debate for centuries but the recent demographic transition in developing countries has made social scientists take note of the changing age structure of the population as well. As a result of declining population growth and consequent changes in age structure, the proportion of working-age population is increasing in most developing countries, with an associated decline in the dependent age population, offering a window of opportunity to t...

Nayab, Durr-e-

2006-01-01

62

Application of improved hybrid interface substructural component modal synthesis method in vibration characteristics of mistuned blisk  

Science.gov (United States)

The large and complex structures are divided into hundreds of thousands or millions degrees of freedom(DOF) when they are calculated which will spend a lot of time and the efficiency will be extremely low. The classical component modal synthesis method (CMSM) are used extensively, but for many structures in the engineering of high-rise buildings, aerospace systemic engineerings, marine oil platforms etc, a large amount of calculation is still needed. An improved hybrid interface substructural component modal synthesis method(HISCMSM) is proposed. The parametric model of the mistuned blisk is built by the improved HISCMSM. The double coordinating conditions of the displacement and the force are introduced to ensure the computational accuracy. Compared with the overall structure finite element model method(FEMM), the computational time is shortened by 23.86%-31.56% and the modal deviation is 0.002%-0.157% which meets the requirement of the computational accuracy. It is faster 4.46%-10.57% than the classical HISCMSM. So the improved HISCMSM is better than the classical HISCMSM and the overall structure FEMM. Meanwhile, the frequency and the modal shape are researched, considering the factors including rotational speed, gas temperature and geometry size. The strong localization phenomenon of the modal shape's the maximum displacement and the maximum stress is observed in the second frequency band and it is the most sensitive in the frequency veering. But the localization phenomenon is relatively weak in 1st and the 3d frequency band. The localization of the modal shape is more serious under the condition of the geometric dimensioning mistuned. An improved HISCMSM is proposed, the computational efficiency of the mistuned blisk can be increased observably by this method.

Bai, Bin; Bai, Guangchen; Li, Chao

2014-11-01

63

Norway's Uncertain Demographic Future  

OpenAIRE

The demographic future of any population is uncertain, but some of the manypossible trajectories are more probable than others. Therefore, an exploration ofthe demographic future should include two elements: a range of possibleoutcomes, and a probability attached to that range. Together, these two constitutea prediction interval for the population variable concerned. This report presents thefindings of a research project, the aim of which was to compute predictionintervals for the future popu...

Keilman, Nico; Pham, Dinh Quang; Hetland, Arve

2001-01-01

64

IMPROVING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR MULTIMODAL IMAGE FUSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to combine multiple images of a scene acquired by different sensors to create a new image with all important information from the input images. Recent studies show that bases trained using Independent Component Analysis (ICA is effective in multisensor fusion and has improved performance over traditional wavelet approaches. In the ICA based fusion, the coefficients of the input images are combined simply by selecting the coefficients with maximum magnitude. But this method resulted in fused images with poor contrast, due to the distortion introduced in constant background areas. The performance of ICA based fusion can be greatly improved by using a region based approach with intelligent decision making in order to choose the significant regions in the source images. Hence, a new region based image fusion algorithm for combining visible and Infrared (IR images using Independent Component Analysis and Support Vector Machines (SVM is proposed. Region based joint segmentation of the source images is carried out in the spatial domain and important features of each region are computed in spatial and transform domain. A Support Vector Machine is trained to select the regions from the source images with significant features and the corresponding ICA coefficients are combined to form the fused ICA representation. The proposed algorithm is applied to different sets of multimodal images to validate the robustness of the algorithm and compared with some standard image fusion methods. The fusion results demonstrate that the proposed scheme performs better than the state-of-the-art image fusion methods and show a significant improvement in Entropy, Petrovic and Piella evaluation metrics.

D. Egfin Nirmala

2013-01-01

65

Consensus on demographic targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an interview, Dr. Nibhon Debavalya of the Population Division, Economic and Social commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), explained the significance of the Bali Conference as well as other population-related issues in the region. ESCAP's Population Division receives its mandate from the Committee on Population and Social Development. ESCAP's population concerns are handled under the Committee on Poverty Alleviation through Economic Growth and Social Development which will have its 1st meeting in 1993. The Population Division carries out 1) collaborative research, 2) technical assistance and advisory services 3) human resources development, and 4) population information and dissemination. In collaborative research, studies are carried out on aging of the population, consequences of population change, planning of small towns and rural human resources development, the accessibility of contraceptives and improving family planning and maternal and child health, and management information systems. The Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development provides practical guidelines for developing the infrastructure for sustainable development within the region. It will be the basis of related policies and their implementation. The countries of the ESCAP region have set population goals: to reduce rates of population growth, countries should adopt strategies to attain replacement level fertility of 2.2 children per woman by the year 2010. The Declaration also encourages countries to reduce the level of infant mortality to 40 per 1000 live births or less during the same period. It states that in countries with high maternal mortality efforts should be made to reduce it by at least half by the year 2010. Major concerns also relate to the low level of male involvement in contraceptive usage, the high fertility in some countries, the issue of aging East Asia, and international migration. So far, the Asia-Pacific region is the only region that has come up with a consensus on its demographic targets. PMID:12286377

Seewald, M

1993-03-01

66

Study and program plan for improved heavy duty gas turbine engine ceramic component development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A five-year program plan was generated from the study activities with the objectives of demonstrating a fuel economy of 213 mg/W . h (0.35 lb/hp-hr) brake specific fuel consumption by 1981 through use of ceramic materials, with conformance to current and projected Federal noise and emission standards, and to demonstrate a commercially viable engine. Study results show that increased turbine inlet and regenerator inlet temperatures, through the use of ceramic materials, contribute the greatest amount to achieving fuel economy goals. Further, improved component efficiencies (for the compressor, gasifier turbine, power turbine, and regenerator disks show significant additional gains in fuel economy. Fuel saved in a 500,000-mile engine life, risk levels involved in development, and engine-related life cycle costs for fleets (100 units) of trucks and buses were used as criteria to select work goals for the planned program.

Helms, H.E.

1977-05-01

67

On performance improvement of vertex component analysis based endmember extraction from hyperspectral imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectral mixture analysis is one of the major techniques in hyperspectral remote sensing image analysis. Endmember extraction for spectral mixture analysis is a necessary step when endmember information is unknown. If endmembers are assumed to be pure pixels present in an image scene, endmember extraction is to search the most distinct pixels. Popular algorithms using the criteria of simplex volume maximization (e.g., N-FINDR) and spectral signature similarity (e.g., Vertex Component Analysis) belong to this type. N-FINDR is a parallel-searching method, where all the endmembers are determined simultaneously. VCA is a sequential-searching method, finding endmembers one after another, which can greatly save computational cost. In this paper, we focus on VCA-based endmember extraction. In particular, we propose a new searching approach that makes the extracted endmembers more distinct. Real data experiments show that it can improve the quality of extracted endmembers.

Du, Qian; Raksuntorn, Nareenart; Younan, Nicolas H.

2014-05-01

68

Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

69

Recent improvements in SPARK: Strong component decomposition, multivalued objects, and graphical interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Simulation Problem Analysis Research Kernel (SPARK) environment for simulation of nonlinear differential algebraic systems has been revised to improve modeling convenience, modeling flexibility, and solution efficiency. Solution efficiency has been enhanced by automatic decomposition of the problem into strongly connected components, characterized as separately solvable subproblems. The normally constructed data flow graph in SPARK allows such components to be identified and placed in the correct order for sequential solution resulting in significant speed-up for problems that are not strongly interconnected. Modeling flexibility has been enhanced by adding the Multivalued Objects. Whereas conventional SPARK objects represent single equations and produce a single result, this extension allows more complex objects which themselves solve simultaneous sets of equations for multiple results. The need for such objects arises when submodels are to be solved independently of the spark solver; e.g., to use a specially tailored algorithm. With regard to modeling convenience, the graphical user interface now allows model definition by selection and placement of object icons in a graphical window in an X-windows environment. These objects can be connected with macro links comprising multiple problem variables. The resulting problem is then translated into a Network Language Specification file for SPARK processing.

Buhl, W.F.; Erdem, A.E.; Winkelmann, F.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environmental Div.; Sowell, E.F. [California State Univ., Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1993-08-01

70

Improved CuCrZr/316L transition for plasma facing components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different welding strategies were investigated to improve the tubular transition of CuCrZr to 316L in cooling pipes for actively cooled plasma facing components. Electron beam welding experiments have been carried out on tubular samples using different filler and adapter materials. After non-destructive testing by dye penetrant and He-leak tight testing samples were tensile tested at RT and 400 deg. C to down-select promising candidates. Furthermore samples were taken for a metallographic examination in order to determine the integrity of the welds, the depth of penetration and the hardness profile across the weld. In the scanning electron microscope the weld microstructure and the formation of phases were studied. Good results were obtained by the use of a Ni-filler, an Inconel and explosive welded adapter. The tested samples of these variations fulfilled the strength requirements according to the ITER specification and showed an improved transition compared with the current solution of a pure Ni-adapter. The final down-selection will be based on the results of fatigue and torsion testing.

Tabernig, Bernhard [Plansee SE, Technology Center, Metallwerk Plansee Str., A-6600 Reutte, Tirol (Austria)], E-mail: bernhard.tabernig@plansee.com; Rainer, Florian; Scheiber, Karl-Heinz; Schedler, Bertram [Plansee SE, Technology Center, Metallwerk Plansee Str., A-6600 Reutte, Tirol (Austria)

2007-10-15

71

Improved ultrasonic inspection of austenitic stainless steel components by signal averaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel austenitic materials is highly restricted by backscattered ultrasound which is either caused by the coarse grained structure and by the high anisotropy and herewith related steps in acoustic impedance at grain boundaries. The backscattered signal can be of the same amplitude as the signal from the reflector. Today, a lot of research and development work is done worldwide to improve the ultrasonic inspectability of these components. Regarding the test arrangement as chain in the sense of the communication theory, consisting of the test block, the probe, the UT-device and the signal processing unit, our work is connected with the tact link of this chain. In the A-scan the backscattered signal appears as interference structure. The distribution of the amplitudes depends on the probe position upon the surface of the specimen, on the test frequency and on the angle of incidence. Small variations of these parameters cause great changes in the backscattered signal interference structure, while the amplitude from a reflector remains constant. Adding up a certain number of A-scans from different positions, frequencies or angles, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is improved. In this contribution will be reported about the physical background of backscattering, necessary to understand the method, the diffident signal averaging techniques (averaging analog or digital signals, high-frequency or video signals, spatial-, frequency-, directideo signals, spatial-, frequency-, directional averaging), the experimental set up (on-line signal averaging unit) and the results obtained at austenitic welds or castings with improvements in SNR up to 20 dB

72

A socio-demographic study of aging in the Portuguese Population - The EPEPP study  

OpenAIRE

The increase in life expectancy (LE) observed in Western societies, has resulted in a steep rise of older population. This stresses the importance of the research on aging, to better adequate health and social care organization and improve the quality of life (QoL). The aim of the EPEPP-1 (abbreviated from the Portuguese name: Estudo do Perfil de Envelhecimento da Populac¸a˜o Portuguesa) study was to characterize the socio-demographic components of the elderly Portuguese populat...

Mota-pinto, A.; Rodrigues, Vi?tor; Botelho, Ama?lia; Veri?ssimo, Manuel Teixeira; Morais, Anto?nio; Alves, Catarina; Rosa, Manuel Santos; Oliveira, Catarina Resende

2010-01-01

73

DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic and Health Surveys are nationally representative household surveys with large sample sizes of between 5,000 and 30,000 households, typically. DHS surveys provide data for a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators in the areas of population, health, a...

74

A Brief Demographic Portrait  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a brief demographic portrait, with particular emphasis on school-related issues, that points to the dire situation of Latino/a education. According to the 2010 Census, the number of Hispanics (the term used in government data) currently was 50,477,594 million, an increase of 43 percent since 2000, making this group the…

Nieto, Sonia

2012-01-01

75

IMPROVEMENT OF THE FISCAL COMPONENT OF THE MECHANISM OF INCOME POPULATION STATE REGULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the present stage of the country development it is important to create such a tax system that would positively affected the economic growth. Under conditions of restructuring the national economy and state budget deficit it is important that the fiscal component of the relationship between the state and taxpayers should contribute to the development of partner relationships between the two parties and not hinder their development and self-realization. The objective of this study is to identify 'bottlenecks' of the mechanism of taxing population incomes and find ways to resolve them. As practice of European countries shows, the main role in eliminating inequality in the distribution of income and assets is progressive taxation and social costs of the state. Having researched the current mechanism of personal income tax in Ukraine (especially wages through using scientific methods of research, including analysis and synthesis, analogy and modeling, grouping and gene­ralization, induction and deduction, scientific abstraction, the author found a number of problems and regularities that exist in the current mechanism of taxation, which were the main reason for constructing five models of improving the current mechanism of taxation of income from wages. Each model has its anticipated positive socioeconomic effects from the introduction and from application of an adjustment factor to the basic tax rate of 15 %. Its use aims to "smooth out" the instability of the tax burden in the current tax mechanisms and balance tax contribution of every citizen according to the level of earnings. A stepwise progression model of taxation provides compliance with the principle of vertical equity in taxation and has clear economic explanation. From the point of view of fair taxation, the stepwise progression will be most fair in the case, where the tax rate will continuously increase with every additional hryvnia of the taxable income (this provision is taken into account in the construction of the five proposed models. Based on the research, the total tax effect of using each model was calculated, which shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the introduction of the proposed models. The ways of improvement of the fiscal component of state regulation of incomes from wages in Ukraine in the long run were identified.

L. Zhebchuk

2014-09-01

76

SYNTHESIS OF MULTIPLE DATA STRUCTURES FOR IMPROVED ACCURACY OF ABUNDANCE AND DEMOGRAPHIC ESTIMATES FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this study was to provide a framework for combining existing data (from camera trapping, harvest surveys, and spotlight counts) into an integrated system that produces the most accurate estimates possible for use in setting harvest goals. A summary of the key data components that were available is included.

Conroy, Michael J. [MJ CONROY WILDLIFE BIOMETRICS

2014-12-08

77

Improving the Effectiveness of the Bio-slurry Extension Component of National Biodigester Program in Cambodia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management. Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth. Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g. monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring)

Islam, M. F.

2009-10-15

78

Wear Resistance Improvement of Small Dimension Invar Massive Molds for CFRP Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Invar alloy (Fe-36%Ni) is used in industrial applications that require high dimensional stability because of its exceptionally low thermal expansion coefficient. The purpose of this work is to improve the wear resistance of the molds in the production of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components applying thermal spray coatings. Four different kinds of commercial powders were coated on an Invar substrate: ZrO2-8Y2O3, Al2O3-13TiO2, and Cr2O3 by air plasma spray (APS) and WC-CoCr by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF). Metallographic microscopy observation and scanning electron microscopic analysis were carried out, microhardness and fracture toughness were evaluated using the microindentation method. Friction behavior and wear resistance were evaluated with pin-on-disk apparatus. Tungsten carbide coating had the lowest average coefficient of friction. Cermet and alumina-titania coatings showed the lowest wear mass loss. Among the APS ceramic coatings, alumina-titania exhibited the best wear behavior and the HVOF cermet coating exhibited the best behavior among all the coatings.

Giolli, C.; Turbil, M.; Rizzi, G.; Rosso, M.; Scrivani, A.

2009-12-01

79

Studies on the improvement of the components of essential oil of genus Mentha by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

M. arvensis L. var. piperascens M sub(AL). (2 n = 96, R sup(a)Rsup(a)SS JJ AA, main component menthol) as the material the elucidation of biosynthetic mechanisms of essential oil was attempted. As the result it has been demonstrated that the biosynthesis is completed between 84 - 86 days after placing individual cells in the culture medium, especially on 85 days. Such an elucidation serves as the criteria of the biosynthetic pathway elucidation and it is the first accomplishment in the world. Next, the irradiation with ?-rays of 55R/min, total dose 19.5 KR gives a marked effect, and by this method a new plant (rose mint) having aroma similar to rose oil has been established, and this new plant has been designated as ''rose mint.'' This new improved plant can yield about 1 Kg of essential oil from 30 Kg of plant, and in comparing to 1 Kg of essential oil obtained from about 106 rose flowers by the conventional method, the yield is enormously greater and its wide application can be expected in the future. This newly developed breeding method can be also applied to other plants where the extraction of the plant compositions is desired, and at present this method is applied to the Perilla by which a new plant having sweet taste has been successfully established. (author)

80

[Improving component analysis ability of the complex mixed solutions by multi-dimensional diffuse transmittance spectrometry].  

Science.gov (United States)

The multi-dimensional diffuse transmittance spectrums were collected by the traditional near-infrared transmittance method combined with a scanning device, and then used for component analysis of the complex mixed solution. A xenon light, an electric control translation stage and a spectrometer were gathered to set up a device; Intralipid-20%, India-ink and C6H12O6 were used to prepare 225 kinds of complex mixed solutions; the diffuse transmittance spectrums were measured at 20 points off the transmission center distributed from 0-5 mm (interval 0.25 mm); the single and multi-point diffuse transmittance spectrums were analyzed by partial least squares regression for modeling and prediction. The results show that the modeling and prediction accuracy of the concentrations of the intralipid-20% and India-ink increased with the growing of the transmittance points, but the concentration of the C6H12O6 did not increase. It is proved that the spectrums collected by different points can raise the signal to noise radio of the strong absorption and scattering substance, and the signal to noise radio of the weak absorption and scattering substance would be improved by increasing the current system accuracy. PMID:23156780

Xiong, Chan; Lin, Ling; Wang, Meng-jun; Li, Gang; Zhang, Bao-ju

2012-08-01

81

Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

82

A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP) algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance. PMID:25050399

Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiangping; Yin, Xianggen; Yang, Zengli; Wang, Lijun

2014-01-01

83

Demographics of Transition Objects  

CERN Document Server

The unusual properties of transition objects (young stars with an optically thin inner disc surrounded by an optically thick outer disc) suggest that significant disc evolution has occured in these systems. We explore the nature of these systems by examining their demographics, specifically their stellar accretion rates (Mdot) and disc masses (Mdisc) compared to those of accreting T Tauri stars of comparable age. We find that transition objects in Taurus occupy a restricted region of the Mdot vs. Mdisc plane. Compared to non-transition single stars in Taurus, they have stellar accretion rates that are typically ~10 times lower at the same disc mass and median disc masses ~4 times larger. These properties are anticipated by several proposed planet formation theories and suggest that the formation of Jovian mass planets may play a significant role in explaining the origin of at least some transition objects. Considering transition objects as a distinct demographic group among accreting T Tauri stars leads to a ...

Najita, Joan R; Muzerolle, James

2007-01-01

84

Improved reliability for analog instrument and control systems. Volume 2. Guidelines for component selection and replacement. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear plant instrument and control module and power supply performance was analyzed to identify reliability and drift improvements that can reduce the incidence of plant trips and reportable drift. The application of electronic reliability prediction analysis, present generation electronic components, and established reliability military grade parts were shown to offer order of magnitude improvements in instrument and control module electronic accuracy and failure rate as reported in Volume 1. Applications information and failure rate prediction methods for analog instrument and control system electronic component selection and replacement are summarized in Volume 2. These volumes provide the final results for EPRI project RP2409-2

85

Demographics in demand systems  

OpenAIRE

Household composition can be expected to affect the allocation of household expenditure among goods, at the very least because of economies of scale as household size increases and because different people have different needs (adults versus children, for example). Specifying demographic effects correctly in demand analysis is important both in order to estimate correct price and expenditure elasticities and for the purpose of making household welfare comparisons. A common way of including de...

Blow, Laura

2003-01-01

86

Black Hole Demographics  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this contribution is to review the current status of black hole demographics in light of recent advances in the study of high redshift QSOs (section 2), local AGNs (section 3) and local quiescent galaxies (section 4). I will then outline the prospects for future progress (section 5), and discuss what I believe will be the challenges for the years to come [ABRIDGED].

Ferrarese, Laura

2002-01-01

87

Socio-demographic Psychosocial and Clinical Characteristics of Participants in e-HealthyStrides©: An Interactive ehealth Program to Improve Diabetes Self-Management Skills  

OpenAIRE

Diabetes self-management (DSM) training helps prevent diabetic complications. eHealth approaches may improve its optimal use. The aims were to determine a) acceptability of e-HealthyStrides© (an interactive, Internet-based, patient-driven, diabetes self-management support and social networking program) among Morehouse Community Physicians’ Network diabetics; b) efficacy for DSM behavior change c) success factors for use of e-HealthyStrides©. Baseline characteristics of pilot study partici...

Pemu, Priscilla E.; Quarshie, Alexander Q.; Josiah-willock, R.; Ojutalayo, Folake O.; Alema-mensah, Ernest; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

2011-01-01

88

Improvements in High Speed, High Resolution Dynamic Digital Image Correlation for Experimental Evaluation of Composite Drive System Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Composite materials have the potential to reduce the weight of rotating drive system components. However, these components are more complex to design and evaluate than static structural components in part because of limited ability to acquire deformation and failure initiation data during dynamic tests. Digital image correlation (DIC) methods have been developed to provide precise measurements of deformation and failure initiation for material test coupons and for structures under quasi-static loading. Attempts to use the same methods for rotating components (presented at the AHS International 68th Annual Forum in 2012) are limited by high speed camera resolution, image blur, and heating of the structure by high intensity lighting. Several improvements have been made to the system resulting in higher spatial resolution, decreased image noise, and elimination of heating effects. These improvements include the use of a high intensity synchronous microsecond pulsed LED lighting system, different lenses, and changes in camera configuration. With these improvements, deformation measurements can be made during rotating component tests with resolution comparable to that which can be achieved in static tests

Kohlman, Lee W.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Handschuh, Robert Frederick

2013-01-01

89

Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in forensic blood samples using UV-visible spectrometry and improved principal component regression  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The forensic determination of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in blood was performed by using an improved principal component regression (PCR) technique applied to UV-visible spectra. Calibration data were decomposed into principal components, and the principal components useful for prediction were selected by their correlation with calibration spectra. Cross-validation of prediction results was done by leverage-corrected residuals. Confidence and prediction intervals derived from classical regression theory were found to be reasonable in size. The results compared favorably to a comparison study conducted by using a CO Oximeter method. In analysis of forensic case study samples, the improved PCR method allowed detection of abnormal samples and successfully predicted percentages of COHb and methemoglobin (MetHb), and provided error estimates for those predictions. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

Egan, William; Morgan, Stephen L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)] Brewer, William E. [Toxicology Department, South Carolina Law Enforcement Division, 4416 Broad River Road, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States)

1999-02-01

90

Improved CuCrZr / 316L Transition for Plasma Facing Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma Facing Components used in all advanced nuclear fusion experiments and in particular for ITER consist of heat sinks made of the precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy. This material has been selected due to the requirements regarding thermal and mechanical properties with and without the presence of neutrons. The divertor parts which are highly heat loaded are actively cooled and are assembled onto weld stainless steel pressure vessels of grade 316L. Therefore these plasma facing parts need a transition in the cooling pipes from CuCrZr to 316L which withstands the internal pressure, the fatigue loads and remains leak tight during operation. As direct fusion welding of CuCrZr with 316L is regarded as critical due to metallurgical issues, the current design uses a transition of Ni - sleeve which is welded onto the CuCrZr and 316L, respectively. However, there is still some concern for the mechanically constraint region of the inlet coolant that this intermediate adapter is the weakest point and could fail due to strongly localised plasticity. The aim of this project is to investigate alternative solutions for the transition of CuCrZr / 316L, to down-select the most promising candidate and finally qualify a new improved tubular transition system. Basic EB welding experiments have been carried out on CuCrZr / 316L tubular samples using different adapter and filler materials. The adapter materials, e.g. Inconel 625 and Monel K500, were chosen due to their high temperature strength and good weldability with respect to Cu - alloys and austenitic steels. In case of the investigated filler metals Ni and Ti the intention was to control the dilution and to produce a fine grained weld zone with no formation of detrimental phases. As a further option the use of an explosively welded CuCrZr/316L adapter was evaluated. The application of such an adapter would simplify the issue to the welding of CuCrZr / CuCrZr and 316L / 316L respectively. In the characterisation programme the samples were first characterised by non destructive testing and metallographic examination. An indication on the mechanical properties was gained by tensile testing of welded samples at RT and 400oC. After the down-selection of the most promising candidate test samples were manufactured for the qualification programme. Besides the general requirements for the application as cooling system the qualification programme considered tensile testing at different temperatures, fatigue and torsion testing as well as inspection regarding leak tightness. (author)

91

Manufacturing technology for improved low-cost electroslag materials and components for application in fossil-energy systems. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Safe, reliable and long term service of critical components used in fossil energy systems are major objectives of DOE's materials research and fabrication technology programs. The use of electroslag refined materials and electroslag cast components in chemical processing, petrochemical, nuclear power generation and fossil energy conversion systems has become quite common in the USSR, Japan, Western and Eastern European countries. Elecroslag cast components as lower cost alternates to forged components have performed exceedingly well in such critical applications. The aim of this program is to broaden the technology base of the novel electroslag casting process for improving its application potential in the fossil energy systems construction industry. The specific objectives of this project were to determine (a) the economics and (b) the technical factors which determine the value of using electroslag casting process for the manufacture of components of various fossil energy systems. The castings of carbon steel so produced have exhibited mechanical properties equal to and in some instances superior to similar shapes produced by conventional forging method. The possibilities of attaining lower final cost of the electroslag cast component compared to similar shaped forging appear very promising. Specification approval based on current code standards is a deterrent to acceptability of electroslag cast materials and components for many industrial applications. These and other process aspects which need further investigations are outlined.

Bhat, G.K.

1982-03-01

92

Does improved instrumentation result in better component alignment in total knee arthroplasty?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate component alignment and joint line reproduction in total knee replacement (TKR is crucial for successful clinical outcome. Advances in instrumentation and better understanding of the biomechanics can help to achieve better three dimensional alignments of TKR components and joint line restoration. We compared the accuracy of component alignment and joint line restoration with the use of 2 different TKR instrumentation kits (an older Gobot and a newer Xcelerate. Retrospective study of 150 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKR had their pre and post-operative x-rays reviewed. Seventy-five patients (group A had their TKR using the older instrumentation kit (Gobot and 75 (group B had the newer version (Xcelerate. The positioning of the prosthesis components were assessed using the American Knee society radiographic evaluation method and the joint line position using the Figgie’s method. The results from the two groups were statistically compared. There was a significantly greater elevation of the joint line position in TKRs done with the Gobot instrumentation (mean 4.49 mm vs. 2.71 mm in group B, P=0.03, and significant differences in the mean tibial component angle cTCA (group A 88.6º, group B 90.1º, P=0.04 and the mean Q angle (group A 6.28º valgus, group B 8.45º valgus, P=0.04. Use of the newer Xcelerate instrumentation was associated with better restoration of joint line position, however the femoral component flexion and posterior slope of the tibial component ere found to be above the desired level. Hence the overall differences between the two groups were found to be small.

Ian Learmonth

2011-03-01

93

How to Achieve a More Efficient Component Development at St. Jude Medical AB - Survey and Improvement Proposals  

OpenAIRE

The component development within the product development projects at St. Jude Medical AB (SJM AB*) is considered to be inefficient and is in need for improvements. This master thesis was initiated by the Material Supply and Mechanical and Leads Development departments at SJM AB and it has been carried out between January and June, 2005. The purpose for this master thesis is to try to find what is negatively affecting the component development at SJM AB and what needs to be done in order to ma...

Ehn, Louise; Eklo?f, Malin

2005-01-01

94

Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging  

OpenAIRE

A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

2010-01-01

95

Demographic trends in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

2004-08-01

96

Demographic Change and Transport  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findings from relevant fields of basic research, focusing on the increasingly heterogeneous nature of the ageing population. All CONSOL partners contributed to the report by writing parts of the report (authors), participating in the literature research and/or commenting to earlier versions of this report. We would like to give special thanks to Heather Ward for constructive suggestions and inspiring comments to an earlier version of this report.

Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina

2013-01-01

97

Surface Protection and Improved Performance of Satellite Components as well as Mitigation of Space Environmental Pollution by Plasma Ion Implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three plasma processing systems based on PII technique have been used in the improvement of surface properties of different materials important for aerospace and space applications. Metal plasma PII of Al and Mg was used for surface protection of polymers used in space such as Kapton, Mylar and polyethylene. Al alloys were treated with nitrogen PII for improved resistance to corrosion aiming at aerospace applications. A rigid polymer UHMWPE was also treated in a nitrogen PII to produce a protective layer with DLC. Although not very light, SS304 stainless steel components are being used in a imaging camera in space, and some components made of this material showed endurance to vibration tests after nitrogen PII, therefore being qualified for on-board application.

98

Are Demographic Diversity Effects Spurious?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The substantial literature on the relationship between demographic diversity and team performance yields weak and/or inconsistent results. Using match-level data of all games played in the German soccer league Bundesliga over six seasons, this paper analyzes age, race and tenure diversity of the fielded team under different model specifications to test the robustness of demographic diversity effects. The empirical results reveal that the correlations between demographic diversity and the outcome of the game are confounded by mean values of the demographic attributes and contextual covariates.

Stephan Nüesch

2009-12-01

99

Improving prediction selectivity for on-line near-infrared monitoring of components in etchant solution by spectral range optimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The components (H3PO4, HNO3, CH3COOH and water) in an etchant solution have been accurately measured in an on-line manner using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy by directly illuminating NIR radiation through a Teflon line. In particular, the spectral features according to the change of H3PO4 or HNO3 concentrations were not mainly from NIR absorption themselves, but from the perturbation (or displacement) of water bands; therefore, the resulting spectral variations were quite similar to each other. Consequently partial least squares (PLS) prediction selectivity among the components should be the most critical issue for continuous on-line compositional monitoring by NIR spectroscopy. To improve selectivity of the calibration model, we have optimized the calibration models by finding selective spectral ranges with the use of moving window PLS. Using the optimized PLS models for each component, the resulting prediction accuracies were substantially improved. Furthermore, on-line prediction selectivity was evaluated by spiking individual pure components step by step and examining the resulting prediction trends. When optimized PLS models were used, each concentration was selectively and sensitively varied at each spike; meanwhile, when whole or non-optimized ranges were used for PLS, the prediction selectivity was greatly degraded. This study verifies that the selection of an optimal spectral rang the selection of an optimal spectral range for PLS is the most important factor to make Teflon-based NIR measurements successful for on-line and real-time monitoring of etching solutions

100

Video Image Object Tracking Algorithm based on Improved Principal Component Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Since the existing object tracking algorithms are very difficult to adapt the object appearance changes caused by illumination changes, large pose variations, and partial or full occlusions, an object tracking algorithm based on two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) and sparse-representation is proposed in this paper. The tracking algorithm adopts 2DPCA and sparse-representation to establish object appearance model. In order to reduce dimension of object template, incremental s...

Liping Wang

2014-01-01

101

Improved methods for enrichment of organic ultra trace components for analysis by gas chromatography  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes some new methods for analysis oforganic trace components from air and water by gaschromatography. The work is particularly focused on thedevelopment of new technologies for analyte enrichment, usingsorbent-based concepts. Short lengths of open tubular columnswere examined for their potential use as denuders.Polydimethylsiloxane-based stationary phases as well as anadsorbent-based column were evaluated in an equilibrium mode oftrapping. For the analytes selected, detectio...

Kloskowski, Adam

2003-01-01

102

Addition of Alarm Pheromone Components Improves the Effectiveness of Desiccant Dusts Against Cimex lectularius  

OpenAIRE

We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rate...

Benoit, Joshua B.; Phillips, Seth A.; Croxall, Travis J.; Christensen, Brady S.; Yoder, Jay A.; Denlinger, David L.

2009-01-01

103

Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

2010-01-01

104

Improvement of ultrasonic testing methods of austeno-ferritic steel cast components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the low signal to noise ratio incountered in cast stainless steel components of P.W.R. reactor cooling system, usual ultrasonic testing aren't efficient. In order to enhance ultrasonics capabilities Electricite de France and C.E.A. have carried out a study main results of which are shown in this paper. These results include: Metallurgical structure effects: very high diffusion noise, beam distortion, low pass filter. Probe parameters that leed to examinations enhancement: focusing, aperture, damper. Efficient signal processing techniques: Split Spectrum, Image processing. Results of enhancement means on actual defects (shrinkage cavities). (authors). 2 refs., 9 figs

105

Development of improved and corrosion-resistant surfaces for fossil power system components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this task is to develop the corrosion-resistant surfaces on a variety of fossil power system components. The Fe-Al alloys ranging in aluminum from 16 to 36 @ % are of interest. The surfaces of Fe-Al alloys can be produced by weld overlay. However, because of their limited room-temperature ductility, the production of weld wire for these compositions is not commercially feasible. The alloying element dilution during weld overlay also makes depositing exact surface composition rather difficult.

Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

1996-06-01

106

Transição demográfica / Demographic transition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo principal analisar o papel que a dinâmica demográfica poderá exercer sobre a educação da população brasileira nas próximas décadas, com enfoque nas suas tendências e nas oportunidades que dela decorrem. Para atingir este objetivo, comenta-se brevemente alguns aspectos da [...] transição demográfica e aquilo que alguns estudiosos denominam janela de oportunidades. Em seguida, discute-se a evolução da estrutura etária brasileira, a partir da razão de dependência e suas perspectivas, enfatizando o processo de envelhecimento populacional. Posteriormente, aborda-se a evolução das matrículas e do sistema de educação no Brasil, para então discutir algumas perspectivas de desenvolvimento, tendo em vista a escolaridade. Abstract in english Without ignoring the complexity of the Brazilian educational system and the various elements that interact in it, this article aims at analyzing the role that population dynamics may have on the education of the population in coming decades, focusing on trends and the opportunities that arise from i [...] t. To achieve this goal, we comment briefly some aspects of demographic transition and what some scholars call window of opportunity. Then we discuss the evolution of the Brazilian age structure from the dependency ratio and its perspectives, emphasizing the process of population aging. Later, one evaluates about the evolution of enrollment and the education system in Brazil, and then discuss some prospects for development in view of schooling.

José Irineu Rangel, Rigotti.

2012-08-01

107

An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

2009-05-31

108

Component selection, accelerated testing, and improved modeling of AMTEC systems for space power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The likely selection of a remote condensed design for initial flight test and probably use with a radioisotope heat source in AMTEC powered planet probes requires the device to be constructed to tolerate operating T > 1,150 K, as well as exposure to Na(g), and Na(liq) on the high pressure side. The temperatures involved make the characterization of high strength and chemical resistance to Na containing Na2O critical. Selection among materials which can be worked should not be driven by ease of fabricability, as high temperature stability is the critical issue. This paper will provide an assessment of some of the materials and components required for high performance AMTEC devices for space applications. Basic models for AMTEC cell operation include a fundamental electrode performance model and an electrode life model which have been compared to experimental performance results. Recent work indicates that several AMTEC electrode have the potential for high performance and long life. Other AMTEC components still present problems, although some issues have little experimental or fundamental basis. The status of these problems will be discussed in this paper, with the goal of focusing attention on critical problems, and correcting some mis-impressions about other issues

109

Component Selection, Accelerated Testing, and Improved Modeling of AMTEC Systems for Space Power (abstract)  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) designs for space power are numerous, but selection of materials for construction of long-lived AMTEC devices has been limited to electrodes, current collectors, and the solid electrolyte. AMTEC devices with lifetimes greater than 5 years require careful selection and life testing of all hot-side components. The likely selection of a remote condensed design for initial flight test and probable use with a GPHS in AMTEC powered outer planet probes requires the device to be constructed to tolerate T greater than 1150K, as well as exposure to Na(sub (g)), and Na(sub (liq)) on the high pressure side. The temperatures involved make critical high strength and chemical resistance to Na containing Na(sub 2)O. Selection among materials which can be worked should not be driven by ease of fabricability, as high temperature stability is the critical issue. These concepts drive the selection of Mo alloys for Na(sub (liq)) containment in AMTEC cells for T to 1150K operation, as they are significantly stronger than comparable NB or Ta alloys, are less soluble in Na(sub (liq)) containing dissolved Na(sub 2)O, are workable compared to W alloys (which might be used for certain components), and are ductile at the T greater than 500K of proposed AMTEC modules in space applications.

Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; Suitor, J.; O'Connor, D.

1993-01-01

110

The efficacy of aerobic training in improving the inflammatory component of asthmatic children. Randomized trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have been conducted on the effects of aerobic exercise in children with asthma, particularly on the inflammatory component and functional outcomes. This study evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise on inflammation, functional capacity, respiratory muscle strength, quality of life and symptoms scores in asthmatic children. This was a 6-week randomized trial (NCT0192052) of 33 moderately asthmatic children (6-17 years). Patients were randomized aerobic training (exercise group; n = 14), while another group did not exercise (control; n = 19). Primary endpoint was evaluations serum cytokines (IL-17, IFN, TNF, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-2) assessed by flow cytometry. The six-minute walk test, pulmonary function, quality of life and symptoms (asthma-free days) were secondary endpoint. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate the independent variables and the Wilcoxon test for paired variables. The t-test was used for the remaining calculations. Significance was determined at 5%. Aerobic training failed to modify the inflammatory component. In the exercise group, an increase occurred in functional capacity (p maximal inspiratory (p = 0.005) and expiratory pressure (p capacity, maximal respiratory pressure, quality of life and asthma-related symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0192052. PMID:25231109

Andrade, Lívia Barboza de; Britto, Murilo C A; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Gomes, Renan Garcia; Figueroa, José N

2014-10-01

111

Three-component adsorption modeling to evaluate and improve integrated sorption-membrane processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated sorption-membrane (ISM) processes combining low-pressure membranes with adsorbents are increasingly popular because they cost-effectively expand low-pressure membrane treatment to include dissolved contaminant removal. However, contemporary ISM processes often exhibit antagonistic tradeoffs between adsorption and membrane performance that were investigated using state-of-the-art adsorption models that include both of the predominant competitive effects of natural organic matter: direct site competition and pore blockage. Two currently used ISM process configurations, powdered activated carbon-ultrafiltration (PAC-UF) and adsorptive floc blanket reactor-ultrafiltration (FBR-UF), were compared with a novel configuration, upflow adsorption-ultrafiltration (UA-UF), which consists of a moving-bed of granular activated carbon upstream of a membrane. Model simulations quantitatively compared performance and evaluated potential improvements for each configuration. For instance, using contemporary PAC-UF practices and 90% atrazine removal as a baseline, alternative membrane backwashing procedures can lower carbon usage rates (CURs) by 75% but may also reduce membrane hydraulic performance. Using the same baseline, FBR-UF can reduce CURs by 92% while simultaneously improving membrane performance via pretreatment; however, process size increases 10-fold. The novel UA-UF configuration only increases process size modestly, but can still yield CURs 96% lower than the PAC-UF baseline while simultaneously providing beneficial membrane pretreatment and improving sustainability features by reducing residuals. PMID:17948807

Schideman, Lance C; Mariñas, Benito J; Snoeyink, Vernon L; Qi, Shaoying; Campos, Carlos

2007-09-15

112

Entropy based determination of optimal principal components of Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer data for improved land cover classification  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperspectral data finds applications in the domain of remote sensing. However, with the increase in amounts of information and advantages associated, come the "curse" of dimensionality and additional computational load. The question most often remains as to which subset of the data best represents the information in the imagery. The present work is an attempt to establish entropy, a statistical measure for quantifying uncertainty, as a formidable measure for determining the optimal number of principal components (PCs) for improved identification of land cover classes. Feature extraction from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) data was achieved utilizing Principal Component Analysis (PCA). However, determination of optimal number of PCs is vital as addition of computational load to the classification algorithm with no significant improvement in accuracy can be avoided. Considering the soft classification approach applied in this work, entropy results are to be analyzed. Comparison of these entropy measures with traditional accuracy assessment of the corresponding "hardened" outputs showed results in the affirmative of the objective. The present work concentrates on entropy being utilized for optimal feature extraction for pre-processing before further analysis, rather than the analysis of accuracy obtained from principal component analysis and possibilistic c-means classification. Results show that 7 PCs of the APEX dataset would be the optimal choice, as they show lower entropy and higher accuracy, along with better identification compared to other combinations while utilizing the APEX dataset.

Kallepalli, A.; Kumar, A.; Khoshelham, K.

2014-11-01

113

Improvement of the wear behaviour of highly-loaded components and tools by multi-combined surface treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel multi-combined surface treatment consisting of the individual treatments of plasma nitriding (PN, physical vapour deposition (PVD and electron beam hardening (EBH. Using graded surface layers produced by such a combined surface treatment, it is possible to withstand the complex load conditions incurred by components and tools. It is shown, that the treatment sequences PN+EBH+PVD and EBH+PN+PVD are suitable for improving material properties. These multi-combined surface treatments lead to a significant improvement in load-supporting capacity. Critical load values of cohesive failure measured by scratch tests are tripled when compared to the individual treatment of PVD, and increased by at least 20% in comparison to the duplex treatments of EBH+PVD or PN+PVD. The metallurgical compatibility of the single treatments is essential for the success of combined treatments. Material-specific limitations are defined, which exclude failure due to crack initiation, the occurrence of retained austenite, and tempering effects. Based on the model wear-test assembly block-on-cylinder, it was proved, that the specific wear rate of multi-combined treated specimens is reduced about 20-50% while wear of counterpart components is decreased as well. The triplex surface heat treatment introduced opens up new prospects for highly-loaded components and tools.

Gundis Grumbt

2014-01-01

114

Study of design improvement of key reactor components for BWR of the next century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of a new type of reactor called the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) started in 1978. The first ABWR plant is expected to start commercial operation in 1996. In view of the long lead time needed to build an evolutionary type reactor and the expected needs for additional light water nuclear power plants in the next century in Japan, GE, Hitachi, and Toshiba jointly began a study to develop the next generation ABWR under the guidance of Tokyo Electric Power Company and five other Japanese utilities (Chubu Electric Power Co., Chugoku Electric Power Co., Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Tohoku Electric Power Co. and Japan Atomic Power Co.). This paper summarizes the current status of the study, which includes both ongoing investigation of new constitutive technologies and the selected technologies in the reactor component area. (author)

115

Improvement of passive shielding to reduce background components to determinate radioactivity at low energy gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new system that has the ability to reduce background components to apply for environmental studies. This system uses gamma spectrometry with semi-empirical self-absorption correction and practical method for routine measurements of the mass activity radionuclides at low energy such as 210Pb (46.5 keV), 234Th (63.3 keV) and 226Ra (186.2 keV). The reliability and precision of proficiency test must pass for final scores all the analytical determinations of received ''acceptable'' for all radionuclides. Our work shows an experiment developed for the calculation of self-absorption correction in that case that the sample's chemical composition is unknown.

116

Video Image Object Tracking Algorithm based on Improved Principal Component Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the existing object tracking algorithms are very difficult to adapt the object appearance changes caused by illumination changes, large pose variations, and partial or full occlusions, an object tracking algorithm based on two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA and sparse-representation is proposed in this paper. The tracking algorithm adopts 2DPCA and sparse-representation to establish object appearance model. In order to reduce dimension of object template, incremental subspace updating algorithm is introduced to online update the object template, reduce the requirement of memory space and enhance the precision of object appearance description. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm is robust for image illumination variance and object partial occlusion.

Liping Wang

2014-05-01

117

Updating TRIGA related component data for improved safety analysis of TRIGA research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two former Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies (first phase and second phase) performed at the Atominstitut are presented and compared, together with the status of a new launched CRP on ''Update and expand of the IAEA reliability data for research reactor PSA's'' started in 2001. The objective of the TRIGA Vienna PSA's was to analyze the various possible accident sequences leading to radiation exposure of persons. Although the TRIGA Vienna is considered inherent safe due to its negative temperature coefficient, the reactor core contains a notable amount of radioactivity, which could lead, under very inauspicious conditions, to radiation exposure of facility staff and the public, above internationally accepted limits; such conditions could be: accidents during fuel element manipulation, loss of coolant water, and catastrophic external events (e.g. earthquake, sabotage, plane crash). The accident sequences (fault tree) were traced and occurrence probabilities per year were calculated. Finally, the results were classified into three categories. The comparison of the results of both studies was summarized as follows: a) The mean values of the second phase PSA were approximately one order of magnitude higher than the appropriate values obtained from the first phase PSA and b) The corresponding relative width of the uncertainty bands remained about the same or is slightly reduced. On the other hand, having changed only the statistical component failure data in the statistical component failure data in the second phase PSA, this comparison showed, that the obtained results primarily depend on reactor specific failure data. The use of generic data from other sources, as it was the case in the first phase PSA, can significantly distort the real occurrence probabilities. Therefore the continuous extension of the IAEA coordinated research reactor specific database is of great importance in order to obtain results of great validity in research reactor PSA's. Refs. 6, Figs. 4, Tabs. 6 (nevyjel)

118

Improved grinding quality inspection of large bearing components using Barkhausen noise analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Assuring that the finished surfaces of precision large bearing components are free from grinding injury is important due to the high initial value of these bearings, heavy application loadings and high costs associated with potential reduced service life. Inspecting bearing raceway surfaces for grind burn can be done by nital etching but this method is time consuming, involves using hazardous acids, is non-quantitative and does not provide information about residual stresses. An experimental study was performed to assess scanning Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) to detect various levels of induced grind injury on four steels used in large bearing ring production. Test samples having approximately 0.25 m diameter were fabricated from bearing steels heat treated by case carburizing, induction hardening and through hardening. A series of grinding cycles was designed and subsequently the entire ground surface on each sample was tested by scanning BNA. Selected samples were then evaluated by nital etching or destructive metallurgical tests. BNA results are compared with specific grinding power, nital etch and destructive measurements to show BNA to be an effective technique for identification of grind injury on these steel materials. Similar relative trends in the BNA response are present regardless of alloy or heat treatment.

Kolarits, Francis M.

2014-02-01

119

Improvements in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis using principle components analysis (PCA) in combination with Raman spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The significant achievements of medical science over the last century are evident in the increasing age of the global population, however this now brings new problems, the most prominent being the growth in the number of people suffering from dementia. Over half the people with dementia in the UK are sufferers of Alzheimer's disease, a condition in which intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles and extraneuronal senile tangles take over neurons prompting their death. A definitive diagnosis is still only currently available post-mortem, whilst current symptom based processes of elimination are far from perfect, especially when the only treatments available are symptom inhibiting drugs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Raman spectra taken from brain tissue has proved to be a potential tool in the diagnosis. However, this work now has to be refined in order to progress to tissue less associated with the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. The first step of this has already been taken in progressing from frontal tissue to occipital tissue point spectra taken at random positions from bulk tissue. Now we present initial work into acquiring Raman spectral maps from across a tissue area, in pursuit of identifying unique plaque and tangle spectra. These spectra are presented alongside synthetic ?-Amyloid spectra, in a study of the role that the peptide plays in the biomarker spectra, and how this information can aid the PCA of bulk tissue, and point towards a Raman spectroscopic test on less sensitive tissue, such as blood.

Archer, John K. J.; Sudworth, Caroline D.; Williams, Rachel; How, Thien; Stone, Nicholas; Mann, David; Black, Richard A.

2007-07-01

120

Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herval mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. In addition, these extracts induced the same effects on the peritoneal macrophages. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression - IL-1{beta}, IL-6, LT and iNOS-were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. (author). 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Chonan (Korea)

1999-04-01

121

Effective pretreatment by cysteine proteinase inhibitor for improved analysis of protein components of trematodes on SDS-PAGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since Fasciola sp. contained proteolytic enzyme(s), it was confirmed that degradation took place in protein components in extracts of the liver flukes, which resulted in lack of clarity of sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Degradation was shown to occur mostly during a heating process of the extract samples. The proteolytic activity in the extracts was completely blocked and electrophoretic patterns were improved only by the use of cysteine proteinase inhibitor N-[N-(L-3-trans-carboxyoxiran-2-carbonyl)-L-leucyl]-agmatine (E-64). Great improvement was also noted in electrophoretic patterns of the extracts of other trematodes, such as Paragonimus westermani, P. miyazakii and Clonorchis sinesis, when their extracts were treated with E-64. PMID:2230026

Itoh, M; Sato, S; Moriyama, A; Sasaki, M

1990-09-01

122

Thermodynamic approach to improving solubility prediction of co-crystals in comparison with individual poorly soluble components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Thermodynamic approach for solubility improvement of co-crystal was developed. • The graphical technique for estimation of co-crystal solubility was elaborated. • Hydration enthalpies of some drugs and amino acids were calculated. • Applicability/operability of the approach was exemplified by some drugs and amino acids. - Abstract: A novel thermodynamic approach to compare poorly soluble components (active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)) both in co-crystals and individual compounds was developed. An algorithm of choosing potential co-crystals with improved solubility characteristics on the basis of the known solvation/hydration API and co-former enthalpies is described. The applicability and operability of the algorithm were tested exemplified by some drugs and amino acids

123

Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

124

Plasma Performance Improvement with Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in NSTX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lithium as a plasma-facing material has many attractive features, including a reduction in the recycling of hydrogenic species and the potential for withstanding high heat and neutron fluxes in fusion reactors. Recent NSTX experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and recurring benefits of lithium coatings on plasma-facing components (PFC's) to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. They included decreases in the plasma density and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate. Extended periods of MHD quiescence were also achieved, and measurements of the visible emission from the lower divertor showed a reduction in the deuterium, carbon, and oxygen line emission. Other salient results with lithium evaporation included a broadening of the electron temperature profile, and changes in edge density gradients that benefited electron Bernstein wave coupling. There was also a reduction in ELM frequency and amplitude, followed by a period of complete ELM suppression. In general, it was observed that both the best and the average confinement occurred after lithium deposition and that the increase in WMHD occurs mostly through an increase in We. In addition, a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) is being installed on NSTX this year. As the first fully-toroidal liquid metal divertor target, experiments with the LLD can provide insight into the behavior of metallic ITER PFC's should they liquefy during high-power divertor tokamak operations. The NSTX lithium coating and LLD experiments are important near-term steps in demonstrating the potential of liquid lithium as a solution to the first-wall problem for both magnetic and inertial fusion reactors.

Kaita, R., et. al.

2008-09-29

125

Plasma Performance Improvement with Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in NSTX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lithium as a plasma-facing material has many attractive features, including a reduction in the recycling of hydrogenic species and the potential for withstanding high heat and neutron fluxes in fusion reactors. Recent NSTX experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and recurring benefits of lithium coatings on plasma-facing components (PFC's) to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. They included decreases in the plasma density and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate. Extended periods of MHD quiescence were also achieved, and measurements of the visible emission from the lower divertor showed a reduction in the deuterium, carbon, and oxygen line emission. Other salient results with lithium evaporation included a broadening of the electron temperature profile, and changes in edge density gradients that benefited electron Bernstein wave coupling. There was also a reduction in ELM frequency and amplitude, followed by a period of complete ELM suppression. In general, it was observed that both the best and the average confinement occurred after lithium deposition and that the increase in WMHD occurs mostly through an increase in We. In addition, a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) is being installed on NSTX this year. As the first fully-toroidal liquid metal divertor target, experiments with the LLD can provide insight into the behavior of metallic ITER PFC's should they liquefy during high-power divertor tokamak operations. The NSTX lithium coating and LLD experiments are important near-term steps in demonstrating the potential of liquid lithium as a solution to the first-wall problem for both magnetic and inertial fusion reactors.

Kaita, R; Kugel, H; Bell, M G; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Ellis, R; Gates, D; Gerhardt, S; Gray, T; Kallman, J; Kaye, S; LeBlanc, B; Majeski, R; Maingi, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, S H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Stotler, D; Timberlake, J; Zakharov, L; Ahn, J; Allain, J P; Wampler, W R

2009-01-08

126

The second demographic transition: a concise overview of its development.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article gives a concise overview of the theoretical development of the concept of the "second demographic transition" since it was coined in 1986, its components, and its applicability, first to European populations and subsequently also to non-European societies as well. Both the demographic and the societal contrasts between the first demographic transition (FDT) and the second demographic transition (SDT) are highlighted. Then, the major criticisms of the SDT theory are outlined, and these issues are discussed in the light of the most recent developments in Europe, the United States, the Far East, and Latin America. It turns out that three major SDT patterns have developed and that these evolutions are contingent on much older systems of kinship and family organization. PMID:25453112

Lesthaeghe, Ron

2014-12-23

127

Tourism Market and Demographic Changes  

OpenAIRE

This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensio...

Alexandru Nedelea

2008-01-01

128

On an efficient modification of singular value decomposition using independent component analysis for improved MRS denoising and quantification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An efficient modification of singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed in this paper aiming at denoising and more importantly at quantifying more accurately the statistically independent spectra of metabolite sources in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Although SVD is known in MRS applications and several efficient algorithms exist for estimating SVD summation terms in which the raw MRS data are analyzed, however, it would be more beneficial for such an analysis if techniques with the ability to estimate statistically independent spectra could be employed. SVD is known to separate signal and noise subspaces but it assumes orthogonal properties for the components comprising signal subspace, which is not always the case, and might impose heavy constraints for the MRS case. A much more relaxing constraint would be to assume statistically independent components. Therefore, a modification of the main methodology incorporating techniques for calculating the assumed statistically independent spectra is proposed by applying SVD on the MRS spectrogram through application of the short time Fourier transform (STFT). This approach is based on combining SVD on STFT spectrogram followed by an iterative application of independent component analysis (ICA). Moreover, it is shown that the proposed methodology combined with a regression analysis would lead to improved quantification of the MRS signals. An experimental study based on synthetic MRS signals has been conducted to evaluate the herein proposed methodologies. The results obtained have been discussed and it is shown to be quite promising

129

Applications [an improved crack growth model for low alloy steel component flaw evaluations in Light Water Reactor environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the Applications subcommittee of the International Cooperative Group on Cyclic Crack Growth (ICCGR) is to demonstrate the successful application of an improved crack growth model to low alloy steel component flaw evaluations in Light Water Reactor environments. Building on the work of the other subcommittees, a well defined predictive model must be shown to be suitable for such applications, consistent with the laboratory data, and consistent with current understanding of the damage mechanisms of corrosion-fatigue crack growth. The established convention for fatigue crack growth data correlation models presumes a relationship between da/dN and ?K, as reported by Paris. The influence of other variables of loading, material environment is determined empirically to define a model such as the one adopted by current ASME XI Appendix A flaw evaluation curves. Research presented to the ICCGR has led the group to consider a fundamentally different relationship for data correlation and applications models, when the time-dependent influence of corrosion on fatigue crack growth is strong. It is expected in those circumstances that the time rate of crack growth can be correlated with the time rate of crack tip straining. A practical derivation of this approach is the so-called time domain presentation of fatigue crack growth data. Effort has been focused on correlating the data to define a model which is also suitable for engineering application to component fla engineering application to component flaw evaluation. (author)

130

Wear mechanisms and improvements of wear resistance in cobalt-chromium alloy femoral components in artificial total knee joints  

Science.gov (United States)

Wear is one of the major causes of artificial total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. Wear debris can cause adverse reactions to the surrounding tissue which can ultimately lead to loosening of the prosthesis. The wear behavior of UHMWPE tibial components have been studied extensively, but relatively little attention has been paid to the CoCrMo femoral component. The goal of the present study was to investigate the wear mechanisms of CoCrMo femoral components, to study the effect of CoCrMo alloy surface roughness on the wear of UHMWPE, and to determine the effect of heat treatments on the wear resistance of the CoCrMo implant alloys. The surface roughness of twenty-seven retrieved CoCrMo femoral components was analyzed. A multiple station wear testing machine and a wear fixture attached to an MTS 858 bionix system were built and used for in vitro wear studies of the CoCrMo/UHMWPE bearing couple. Solution and aging treatments were applied to the CoCrMo alloys. A white light interference surface profilometer (WLISP) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to measure the surface roughness and to study wear mechanisms of CoCrMo alloy. An optical microscope was used for alloy microstructure study. X-ray diffraction tests were performed to identify alloy phase transformation after aging. The micro-structure, hardness, and wear resistance of the alloys were studied. Surface roughness was used to quantify alloy wear, and the minimum number of surface roughness measurements required to obtain a reliable and repeatable characterization of surface roughness for a worn alloy surface was determined. The surfaces of the retrieved CoCrMo femoral components appeared to be damaged by metal particles embedded in the UHMWPE tibial component and metal-on-metal wear due to UHMWPE tibial component through-wear. Surface roughness of the femoral components was not correlated with patient age, weight, sex, or length of implantation. In vitro wear tests showed that when the CoCrMo alloy surface roughness was higher than 0.022 mum Ra (surface roughness average), UHMWPE wear increased with increasing CoCrMo alloy surface roughness. Bone and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement abrasive particles created scratches on the alloy via a ploughing mechanism, and resulted in significantly rougher surfaces than controls without particles (P < 0.01). Solution treatments at 1230sp°C and 1245sp°C reduced the hardness and wear resistance of the as-cast F75 CoCrMo alloy. Aging at 700sp°C caused recrystallization of the forged F799 alloy and improved wear resistance. Thermo-mechanical treatments have the potential to increase the lifetime of artificial joints by increasing the wear resistance of CoCrMo components.

Que, Like

131

Improvement of oxygen storage components for compliance with LEV/ULEV and Euro III/IV emission limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The presentation will be divided in two sections. The first part will explain briefly the role of the oxygen storage component in the performance of the catalyst and the dramatic improvement in performance required by the future emission legislation especially in North America and the European Union. A survey of the different technical solutions available will be given. The second part will be focused on the description of the CeO2 and CeO2 ZrO2 sintering mechanism the demonstration of the possibility to reach a solid solution for a large range of compositions using different analytical technique such as XRD, XPS, EXAFS. Finally the influence of ageing condition on the solid solution stability will be described with a tentative correlation with model catalyst activity

132

[Spine disc MR image analysis using improved independent component analysis based active appearance model and Markov random field].  

Science.gov (United States)

As there are not many research reports on segmentation and quantitative analysis of soft tissues in lumbar medical images, this paper presents an algorithm for segmenting and quantitatively analyzing discs in lumbar Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Vertebrae are first segmented using improved Independent component analysis based active appearance model (ICA-AAM), and lumbar curve is obtained with Minimum Description Length (MDL); based on these results, fast and unsupervised Markov Random Field (MRF) disc segmentation combining disc imaging features and intensity profile is further achieved; finally, disc herniation is quantitatively evaluated. The experiment proves that the proposed algorithm is fast and effective, thus providing doctors with aid in diagnosing and curing lumbar disc herniation. PMID:20337014

Hao, Shijie; Zhan, Shu; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Hong; Ian, Rosse

2010-02-01

133

Estimation of Properties of Pure Components Using Improved Group-Contribution+ (GC+) Based Models and Uncertainty Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components are needed to carry out tasks such as process design and computer aided molecular/mixture design among others. The experimental values of properties of many important pure components have not been measured due to many reasons, and hence they must be estimated. Predictive methods such as the group-contribution+ (GC+) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) are generally suitable to estimate the needed property values. For assessing the quality and reliability of the selected property prediction method, an engineer needs to know the uncertainties in the estimated property values obtained from that method. With this information, the engineer can then perform better- informed design calculations by taking into account these uncertainties. Hence, given the importance of reliable estimation of properties and uncertainties in the property estimates in the engineering calculations, this work aims to revise and improve GC+ method based estimation of properties as well as to estimate the confidence intervals of estimated property values. To this end, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis, in general, is developed and used. In total 21 properties of pure components, which include normal boiling point, critical constants, normal melting point among others have been analysed. The statistical analysis of the model performance for these properties is highlighted through several illustrative examples. Important issues related to property modeling such as thermodynamic consistency of the predicted properties (relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature etc.) are analysed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only the estimated property values using the GC+ approach, but also the uncertainties in the estimated property values. This feature allows one to evaluate the effects of these uncertainties on the product-process design calculations thereby contributing to better-informed and reliable engineering solutions.

Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent

134

Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m?2, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material

135

Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m{sup ?2}, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material.

Vignal, N., E-mail: nicolas.vignal@cea.fr; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

2013-10-15

136

NIDI: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute  

Science.gov (United States)

NIDI is an independent institute engaged in the scientific study of population. Research carried out at NIDI aims to contribute to the description, analysis, explanation or prediction of demographic trends in the past, the present and the future. The NIDI site offers several items of interest to Demographers and graduate students. Users can consult a list of projects the Institute is currently sponsoring, with some links to abstracts and contact information; the site also contains information on a number of NIDI's publications including Institute reports, European Studies of Population, and the Dutch language journals DEMOS and Bevolking en Gezin (Population and Family). Lists of articles and English abstracts are available for all publications, as is a comprehensive annotated list of related links, including a number of links to sites with Demographic software.

137

Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and in-vessel components towards ITER construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the preparation of the procurement specifications for long lead-time items, several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements are being pursued, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, adding a separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints, and revising the VV support system to gain a more comfortable structural performance margin. Improvements to the blanket design are also under investigation, an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and nondestructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. In FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block, and the divertor components, have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

138

Component test results from the bearing life improvement program for the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxidizer turbopumps  

Science.gov (United States)

Interim results from a component test program to improve ball bearing life in the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxygen turbopumps are presented. Two specific bearing applications, using liquid oxygen as the bearing coolant, are addressed. The first, the thrust bearing of the low pressure pump, operates at relatively slow speed with predominantly axial load and little temperature rise in the bulk coolant. Testing has demonstrated a very significant reduction in bearing wear by increasing the bearing internal clearance. Heat generation data was obtained that indicates heavy, intermittent cage-to-ball contact occurs, providing a possible explanation for the observed wear. The second application is the turbine end bearings of the high pressure pump. These bearings operate at high speed and load with the possibility of significant coolant vaporization. Tests on production bearings and bearings having modified internal clearance and curvature yielded scattered but generally poor lives. A dramatic improvement was achieved by coating the standard cage with a thin film of fluorinated ethylene propylene and 15 percent molybdenum disulfide. Very promising results have also been obtained by replacing the standard balls with ones made of silicon nitride, especially in combination with the coated cage.

Keba, John E.

139

Social Demographic Change and Autism  

OpenAIRE

Parental age at child’s birth—which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992–2000 birth cohorts—is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents’ DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic ...

Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter

2010-01-01

140

Managing demographic risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

In developed nations, the workforce is aging rapidly. That trend has serious implications. Companies could face severe labor shortages in a few years as workers retire, taking critical knowledge with them. Businesses may also see productivity decline among older employees, especially in physically demanding jobs. The authors, partners at Boston Consulting Group, offer managers a systematic way to assess these dual threats--capacity risk and productivity risk--at their companies. It involves studying the age distribution of their employees to see if large percentages fall within high age brackets and then projecting--by location, unit, and job category--how the distribution will change over the next 15 years. Managers must also factor in both the impact of strategic moves on personnel needs and the future supply of workers in the market. When RWE Power analyzed its trends, the company learned that in 2018 almost 80% of its workers would be over 50. What's more, in certain critical areas its labor surplus was about to become a sizable shortfall. For instance, a shortage of specialized engineers would develop in the company just as their ranks in the job market thinned and competition to hire them intensified. Reversing its downsizing course, RWE Power took steps to increase its supply of workers in those key positions. The authors show how companies that face talent gaps, as RWE Power did, can close them through training, transfers, recruitment, retention, productivity improvements, and outsourcing. They also describe measures that companies can take to keep older workers productive, including workplace accommodations, revised compensation structures, performance incentives, and targeted health care management. The key is to identify and address potential problems early. Firms that do so will gain an edge on rivals that are still relentlessly focused on reducing head count. PMID:18314640

Strack, Rainer; Baier, Jens; Fahlander, Anders

2008-02-01

141

DEMOGRAPHIC DATA FOR CENSUS 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include ...

142

IMPROVED REAL-TIME FACE RECOGNITION BASED ON THREE LEVEL WAVELET DECOMPOSITION-PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of research in the field of real-time face recognition is a study that is being developed in the last decade. Face recognition is used to identify person from an image or video. Recognition rate and computation time of real-time face recognition is one of the big challenges that must be developed. This study proposes a model of face recognition using the method of feature extraction by combining three level wavelet decomposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA and using the method of mahalanobis distance for the classification section (3WPCA-MD. A 3-level wavelet decomposition is used to decompose images by reducing the resolution used for those images. Using wavelet decomposition up to level 3 will produce an image with a very low resolution so as to reduce the value of the resulting computation time to be processed using PCA. Mahalanobis distance method is used to determine the degree of similarity among the features to produce a more optimal face recognition. Based on the results of experiments that have been done, they generated improved face recognition with high face recognition accuracy of up to 96% in average and produced faster computation results of face recognition if compared to ordinary PCA method. The average computation speed value obtained using the method of 3WPCA-MD was 5-7 milli-second (ms for each face recognition process.

Edy Winarno

2014-01-01

143

Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and In-vessel components towards ITER construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints and revised VV support system to gain a more comfortable margin in the structural performance. The blanket design has been updated; an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet-outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and non destructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. With regard to the R and D for the FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block and the divertor components have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

144

[The socio-demographic process in contemporary Romania].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent population trends in Romania are first described. Consideration is then given to various contemporary population issues including urbanization, the age and sex structure of the population, indicators of demographic change, birth and death rates, and policy measures designed to promote population growth and to improve living standards. PMID:12265338

Velea, I

1981-01-01

145

The California Latino Demographic Databook  

Science.gov (United States)

Posted by the University of California-Berkeley's principal archive for social science statistics, this Website features selected data from The California Policy Research Center's publication, The California Latino Demographic Databook. The data are presented in the form of figures, tables, and demographic maps and cover such topics as the racial/ ethnic composition of California's population; percentages of Hispanics in California, county by county; Immigrants Admitted as Permanent California Residents from Selected Countries; Size of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Households by Nativity, Period of Entry, and Citizenship; Percent of Californians in Selected Occupations by Detailed Origin; and much more. The entire databook can be ordered from the California Policy Research Center through a link on the Website.

146

5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841.404 Administrative...ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic factors. (a) The Office of Personnel Management...

2010-01-01

147

Counting Heads: Israel's Demographic Imperative  

OpenAIRE

Israel is a country uniquely affected by demography, insofar as the state is bound by an explicitly Jewish nature. This balance has forced Israel to combat external demographic threats from before 1948 up until the present. The implementation of policies including the endorsement of “transfer”—a euphemism for the expulsion of Palestinians in 1948, the razing of Palestinian villages, discriminatory legislation and the creation of facts on the ground—are a logical extension of the Zioni...

Petersen-overton, Kristofer J.

2008-01-01

148

Sequence Analysis in Demographic Research  

OpenAIRE

EnglishThis paper examines the salient features of sequence analysis in demogrpahicresearch. The new approach allows a holistic perspective on life course analysis and is based on arepresentation of lives as sequences of states. Some of the methods for analyzing such data aresketched, from complex description to optimal matching ot monoethetic divisive algorithms. Afer ashort ilustration of a demographically-relevant example, the needs in terms of data collection and theopportunities of apply...

Billari, Francesco C.

2001-01-01

149

Chronological objects in demographic research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

Frans J. Willekens

2013-03-01

150

Improving teacher-child relationship quality and teacher-rated behavioral adjustment amongst externalizing preschoolers: effects of a two-component intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The school-based Playing-2-gether is a 12-week intervention with two components aimed at decreasing child externalizing behavior through improving teacher-child interactions. The first component is rooted in attachment theory and aimed at enhancing teacher-child relationship quality, and the second is based on learning theory and aimed at improving teachers' behavior management. In this three-wave randomized study, effects of Playing-2-gether on the teacher-child relationship quality and on teacher-rated child behavioral adjustment were investigated. To this aim, 175 dyads consisting of male preschoolers with relatively high levels of externalizing problem behavior and their teachers were randomly assigned to Playing-2-gether (n = 89) or an education-as-usual control condition (n = 86). Teacher-rated questionnaires were collected at pre-test, after the first intervention component, and at post-test. At post-test, the intervention group showed a larger decrease in teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems, and child hyperactivity/inattention. Supplementary analyses showed that all positive effects were already visible after the first intervention component and that teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention did not further reduce during the second component. In addition, an increase in closeness was found following the first component, but subsequently disappeared at post-test. PMID:25028283

Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Wouters, Sofie; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde

2015-02-01

151

Economic Effects of Demographic Ageing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romania goes through profound changes due to unprecedented demographic developments. As a result of declining birth rates and emigration after 1990, by the year 2060 is looming a possible doubling of the percentage of the population 65 years and over, from 15 to 30%, and the working age population to fall by about 30 percent. Deterioration of the relationship between labour force and inactive population leads to pressure on the public budget and tax system, strains on pension and social security systems, redefining consumer preferences, type and size of the saved or spent amounts, higher demand for healthcare services, increasing poverty risk for elderly households.

Litra A.V.

2014-12-01

152

Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

153

[Family planning and demographic regression].  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of demographic explosion must be reexamined in the light of what has happened during the last 15-20 years in all industrialized countries, which have all experienced a sharp decrease in fertility rates due to the introduction of modern contraceptive technics, decreased mortality, and the possibility of easily obtaining induced legal abortion. Countries such as West Germany, England, Scotland, and Luxembourg have already reached zero population growth; countries such as Austria, Norway, Finland, Sweden have a growth rate of merely 0.2%. In most western countries average parity is 1.8 children per woman, when 2.18 children are needed to guarantee replacement. The sharpest decrease in fertility rates took place in West Germany and in France; should the tendency in those countries continue West Germany population would go from 60 million inhabitants to 39 million in 2030, and France would go from 53 million to 16 million. Demographic aging is another phenomenon related to fertility decrease; in 1977 in the United States 11% of the population was already over 65. Results of fertility decrease have been so sharp and so rapid that many Eastern European countries have already introduced incentives to reverse the trend, and/or to make abortion more difficult to obtain. This policy of incentives to encourage population growth has reached West Germany where since 1978 very young couples are given monetary help. Beside contraceptive availability population decrease has been fostered by the enormous increase in the rate of divorces and by the very liberal abortion laws. A large number of today's births are illegitimate, due mainly to the practice of trial marriages, without intention of real marriage, among adolescents. PMID:95331

Ferrer Regales, M

1979-06-01

154

Schools for Talent Development: A Practical Plan for Total School Improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Schoolwide Enrichment Model is a blueprint for total school improvement that stresses flexibility and creativity and promotes challenging, enjoyable learning across all school types, levels, and demographic differences. The model combines organizational resources with three service-delivery components: the total-talent portfolio,…

Renzulli, Joseph S.

1996-01-01

155

Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

Seth Owusu-Agyei

2012-12-01

156

Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level. PMID:23273249

Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Nettey, Obed Ernest A.; Zandoh, Charles; Sulemana, Abubakari; Adda, Robert; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Mbacke, Cheikh

2012-01-01

157

THE ROLE OF THE EXERCISES IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE PSYCHOMOTRICITY COMPONENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUPILS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cognitive activities support an obvious intellectual development, also influenced by a special plasticity of the cognitive system – a functional advantage that offers a great receptivity to the child in comparison with the adults. The purpose of choosing the theme By the chosen theme we want to contribute at the highlighting of the importance of the exercises as a game in order to achieve the purposes of the physical education and sports and to optimize the psychomotricity components and also the multilateral development of the pupil. Starting from the idea that the game is an efficient and pleasant way to solve many objectives of the physical education and sports, we suppose that the didactic strategies based on the game help to optimize the psychomotricity components and also the multilateral development of the pupil. Ways of research: the analysis of the specialized literature, the complementary fields, the interdisciplinary, the pedagogical observation, investigation, the way of somatic measures, the movement measures. Results: The psychomotor components measure a normal psychomotor behavior of the child and of the teenager that is why the objectives of the physical education have to aim the education of these components at a high level. Conclusion: The selection of the most efficient ways of the dynamic games by the contribution brought to the education of the main psychomotricity components, but also by their structure and their degree of accessibility for the age of research represents the steps of the didactic strategy of development of the psychomotricity at little scholar age, 6-8 years old and also the personal contribution to solve this problem.

Macri Aura

2014-03-01

158

An efficient method to improve the clustering performance for high dimensional data by Principal Component Analysis and modified K-means  

OpenAIRE

Clustering analysis is one of the main analytical methods in data mining. K-means is the most popular andpartition based clustering algorithm. But it is computationally expensive and the quality of resultingclusters heavily depends on the selection of initial centroid and the dimension of the data. Several methodshave been proposed in the literature for improving performance of the k-means clustering algorithm.Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is an important approach to unsupervised dimensi...

Tajunisha; Saravanan

2011-01-01

159

Improved differentiation between luminescence decay components by use of time-resolved optical activity measurements and selective lifetime modulation.  

OpenAIRE

The analysis of luminescence decay experiments from proteins is typically modeled as a combination of independent first-order decay functions. However, Poisson noise in the photon counting experiment limits the ability of this approach to resolve decay components from separate lumiphores with similar lifetimes. To provide further differentiation, we incorporate time-resolved circular polarization of luminescence, an additional independent observable, into the analysis. In the simplest case, f...

Schauerte, J. A.; Gafni, A.; Steel, D. G.

1996-01-01

160

Demographics and the Long-Horizon Returns of Dividend-Yield Strategies in the US  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the relationship between demographic changes and the long-run returns of dividend-yield investment strategies in the US. We hypothesise that in a world where components of wealth are mentally treated as being non-fungible, the preference for high dividend-paying stocks by older investors means that the excess returns of high dividend-yielding stocks, relative to other stocks, should be positively related to demographic clientele variation. In particular, we find that, ...

Lee, King Fuei

2011-01-01

161

The State Economic, Demographic & Fiscal Handbook 1993.  

Science.gov (United States)

This handbook is an easy-to-use reference book for policymakers, public officials, and policy analysts, as well as anyone else who may need up-to-date information about state economic, demographic, and fiscal data. The book includes data on demographics, poverty rates, per capita state personal income, state and local tax rates, and state and…

Baer, David; Cohen, Lee

162

CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

LIVIU RADU

2014-11-01

163

Sequence Analysis in Demographic Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EnglishThis paper examines the salient features of sequence analysis in demogrpahicresearch. The new approach allows a holistic perspective on life course analysis and is based on arepresentation of lives as sequences of states. Some of the methods for analyzing such data aresketched, from complex description to optimal matching ot monoethetic divisive algorithms. Afer ashort ilustration of a demographically-relevant example, the needs in terms of data collection and theopportunities of applying the same aproach to synthetic data are discussed.FrenchOn examine ici les principaux éléments de l’analyse par séquence endémographie. Cette nouvelle technique permet une perspective unifiée del’analyse du cours de la vie, en représentant la vie comme une série d’états.Certaines des méthodes pour de telles analyses sont décrites, en commençant parla description complexe, pour considérer ensuite les alignements optimales, etles algorithmes de division. Après un court exemple en démographie, onconsidère les besoins en données et les possibilités d’application aux donnéessynthétique.

Billari, Francesco C.

2001-01-01

164

Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman

2014-12-01

165

Feature extraction based on time-frequency and Independent Component Analysis for improvement of separation ability in Atrial Fibrillation detector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to redundancy of over-dimensioned information, observed often in originally recorded biomedical signals, feature extraction and selection has become focus of much researches connected with biomedical signal processing and classification. Mixed new feature vector combined from time-frequency signal representation (obtained after wavelet transform) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) applied for non-stationary signals is proposed as a preliminary stage in ECG waveform classification for patients with Atrial Fibrillation (AF). Discrete fast wavelet transform coefficients parameters including energy and entropy measures and components extracted as a result of FastICA algorithm implementation after optimization gave the best classifier performance of whole AF ECG classifier system. System was positively verified on the set of clinically classified ECG signals for control and atrial fibrillation (AF) disease patients taken from MITBIH data base. The measures of specificity and sensitivity computed for the set of 20 AF and 20 patients from control group divided into learning and verifying subsets were used to evaluate presented pattern recognition structure. Different types of wavelet basic functions for feature extraction stage and kernels for SVM classifier structure calculation were tested to find the best system architecture. Obtained results showed, that the ability of generalization and separation for enriched feature extraction based system increased, due to selectively choosing only the most representative features for analyzed AF detection problem. PMID:19163327

Kostka, Pawel S; Tkacz, Ewaryst J

2008-01-01

166

INTERACTION BETWEEN PROTEINS OF PLANT ORIGIN AND WINE COMPONENTS: MOLECULAR-BASED CHOICE OF PROTEIN FINING AGENTS FOR ORGANOLEPTIC IMPROVEMENT  

OpenAIRE

Gelatine, casein, egg albumin, and, more recently, proteins from plant sources are commonly used in winemaking as fining agents to remove particles responsible for turbidity, to improve stability, and to control browning, over-oxidation, and bitterness during ageing (Spagna et al., 2000; Cosme et al., 2008). The formation of covalent and non-covalent interactions (hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions) between the protein matrix and wine polyphenolics is the basis of the flocculation an...

Granato, Tiziana Mariarita

2010-01-01

167

Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates. Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead on programs that aim to enable choice about childbearing; in concrete terms this means measures such as one-off payments, improving childcare availability, and addressing worklife balance concerns.1 As an issue, low fertility is seen as a particular problem for a number of European and East Asian advanced industrialized countries. Germany and Japan stand out in having experienced especially low fertility over a sustained period of time, while countries with an established and generous welfare state or long traditions of migration appear to buck these trends among members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

2013-01-01

168

Independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms for improved spectral deconvolution of overlapped signals in 1H NMR analysis: application to foods and related products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major challenge facing NMR spectroscopic mixture analysis is the overlapping of signals and the arising impossibility to easily recover the structures for identification of the individual components and to integrate separated signals for quantification. In this paper, various independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms [mutual information least dependent component analysis (MILCA); stochastic non-negative ICA (SNICA); joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices (JADE); and robust, accurate, direct ICA algorithm (RADICAL)] as well as deconvolution methods [simple-to-use-interactive self-modeling mixture analysis (SIMPLISMA) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS)] are applied for simultaneous (1)H NMR spectroscopic determination of organic substances in complex mixtures. Among others, we studied constituents of the following matrices: honey, soft drinks, and liquids used in electronic cigarettes. Good quality spectral resolution of up to eight-component mixtures was achieved (correlation coefficients between resolved and experimental spectra were not less than 0.90). In general, the relative errors in the recovered concentrations were below 12%. SIMPLISMA and MILCA algorithms were found to be preferable for NMR spectra deconvolution and showed similar performance. The proposed method was used for analysis of authentic samples. The resolved ICA concentrations match well with the results of reference gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as the MCR-ALS algorithm used for comparison. ICA deconvolution considerably improves the application range of direct NMR spectroscopy for analysis of complex mixtures. PMID:24604756

Monakhova, Yulia B; Tsikin, Alexey M; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Mushtakova, Svetlana P

2014-05-01

169

Education, Elderly Health, and Differential Population Aging in South Korea: A Demographic Approach  

OpenAIRE

Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Ma...

Bongoh Kye; Erika Arenas; Graciela Teruel; Luis Rubalcava

2014-01-01

170

On-line monitoring for improving performance of nuclear power plants. Part 2: Process and component condition monitoring and diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA's work in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management is aimed at enhancing the capability of Member States to utilize good engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports activities such as improving nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational licence renewal, and modernization of the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants in Member States. The subject of improving the performance of nuclear power plants by utilizing on-line condition monitoring of instrumentation and control systems in plants was suggested by the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in 2003. It was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2004-2007. This is the second report on the use of on-line monitoring (OLM) in nuclear power plants. The first report, On-Line Monitoring for Improving Performance of Nuclear Power Plants, Part 1: Instrument Channel Monitoring (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-1.1), focused on application of OLM to verify the static (calibration) and dynamic (response time) performance of process instruments in nuclear power plants. This second report extends the application of OLM to equipment and process condition monitoring encompassing an array of technologies, including vibration monitoring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts mooring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts monitoring, motor current signature analysis and noise diagnostics, as well as vibration analysis of the reactor core and the primary circuit. Furthermore, this report includes the application of modelling technologies for equipment and process condition monitoring. A majority of these technologies depend on existing data from existing sensors and first principles models to estimate equipment and process behaviour using empirical and physical modelling techniques. In doing so, pattern recognition tools such as neural networks, fuzzy classification of data, multivariate state estimation and other means are used. These means are described in this report, and examples of their application and implementation are provided. It should be pointed out that OLM data are routinely collected in nuclear power plants for a variety of purposes, but that these data are not often trended or used for long term predictive maintenance purposes. This report promotes the idea of trending such data and provides guidance on how this trending may be performed to yield a new maintenance tool for nuclear power plants. This report was produced by experts and advisors from numerous IAEA Member States

171

An Improved Face Recognition Technique Based on Modular Multi-directional Two-dimensional Principle Component Analysis Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a new method named modular multi-directional two-dimensional principle component analysis (M2D2DPCA is proposed for face recognition. First, the original images are rotated at some predetermined angles so that we may extract features from the images in any direction. Then we divide the rotated images into smaller sub-images and apply 2DPCA approach to each of these sub-images.  Finally we propose a fusion method named modular multi-directional 2DPCA (M2D2DPCA to combine a bank of preliminary results in different directions. Compared with conventional 2DPCA based algorithms, the advantage of the proposed method is that it can extract significant features from the images in any direction and avoid the effects of varying illumination and facial expression. The results of the experiments on ORL and Yale datasets show that the proposed M2D2DPCA method can obtain a higher recognition rate than the conventional 2DPCA based methods.

Xiaoqing Dong

2014-12-01

172

Independent component analysis-based artefact reduction: application to the electrocardiogram for improved magnetic resonance imaging triggering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is required during magnetic resonance (MR) examination for monitoring patients under anaesthesia or with heart diseases and for synchronizing image acquisition with heart activity (triggering). Accurate and fast QRS detection is therefore desirable, but this task is complicated by artefacts related to the complex MR environment (high magnetic field, radio-frequency pulses and fast switching magnetic gradients). Specific signal processing has been proposed, whether using specific MR QRS detectors or ECG denoising methods. Most state-of-the-art techniques use a connection to the MR system for achieving their task, which is a major drawback since access to the MR system is often restricted. This paper introduces a new method for on-line ECG signal enhancement, called ICARE, which takes advantage of using multi-lead ECG and does not require any connection to the MR system. It is based on independent component analysis (ICA) and applied in real time. This algorithm yields accurate QRS detection for efficient triggering

173

Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain with Imperfect Quality of Commodity Components in Uncertain State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a mathematical model for four-level defective goods supply chain with imperfect quality of commodity components in an uncertain state to maximize profit of supply chain. It is assumed that the inspection of incoming parts in suppliers is randomly done and incomplete. This lead some of the manufactured products will not be properly manufactured because of defective parts and are considered as defective goods and in most cases, the defective products can be repaired by replacing with the good parts. The defective parts will be collected and then returned to the suppliers for repairing. Out proposed model considers defective parts problem by optimizing the costs of production, maintenance, shipping, reworking on the defective goods and parts, shortage in retailers due to the production of defective goods and cost of capital incurred by the companies. The model can anticipate the active suppliers/manufacturers/distributors and the quantity of parts and goods that must be exchanged between them. Our proposed model is novel and we used MINOS solver and LINGO software to solve the problem. The results ascertained the correctness and fine function of the proposed model.

Salah Alden Ghasimi

2013-07-01

174

Selection criteria for the improvement of seed yield and its components in advances generations of lentil (lens culinaris medik)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present study was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during the years 2006 and 2007 with the objectives; to study the inheritance of seed yield and related traits in both hybridized (F6) and mutated (M6) populations of lentil and to determine the best selection criterion for the improvement of seed yield. Different genetic parameters (variances, heritabilities, genetic gains and correlations) were computed to study the inheritance pattern and interrelationships of different traits. High heritability was observed for days to flower (97.40%), plant height (90.80%), pods per plant (86.20%), hundred seed weight (83.50%) and seed yield per plant (91.80%) in F6 and for days to flower (96.9%), days to mature (91.8%), hundred seed weight (89.0%) and seed yield per plant (94.0%) in M6 generation. High heritability coupled with moderate to high genetic advance was noted for plant height (90.8%, 16.29) pods per plant (86.20%, 25.53) hundred seed weight (83.50%, 35.67) and seed yield per plant (91.80%, 35.84) in F6 generation and for days to flower (96.9%, 25.08), hundred seed weight (89.0%, 25.56) and seed yield per plant (94.0%, 37.01) in M6 generation. The traits mentioned were found to be under the control of additive genes. Seed yield had positive and significant correlation with pods per plant in M6 and with seed weight in both generations. It was concluded that seed weight and pods per plant may be used as selection criterion in bnt may be used as selection criterion in both hybridized and mutated populations for the improvement of seed yield. (author)

175

The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

Raševi? Mirjana

2006-01-01

176

Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics  

OpenAIRE

Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters&rs...

Florica Stefanescu

2009-01-01

177

Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studie...

Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; Mcsweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

2008-01-01

178

Prospective Demographic Study of Cosmetic Surgery Patients  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The authors sought to examine and assess cosmetic surgery patient demographics as well as age in relation to partner, in a prospective manner, analyzing data for any significant correlations. Design: The authors conducted a prospective study utilizing a survey. Setting: The study was conducted in a private, nonacademic dermatological practice. Participants: Three hundred thirty-six patients participated in this study. Results: Demographics of onabotulinumtoxinA/abobotulinumtoxinA ...

Schlessinger, Joel; Schlessinger, Daniel; Schlessinger, Bernard

2010-01-01

179

Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography and with its multidisciplinary nature, demography gets closer and closer to the field of "woman issues".

Devedži? Mirjana

2006-01-01

180

Human population growth and the demographic transition  

OpenAIRE

The world and most regions and countries are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the huge expansion of human numbers: four billion have been added since 1950. Projections for the next half century expect a highly divergent world, with stagnation or potential decline in parts of the developed world and continued rapid growth in the least developed regions. Other demographic processes are also undergoing extraordinary change: women's...

Bongaarts, John

2009-01-01

181

The demographics of global corporate champions  

OpenAIRE

This Working Paper presents a novel dataset documenting the demographics of the world’s 500 largest companies by market capitalisation, as of 30 September 2007. Assigning a birth date to a large company is not a straightforward exercise and involves a measure of judgment, which possibly explains why data on corporate demographics have not been more widely researched in spite of their potential interest to policymakers. However, our methodology, based on the collection of narrative data whic...

Ve?ron, Nicolas

2008-01-01

182

Propuesta para el perfeccionamiento del componente investigativo de la carrera de Estomatología / Improvement of the Researching Component in Dentistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye el resultado de la fase final de una investigación, dirigida a elaborar una propuesta basada en acciones que contribuyan a perfeccionar el diseño de la carrera en cuanto a la actividad investigativa a partir del perfeccionamiento de los programas de las asignaturas que [...] tienen posibilidades de dar tratamiento a la actividad científica investigativa y de la capacitación de los profesores, de manera que el egresado pueda dar respuestas a los problemas de salud de Estomatología a través de la investigación científica. Se diseñó una propuesta basadas en tres acciones, donde la 1ra y 2da acción están dirigidas a explicitar y precisar al nivel de objetivos y contenidos lo referido a la actividad investigativa y la 3ra acción dirigida a la capacitación de los profesores Abstract in english The present work constitutes the result of the final phase of an investigation, directed to elaborate a proposal based on actions that contribute to perfect the design of the career as for the investigative activity starting from the improvement of the programs of those subjects with possibilities t [...] o give treatment to the investigative activity and that contribute to the training of professors, so that the graduate can cope effectively with health problems through scientific investigation. A proposal was designed based on three actions. The 1ra and 2da action are directed to specify investigative activity to the level of objectives and contents. The 3ra action is directed to the training of professors

Lizette, Albertí Vázquez; Sarah, Gutiérrez Martorell; Gerardo, Quintero Pupo; Maheli, Más Sarabia.

2004-08-01

183

Propuesta para el perfeccionamiento del componente investigativo de la carrera de Estomatología Improvement of the Researching Component in Dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye el resultado de la fase final de una investigación, dirigida a elaborar una propuesta basada en acciones que contribuyan a perfeccionar el diseño de la carrera en cuanto a la actividad investigativa a partir del perfeccionamiento de los programas de las asignaturas que tienen posibilidades de dar tratamiento a la actividad científica investigativa y de la capacitación de los profesores, de manera que el egresado pueda dar respuestas a los problemas de salud de Estomatología a través de la investigación científica. Se diseñó una propuesta basadas en tres acciones, donde la 1ra y 2da acción están dirigidas a explicitar y precisar al nivel de objetivos y contenidos lo referido a la actividad investigativa y la 3ra acción dirigida a la capacitación de los profesoresThe present work constitutes the result of the final phase of an investigation, directed to elaborate a proposal based on actions that contribute to perfect the design of the career as for the investigative activity starting from the improvement of the programs of those subjects with possibilities to give treatment to the investigative activity and that contribute to the training of professors, so that the graduate can cope effectively with health problems through scientific investigation. A proposal was designed based on three actions. The 1ra and 2da action are directed to specify investigative activity to the level of objectives and contents. The 3ra action is directed to the training of professors

Lizette Albertí Vázquez

2004-08-01

184

Effective components of Panax quinquefolius and Corydalis tuber protect the myocardium by inhibiting platelet activation and improving the hypercoagulable state  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of extract of Panax quinquefolius and Corydalis tuber (EPC) on platelet activation and the hypercoagulable state in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The MI model in Wistar rats was induced by coronary artery ligation. Sham surgery was performed as a control. The surviving rats that underwent MI surgery were divided into control (administered normal saline), metoprolol (9 mg/kg) and low-, moderate- and high-dose EPC groups (0.54, 1.08 g/kg and 2.16 g/kg, respectively). Saline, metoprolol and EPC were administered by gastrogavage for two consecutive weeks. The morphological changes of the myocardium were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and nitroblue tetrazolium staining. Serum von Willebrand factor (vWF), D-dimer (DD), platelet membrane glycoproteins IIb-IIIa (GPIIb-IIIa) and CD62P levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EPC attenuated the pathological changes of the myocardium. High-dose EPC decreased the serum concentration of vWF when compared with control group. Moderate and high doses of EPC decreased the DD and GPIIb-IIIa levels, and the CD62P level was gradually decreased with EPC dose escalation. The results therefore demonstrated that EPC protects the myocardium by inhibiting platelet activation and improving the hypercoagulable state in a rat model of AMI.

XUE, MEI; LIU, MEI-LIN; ZHU, XIN-YUAN; SHI, DA-ZHUO; YIN, HUI-JUN

2015-01-01

185

Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

Blau, Peter J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Kirkham, Melanie J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Bansal, Dinesh G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities

2012-09-20

186

Have cementless and resurfacing components improved the medium-term results of hip replacement for patients under 60 years of age?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and purpose The optimal hip replacement for young patients remains unknown. We compared patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), revision risk, and implant costs over a range of hip replacements. Methods We included hip replacements for osteoarthritis in patients under 60 years of age performed between 2003 and 2010 using the commonest brand of cemented, cementless, hybrid, or resurfacing prosthesis (11,622 women and 13,087 men). The reference implant comprised a cemented stem with a conventional polyethylene cemented cup and a standard-sized head (28- or 32-mm). Differences in implant survival were assessed using competing-risks models, adjusted for known prognostic influences. Analysis of covariance was used to assess improvement in PROMs (Oxford hip score (OHS) and EQ5D index) in 2014 linked procedures. Results In males, PROMs and implant survival were similar across all types of implants. In females, revision was statistically significantly higher in hard-bearing and/or small-stem cementless implants (hazard ratio (HR) = 4) and resurfacings (small head sizes (< 48 mm): HR = 6; large head sizes (? 48 mm): HR = 5) when compared to the reference cemented implant. In component combinations with equivalent survival, women reported significantly greater improvements in OHS with hybrid implants (22, p = 0.006) and cementless implants (21, p = 0.03) (reference, 18), but similar EQ5D index. For men and women, National Health Service (NHS) costs were lowest with the reference implant and highest with a hard-bearing cementless replacement. Interpretation In young women, hybrids offer a balance of good early functional improvement and low revision risk. Fully cementless and resurfacing components are more costly and do not provide any additional benefit for younger patients. PMID:25285617

Mason, James; Baker, Paul; Gregg, Paul J; Porter, Martyn; Deehan, David J; Reed, Mike R

2015-01-01

187

Demographic characteristics of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a common disease with high mortality and difficult diagnosis.The incidence in our country cannot be calculated because there is no adequate and regular data. In our study,we aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics,risk factors, incidence, Wells and Geneva scores diagnostic and treatment methods of the patients in our emergency department with a diagnosis of PTE. Methods:Files of the 112 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Emergency Department between January 2010 - February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results:The mean age of patients was 65.02 ± 16.23.Forty-one (36.6% of the patients were male and 71 (63.4% were female. The most common complaint of patients was shortness of breath (81.3%, respectively.Immobilization(35.7% and history of previous surgery(19.6% were among the risk factors of the patients. Average troponin levels of the patients was 0.13 ± 0.48 ng/Land average d-dimer levels was 12.698.12 ± 8.779.92 ?g/L. Geneva scores of the patients were: 4 patients (3.6% low score, 88 patients (78.6% medium score and 20 patients (17.9% high score. Wells Clinical Probability scores of the patients were; 1 patient (0.9% low probability, 74 patients (66.1% intermediate probability and 37 patients (33% high probability. In the treatmentof patients; heparin infusion (36.6%, enoxaparin sodium(59.8% and tPA (3.6% were used. Conclusion: In spite of improvements in diagnosis and treatment methods, pulmonary embolism diagnosis is stil a problem. The first step to diagnosis in patients with risk factors begin to suspect.J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1:10-15

Ali Duman

2015-03-01

188

Demographics, energy and our homes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The projected growth in households in the UK is a key factor in future domestic energy consumption, particularly electricity consumption. While every household needs a home and its heating, lighting and appliances, increasing incomes have historically led to significantly higher appliance ownership, higher expectations of levels of energy service and greater usage. In the past this trend was combined with increasing household numbers to drive growth in domestic electricity demand. Official projections for population growth and household composition indicate significant drivers for future growth in energy demand. Curbing this will require policies to reverse the tendency for energy-efficiency improvements to be overwhelmed by growing numbers of households, more widespread appliance ownership and increased service expectations

189

Comparing Simple Quasar Demographics Models  

CERN Document Server

This paper explores several simple model variations for the connections among quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos for redshifts 1 < z < 6. A key component of these models is that we enforce a self-consistent black hole (BH) history by tracking both BH mass and BH growth rate at all redshifts. We connect objects across redshift with a simple constant-number-density procedure, and choose a fiducial model with a relationship between BH and galaxy growth rates that is linear and evolves in a simple way with redshift. Within this fiducial model, we find the quasar luminosity function (QLF) by calculating an "intrinsic" luminosity based on either the BH mass or BH growth rate, and then choosing a model of quasar variability with either a lognormal or truncated power-law distribution of instantaneous luminosities. This gives four model variations, which we fit to the observed QLF at each redshift. With the best-fit models in hand, we undertake a detailed comparison of the four fiducial models, and explore...

Veale, Melanie; Conroy, Charlie

2014-01-01

190

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials on materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a power feeding system for the primary system. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phase of the clad. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clad. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR. (author)

Suh, Jeong Hun; Kim, J. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Lim, Y. S

1999-08-01

191

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR

192

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. (1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. (2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. (3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. (4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. (5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. (6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR.

Suh, Jeong Hun; Kim, J. S.; Han, J. H.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, S. S

2000-08-01

193

GENDER DEMOGRAPHIC DISPARITIES IN BACAU COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender demographic disparities existing in Bacau County were determined by means of some demographic indicators such as: population, natural growth, live births, marriages, divorces, indicators which have been broken down by gender. The assessment of the disparities between men and women from the point of view of the demographic phenomena emphasize the fact that on the level of Bacau County there is a surplus of female population, as during the whole period subjected to the analysis, the positive and respectively the negative natural growth for the male population were lower and higher respectively than the one registered in the case of the female population. The birth rate, marriage rate and divorce rate phenomena also changed significantly after 1990 ; thus, the average age of marriage increased, and the gender difference also had a certain growth, which caused a shift in the fertility intensity from the age group 20-24 to the very next one - the 25-29 age group.

Oana Ancuta Stangaciu

2014-12-01

194

[The beginning of the Cuban demographic revolution].  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristics of the Cuban demographic revolution associated with the main economic, political, and social changes in the country are analyzed. The authors begin with a brief historical outline of the political-economic situation in the country in the middle of the 19th century. There is emphasis on the dependency of the Cuban economy and its monoproducer nature (with sugar being the major export). This was due to the Spanish colonization and to the subsequent American neocolonization. The discovery of the cause for yellow fever by a Cuban physician and the sanitation campaign conducted by the Americans contributed to a diminishing of mortality. A great migratory flow occurred due to the price of sugar in the world market. This must have influenced Cuban demographic patterns which are a major factor linked to the demographic revolution. The influence on proliferation of urbanization and educational trends is emphasized. The low participation in economic activities of women during the early part of the century did affect fertility levels. The trends in mortality throughout the period 1907-43 are pointed out. It was found that 1 major aspect which had a bearing on Cuban demographic patterns was the 2 large migratory flows. An analysis of growth rates in the population--which also confirms the demographic changes in Cuba--is presented. It is concluded that the 4th decade of this century witnessed Cuba's entry in a new stage of the demographic revolution, a stage in which decreased fertility and mortality go together to create a new period. (author's) PMID:12279297

Hernandez Castellon, R

1981-01-01

195

[The demographic policy on the regional level].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study and assessment of demographic processes in the Republic of Bashkortostan during 1984-2008 was implemented. During the examined period, the decrease of marriage rate, the increase of divorce rate and mortality rate accompanied with the decrease of birth rate. From 2001, the positive trend is noted, especially in the area of marriage rate increase. However, the instability of the divorce rate index continues to persist. The important demographic target is to proceed with the reduction of reproductive losses, primarily at the expense of the decrease of the postneonatal losses and mortinatality. PMID:21375036

Sultanaeva, Z M

2010-01-01

196

Epidemic models for complex networks with demographics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we propose and study network epidemic models with demographics for disease transmission. We obtain the formula of the basic reproduction number R0 of infection for an SIS model with births or recruitment and death rate. We prove that if R0 ? 1 , infection-free equilibrium of SIS model is globally asymptotically stable; if R0 > 1 , there exists a unique endemic equilibrium which is globally asymptotically stable. It is also found that demographics has great effect on basic reproduction number R0. Furthermore, the degree distribution of population varies with time before it reaches the stationary state. PMID:25365609

Jin, Zhen; Sun, Guiquan; Zhu, Huaiping

2014-12-01

197

IMPROVING SOFTWARE QUALITY IN THE SERVICE PROCESS INDUSTRY USING AGILITY WITH SOFTWARE REUSABLE COMPONENTS AS SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF INDIAN SERVICE PROVIDERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a software – based business process outsourcing (BPO environment, the quality of services delivered to clients hinges on the quality of software used in processing the service. Software quality attributes have been defined by ISO/IEC standards but different organisations give priorities to specific attributes based on client’s requirements and the prevailing environment. The aim of this study is to identify and demonstrate the particular software development process that guarantees an acceptable level of software quality within a specific domain that would translate to desired quality of services delivered to clients. Therefore, this study through a mixed method approach investigated BPO service providers in India to ascertain what software quality means to their respective organisations, what software quality attributes are given priority and how it could be improved. The findings suggest that software quality is highly dependent on the software development process. The vast majority of successful organisations operated in-house software development through the establishment of software product line as a platform to embed software reusable components within an agile framework. Through this process, there is significant reduction in defect density, thereby improving the software quality. This software quality is also translated to the quality of services delivered to clients

Charles Ikerionwu

2014-07-01

198

Do wealthier households save more? The impact of the demographic factor  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the relationship between wealth, ageing and saving behaviour of private households by using pooled cross sections of German consumption survey data. Different components of wealth are distinguished, as their impact on the savings rate is not homogeneous. On average, the effect attributed to real estate dominates the other components of wealth. In addition, the savings rate strongly responds to demographic trends. Besides the direct impact of the age structure, an indir...

Belke, Ansgar; Dreger, Christian; Ochmann, Richard

2012-01-01

199

Second demographic transition de-blocked?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

Bobi? Mirjana

2011-01-01

200

Current demographical processes in the Penza region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the basic ethnic groups of the Penza region and identifies the demographic processes taking place within each group. The author comes to a conclusion that these processes are determined by the features of the historical development and socioeconomic standing of the ethnic groups.

Pronin Ye.

2013-01-01

201

Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

2011-01-01

202

Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

Peng, Xizhe

2013-01-01

203

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

204

The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

Phillips, Stephanie

2012-01-01

205

Retroperitoneal fibrosis. Demographic, clinical and pathological findings.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis including the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostic criteria and effective treatment of the disease. METHODS This study was carried out at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital, Irbid, Jordan, during the year 2001. Records of 15 patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, clinical and pathological criteria was evaluated and analyzed. RESULTS ...

Bani-hani, Kamal E.; Bani-hani, Ibrahim H.; Al-heiss, Hussein A.; Omari, Hamza Z.

2002-01-01

206

The application of economic-demographic models to development planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Population Division's evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of economic-demographic models shows that procedures for considering the short and long-term implications of population growth can be significantly improved. The Division's research projects demonstrate that models can help planners to achieve an efficient allocation of scarce resources, set clear-cut national objectives and provide a national sense of political and social purpose. There are many advantages in applying economic-demographic models to development planning in order to integrate population factors within the development process, yet care must be taken in adopting and/or applying a certain model at the national level. Aside from the question of adopting a model, the question of the applicability and application of models is emphasized. The choice of model structure is discussed in terms of 4 major issues: 1) the choice of a central core; 2) the trade-off between simplicity and complexity and the appropriate degree of endogeneity; 3) the choice of a demand or supply orientation; and 4) the criteria for selecting a particular model for use. A representative selection of economic demographic models is presented. Included are the TEMPO (designed to illustrate the benefits of reduced fertility) and Long-Range Planning Models (LAPM--designed to illustrate the implications of policy assumptions for economic development, particularly in regard to health and education), both developed by the US government. Also described are the BACHUE and the UN Fund for Populations Activities (UNFPA)/ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) models. It is argued that these latter models offer the greatest promise as tools for planning in the ESCAP Region, at the present time. As the BACHUE model is primarily concerned with employment and the distribution of income and the UNFPA/FAO model with agriculture, incorporating both into the planning process could be desirable. PMID:12340524

1985-01-01

207

The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey  

CERN Document Server

In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

Price, C Aaron

2012-01-01

208

Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, leading to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian Territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this paper we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few decades ago into the future. A Fortran program has been designed and used for the simulation and analysis of our statistical data. This study of demographic change in Palestine has shown that Palestinians will have in future problems as the strongest age cohorts are the above-60-year olds. We therefore recommend the increase of both the retirement age and female employment.

Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

209

Aboriginal Populations: Social Demographic and Epidemiological Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This edited collection provides a valuable overview of Aboriginal demography, with a primary yet not exclusive emphasis upon Canadian research. It provides the reader with much insight not only into the major demographic, sociological, and health trends to characterize Aboriginal peoples, but also some of the most serious conceptual and methodological issues that hinder research of this nature. With additional contributions from the United States, Australia, New Zealand, as well as the circumpolar northern regions of Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia, this book also addresses how Aboriginal conditions in these countries may resemble or differ from those in Canada. For this reason, this edited collection is valuable to those who are interested in using demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological data as a basis for guiding policy, both in Canada and internationally. The contributions are by and large non-technical in nature and, for this reason, accessible to a wide readership.

Don Kerr

2015-01-01

210

Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is ?the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms?. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As...

Asghar Mirfardi

2011-01-01

211

Socio-demographic factors of geriatric depression  

OpenAIRE

Background: Depression is a common mental health problem in geriatric population and the overall prevalence rate of depression in this age group varies between 10 and 20%. Objective: To study the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in geriatric population. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done on 74 community-based mental health surveys on depression in geriatric population, which were conducted in the continents of Asia, Europe, Australia, North America,...

Barua Ankur; Ghosh M; Kar N; Basilio M

2010-01-01

212

Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors  

OpenAIRE

ObjectiveBecause of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.Materials & MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fe...

Esmaili Gourabi, Hamed; Bidabadi, Elham; Cheraghalipour, Fatemeh; Aarabi, Yasaman; Salamat, Fatemeh

2012-01-01

213

Demographics, dividend clienteles and the dividend premium  

OpenAIRE

The catering theory of dividends proposed that corporate dividend policy is driven by prevailing investor demand for dividend payers, and that managers cater to investors by paying dividends when the dividend premium is high. While earlier research found that the dividend premium is not driven by traditional clienteles derived from market imperfections such as taxes, transaction costs, or institutional investment constraints, we find empirical evidence that demographic clienteles are an impor...

Lee, King Fuei

2010-01-01

214

Effects of Demographic Variables on Marital Satisfaction  

OpenAIRE

Marital satisfaction is an important aspect to study because it is a global evaluation of the state of one’s marriage and a reflection of marital happiness and functioning. This study aimed to ascertain the differences in marital satisfaction based on demographic variables. Subjects for this study were 423 married couples. The instrument used was ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The data were analyzed by inferential statistics using t-test and One-way Analy...

Zainah A. Z.; Nasir R; Ruzy Suliza Hashim; Noraini Md. Yusof

2012-01-01

215

The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks  

OpenAIRE

The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both per capita savings and per capita consumption increase in the new steady state.A drop in the birth rate, while keeping the death rate constant, reduces per capita savings, but increases per capita c...

Heijdra, B. J.; Ligthart, J. E.

2004-01-01

216

Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity  

OpenAIRE

To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global) is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global) is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global) is the populat...

Cohen, Joel E.

2008-01-01

217

Demographic development and implementation of population policy measures in the Republic of Srpska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Republic of Srpska faces complex demographic problems that are manifested in a constant reduction in birth rates and negative population growth, reducing the number of pupils in primary schools, the process of depopulation, the disappearance of the villages, aging population, emigration of fertile and working-age population abroad. The components of natural movement of population in the period from 1996 to 2008 indicate problems in demographic development. The current rate of natural increase is negative and points to the disruption of vital structures of population with a range of negative consequences. At the level of the Republic of Srpska, family planning and social policy are under the strong influence of changes that occur in society. From the analysis of demographic determinants for the last ten years it is evident that in the Republic of Srpska, for a longer time, there has been active demographic recession initiated by an intensive reduction of fertility rates. In order to increase the fertility a broader social action is needed from which there should arise strategy for demographic development and family planning program that should take into account the number of children required for the replacement of generations. In accordance with the previous, it is needed to intensify activities on systematization of existing measures of population policy and to direct them primarily in pro-natal purposes, in order to distinguish measures of population and social policy. These activities should be developed at all levels, especially at the level of local government. .

Marinkovi? Draško

2010-01-01

218

Residential Energy Use and Conservation. Economics, Demographics, and Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy consumption in the residential sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. However, much of the current debate regarding energy efficiency in the housing market focuses on the physical and technical determinants of energy consumption, neglecting the role of the economic behavior of resident households. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which the use of gas and electricity is determined by the technical specifications of the dwelling as compared to the demographic characteristics of the occupying household, using a unique set of microeconomic data for a sample of more than 300,000 Dutch homes. The results show that residential gas consumption is determined principally by structural dwelling characteristics, such as the vintage, building type and quality of the home, while electricity consumption varies more directly with household composition, in particular income and family composition. Combining these results with projections on future economic and demographic trends, we find that, absent price increases for residential energy, the aging of the population and their increasing wealth will mostly offset improvements in the energy efficiency of the building stock resulting from policy interventions and natural revitalization.

Brounen, D. [Department of Financial Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kok, N. [Limburg Institute of Financial Economics LIFE, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Quigley, J.M. [Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2011-03-15

219

Improvement of yield and its components as well, as oil content and fatty acid composition in safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius, L) through progeny bulk selection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two successive bulk selection cycles (C 1 and C 2) in some safflower back crosses along with the local variety Giza 1 were evaluated during two seasons (1989 and 1990). Concerning seed yield and its components, bulk progenies of [ ( A 2 s k 1 x Giza 1) x A 2 s k 1 ]; [ (Giza 1 x Mut.1) x Mut.1 ]; [ (A 2 s k 1 x Giza 1)x Giza 1 ]; [ (Mut.1 x A 2 s k 1) x Mut.1 ]; and [Giza 1 x Mut.1) x Giza 1 ] showed an increase of 33.3, 16.9, 16.9,10.0 and 9.8 % in seed yield / plant, respectively in C 2 over C 1 cycle. This increase might be due to the obvious improvement in number of capitula / plant which was 54.5, 11.3, 73.8, 31.8, and 18.6 % as well as to large capitula diameter 11.1, 4.8, 8.7, 0.0 and 18.2 % and to better seed weight of 9.8, 15.8, 7.4, 12.0, and 0.0 % for the progenies of these crosses in the same order. For oil content and quality, these bulk progenies showed 7.1, 9.8, 10.3, 6.5, and 6.8 % increase in oleic acid respectively ; 2.4, 2.5, 5.1, 1.4 and 2.0 % increase in linoleic acid in the same order in C 2 over the corresponding C 1 cycle. Except [ (A 2 s k 1 x G.1) x G.1 ], other bulks showed 3.4, 5.2, 4.9, and 0.9 % increase in oil content and 15.4, 8.3, 8.3 and 13.6 % increase in stearic acid in C 2 over its C 1. The correlation between tow selection cycles based on 1990, performance was highly significant for the most studied traits. For yield and its components, genetic advance ranged from 0.4 % for capitula diameter to 10.3 % for plant height. However, foer to 10.3 % for plant height. However, for oil] content and quality characters, genetic advance ranged from 0.2 % for oleic acid and stearic acid to 1.6% for oil content.2 tab

220

Blood Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...

221

Demographic change, international migration, and public education.  

Science.gov (United States)

"This paper studies the impact of demographic change and international migration on economic development and the education sector. We employ a simple simulation model for tracing the impact of international migration on the educational and economic system, under alternative assumptions on the education background and adaptation costs of migrants. An application to the case of the Netherlands shows that international migration of whatever (realistic) level will not be able to prevent strong population aging during the period 2010-2035. Given the current below-average educational and productive profile of the immigrant population in the Netherlands, increased migration will only make matters worse." PMID:12233615

Ritzen, J M; Van Imhoff, E

1993-01-01

222

Demographic and practice characteristics of chiropractors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic and practice characteristics of chiropractors. A four-part survey questionnaire was developed and mailed to a national stratified (by state) random sample of chiropractors. The analysis of data revealed that most chiropractors hold an undergraduate degree, practice in an urban area, are licensed to practice in only one state, belong to their state's chiropractic association, and are active in continuing education. Other data analyzed related to income, sources of new patients and average fees charged. PMID:3385345

Baffi, C R; Redican, K J; Morris, L; Schroeder, K K; Olsen, L K

1988-04-01

223

Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions. (letter)

224

Demographic Surprises Foreshadow Change in Neoliberal Egypt  

OpenAIRE

in the Egypt of 2008, half the population has known only one president, Husni Mubarak. And the rate of population growth, at its peak when Mubarak assumed office in 1981, has stopped declining as it had been in the 1990s. A new kind of population increase has begun. Such are the lessons of the provisional results of the Egyptian general population and housing census, conducted in November 2006 in accordance with the regular ten-year cycle. These demographic surprises have important implicatio...

Denis, Eric

2008-01-01

225

Job flows, demographics and the Great Recession  

OpenAIRE

The recession the United States economy entered in December of 2007 is considered to be the most severe downturn the country has experienced since the Great Depression. The unemployment rate reached as high as 10.1 percent in October 2009 - the highest we have seen since the 1982 recession. In this paper we examine the severity of this recession compared to those in the past by examining worker flows into and out of unemployment taking into account changes in the demographic structure of the ...

Sierminska, Eva; Takhtamanova, Yelena

2010-01-01

226

Socio-demographic disparities of childhood asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood asthma is particularly prevalent among disadvantaged children and is associated with greater functional consequences. This study described factors associated with childhood asthma in a sample of Latino and non-Latino children. Data were from baseline measures of 791 parent and child dyads involved in a childhood obesity prevention study. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing childhood factors, demographics, acculturation and child asthma diagnosis. Multivariate mixed effects logistic regression analyses tested for correlates of child asthma and ethnicity interactions. Children were 4-10 years old, half were female, 86.0 percent were US-born and 45.7 percent were overweight or obese. The prevalence of childhood asthma was 11.5 percent. In multivariate analyses, the odds of childhood asthma were greater among children of non-Latino descent (OR = 4.1, CI: 1.8, 9.2), who had health insurance (OR = 11.1, CI: 2.7, 46.4), were male (OR = 1.8; CI: 1.1, 3.1) and born pre-term (OR = 3.0, CI: 1.4, 6.3). This study supports socio-demographic disparities in childhood asthma and evidence of their independent effects. PMID:21996682

Crespo, Noe C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Vercammen-Grandjean, Christopher D; Slymen, Donald J; Elder, John P

2011-12-01

227

Profile: Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), located in the rural centre of Burkina Faso, was established in 2009 by the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro with the aim of providing a core framework for clinical trials and also to support the Burkina Faso health authorities in generating epidemiological data that can contribute to the setup and assessment of health interventions. In the baseline of initial census, 54 781 individuals were recorded of whom 56.1% are female. After the initial census, vital events such as pregnancies, births, migrations and deaths have been monitored, and data on individuals and household characteristics are updated during regular 4-monthly household visits. The available data are categorized into demographic, cultural, socio-economic and health information, and are used for monitoring and evaluation of population development issues. As a young site, our objective has been to strengthen our skills and knowledge and share new scientific experiences with INDEPTH and HDSS sites in Burkina Faso. In addition, all data produced by the Nanoro HDSS will be made publicly available through the INDEPTH data sharing system. PMID:23045201

Derra, Karim; Rouamba, Eli; Kazienga, Adama; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Tahita, Marc C; Sorgho, Hermann; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou

2012-10-01

228

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. Methodology: A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Results were expressed as percentages. Results: Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. Conclusion: SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions. (author)

229

Oral health related to demographic features in Bosnian children aged six.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this paper is to present epidemiological indicators of oral health among six-year olds in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) and to analyze values of dmft index and dental treatment needs in order to identify differences in parts of the country. Another aim is to identify the needs from the public oral health care system in Bosnia and Herzegovina related to early permanent dentition by analyzing the condition of first permanent molars (FPM) as an indicator of oral health of permanent dentition. Survey was carried out in 2004 in 8 cantons of the Federation of BH (FBH) and in the Republic of Srpska (RS). Final sample included 560 participants aged six (mean 6.2, SD +/- 0.87). One dental team clinically examined all participants according to WHO methodology and criteria. The parameters used were: dmft index, DMFT index of first permanent molars (FPM), presence of sealants and treatment needs. A questionnaire about oral health habits had been administered. Dmft was 6.71 in that the d-component constituted the major part of the index. DMFT index of FPM was 0.61 (SD +/- 1.08). Percentage of caries free participants aged 6 was 6.8%. Average number of FPM with fissure sealants in BH was 0.25 (SD +/- 0.78). Significant demographic differences in dmft index, DMFT FPM and treatment needs were identified. Most participants (48.5%) had their first dental visit between the ages of five and seven. National oral health goal for Bosnia and Herzegovina should be to develop and implement disease prevention programs based on education of both parents and dental practitioners. It is necessary to improve access to dental care and shift focus from curative to preventive procedures. It is also necessary to set real goals for improvement of oral health which can be achieved within a desired time frame, as well as to precisely define measures to be taken. PMID:20977098

Muratbegovi?, Amra Arslanagi?; Markovi?, Nina; Zukanovi?, Amila; Kobaslija, Sedin; Dragas, Mediha Selimovi?; Juri?, Hrvoje

2010-09-01

230

Effect of demographic noise in a phytoplankton-zooplankton model of bloom dynamics  

OpenAIRE

An extension of the Truscott-Brindley model (Bull. Math. Biol. {\\bf 56}, 981 (1994)) is derived to account for the effect of demographic fluctuations. In the presence of seasonal forcing, and sufficiently shallow water conditions, the fluctuations induced by the discreteness of the zooplankton component appear sufficient to cause switching between the bloom and no-bloom cycle predicted at the mean-field level by the model.The destabilization persists in the thermodynamic lim...

Olla, Piero

2012-01-01

231

Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an exercise programme to improve wellbeing outcomes in women with depression: findings from the qualitative component  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports the qualitative component from a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (PRCT), the quantitative component is reported in Callaghan, Khalil, Morres and Carter (2011). Exercise may be effective in treating depression, but trials testing its effect in depressed women are rare. Our previous research found that standard exercise programmes, prescribed by General Practitioners and based on national guidelines of intensity levels thought to produce health benefits, are not suitabl...

Khalil, Elizabeth; Callaghan, Patrick; Carter, Tim; Morres, Ioannis

2012-01-01

232

A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation  

OpenAIRE

The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indi...

Jamal Abdul Nasir; Tahir, M. H.

2011-01-01

233

A Study Of Demographic Profile Of Aurangabad District  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyses the demographic situation in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra State, whereas, experiencing substantive changes in its demographic profile. The study analyses inter-tahsils variation in population growth, sex-ratio and density of population as well caste and ethnic composition changes. The most striking changes in the demographic scene of Aurangabad is seen in the sphere of higher degree of male female disparity index is visualized because of socio-economi...

Rede, H. N.

2012-01-01

234

Darwinian and demographic forces affecting human protein coding genes  

OpenAIRE

Past demographic changes can produce distortions in patterns of genetic variation that can mimic the appearance of natural selection unless the demographic effects are explicitly removed. Here we fit a detailed model of human demography that incorporates divergence, migration, admixture, and changes in population size to directly sequenced data from 13,400 protein coding genes from 20 European-American and 19 African-American individuals. Based on this demographic model, we use several new an...

Nielsen, Rasmus; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Hellmann, Ines; Torgerson, Dara; Andre?s, Aida M.; Albrechtsen, Anders; Gutenkunst, Ryan; Adams, Mark D.; Cargill, Michele; Boyko, Adam; Indap, Amit; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.

2009-01-01

235

Mining The Relationship Between Demographic Variables And Brand Associations  

OpenAIRE

This research aims to mine the relationship between demographic variables and brand associations, and study the relative importance of these variables. The study is conducted on fast-food restaurant brands chains in Jordan. The result ranks and evaluates the demographic variables in relation with the brand associations for the selected sample. Discovering brand associations according to demographic variables reveals many facts and linkages in the context of Jordanian culture...

Dabbes, Ajayeb Abu; Kharbat, Faten

2013-01-01

236

Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey  

OpenAIRE

Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward on...

Nardali, Sinan

2011-01-01

237

Predicting website audience demographics based on browsing history  

OpenAIRE

Objectives of the Study: The objective of the study was to explore the possibility to predict demographics from browsing behavior of web users. To achieve this objective, the issue of predicting online audience demographics was addressed from three different perspectives. Firstly, the study addressed quality of input data for models and its impact on the accuracy of predictions. Then, it was analyzed how demographics of web users influences their online behavior and, finally, the focus la...

Ivanova, Eleonora

2013-01-01

238

Land use and demographic grids in Cosyma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatial distribution of the population, agricultural production, economic activity, and the position of land and sea, are important elements of accident consequence codes. These data are necessary in evaluating the health effects within the population arising from the external dose, inhalation and ingestion pathways. These distributions are also essential in calculating the economic impact of implementing countermeasures, such as relocation and food bans. This paper includes a discussion of the agricultural production and population distribution information available for EC countries, their resolution, availability and sources. The gridded data included in the COSYMA system are described. Particular aspects, such as the difficulties involved with using economic land use information, are also explained. Future developments, and their effect on the requirements for land use and demographic grids, are outlined

239

Effects of Demographic Variables on Marital Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marital satisfaction is an important aspect to study because it is a global evaluation of the state of one’s marriage and a reflection of marital happiness and functioning. This study aimed to ascertain the differences in marital satisfaction based on demographic variables. Subjects for this study were 423 married couples. The instrument used was ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The data were analyzed by inferential statistics using t-test and One-way Analysis of Variance. Results indicated significant differences in marital satisfaction based on the length of marriage and income. This study suggests that marriage counseling, with an emphasis on promoting awareness in marital happiness and satisfaction, would be helpful in addressing marital problems in married couples.

Zainah A. Z.

2012-06-01

240

Questões emergentes na análise demográfica: o caso brasileiro / New issues in demographic analysis: the case of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este artigo levanta questões emergentes para a análise demográfica brasileira. O trabalho começa com uma análise dos três componentes da dinâmica demográfica, enfatizando a questão sobre o declínio da fecundidade e a possibilidade de a mesma atingir níveis abaixo da reposição. As tendências futuras [...] de emigração internacional também são discutidas. Passando para as conseqüências demográficas desta dinâmica, o texto aborda, ainda, a demografia dos efeitos de composição, ressaltando as conseqüências demográficas do diferencial de fecundidade por educação materna e mostrando que a dinâmica de melhoria educacional das mães mais que compensa este diferencial. O dividendo demográfico é discutido tanto conceitualmente quanto empiricamente, ficando indicada uma agenda para estudos futuros. Finalmente, uma discussão mais conceitual sobre transferências intergeracionais tenta colocar o debate na perspectiva do gasto público brasileiro, enfatizando trabalhos relevantes que começam a ser desenvolvidos. Abstract in english This article begins with a review of the three components of demography, stressing the decline in fertility, with the possibility of the country's reaching a level of below replacement fertility. Studies on new trends in Brazilian emigration are considered relevant for future research. The demograph [...] y of compositional effects is discussed in terms of an exercise with fertility differentials according to the mothers´ education. The exercise shows that the historical improvement in mothers´ education has offset the possible adverse effects of high fertility among mothers with low levels of education. The demographic dividend is discussed both conceptually and empirically, and directions for future studies are indicated. Finally, the article presents a conceptual discussion on intergenerational transfers, with emphasis on public expenditures and social policy. New studies being developed on this topic are also mentioned.

Eduardo Luiz Gonçalvez, Rios-Neto.

2005-12-01

241

Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is ?the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms?. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

Asghar Mirfardi

2011-01-01

242

Demographic changes and processes in Negotin municipality settlement network  

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Full Text Available The analysis of demographic factors of the studied area points to the different demographic development models. Uneven economic and regional development of industry caused the regional demographic polarization of the population of Negotin municipality. In relatively short period, the transition has caused spontaneous urbanization and deagrarization. All that influenced the faster tempo of social and demographic processes, especially the migrations towards Negotin, which led to the developmental unevenness and regional polarization to the zone of population concentration (town and the suburban areas. Contrary to the town center, there are depopulation rural areas, with outstanding economic undevelopment.

Živkovi? Ljiljana

2006-01-01

243

Under-5 Mortality in Tanzania: A Demographic Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The government of the United Republic of Tanzania has initiated the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness program to improve the health and wellbeing of children. Methods: Tanzania’s under-five mortality rate is still 1.7 times higher than the world average and, in order to achieve its Millennium Development Goal 4 target, its annual reduction rate is quite low at 2.2. The main aim of the study is to examine under-five mortality combined with the Data from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2008 data was used. Odds ratios for infant and under-five mortality were estimated using logistic regression; crude and adjusting models were adopted. Results: Mortality cases (18.3%) have been reported to children born with an interval of <24 months. Mothers with no education reported 14.6%, primary education mothers reported 11.1% and higher education reported only 5.3% (P<0.001). Therefore, maternal education plays is a major role on fertility and infant and under-five mortality behavior. Conclusion: Maternal education also influences a mother’s behavior in her usage of available health services to improve the health of the children. Further in-depth analysis is immensely needed in this situation. PMID:23641385

Sathiya Susuman, A; Hamisi, Hamisi F

2012-01-01

244

Under-5 Mortality in Tanzania: A Demographic Scenario  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The government of the United Republic of Tanzania has initiated the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness program to improve the health and wellbeing of children.Methods: Tanzania’s under-five mortality rate is still 1.7 times higher than the world average and, in order to achieve its Millennium Development Goal 4 target, its annual reduction rate is quite low at 2.2. The main aim of the study is to examine under-five mortality combined with the Data from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2008 data was used. Odds ratios for infant and under-five mortality were estimated using logistic regression; crude and adjusting models were adopted.Results: Mortality cases (18.3% have been reported to children born with an interval of <24 months. Mothers with no education reported 14.6%, primary education mothers reported 11.1% and higher education reported only 5.3% (P<0.001. Therefore, maternal education plays is a major role on fertility and infant and under-five mortality behavior.Conclusion: Maternal education also influences a mother’s behavior in her usage of available health services to improve the health of the children. Further in-depth analysis is immensely needed in this situation.

A Sathiya Susuman

2012-12-01

245

The correlation between effective factors of e-learning and demographic variables in a post-graduate program of virtual medical education in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc) studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60); a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test) by using SPSS (V.16). The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05); whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (Plearner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners. PMID:25415821

Golband, Farnoosh; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mirhosseini, Fakhrossadat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

2014-01-01

246

Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multitude of environmental problems abound in Tanzania. The problems range from declining land resources, de-vegetation, urban and air pollution, degradation of the marine environment to the destruction of biological diversity. A thorough analysis of these manifestations of environments decline reveal the presence of linkages to economic, political, cultural and demographic constraints which have been at the crux of Tanzania's efforts towards emancipation. We attested that societies are always dialect and integral parts of the global entity. As such the analysis of any societal problem can not be sufficiently tackled by basing on a 'micro level' societal specific factors. We need to expand our horizon and include 'macro level' elements which impinges on the society under study. Imperatively, influences on any environment, social or biophysical, whether positive or negative, emanates either or both from within the specific society and or from without. In our study we set out to provide an insight into the nature and character of man and environment interaction in Arumeru district, Northern Tanzania. We intended to investigate the extent to which changes in the household production patterns as a result of environmental stress and the consequent resource management strategies influence and are hitherto influenced by population growth. The aspects of demographic changes especially patterns of growth and settlement, agrarian production such as land tenure, food and cash uction such as land tenure, food and cash crop interventions, non-farm activities and management of the commons were studies. Further, local adaptation to crisis including environmental stress and emerging markets were explored. he theoretical model adopted in analysing the man-land environment relationship in Arumeru district and the ensuing findings, give legitimacy to the position that issues of population growth or decline cannot be separated from questions of economic and social development, or from the environmental concerns related to the management of resources both at global and local levels. We found out empirically that despite the dwindling natural resource base, the people in Arumeru still maintain their demographic dynamism. For them, it is a rational thing to do. The explanation for this phenomenon is not discrete, but spans the whole range of the population-resource continuum. From the demographic transition point of view, the society has not reached the threshold where child labour is valueless. In Arumeru, the children are still valued for their labour as they participate in both agro-pastoral related income generating activities. Further, children are still old age insurers. Thus, the age long traditions which favour the persistence of high fertility regimes are still in force. Having children is still a pleasure which costs nothing and hence the family size is rarely determined by the household's income. The interplay of proximate determinants of fertility is found to have an effect on the population increase in the district. People enter into marriage unions at very young ages, while the breastfeeding duration has drastically decreased in recent years. Furthermore, postpartum abstinence is no longer observed and incidences of pathological infertility have been tremendously reduced, thanks to modern medicine. All these factors support high fertility regimes. The argument that rapid population growth always leads to environmental decline and thus forces rural economies into diminishing returns, over-utilisation of resource and pauperisation is rejected. Despite the population increase and dwindling resource base in Arumeru, food security, rural incomes and standard of living have consistently improved throughout the century. The situation in the study area somehow accommodate the Boserupian model, where population growth triggers agricultural intensification, but in this case, the forces which triggers change did not emanate from within, but were externally generated. Institutional arrangements and the markets played a significant role in

247

Independent component analysis in non-hypothesis driven metabolomics : Improvement of pattern discovery and simplification of biological data interpretation demonstrated with plasma samples of exercising humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a non-hypothesis driven metabolomics approach plasma samples collected at six different time points (before, during and after an exercise bout) were analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS). Since independent component analysis (ICA) does not need a priori information on the investigated process and moreover can separate statistically independent source signals with non-Gaussian distribution, we aimed to elucidate the analytical power of ICA for the metabolic pattern analysis and the identification of key metabolites in this exercise study. A novel approach based on descriptive statistics was established to optimize ICA model. In the GC-TOF MS data set the number of principal components after whitening and the number of independent components of ICA were optimized and systematically selected by descriptive statistics. The elucidated dominating independent components were involved in fuel metabolism, representing one of the most affected metabolic changes occurring in exercising humans. Conclusive time dependent physiological changes of the metabolic pattern under exercise conditions were detected. We conclude that after optimization ICA can successfully elucidate key metabolite pattern as well as characteristic metabolites in metabolic processes thereby simplifying the explanation of complex biological processes. Moreover, ICA is capable to study time series in complex experiments with multi-levels and multi-factors.

Li, Xiang; Hansen, Jakob

2012-01-01

248

The Impact of Job Satisfaction and Some Demographic Variables on Employee Turnover Intentions  

OpenAIRE

Due to competition for scarce skills, the attraction and retention of teachers in rural schools is probably the biggest challenge in the education sector today. It is imperative for the education department to have knowledge of the impact of job satisfaction and some demographic variables on employee turnover intentions to improve the attraction and retention of teachers especially those with scarce skills. Self administered questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 300 teachers. A strat...

Trust Kabungaidze; Nomakholwa Mahlatshana; Hlanganipai Ngirande

2013-01-01

249

Rising thyroid cancer incidence in the United States by demographic and tumor characteristics, 1980–2005  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid cancer incidence has been rising in the United States, and this trend has often been attributed to heightened medical surveillance and use of improved diagnostics. Thyroid cancer incidence varies by sex and race/ethnicity, and these factors also influence access to and utilization of healthcare. We therefore examined thyroid cancer incidence rates by demographic and tumor characteristics, based on 48,403 thyroid cancer patients diagnosed during 1980–2005 from the Surveillance, Epide...

Enewold, Lindsey; Zhu, Kangmin; Ron, Elaine; Marrogi, Aizen J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Peoples, George E.; Devesa, Susan S.

2009-01-01

250

An eco-evolutionary model for demographic and phenological responses in migratory birds  

OpenAIRE

Many migratory birds have changed their timing of arrival at breeding grounds in response to recent climate change. Understanding the adaptive value and the demographic consequences of these shifts are key challenges. To address these questions we extend previous models of phenological adaptation to climate change under territory competition to include feedback from population dynamics, winter survival and habitat productivity. We study effects of improved pre-breeding survival and of earlier...

Niclas Jonzén; Smallegange, Isabel M.; Jacob Johansson

2012-01-01

251

Demographic and clinical characteristics of UK military veterans attending a psychological therapies service  

OpenAIRE

Aims and method To investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics of subgroups of UK veterans attending a dedicated psychological therapies service following the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) treatment model. Veterans accessing a newly established service in the north-west were categorised into three groups: early service leavers, those with a physical disability, and substance and/or alcohol misusers. Anxiety, depression and social functioning were measured pre...

Giebel, Clarissa M.; Clarkson, Paul; Challis, David

2014-01-01

252

Demographic costs of inbreeding revealed by sex-specific genetic rescue effects  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Inbreeding can slow population growth and elevate extinction risk. A small number of unrelated immigrants to an inbred population can substantially reduce inbreeding and improve fitness, but little attention has been paid to the sex-specific effects of immigrants on such "genetic rescue". We conducted two subsequent experiments to investigate demographic consequences of inbreeding and genetic rescue in guppies. Results Populations established from pairs of full siblings th...

Zajitschek Felix; Rk, Zajitschek Susanne; Brooks Robert C

2009-01-01

253

Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy  

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Full Text Available Demographic studies in plants appear simple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastic tags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperate latitudes have a pronounced seasonal life–cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots once a year often during or shortly after flowering. Life–states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of a demographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as 0VFVVF000. A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it was seen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities of survival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting. Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, i.e., when plants may stay belowground for one or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as 0VF00F000 may then occur where the meaning of zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methods in wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equated to a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and in Kéry et al. (submitted, we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival and should not be used. In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capturerecapture (CR models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state–transitions and the fraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrial orchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kéry et al., submitted and Cypripedium reginae (Kéry & Gregg, submitted in West Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a total of 620 marked ramets over 10 years, and for Cypripedium, two populations with 98 and 258 marked ramets over 11 years. We chose the ramet (= single stem or shoot as the demographic unit of our study since there was no way distinguishing among genets (genet = genetical individual, i.e., the “individual” that animal ecologists are mostly concerned with. This will introduce some non–independence into the data, which can nevertheless be dealt with easily by correcting variances for overdispersion. Using ramets instead of genets has the further advantage that individuals can be assigned to a state such as flowering or vegetative in an unambiguous manner. This is not possible when genets are the demographic units. In all three populations, auxiliary data was available to show that detection probability of aboveground plants was m 0.995 We fitted multistate models in program MARK by specifying three states (D, V, F, even though the dormant state D does not occur in the encounter histories. Detection probability is fixed at 1 for the vegetative (V and the flowering state (F and at zero for the dormant state (D. Rates of survival and of state transitions as well as slopes of covariate relationships can be estimated and LRT or the AIC machinery be used to select among models. To estimate the fraction of the population in the unobservable dormant state, the encounter histories are collapsed to 0 (plant not observed aboveground and 1 (plant observed aboveground. The Cormack–Jolly–Seber model without constraints on detection probability is used to estimate detection probability, the complement of which is the estimated fraction of the population in the dormant state. Parameter identifiability is an important issue in multi state models. We used the Catchpole–Morgan–Freeman approach to determine which parameters are estimable in principle in our multi state models. Most of 15 tested models were indeed estimable with the notable exception of the most general model, which has fully interactive state- and time-dependent survival and state transition rates. T

Kéry, M.

2004-06-01

254

Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic studies in plants appear simple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastic tags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperate latitudes have a pronounced seasonal life-cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots once a year often during or shortly after flowering. Life-states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of a demographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as OVFVVF000. A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it was seen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities of survival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting. Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, I.e., when plants may stay belowground for one or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as OVFOOF000 may then occur where the meaning of zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methods in wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equated to a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and in Kery et al. (submitted), we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival and should not be used. In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capture-recapture (CR) models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state-transitions and the fraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrial orchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kery et aI., submitted) and Cypripedium reginae (Kery & Gregg, submitted) in West Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a total of 620 marked ramets over 10 years, and for Cypripedium, two populations with 98 and 258 marked ramets over 11 years. We chose the ramet (= single stem or shoot) as the demographic unit of our study since there was no way distinguishing among genets (genet = genetical individual, I.e., the 'individual' that animal ecologists are mostly concerned with). This will introduce some non-independence into the data, which can nevertheless be dealt with easily by correcting variances for overdispersion. Using ramets instead of genets has the further advantage that individuals can be assigned to a state such as flowering or vegetative in an unambiguous manner. This is not possible when genets are the demographic units. In all three populations, auxiliary data was available to show that detection probability of aboveground plants was > 0.995. We fitted multistate models in program MARK by specifying three states (D, V, F), even though the dormant state D does not occur in the encounter histories. Detection probability is fixed at 1 for the vegetative (V) and the flowering state (F) and at zero for the dormant state (D). Rates of survival and of state transitions as well as slopes of covariate relationships can be estimated and LRT or the AIC machinery be used to select among models. To estimate the fraction of the population in the unobservable dormant state, the encounter histories are collapsed to 0 (plant not observed aboveground) and 1 (plant observed aboveground). The Cormack-Jolly-Seber model without constraints on detection probability is used to estimate detection probability, the complement of which is the estimated fraction of the population in the dormant state. Parameter identifiability is an important issue in multi state models. We used the Catchpole-Morgan-Freeman approach to determine which parameters are estimable in principle in our multi state models. Most of 15 tested models were indeed estimable with the notable exception of the most ge

Kery, M.; Gregg, K.B.

2004-01-01

255

Modern-Day Demographic Processes in Central Europe and Their Potential Interactions with Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of contemporary transformations in the population of Central European countries on climate change, in addition to singling out the primary points of interaction between demographic processes and the climate. In analyzing the interactions between climate and demographics, we can formulate three basic hypotheses regarding the region in question: 1) as a result of current demographic trends in Central Europe, the influence of the region on its climate will probably diminish, 2) the importance of the "climatically displaced" in global migratory movements will increase, and some of those concerned will move to Central Europe, 3) the contribution of the region to global food security will increase. In the last decade most of what comprises the region of Central Europe has reported a decline in population growth and a negative migration balance. As a process, this loss of population may have a positive effect on the environment and the climate. We can expect ongoing climate change to intensify migration processes, particularly from countries outside Europe. Interactions between climate and demographic processes can also be viewed in the context of food security. The global warming most sources foresee for the coming decades is the process most likely to result in spatial polarization of food production in agriculture. Central Europe will then face the challenge of assuring and improving food security, albeit this time on a global scale.

Ba?ski, Jerzy

2013-01-01

256

The demographic basis of population regulation in columbian ground squirrels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental factors influence the dynamics and regulation of biological populations through their influences on demographic variables, but demographic mechanisms of population regulation have received little attention. We investigated the demographic basis of regulation of Columbian ground squirrel (Spermophilus columbianus) populations under natural and experimentally food-supplemented conditions. Food supplementation caused substantial increases in population density, and population densities returned to pretreatment levels when the supplementation ended. Control (untreated) populations remained relatively stable throughout the study period (1981-1986). Because food resources regulated the size of the ground squirrel populations, we used life-table response experiment (LTRE) analyses to examine the demographic basis of changes in population growth rate and thus also demographic influences on population regulation. LTRE analyses of two food-manipulated populations revealed that changes in age at maturity and fertility rate of females generally made the largest contributions to observed changes in population growth rate. Thus, our results suggested that abundance of food resources regulated the size of our study populations through the effects of food resources on age at maturity and fertility rates. Our results also indicated that different demographic mechanisms can underlie population regulation under different environmental conditions, because lower juvenile survival substantially contributed to population decline, but in only one of the populations. Demographic analyses of experimental data, such as those presented here, offer a rigorous and unambiguous means to elucidate the demographic basis of population regulation and to help identify environmental factors that underlie dynamics and regulation of biological populations. PMID:18707321

Dobson, F S; Oli, M K

2001-09-01

257

The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

2013-01-01

258

Demographic Faultlines: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting…

Thatcher, Sherry M. B.; Patel, Pankaj C.

2011-01-01

259

China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

Peng, Xizhe

2013-01-01

260

Demographic Aspects of Hearing Impairment: Questions and Answers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This pamphlet answers many questions about demographic aspects of hearing-impaired individuals, such as the number of hearing-impaired and deaf persons in the United States, the number with hearing problems that restrict communication, the number of hearing-impaired students and number of deaf college students, the demographic groups which have a…

Hotchkiss, David

261

Family practice in Ontario: How physician demographics affect practice patterns  

OpenAIRE

As the demographics of practising physicians change, especially as the number of women doctors in an area increases, it is important that those planning for the provision of medical care in the future understand the relationships between the demographics and changes in practice patterns.

Norton, Peter G.; Dunn, Earl V.; Bed, Liane Soberman

1994-01-01

262

Demographic processes: past, present and future - selected issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This papers refers to demographic processes in the period from the 19th century through to the present and tries to define what they will look like in the future. Demographic trends i.a. relating to fertility, mortality, migrations, the process of family-union-household formation and dissolution, and the process of population ageing, are described by the concepts of demographic transformations: first, second and third. The transformation of demographic trends has coexisted and will coexist with globalization processes, though the scope of the mutual influence changes over time. Despite the fact that it takes place in various geographical regions, the transformation of demographic trends is characterised by high cultural diversity and socio-economic development.

Fr?tczak, Ewa Zofia

2013-01-01

263

Demographic and clinical characteristics of parapsoriasis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background an Aim: parapsoriasis is a rare chronic idiopathic dermatosis which commonly manifests with round or oval scaling and itching erythematosus plaques on trunk and extremities. Considering the size of the lesions, parapsoriasis is divided into two groups: small plaque and large plaque. Study of demographic characteristics of this disease may help to identify the high risk groups who are more susceptible to cutaneous lymphoma with high mortality as well as proper allocation of health service resources.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, affected parapsoriasis patients whom were referred to Razi Hospital in Tehran between April 2003 to March 2009 were studied. Three hundred and twenty patients were investigated for variables: age, sex, place of residence, location of the lesions and clinical subgroups according to the histopathology reports.Results: 53.4% of patients were female. The disease was most commonly observed in age group of 20 to 50 years and the mean age of the patients was 43.3 years. Eighty-five percent of the patients were inhabitant of Tehran province. 88.1% of patients had large plaque lesions and 11.9% had small plaque lesions. The most common sites of lesions were on the trunk (53.4% followed by the extremities (38.7%.Conclusion: Based on these findings, it was determined that parapsoriasis most commonly affects middle-aged women. Involvement of trunks and extremities were most commonly observed. Large plaque type was the most common type. 

Nafiseh Esmaeili

2012-12-01

264

[On present demographic developments (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present demographic situation in West Germany is discussed. The decrease in the population of West Germany can be attributed to the decrease in the number of marriages and the number of live births as well as the increase in the number of divorces in recent years. These tendencies are especially evident since 1970. Population models have the disadvantage of being constructed after the fact and cannot assume that a desired goal will be reached. 90% of the population of West Germany serves as employees. This, along with the increasing role of women in the work force from 1969-1976, affects marriage and birth rates. The point is reached where the state begins to play a role in order to maintain a stable level of population, usually through economic incentives. The moral aspect of such programs can not be ignored, as persons can be given a false sense of their duties by economic incentives. The importation of workers from other countries is feasible only ss long as these workers meet necessary qualifications and the domestic and foreign economic situations are favorable. PMID:761754

Maier, W

1979-02-01

265

Closing the Energy Efficiency Gap: A study linking demographics with barriers to adopting energy efficiency measures in the home  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a study which linked demographic variables with barriers affecting the adoption of domestic energy efficiency measures in large UK cities. The aim was to better understand the ‘Energy Efficiency Gap’ and improve the effectiveness of future energy efficiency initiatives. The data for this study was collected from 198 general population interviews (1.5–10 min) carried out across multiple locations in Manchester and Cardiff. The demographic variables were statistically linked to the identified barriers using a modified chi-square test of association (first order Rao–Scott corrected to compensate for multiple response data), and the effect size was estimated with an odds-ratio test. The results revealed that strong associations exist between demographics and barriers, specifically for the following variables: sex; marital status; education level; type of dwelling; number of occupants in household; residence (rent/own); and location (Manchester/Cardiff). The results and recommendations were aimed at city policy makers, local councils, and members of the construction/retrofit industry who are all working to improve the energy efficiency of the domestic built environment. -- Highlights: ? 7 demographic variables linked to 8 barriers to adopting energy efficiency measures. ? A modified chi-square test for association was used (first order Rao–Scott corrected). ? Results revealed strong associations between most of the demographics and barriers. ? Data was collected from 198 interviews in the UK cities of Manchester and Cardiff. ? Specific recommendations are presented for regional policy makers and industry.

266

Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis. Objective: Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii unfolded as a component of it. Methods: Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk. Results: Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred. Conclusions: Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

Gordon Carmichael

2014-03-01

267

Regional differences in low birth weight in Spain: biological, demographic and socioeconomic variables.  

Science.gov (United States)

The geographic and demographic dimensions of Spain, in terms of surface and number of inhabitants, and its heterogeneous socioeconomic development offer an adequate opportunity to study the provincial differences in birth weight from 1996 to 2010, focusing on possible factors determining the relative frequency of low birth weight. The study analysed geographic differences with regard to biological, demographic and socioeconomic factors that interfere with the female reproductive pattern. The variables considered here were: birth order, proportion of premature deliveries, mother's age, multiparity, mother's country of origin and professional qualifications. Two periods (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were compared by means of principal components analysis. An increase in the relative frequency of deliveries weighing less than 2500 g occurred in most of the 52 geographic units studied, differences being significant in 42. Only in five cases was there a non-significant reduction in the proportion of low weight births. The first component after principal component analysis indicated that low birth weight was positively related to maternal age and to multiple deliveries, and negatively to the mother's low professional qualification. The second component related positively to the incidence of premature deliveries and to non-Spanish status and negatively in the case of primiparous mothers. The progressive increase in low birth weight incidence observed in Spain from 1996 onwards has occurred with considerable variation in each province. In part, this diversity can be attributed to the unequal reproductive patterns of immigrant mothers. PMID:24524355

Fuster, Vicente; Zuluaga, Pilar; Colantonio, S E; Román-Busto, J

2015-01-01

268

A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi-component and the quality control of TCMs and TCM prescriptions. PMID:25618711

Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

2015-03-01

269

Improvement and extension of the program system PSU for application in safety evaluation of components of nuclear power plants. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the safety evaluation of power plant components, finite element methods (FEM) play a key role for both the solution of continuum mechanics problems and fracture mechanics problems. Especially in the field of fracture mechanics and damage mechanics specialized methods have to be applied in addition to classical engineering treatment laid down in the standards. The aim of this project was to enhance the finite element program PSU to make it applicable for safety analyses of nuclear power plants, with particular consideration of modern concepts of mechanics of materials, fracture mechanics and damage mechanics. (orig.)

270

Developing Arizona Turnaround Leaders to Build High-Capacity Schools in the Midst of Accountability Pressures and Changing Demographics  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's accountability policies and changing demographics have created conditions in which leaders must rapidly build school capacity and improve outcomes in culturally diverse schools. This article presents findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of an Arizona Turnaround Leadership Development Project. The project drew on studies of…

Ylimaki, Rose M.; Brunderman, Lynnette; Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Dugan, Thad

2014-01-01

271

Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

272

Population demographics of two local South Carolina mourning dove populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count index had a significant (P 2,300 doves and examined >6,000 individuals during harvest bag checks. An age-specific band recovery model with time- and area-specific recovery rates, and constant survival rates, was chosen for estimation via Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), likelihood ratio, and goodness-of-fit criteria. After-hatching-year (AHY) annual survival rate was 0.359 (SE = 0.056), and hatching-year (HY) annual survival rate was 0.118 (SE = 0.042). Average estimated recruitment per adult female into the prehunting season population was 3.40 (SE = 1.25) and 2.32 (SE = 0.46) for the 2 study areas. Our movement data support earlier hypotheses of nonmigratory breeding and harvested populations in South Carolina. Low survival rates and estimated population growth rate in the study areas may be representative only of small-scale areas that are heavily managed for dove hunting. Source-sink theory was used to develop a model of region-wide populations that is composed of source areas with positive growth rates and sink areas of declining growth. We suggest management of mourning doves in the Southeast might benefit from improved understanding of local population dynamics, as opposed to regional-scale population demographics.

McGowan, D.P., Jr.; Otis, D.L.

1998-01-01

273

Demographic characterization and social patterns of the Neotropical pampas deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most endangered subspecies of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus uruguayensis is an endemic cervidae of the Uruguayan temperate grasslands. The aim of our study was to assess the demographic trends, grouping structure and dynamic of this small and isolated population. We surveyed the population during seven years and detected an average of 117 (+ 72.7 SD) individuals (44 censuses). The average population structure observed was 55% adult females, 34% adult males, 10% juveniles, and 1% fawns, with a low recruitment rate of 0.11. The pampas deer is a gregarious cervidae with 62% of individuals being observed within groups of at least three animals. Nevertheless we observed substantial differences on group size and composition based on sex, reproductive status, season and trophic resources availability. The population dynamics showed significant changes around the year in the sexual aggregation-segregation pattern, corresponding with reproductive and physiological status. The mean density on this population (11 deer/ km(2)) is the highest reported for the species. Comparable data, from other populations, showed a significant correlation between density and sex ratio, with a reduction in the proportion of males with higher deer densities. An action plan for this endangered population should include initiatives involving private landowners, and guidelines to improve the deer habitat. PMID:23853746

Cosse, Mariana; González, Susana

2013-12-01

274

Hyperbolic Components  

CERN Document Server

Consider polynomial maps $f:\\C\\to\\C$ of degree $d\\ge 2$, or more generally polynomial maps from a finite union of copies of $\\C$ to itself. In the space of suitably normalized maps of this type, the hyperbolic maps form an open set called the hyperbolic locus. The various connected components of this hyperbolic locus are called hyperbolic components, and those hyperbolic components with compact closure (or equivalently those contained in the "connectedness locus") are called bounded hyperbolic components. It is shown that each bounded hyperbolic component is a topological cell containing a unique post-critically finite map called its center point. For each degree $d$, the bounded hyperbolic components can be separated into finitely many distinct types, each of which is characterized by a suitable reduced mapping scheme $\\bar S_f$. Any two components with the same reduced mapping scheme are canonically biholomorphic to each other. There are similar statementsfor real polynomial maps, for polynomial maps with m...

Milnor, John

2012-01-01

275

Track2-major components reliability and material issues corrosion counter-measures. Inconel overlay weld with improvement of ultrasonic flaw detection using magnetic stirring welding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Type 304 stainless steel and alloy 182 butt weld joints have sensibility of stress corrosion cracking in high temperature and high pressure water with oxygen dissolution. Some preventive maintenance techniques are improved and applied to actual plants to prevent stress corrosion cracking. One method is overlay welding on the outer surface of pipe joints, that can change the tension residual stress on the inner surface into the compression stress during overlay welding process with water cooling in pipe inside. It is well known that ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in the Inconel welds which have dendrites because they make ultrasonic transmissibility decrease. Also, welding for low alloy steels of reactor vessel nozzles is usually performed with pre- and post- weld heat treatments. But in this method, either treatment is quite difficult for water cooling in pipe inside during overlay welding. We discussed the application of magnetic stirring welding to reduce the growth of dendrites and to improve ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were performed for determination of optimal welding condition range. PT and macro observation after welding were carried out, resulted in the optimal operation conditions. Overlay welding tests were performed, and UT and hardness test of heat affected zone were carried out. Ultrasonic beam transmission of overlay welds is clearly improved and higher detect-ability is promised by application of magnetic stirring welding. Hardness of low alloy steel's heat affected zone after the fourth layer is less than 350 HV. (author)

276

The verification of virtual community members socio-demographic profile  

CERN Document Server

This article considers the current problem of investigation and development of the method of web-members' socio-demographic characteristics' profile validation based on analysis of socio-demographic characteristics. The topicality of the paper is determined by the necessity to identify the web-community member by means of computer-linguistic analysis of their information track (all information about web-community members, which posted on the Internet). The formal model of basic socio-demographic characteristics of virtual communities' member is formed. The algorithm of these characteristics verification is developed.

Fedushko, Solomia; Peleschyshyn, Andriy; Syerov, Yuriy

2013-01-01

277

The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart  

CERN Document Server

The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

Wilder, Stanley

2013-01-01

278

Demographic and clinical characteristics of UK military veterans attending a psychological therapies service.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims and method To investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics of subgroups of UK veterans attending a dedicated psychological therapies service following the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) treatment model. Veterans accessing a newly established service in the north-west were categorised into three groups: early service leavers, those with a physical disability, and substance and/or alcohol misusers. Anxiety, depression and social functioning were measured pre- and post-treatment. Results Veterans vary in their demographic and clinical characteristics as well as in treatment efficacy, as measured by the post-treatment scores on probable depression and anxiety. Therapy appears to be most effective in early service leavers, whereas veterans with a physical disability or a substance or alcohol misuse problem tend not to do as well in terms of symptoms of depression or anxiety. Clinical implications This study highlights the importance of targeting different veteran subgroups for dedicated psychological therapy. PMID:25505626

Giebel, Clarissa M; Clarkson, Paul; Challis, David

2014-12-01

279

Alternative methods to attach components in printed circuit boards to improve their recyclability / Métodos alternativos de fijación de componentes de circuitos impresos para mejorar su reciclabilidad  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las Placas de Circuitos Impresos constituyen la base de la industria electrónica. Sin embargo, generan residuos de difícil eliminación y reciclaje, debido a la diversidad de materiales y componentes presentes y su difícil separación. La sustitución de soldaduras de Pb-Sn por aleaciones libres de plo [...] mo intenta minimizar la toxicidad que implica la presencia de Pb, pero no aborda la separación de los componentes para su posterior reutilización y/o reciclaje. Este artículo presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre el problema ambiental que constituyen las placas de circuitos impresos, el estudio de alternativas de fijación, pruebas de fiabilidad para comparar con las placas convencionales y sistemas comerciales para validar o servir de base para futuras investigaciones, enfocadas hacia el desmontaje de PCI. Además, se muestran algunos estudios incipientes mediante prototipos para la realización de pruebas visuales y funcionales. Abstract in english Printed circuit boards (PCB), which form the basis of the electronics industry, generate wastes that are difficult to dispose of and recycle due to the diversity of their materials and components and their difficult separation. The replacement of Pb-Sn welding for lead-free alloys to attach componen [...] ts in printed circuit boards is an attempt to minimize the problem of Pb toxicity, but it does not change the problem of separation of the components for later reuse and/or recycling. This article presents a review of the environmental problem of printed circuit boards, the initial development of alternative fixation studies, and reliability tests for comparison with conventional boards and commercial systems to validate or serve as a basis for future research, focused on PCB disassembly for recycling. At present, initial studies were performed by using prototypes for visual and functional tests.

André, Canal-Marques; Maria Rita, Ortega-Vega; José-María, Cabrera; Célia de, Fraga-Malfatt.

2014-08-01

280

Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105,000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. PMID:25186307

Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

2014-10-01

281

Levels and trends of demographic indices in southern rural Mozambique: evidence from demographic surveillance in Manhiça district  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mozambique most of demographic data are obtained using census or sample survey including indirect estimations. A method of collecting longitudinal demographic data was introduced in southern Mozambique since 1996 (DSS -Demographic Surveillance System in Manhiça district, Maputo province, but the extent to which it yields demographic measures that are typical of southern rural Mozambique has not been evaluated yet. Methods Data from the DSS were used to estimate the levels and trends of fertility, mortality and migration in Manhiça, between 1998 and 2005. The estimates from Manhiça were compared with estimates from Maputo province using the 1997 National census and 1997 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. The DHS data were used to estimate levels and trends of adult mortality using the siblings' histories and the orphanhood methods. Results The populations in Manhiça and in Maputo province are young (44% Conclusion The population under demographic surveillance in Manhiça district presents characteristics that are typical of southern rural Mozambique, with predominance of young people and reduction of adult males. Labour migration and excess adult male mortality are the major factors for the reduction of adult males. Mortality is high and only infant mortality has started to stabilise while adult mortality has increased, and as consequence, life expectancy has decreased. The Manhiça DSS is an adequate tool to report demographic measures for southern rural Mozambique.

Thompson Ricardo

2006-11-01

282

Demographic parameters of individual E.coli within and among controlled environment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In most biodemographic studies, demographic parameters, such as lifespan and reproduction, are quantified from populations without controlling environmental or genetic influences. To accurately quantify the demographic parameters, we need to isolate the system from stochastic extrinsic factors. This can be achieved by working on isogenic populations under controlled environments. We use a microfluidic device to limit stochastic processes to their molecular components. The high throughput microfluidic device traps thousands of individual E. coli cells and tracks them over their lifespan. The devise allows a precise control of the culture media and temperature, i.e. the extrinsic environment. Preliminary results indicate substantial variation of lifespan and reproduction within the same environment, and significant shifts in mean lifespan and reproduction among environments. Variance in lifespan and reproduction decreases with increased temperature, as do the means. This study is setting the baseline observations on a range of temperature. This experimental setup opens a prolific research line, which will allow us to explore demographic effects of nutrients availability, molecular signals from bacteria’s host, and antibiotics on individual cells. Those individual level effects can then be scaled to the population level.

Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

283

Combining genetic and demographic information to prioritize conservation efforts for anadromous alewife and blueback herring.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major challenge in conservation biology is the need to broadly prioritize conservation efforts when demographic data are limited. One method to address this challenge is to use population genetic data to define groups of populations linked by migration and then use demographic information from monitored populations to draw inferences about the status of unmonitored populations within those groups. We applied this method to anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), species for which long-term demographic data are limited. Recent decades have seen dramatic declines in these species, which are an important ecological component of coastal ecosystems and once represented an important fishery resource. Results show that most populations comprise genetically distinguishable units, which are nested geographically within genetically distinct clusters or stocks. We identified three distinct stocks in alewife and four stocks in blueback herring. Analysis of available time series data for spawning adult abundance and body size indicate declines across the US ranges of both species, with the most severe declines having occurred for populations belonging to the Southern New England and the Mid-Atlantic Stocks. While all alewife and blueback herring populations deserve conservation attention, those belonging to these genetic stocks warrant the highest conservation prioritization. PMID:24567743

Palkovacs, Eric P; Hasselman, Daniel J; Argo, Emily E; Gephard, Stephen R; Limburg, Karin E; Post, David M; Schultz, Thomas F; Willis, Theodore V

2014-02-01

284

Structure of Employment of Population under Conditions of a Demographic Crisis in Ukraine ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and practical aspects of formation of the structure of employment of population under conditions of a demographic crisis. It specifies definition of the “employment structure” notion, in which its changeability, multilevel structure of components and capacity to adapt to external conditions of functioning are underlined. It studies socio-economic conditions, which are established at the moment, and pays special attention to the demographic crisis in Ukraine and its specific features. It justifies goals of the society on the issues of the employment policy and marks features of violation of the structural balancing of employment. It justifies the policy of employment of population under conditions of the demographic crisis and offers practical recommendations on its regulation. It generalises types and forms of employment of population. It justifies a necessity of additional allocation of such features of employment structure classification as territorial belonging, types of economic activity, level of differentiation of income, which would facilitate a justified selection of methods of employment regulation.?????? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????. ???????? ??????????? ??????? «????????? ?????????», ? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????, ???????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????????????. ??????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ?? ????????????. ?????????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?? ?????????????. ???????? ???? ? ????? ????????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????????? ??????????????, ???? ????????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????.

Tsizhma Yuriy I.

2013-05-01

285

Assessing patterns of fish demographics and habitat in stream networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

286

[Demographic and population characteristics in Hungary during the 1980s].  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in demographic characteristics in Hungary during the 1980s are analyzed. Consideration is given to the observed population decrease and to birth rates, mortality rates, and marriage and divorce patterns. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12285246

Klinger, A

1992-01-01

287

[Integration of demographic variables into development plans in the Sahel].  

Science.gov (United States)

A founding principle of the Program of Action of N'Djamena is the interdependence of population and development and the need for development strategies to take demographic factors into account. The concept of integration of population variables into development has evolved since its introduction in the 1974 World Population Plan of Action from a simple description of population size, growth rates, and distribution to a stress on harmonizing population policies and development policies with macroeconomic variables. The essence of the concept is the consideration given by development policies and programs to the interrelations between population, resources, the environment, and development factors. Population variables and goals should ideally be treated as endogenous variables in development planning, but in practice the extreme complexity of such a systematic approach limits its ability to be made operational. Usually the most crucial problems only are included. Integrated planning is composed of explicit or implicit population policies intended to influence demographic variables and of socioeconomic policies intended to adapt to demographic change. In the Sahel, only Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali have formal population policies, but around 1980 several countries of the region began to show interest in influencing demographic variables as they did economic variables. Fundamental principles for developing an integration strategy can be applied regardless or whether the plan is based on projections, analysis of interaction of a demographic variable with factors specific to a sector, or a monosectorial or multisectorial demoeconomic planning model. Demographic data is used more frequently in diagnosing problems than in developing projections or formulating objectives. The level of disaggregation of demographic projections and estimates tends to be low, despite the great potential utility of demographic projections in planning. Demographic projections can be useful in analyses of the extent of changes and the implications of alternative scenarios of development planning. The most frequently used demographic variables in development planning have been spatial distribution of the population and mortality. An examination of past development plans in Mali relating to population and nutrition and population and health reveals several inconsistencies between stated goals and strategies intended to achieve them. The incoherence can be explained in part by the absence of a coherent national population policy, the failure to translate the population policy into programs that take into account reciprocal effects of demographic trends and economic perspectives and their social effects, and the absence of disaggregated population projections. An example from Senegal demonstrates the constraints imposed by structural adjustment programs on the entire planning process. PMID:12344768

Wane, H R

1992-07-01

288

Demographics of Investigators Involved in OSSA-Funded Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The birth of the U.S. civil space program and the subsequent, dramatic growth in the ranks of the space science research population occurred in the 1950s and 1960s'. The large, post- Sputnik/ Apollo buildup in space program manpower is now approximately one career-lifetime in the past. It is therefore natural to anticipate that a large fraction of the space program engineers, scientists, and managers who pioneered the early exploration of space are approaching retirement. Such a "retirement wave" bodes both a loss of manpower and, more fundamentally, a loss of experience from the civil-space manpower base. Such losses could play a critical role constraining in NASA's ability to expand or maintain its technical capabilities. If this indeed applies to the NASA space science research population, then the potential for problems is exacerbated by the anticipated growth in flight rates, data volume, and data-set diversity which will accompany the planned expansion in the OSSA science effort during the 1990s and 2000s. The purpose of this study was to describe the OSSA PI/Co-I population and to determine the degree to which the OSSA space science investigator population faces a retirement wave, and to estimate the future population of PIs in the 1990-2010 era. To conduct such a study, we investigated the present demographics of the PI and Co-1 population contained in the NASA/OSSA Announcement of Opportunity (AO) mailing list. PIs represent the "leadership" class of the OSSA scientific researcher population, and Co-Is represent one important, oncoming component of the "replacement" generation. Using the PI population data, we then make projection estimates of the future PI population from 1991 through 2010, under various NASA growth/PI demand scenarios.

Stern, S. Alan; Konkel, Ronald; Habegger, Jay; Byerly, Radford, Jr.

1991-01-01

289

Olfactory Function : The Influence of Demographic, Cognitive, and Genetic Factors  

OpenAIRE

Olfactory function is affected by demographic, cognitive, and genetic factors. In the present thesis, three empirical studies investigated individual differences in olfactory ability. Study I explored demographic and cognitive correlates in common olfactory tasks; odor detection, odor discrimination, and odor identification. The results indicated that old age influenced performance negatively in all tasks, and that semantic memory proficiency and executive functioning were related to odor dis...

Hedner, Margareta

2013-01-01

290

Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions  

OpenAIRE

A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics ...

Hernando, A.; Hernando, R.; Plastino, A.; Zambrano, E.

2014-01-01

291

Demographic dynamics and population issues in the Mediterranean  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: The Mediterranean Basin is an area of sharply contrasting trends in demographic growth and socio-economic development; the effects of their interactions are becoming increasingly urgent and difficult to manage. Fewer children are being born - whether this is due, as Adolphe Landry would have said, to an individual principle of rationalising life or, as for Frank Notestein and Kingsley Davis, supporters of the demographic transition theory, to the emergence of a modern form of econom...

Pace, Roberta; Parant, Alain

2014-01-01

292

Irregular Migration, Palestinian Case: Demographic and socioeconomic perspectives  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, particular attention is given to Palestinian refugees since they comprise over half of the world-wide Palestinian population. Demographic and economic data is used to study the impact of refugees on Palestinian society and the Palestinian economy. The paper has four main sections: along with a brief review of the literature, the first section provides definitions of irregular migration and Palestinian refugees. The second section offers a detailed look at demographics, whil...

Lubbad, Ismail

2008-01-01

293

Demographic corrections for the modified Telephone Screening for Cognitive Status  

OpenAIRE

Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted m...

Dennett, Kathryn; Tometich, Danielle; Duff, Kevin

2013-01-01

294

The Impact of Demographic and Academic Characteristics on Academic Performance  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to explore students’ demographic and academic characteristics that are associatedwith students’ academic performance during their undergraduate studies. Demographic and academiccharacteristic such as age, gender, nationality, high school major and high school GPA were studied as potentialdeterminants of academic performance. A sample of 700 students from the College of Business Studies at thePublic Authority for Applied Education was examined. Descriptive stat...

Alhajraf, Nout M.; Alasfour, Aishah M.

2014-01-01

295

Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences  

OpenAIRE

Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS), and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results...

Guan, Yanjun; Bond, Michael Harris; Dinca, Margareta; Iliescu, Dragos

2010-01-01

296

Sessile serrated adenomas: Demographic, endoscopic and pathological characteristics  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To study the demographic and endoscopic characteristics of patients with sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) in a single center.METHODS: Patients with SSA were identified by review of the pathology database of Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2005 to 2007. A retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on demographics, polyp characteristics, presence of synchronous adenomatous polyps or cancer, polypectomy methods, and related complications.RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-one (2.9%) of a...

Suryakanth R Gurudu, Russell I. Heigh

2010-01-01

297

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

OpenAIRE

The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had sig...

Said Pournaghash-Tehrani; Zahra Feizabadi

2007-01-01

298

The demographic transition and the emergence of sustained economic growth  

OpenAIRE

The demographic transition that swept the world in the course of the last century has been identified as one of the prime forces in the transition from stagnation to growth. The unprecedented increase in population growth during the early stages of industrialization was ultimately reversed and the demographic transition brought about a significant reduction in fertility rates and population growth in various regions of the world, enabling economies to convert a larger share of the fruits of f...

Galor, Oded

2004-01-01

299

DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGES AND SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC PENSIONS EXPENDITURES  

OpenAIRE

The demographic changes that are likely to be experienced in the European Union in the coming decades determine governments to find solutions in order to provide the sustainability of social public expendituresThe literature usually focuses on elements which underline the effects of macroeconomic parameters on the size of public pension expenditure: Samuelson (1958), Cass and Yaari (1966), Blanchard (1985), and Gertler (1999). However demographic effects, notably fertility rate and old-age de...

Milo? Marius Cristian

2012-01-01

300

Demographics of cattle movements in the United Kingdom  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The United Kingdom (UK) government has been recording the births, deaths, and movements of cattle for the last decade. Despite reservations about the accuracy of these data, they represent a large and valuable body of information about the demographics of the UK cattle herd and its contact structure. In this article, a range of demographic data about UK cattle, and particularly their movements, are presented, as well as yearly trends in the patterns of movements. Results A...

Vernon Matthew C

2011-01-01

301

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN  

OpenAIRE

Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spiritualit...

Huma Ali; Hina Ali

2011-01-01

302

A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

Jamal Abdul Nasir

2011-09-01

303

On-Line Monitoring and Dynamic Feature Trending as a Means to Improve In-Service Inspection, Maintenance, and Long-Term Assessment of Systems and Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent publication of an international standard on vibration monitoring of reactor internal structures (IEC 61502, standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission) concludes a long-standing development of methods for a new type of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control system. This new system differs from traditional monitoring systems, as it is aimed primarily at early failure detection. Useful information is provided to plant operators, but in particular to the inspection/maintenance personnel. Powerful modern computer technology allows - in an effective manner - correlation and spectral analysis, feature extraction and trending, alert level monitoring, and remote data/signature transmission of dynamic process signals such as neutron noise, vibration signals, pressure noise, etc. The signature and feature trends are stored in a central databank and form a useful reference for assessment of components and systems in case of actual incipient failure development or at the estimated end of the plant lifetime as part of the aging condition assessment measures.The standard IEC 61502 is used as an example for early failure detection and on-line condition monitoring methods based on signature analysis and feature vector monitoring in general. The reasons/background for structuring this particular standard in a mandatory and an optional part as well as the resulting consequences are explained. But emphasis is also placed on demonstration of the principlso placed on demonstration of the principles, i.e., measurement analysis and usefulness of such methods for maintenance and refurbishment strategies. The transferability of the methods is discussed when applied for other tasks, for instance, for condition/aging assessment of process instrumentation

304

Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (? 4400 ?g DM1/m2) and 30 mg/kg (? 6000 ?g DM1/m2) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 ?g DM1/m2). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic activity. • When conjugated in T-DM1, higher doses of DM1 can be tolerated. • Antibody-drug conjugates may improve the therapeutic window for cytotoxic agents

305

Examples of the evolution of materials for nuclear applications: metallurgical improvement of 16MND5 steel and new technologies for manufacturing heavy components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Creusot-Loire Industrie has been constantly improving and adjusting the quality of its products (heavy forgings, castings or plates) based on knowledge of their in-service behaviour. The development of steel manufacturing techniques has been oriented to increasing the quality of steel, in particular by reducing drastically the impurity content (S,P), by better control of the basic range of chemical composition, and by decreasing the gas content (N,H,O). Changes in ingot shapes have been made to optimize the quality of the steel with respect to segregation (development of hollow and LSD ingots to reduce the effect of irradiation embrittlement at the inner surface and sub-surface area). The effects of these developments on the toughness of nuclear materials are illustrated by two examples: 16MND5 steel used for pressurized water reactors; ASTM A350LF5 steel used for cask bodies for the transport of irradiated fuel elements. Modifications in hot working (mainly forging) procedures have enabled the development of products with shape adapted to easier construction and/or best quality and/or reduction in the number of welds, thus decreasing the construction and in-service inspection costs. New forging products to be used in nuclear pressurized water reactor power plants are presented. ((orig.))

306

Moxifloxacin-loaded nanoemulsions having tocopheryl succinate as the integral component improves pharmacokinetics and enhances survival in E. coli-induced complicated intra-abdominal infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, a novel nanoemulsion laden with moxifloxacin has been developed for effective management of complicated intra-abdominal infections. Moxifloxacin nanoemulsion fabricated using high pressure homogenization was evaluated for various pharmaceutical parameters, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in rats with E. coli-induced peritonitis and sepsis. The developed nanoemulsion MONe6 (size 168 ± 28 nm and zeta potential (ZP) 24.78 ± 0.45 mV, respectively) was effective for intracellular delivery and sustaining the release of MOX. MONe6 demonstrated improved plasma (AUC(MONe6/MOX) = 2.38-fold) and tissue pharmacokinetics of MOX (AUC(MONe6/MOX) = 2.63 and 1.47 times in lung and liver, respectively). Calculated PK/PD index correlated well with a reduction in bacterial burden in plasma as well as tissues. Enhanced survival on treatment with MONe6 (65.44%) and as compared to the control group (8.22%) was a result of reduction in lipid peroxidation, neutrophil migration, and cytokine levels (TNF-? and IL6) as compared to untreated groups in the rat model of E. coli-induced sepsis. Parenteral nanoemulsions of MOX hold a promising advantage in the therapy of E. coli-induced complicated intra-abdominal infections and is helpful in the prevention of further complications like septic shock and death. PMID:25317848

Shukla, Prashant; Verma, Ajeet Kumar; Dwivedi, Pankaj; Yadav, Arti; Gupta, Pramod Kumar; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan

2014-12-01

307

How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?  

OpenAIRE

In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency,...

Kara, Derya

2010-01-01

308

How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation, t-test, Anova and Tukey analysis. As a result of this research; it has been seen that, there is no statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees work at hotel establishments considering their gender and marital status. Besides, it has been understood that, there is a statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees considering their ages, education levels, incomes, and length of time in tourism sector.

Derya KARA

2010-12-01

309

Estimating components of variance in demographic parameters of Tawny Owls, Strix aluco  

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Full Text Available Survival rates of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco were estimated using recapture and recovery data from approximately 20,000 nestling and adult owls ringed between 1980 and 1999 in southern Finland. Survival rates averaged 33% in the first year of life, 64% in the second, and 73% in subsequent years, but varied dramatically among years. Approximately 50% of annual variation in survival could be explained by stage of the vole cycle and severity of winter weather. Capture probabilities, an index of breeding propensity, varied dramatically among years, and could almost entirely be explained by the vole cycle, superimposed on a long-term increase in capture effort. Matrix models based on mean values in each year of the vole cycle, predict that in 2 out of 3 years, the population would decline by 13%-15% per year, offset by a large increase in the 3rd year. Numbers of nesting pairs are predicted to be low in one of three years, with no long-term trend, consistent with observed estimates of active nests.

Francis, C. M.

2004-06-01

310

Estimating components of variance in demographic parameters of Tawny Owls, Strix aluco  

OpenAIRE

Survival rates of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) were estimated using recapture and recovery data from approximately 20,000 nestling and adult owls ringed between 1980 and 1999 in southern Finland. Survival rates averaged 33% in the first year of life, 64% in the second, and 73% in subsequent years, but varied dramatically among years. Approximately 50% of annual variation in survival could be explained by stage of the vole cycle and severity of winter weather. Capture probabilities, an index of br...

Saurola, P.; Francis, C. M.

2004-01-01

311

China’s Savings and Current Account Balance: A Demographic Transition Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we build an overlapping generation model to analyze how China’s family planning policy affects the demographic structure and the dependency ratios. We also employ the Cointegration Test and Granger Causality Test to examine the relationship between Chinese population dependency ratios and the national savings rate, as well as the relationship between relative productivity differences and the national current account balance. We find that the family planning policy can be sustainable with respect to these metrics. The current account balance reflects the transfer of savings over time and space. We posit that the demographic structure determines the savings transfer over time, while the relative productivity difference determines the savings transfer across the space. This transfer does not change the total welfare calculated on a national or generational basis. Consequently, focusing on improving the consumption rate to boost the economy without consideration of demographic structure transition warrants further serious discussion. Similarly, too much attention to short-term current account surplus or deficit is not productive.

Chao Zhu

2011-11-01

312

Improvement in functional characteristics of aluminum-silicon cast components through the utilization of a novel electromagnetic treatment of liquid melts  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present dissertation the study of Electromagnetic Stirring (ES) and Electromagnetic Stirring and Vibration (ESV) techniques in several Al-Si hypo and hypereutectic alloys were conducted. Five ES and ESV workstations were designed and tested in order to develop a technology capable of conducting melt treatments on Al-Si hypereutectic alloys at temperatures above liquidus. The 390 series alloys were selected because they have shown comparable wear characteristics to cast iron (currently used for cylinder liner applications) three times higher thermal conductivity, the difference in thermal expansion coefficient thermal between the Al-Si alloys was alloy. The ES technique was effectively used in a semi-solid state to refine the microstructure of the 319 alloy used to cast engine blocks. For instance the ES treatment was capable of reducing the grain of the 319 alloy size by 600%, and partially eliminates the dendrites. However, the ES treatment had negligible effect on Al-Si eutectic, Mg and Cu enriched phases and was limited to the semi-solid state and for hypoeutectic alloys. The ESV technique was successfully implemented to modify the primary Si particles in Al-Si hypereutectic (390.1(I), 390.1(II), 393.2(I) and 393.2(II)) alloys at temperatures as high as ˜100°C above liquidus. The effectiveness of the ESV melt treatment is higher as the temperature gets closer to liquidus. For the first time the application of ESV treatments were able to modify the microstructure of Al-Si hypereutectic alloys from the liquid state. A novel algorithm known as the "Image Analysis Based Si Modification Level " to determine the effect of the ESV melt treatment on the microstructure. Thermal analysis shows that the liquidus temperature increases up to 15°C as a function of the ESV melt treatment conditions and alloy composition. Therefore, thermal analysis can be used as on-line technique to predict this SiML. Additionally, this SiML, Vickers microhardness and Brinell hardness presented similar behaviour as a function of the ESV melt treatment conditions. The SiML increased from 4.3 to 7.7 and the microhardness increased up to 35% in heat treated test samples, while Brinell hardness increased 25%. Using multiple regression analysis a correlation between the ESV melt treatment conditions, the results of TA, SiML and Vickers and Brinell hardness was established. With multiple regression analysis, several algorithms were developed to predict the SiML or mechanical properties based on the ESV melt treatment conditions or the TA results. These algorithms are a powerful tool for on line determination of the SiML of the mechanical properties of ESV treated castings. The tensile properties of the ESV treated melts were determined in test bars cast in the Stahl mould. The ESV melt treated test samples presented an improvement of ˜20% in as cast conditions and ˜30% after the heat treatment. A fractography analysis of the test bars was conducted and was found that the primary Si and the shrinkage pores are responsible for the lower mechanical properties of the test bars cast with untreated melt. Additionally, the improvement of the tensile properties of the ESV melt treated samples was due to the elimination of the porosity and the highly refined Si due to the melt treatment. The ESV treated melts were utilized to cast prototype pistons and cylinder liners. The cylinder liners were used to produce prototype V6 engine blocks. The prototype engine blocks were cast at NEMAK of Canada Corporation with cast in prototype Al-Si cylinder liners. The mechanical characteristics and the microstructure were evaluated following Ford's Materials Specifications for cylinder liners and regular production engine blocks in the bulkhead sections. Soundness (porosity) and mechanical properties in the V6 prototype engine blocks were assessed in comparison to the regular production engine block. The porosity measurements indicated that the prototype engine blocks presented a 40% less poro

Robles Hernandez, Francisco Carlos

313

Genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds by microsatellite markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds was carried out utilizing 40 microsatellite markers. Allelic polymorphism was observed at 20 loci in the Indian dromedary breeds. A total of 66 alleles were scored. The average number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content were, respectively, 3.25?±?0.27, 0.56?±?0.04 and 0.49?±?0.04 in Bikaneri; 3.25?±?0.25, 0.53?±?0.03 and 0.46?±?0.03 in Jaisalmeri; 3.0?±?0.21, 0.53?±?0.04 and 0.45?±?0.03 in Kachchhi and 3.1?±?0.19, 0.51?±?0.03 and 0.44?±?0.03 in Mewari breed. Higher genetic variation was observed in most numerous Bikaneri breed. Genetic distances were least between the breed pair Bikaneri and Jaisalmeri which was closely placed with the Kachchhi breed. The Mewari camels had relatively higher genetic distance from the other three Indian dromedary breeds. The bottleneck analysis revealed the presence of genetic bottleneck in all four breeds of Indian dromedary. However, the qualitative graphical method resulted in normal L-shaped distribution of allele frequencies in Jaisalmeri breeds and shifted mode in Bikaneri, Kachchhi and Mewari breeds. The demographic bottleneck analysis revealed minimum reduction (-9.65 %) in the population of camels in Jaisalmeri breeding tract as compared to that of Bikaneri (-14.18 %), Kachchhi (-27.78 %) and Mewari (-32 %) breeding tracts. Conclusively, the genetic bottleneck analysis could explain the demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. Therefore, appropriate conservation and improvement efforts are needed in all four dromedary breeds with immediate attention on Mewari and Kachchhi breeds. The present study is the first report in demonstrating the genetic basis of demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. PMID:25134805

Mehta, Sharat Chandra

2014-12-01

314

WHEN DOES IMPROVING HEALTH RAISE GDP?  

Science.gov (United States)

We assess quantitatively the effect of exogenous health improvements on output per capita. Our simulation model allows for a direct effect of health on worker productivity, as well as indirect effects that run through schooling, the size and age-structure of the population, capital accumulation, and crowding of fixed natural resources. The model is parameterized using a combination of microeconomic estimates, data on demographics, disease burdens, and natural resource income in developing countries, and standard components of quantitative macroeconomic theory. We consider both changes in general health, proxied by improvements in life expectancy, and changes in the prevalence of two particular diseases: malaria and tuberculosis. We find that the effects of health improvements on income per capita are substantially lower than those that are often quoted by policy-makers, and may not emerge at all for three decades or more after the initial improvement in health. The results suggest that proponents of efforts to improve health in developing countries should rely on humanitarian rather than economic arguments. PMID:24347816

Ashraf, Quamrul H; Lester, Ashley; Weil, David N

2009-04-01

315

Examining the spatially non-stationary associations between the second demographic transition and infant mortality: A Poisson GWR approach  

OpenAIRE

Based on ecological studies, second demographic transition (SDT) theorists concluded that some areas in the US were in vanguard of the SDT compared to others, implying spatial nonstationarity may be inherent in the SDT process. Linking the SDT to the infant mortality literature, we sought out to answer two related questions: Are the main components of the SDT, specifically marriage postponement, cohabitation, and divorce, associated with infant mortality? If yes, do these associations vary ac...

Yang, Tse-chuan; Shoff, Carla; Matthews, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

316

Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, and Savings.  

Science.gov (United States)

In theory, improvements in healthy life expectancy should generate increases in the average age of retirement, with little effect on savings rates. In many countries, however, retirement incentives in social security programs prevent retirement ages from keeping pace with changes in life expectancy, leading to an increased need for life-cycle savings. Analyzing a cross-country panel of macroeconomic data, we find that increased longevity raises aggregate savings rates in countries with universal pension coverage and retirement incentives, though the effect disappears in countries with pay-as-you-go systems and high replacement rates. PMID:19865594

Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Mansfield, Richard K; Moore, Michael

2007-01-01

317

Combining gene expression, demographic and clinical data in modeling disease: a case study of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a retrospective statistical study on the newly-released data set by the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium on gene expression in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This data set contains gene expression data as well as limited demographic and clinical data for each subject. Previous studies using statistical classification or machine learning algorithms have focused on gene expression data only. The present paper investigates if such techniques can benefit from including demographic and clinical data. Results We compare six classification algorithms: support vector machines (SVMs, nearest shrunken centroids, decision trees, ensemble of voters, naïve Bayes, and nearest neighbor. SVMs outperform the other algorithms. Using expression data only, they yield an area under the ROC curve of 0.92 for bipolar disorder versus control, and 0.91 for schizophrenia versus control. By including demographic and clinical data, classification performance improves to 0.97 and 0.94 respectively. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that SVMs can distinguish bipolar disorder and schizophrenia from normal control at a very high rate. Moreover, it shows that classification performance improves by including demographic and clinical data. We also found that some variables in this data set, such as alcohol and drug use, are strongly associated to the diseases. These variables may affect gene expression and make it more difficult to identify genes that are directly associated to the diseases. Stratification can correct for such variables, but we show that this reduces the power of the statistical methods.

Dobrin Seth

2008-11-01

318

HTR components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volume 1 describes in detail the situation of the R+D Programs in the domain of heat conducting Components within the PNP-Project, materials development and testing devices (PNP, KVK=Komponenten-Versuch-Kreislauf, EVA II and vibration simulator SAMSON) and fabrication conditions. Planning requirements and development aims of the He/He-intermediate heatexchanger are discussed in the view of stress analysis, fabrication and quality assurance. The heat exchanger with helical configuration is discussed concerning Thermohydraulics, vibration analysis and the development of a novel high temperature insulating material for the PNP-Project. (GL)

319

Variance Components  

CERN Document Server

WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES. The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. ". . .Variance Components is an excellent book. It is organized and well written, and provides many references to a variety of topics. I recommend it to anyone with interest in linear models.".

Searle, Shayle R; McCulloch, Charles E

1992-01-01

320

Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions  

CERN Document Server

A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

2014-01-01

321

Memory-endowed US cities and their demographic interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in a European country (Spain), indicating more coherent evolution in US cities. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (such as the American Civil War) or economic crisis (such as the 1929 Stock Market Crash). PMID:25551139

Hernando, A; Hernando, R; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

2015-01-01

322

Demographic marginalization, social integration, and adolescents' educational success.  

Science.gov (United States)

Links between schools' demographic composition and students' achievement have been a major policy interest for decades. Using a racially/ethnically diverse sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,302; 54% females; 53% White, 21% African American, 15% Latino, 8% Asian American, 2% other race/ethnicity), we examined the associations between demographic marginalization, students' later social integration (loneliness at school, school attachment), and educational performance and attainment. Adolescents who were socioeconomically marginalized at school [i.e., having students who were both socioeconomically and racially/ethnically marginalized at school (i.e., having marginalization was linked to poorer school attachment, and poorer school attachment, in turn, was related to poorer academic performance. These results highlight the educational barriers associated with demographic marginalization and suggest potential targets for future intervention efforts. PMID:25034249

Benner, Aprile D; Wang, Yijie

2014-10-01

323

Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

Sinan NARDALI

2011-06-01

324

DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGES AND SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC PENSIONS EXPENDITURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demographic changes that are likely to be experienced in the European Union in the coming decades determine governments to find solutions in order to provide the sustainability of social public expendituresThe literature usually focuses on elements which underline the effects of macroeconomic parameters on the size of public pension expenditure: Samuelson (1958, Cass and Yaari (1966, Blanchard (1985, and Gertler (1999. However demographic effects, notably fertility rate and old-age dependency ratio, are also key elemets which affect the sustainability of social security expenditures according to Miroslav Verbic and Rok Spruk (2011. Our econometric testing confirms the high relevance of old age dependency ratio and of the fertility rate upon public pension expenditures, both demographic variables proving to influence the size of public pension expenditure. Considering these results we propose some measures which governments should include in future public policies.

Milo? Marius Cristian

2012-01-01

325

[Demographic structure and dynamics of morbidity due to anthroponosis infections].  

Science.gov (United States)

A fall in the incidence of both preventable and non-preventable or partly preventable infections with different modes of transmission has recently been documented in Russia and worldwide; it parallels marked changes in the demographic structure of the population. Simulation based on parasite-host mathematical models confirmed that demographic structure is a key factor responsible for the incidence of anthroponosis infections producing long-standing or lifelong immunity. It was shown that differences in the frequency of these diseases between countries may be due to different age structure of their populations. The lowered incidence of preventable and non-preventable infections in Russia appears to be associated with changes in the country's demographics. We have developed prognosis of further dynamics of anthroponosis diseases that predicts reversal of the mean morbidity rate toward that recorded in the 1980s and the shift of its higher values to senior age-groups. PMID:21309156

Gerasimov, A N; Mindlina, A Ia; Polibin, R V; Briko, N I

2010-01-01

326

Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

327

Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

MARIANNA SIMKIV

2013-09-01

328

Student Satisfaction and Service Quality: Any Differences in Demographic Factors?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previously, very less research done to test demographic factors that contribute towards satisfaction and service quality. This study attempts to examine the differences of selected demographic factors (gender, races and semester of studies on the students’ satisfaction and service quality. Furthermore, this study is also to examine any relationship between age and students’ satisfaction and service quality. This study was conducted using a set of questionnaire to 200 Bachelor Degree students from two private higher education institutions. The study will provide results from empirical test of these differences and relationships. The empirical results of this study can provide any differences, which related to students’ satisfaction on service quality.

Azleen Ilias Ilias

2009-02-01

329

Fathers' rights groups: demographic correlates and impact on custody policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article combines information from fathers' rights Web sites with demographic, historical, and other information to provide an empirically based analysis of fathers' rights advocacy in the United States. Content analysis discerns three factors that are central to the groups' rhetoric: representing domestic violence allegations as false, promoting presumptive joint custody and decreasing child support, and portraying women as perpetrators of domestic abuse. Fathers' rights organizations and themes are examined in relation to state-level demographics and custody policy. The implications of fathers' rights activism for battered women and their children are explored. PMID:19255420

Rosen, Leora N; Dragiewicz, Molly; Gibbs, Jennifer C

2009-05-01

330

Demographic differences between health care workers who did or did not respond to a safety and organizational culture survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Areas for institutional improvement to enhance patient safety are commonly identified by surveying health care workers' (HCWs attitudes, values, beliefs, perceptions and assumptions regarding institutional practices. An ideal response rate of 100% is rarely achieved in such surveys, and non-response bias can occur when non-respondents differ from respondents on a dimension likely to influence survey conclusions. The conditions for non-response bias to occur can be detected by comparing demographic characteristics of respondents and non-respondents and relating any differences to findings in the literature of differences in the construct of interest as a function of these demographic characteristics. The current study takes this approach. Findings All 5,609 HCWs at a university medical center were invited to participate in a survey measuring safety and organizational culture (response rate = 53.40%. Respondents indicated their professional group, gender, age group, years of working in the hospital and executive function. Because all HCWs were invited, the demographic composition of the group who did not respond was known. Differences in the demographic composition of respondents and non-respondents were compared using separate Pearson's chi-square tests for each demographic characteristic. Nurses and clinical workers were generally more likely to respond than were physicians, laboratory workers and non-medical workers. Male HCWs were less likely to respond than were females, HCWs aged younger than 45 years old had a lower response rate than did HCWs aged 45 to 54 years old, HCWs who had worked in the hospital for less than 5 years were less likely to respond than were those who had worked in the hospital for 5 years or more and HCWs without an executive function were less likely to respond than were executives. Conclusions Demographic characteristics can be linked to response rates and need to be considered in conducting surveys among HCWs. The possibility of non-response bias can be reduced by conducting analyses separately as a function of relevant demographic characteristics, sampling a higher percentage of groups that are known to be less likely to respond, or weighting responses with the reciprocal of the response rate for the respective demographic group.

Nap Raoul E

2011-09-01

331

Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.  

Science.gov (United States)

Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n?=?143) and African Americans (n?=?103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

2011-08-01

332

Demographic Data and Clinical Characteristics of 202 Cerebral Palsy Cases  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP who applied to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinic.Materials and Methods: Data of the 202 cases who had reffered to our outpatient clinic between December 2005 and June 2007 was evaluated retrospectively.Results: Ninety-four of the cases were girls and 108 were boys. Their mean age was 6.98 years (1-33 years. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia 34% (n:69, tetraplegia 32% (n:66, hemiplegia 26% (n:53, monoplegia 4.5% (n:9, dyskinetic %1 (n:2 and mixed type 1.4% (n:3. CP severity, assessed with the Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS, was distributed as follows: level 1 (9.9%, level 2 (17.8%, level 3 (20.8%, level 4 (22.8%, level 5 (8.7%. The most frequently encountered prenatal risk factor was consanguineous marriage - 25% (n=51, perinatal risk factors were low birth weight - 37.1% (n=75 and premature birth - 35% (n=72, natal risk factor was forced birth - 14.9% (n=30, postnatal risk factor was convulsion - 9.9% (n=20, and 14.9% (n=30 were unclassified. 55.4% of the children had speech disorder, 50.4% had mental retardation, 35.6% had visual impairment, 5.9% had epilepsy. Eighty-six of the cases who applied to the clinic were using orthesis. New orthesis were prescribed to 74 patients, botulinum toxin–A injection were performed in 11 cases and 12 of them were referred for surgery.Conclusion: Perinatal risk factors were the most frequently seen when assessing the etiologic factors in CP. Better health conditions will decrease the prevalence of CP by minimizing prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal damage. Prenatal care should be improved, high-risk babies should be followed up closely and the number of neonatal intensive care units should be increased. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2009;55:94-7.

Esma Öcal Eriman

2009-09-01

333

A Socio- Demographic Profile of Infant Deaths in A Tribal Block of South Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With progressive reduction in infant mortality rate (IMR and advent of technology, socio – demographic determinants assume more importance (than biological, more so in remote and inaccessible areas, which incidentally also record high IMR. Study was carried out in a tribal block of South Gujarat to generate socio- demographic profile for 48 infant deaths reported during one year. Data was collected through house to house survey on a designed questionnaire. Amongst 48 death cases, literacy rates amongst mothers and fathers were 64.6 and 75% respectively. Occupation wise 81.3% fathers and 52.1% mothers were farm laborer. Joint families were in 81.3% cases and 85.4% belonged to lower social class. Teenage pregnancy was found in 56.3% cases. Age of 25% mothers’ at birth was below 20 years. First birth order was found in 47.9% cases. Birth spacing was less than 2 years in 60.4% cases. It is concluded that improving literacy, increasing age at pregnancy, increasing birth spacing (> 2 years along with overall socioeconomic improvement of community can help in attaining the further reduction in infant mortality.

Amul Patel, Pradeep Kumar, Naresh Godara, Vikas K Desai

2011-01-01

334

Relationship among Demographic Variables and Pupils' Reasoning Ability  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Pupils reasoning ability is a sine-qua-non to the evaluation of their performance in learning and an indicator of their potential predictors of future performance. Method: The study examined the relationship among demographic variables and reasoning ability of primary school pupils. It drew four hundred pupils from ten (10)…

Tella, Adeyinka; Tella, Adedeji; Adika, L. O.; Toyobo, Majekodunmi Oluwole

2008-01-01

335

Greying at the Temples: Demographics of a Public Service Occupation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents results of an empirical study of the effects of demographic trends on a local government occupational group--public welfare workers. Considers effects of these trends on managers' abilities to foster new ideas, to achieve affirmative action goals, and to ensure employee motivation, performance, and productivity. (Author/CH)

Wolf, James F.; And Others

1987-01-01

336

Demographics and Motivation of Adult Group Piano Students  

Science.gov (United States)

As people are living longer and enjoying better quality of life, there has been a corresponding increase in interest in recreational music-making by adults. This study examined the demographics and motivations of students enrolled in the Community Piano Experience hosted by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln School of Music. Twenty-six…

Wristen, Brenda

2006-01-01

337

The Nonspeaking Cerebral Palsied: A Clinical and Demographic Database Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to obtain data on services delivered by one clinical center (Downey, California) to nonspeaking cerebral palsied persons, demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained on 66 such patients during the assessment, management, and follow-up phases of a service delivery program. (Author/DB)

Lafontaine, Linda M.; DeRuyter, Frank

1987-01-01

338

Age Differences in Demographic Predictors of Retirement Investment Decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased longevity coupled with inadequate savings makes retirement savings and investment research increasingly important. A policy-capturing method was used to examine the relative importance of 6 demographic predictors on the retirement investment decisions of 64 working adults. All predictors were significant predictors of the investment. In…

Davis, Guyla D.; Chen, Yiwei

2008-01-01

339

Migration and demographical processes in the zone of radiation control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The state of demographical processes in the zone of radiation control is analyzed, the influence of social-psychological factors of reproduction of population is considered. On the basis statistic data and results of sociological research the causes of the reduction of insensitivity reproduction behavior of the families in Belarus are revealed. (authors)

340

Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets  

Science.gov (United States)

This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

2010-01-01

341

Selected Demographics, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Diversity of Preservice Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, preservice teachers' demographic variables such as race, innercity program experiences, religious affiliation, and cross-cultural friendships are examined to see if they influence the preservice teachers' beliefs on issues of diversity. The data are from a Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and a Professional Beliefs About…

Dedeoglu, Hakan; Lamme, Linda L.

2011-01-01

342

Predicting Audience Demographics of Web Sites Using Local Cues  

Science.gov (United States)

The size and dynamism of the Web poses challenges for all its stakeholders, which include producers/consumers of content, and advertisers who want to place advertisements next to relevant content. A critical piece of information for the stakeholders is the demographics of the consumers who are likely to visit a given web site. However, predicting…

Kim, Iljoo

2011-01-01

343

A survey of demographics and information demands of dairy producers.  

OpenAIRE

Survey responses from 75 randomly selected dairy producers on Prince Edward Island were summarized to obtain a demographic picture of the dairy industry in this province and to determine information management practices and demands for the future. The results indicate a preparedness for dairy production in the future.

Vanleeuwen, J. A.; Keefe, G. P.

2001-01-01

344

Demographic Prognoses for Some Seats in the Ostrava Region.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 14, ?. 2 (2006), s. 16-26. ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : economic restructuring * settlement system * population development * demographic prognoses * unemployment * Ostrava region Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

Vaishar, Antonín

2006-01-01

345

Adolescent Health in Hong Kong: Disturbing Socio-Demographic Correlates  

Science.gov (United States)

Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…

Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

2009-01-01

346

Do Online Learning Patterns Exhibit Regional and Demographic Differences?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper used a multi-level latent class model to evaluate whether online learning patterns exhibit regional differences and demographics. This study discovered that the Internet learning pattern consists of five segments, and the region of Taiwan is divided into two segments and further found that both the user and the regional segments are…

Hsieh, Tsui-Chuan; Yang, Chyan

2012-01-01

347

Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version  

OpenAIRE

Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory...

Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

2011-01-01

348

Changes in growth of pristine boreal North American forests from 1950 to 2005 driven by landscape demographics and species traits  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the many factors that are occurring and known for positively affecting the growth of forests, some boreal forests across North America have recently felt the adverse impacts of environmental changes. Knowledge of causes for productivity declines in North American boreal forests remains limited, and this is owed to the large spatial and temporal scales involved, and the many plant processes affected. Here, the response of pristine eastern boreal North American (PEBNA) forests to ongoing climatic changes is examined using in situ data, community ecology statistics, and species-specific model simulations of carbon exchanges forced by contemporary climatic data. To examine trends in forest growth, we used a recently acquired collection of tree-ring width data from 252 sample plots distributed in PEBNA forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Results of linear trend analysis on the tree growth data highlight a dominating forest growth decline in overmature forests (age > 120 years) from 1950 to 2005. In contrast, improving growth conditions are seen in jack pine and mature (70-120 years) black spruce stands. Multivariate analysis of climate and growth relationships suggests that responses of PEBNA forests to climate are dependent on demographic and species traits via their mediation of temperature and water stress constraints. In support of this hypothesis, the simulation experiment suggests that in old-growth black spruce stands the benefit to growth brought on by a longer growing season may have been low in comparison with the increasing moisture stress and respiration losses caused by warmer summer temperatures. Predicted increases in wildfire frequency in PEBNA forests will likely enhance the positive response of landscape-level forest growth to climate change by shifting the forest distribution to younger age classes while also enhancing the jack pine component.

Girardin, M. P.; Guo, X. J.; Bernier, P. Y.; Raulier, F.; Gauthier, S.

2012-07-01

349

Questões emergentes na análise demográfica: o caso brasileiro New issues in demographic analysis: the case of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo levanta questões emergentes para a análise demográfica brasileira. O trabalho começa com uma análise dos três componentes da dinâmica demográfica, enfatizando a questão sobre o declínio da fecundidade e a possibilidade de a mesma atingir níveis abaixo da reposição. As tendências futuras de emigração internacional também são discutidas. Passando para as conseqüências demográficas desta dinâmica, o texto aborda, ainda, a demografia dos efeitos de composição, ressaltando as conseqüências demográficas do diferencial de fecundidade por educação materna e mostrando que a dinâmica de melhoria educacional das mães mais que compensa este diferencial. O dividendo demográfico é discutido tanto conceitualmente quanto empiricamente, ficando indicada uma agenda para estudos futuros. Finalmente, uma discussão mais conceitual sobre transferências intergeracionais tenta colocar o debate na perspectiva do gasto público brasileiro, enfatizando trabalhos relevantes que começam a ser desenvolvidos.This article begins with a review of the three components of demography, stressing the decline in fertility, with the possibility of the country's reaching a level of below replacement fertility. Studies on new trends in Brazilian emigration are considered relevant for future research. The demography of compositional effects is discussed in terms of an exercise with fertility differentials according to the mothers´ education. The exercise shows that the historical improvement in mothers´ education has offset the possible adverse effects of high fertility among mothers with low levels of education. The demographic dividend is discussed both conceptually and empirically, and directions for future studies are indicated. Finally, the article presents a conceptual discussion on intergenerational transfers, with emphasis on public expenditures and social policy. New studies being developed on this topic are also mentioned.

Eduardo Luiz Gonçalvez Rios-Neto

2005-12-01

350

Changes in growth of pristine boreal North American forests from 1950 to 2005 driven by landscape demographics and species traits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In spite of the many factors that are occurring and known for positively affecting the growth of forests, some boreal forests across North America have recently felt the adverse impacts of environmental changes. Knowledge of causes for productivity declines in North American boreal forests remains limited, and this is owed to the large spatial and temporal scales involved, and the many plant processes affected. Here, the response of pristine eastern boreal North American (PEBNA forests to ongoing climatic changes is examined using in situ data, community ecology statistics, and species-specific model simulations of carbon exchanges forced by contemporary climatic data. To examine trends in forest growth, we used a recently acquired collection of tree-ring width data from 252 sample plots distributed in PEBNA forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P. and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.. Results of linear trend analysis on the tree growth data highlight a dominating forest growth decline in overmature forests (age > 120 years from 1950 to 2005. In contrast, improving growth conditions are seen in jack pine and mature (70–120 years black spruce stands. Multivariate analysis of climate and growth relationships suggests that responses of PEBNA forests to climate are dependent on demographic and species traits via their mediation of temperature and water stress constraints. In support of this hypothesis, the simulation experiment suggests that in old-growth black spruce stands the benefit to growth brought on by a longer growing season may have been low in comparison with the increasing moisture stress and respiration losses caused by warmer summer temperatures. Predicted increases in wildfire frequency in PEBNA forests will likely enhance the positive response of landscape-level forest growth to climate change by shifting the forest distribution to younger age classes while also enhancing the jack pine component.

M. P. Girardin

2012-07-01

351

Changes in growth of pristine boreal North American forests from 1950 to 2005 driven by landscape demographics and species traits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In spite of the many factors that are occurring and known for positively affecting the growth of forests, some boreal forests across North America have recently felt the adverse impacts of environmental changes. Knowledge of causes for productivity declines in North American boreal forests remains limited and this is owed to the large spatial and temporal scales involved, and the many plant processes affected. Here, the response of pristine eastern boreal North American (PEBNA forests to ongoing climatic changes is examined using in situ data, community ecology statistics, and species-specific model simulations of carbon exchanges forced by contemporary climatic data. To examine trends in forest growth, we used a recently acquired collection of tree-ring width data from 252 sample plots distributed in PEBNA forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P. and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.. Results of linear trend analysis on the tree growth data highlight a dominating forest growth decline in overmature forests (age > 120 yr from 1950 to 2005. In contrast, improving growth conditions are seen in jack pine and mature (70–120 yr black spruce stands. Multivariate analysis of climate and growth relationships suggests that responses of PEBNA forests to climate are dependent on demographic and species traits via their mediation of temperature and water stress constraints. In support of this hypothesis, the simulation experiment suggests that in old-growth black spruce stands the benefit to growth brought on by a longer growing season may have been low in comparison with the increasing moisture stress and respiration losses caused by warmer summer temperatures. Predicted increases in wildfire frequency in PEBNA forests will likely enhance the positive response of landscape-level forest growth to climate change by shifting the forest distribution to younger age classes while also enhancing the jack pine component.

M. P. Girardin

2012-01-01

352

Component Rhinoplasty  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND According to statistics of American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic rhinoplasty was the second most frequently performed cosmetic surgery. This study shares the experiences with component rhinoplasty. METHODS From 2004 to 2010, all patients underwent aesthetic nasal surgery were enrolled. The patients requiring only correction of septal deviation and those presenting with cleft lip nasal deformity were excluded. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with open technique using transcolumellar and infra-cartilageous incisions. The transculomelalr incision was closed with 6-0 polypropylene and infra-cartilagenous incisions by 5-0 absorbable sutures. Non-absorbable sutures were removed on the fifth postoperative day. The septum was fixed by ‘quilting sutures’. Both nostrils were packed with antibiotic ointment containing paraffin gauzes which were removed after 24-48 hours. External nasal splint was applied to be removed on the fifth postoperative day. RESULTS A total of 191 patients were enrolled (male:female ratio=1:1.47). The mean age of female patients was 25.3 years and 29.4 years in males. Among 50.8% of patients, the cause of deformity was not known. Only 21.5% patients had a positive history of trauma. Majority of patients (90.6%) underwent septoplasty. Twenty percent of surgeries were secondary. Spreader grafts were used in 85% of patients. In 11% of patients, conchal grafts were used. For none of patients, the inferior turbinectomy was performed. No case of costal cartilage graft or silicone implant was used. Only 5.6% of patients had redo-surgeries. No abnormal scarring was noted during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Dorsal hump reduction can be recommended with accuracy and safety without compromising the nasal airway. PMID:25489519

Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad

2014-01-01

353

Public attitudes toward sex offenders and their relationship to personality traits and demographic characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined public attitudes toward the sentencing, treatment, management, and perceived dangerousness of sex offenders. Seventy-eight university undergraduates completed a 25-item attitude toward sex offenders survey developed for the present study, along with a five-factor measure of personality (NEO Personality Inventory - Revised), a demographic questionnaire, and the Paulhus Deception Scale, to control for social desirability. While participants most frequently endorsed the belief that sentences were not sufficiently severe, they tended to espouse treatment and risk management alternatives to longer sentences and eschewed exceptionally severe punishments (e.g., surgical castration). Participants estimated high rates of sexual recidivism (59%), although they also estimated significantly lower recidivism rates for treated offenders. Results of a principle components analysis suggested that participant attitudes comprised two broad domains: systems attitudes (e.g., law enforcement, corrections, justice) and rehabilitative attitudes. Although few demographic differences emerged in participant attitudes, 'openness to experience' and 'agreeableness' each significantly predicted more rehabilitative attitudes, while contrary to expectations, 'extraversion' was significantly associated with more negative systems-related attitudes. The results provide support that personality traits may be linked to important social attitudes, including those toward sex offenders. PMID:20857417

Olver, Mark E; Barlow, Ashley A

2010-01-01

354

[The demographic consequences of austerity in Latin America: methodological aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reviews evidence in the literature of possible demographic effects of the austerity programs imposed on Latin American countries in the 1980s. The work focuses on methodological problems involved in assessing demographic changes and ascertaining that they were indeed attributable to the economic crisis. An introductory section describes the recession of the 1980s in Latin America, the declines in employment and living standards, and the health and social consequences of the deepening poverty. But the author argues that evaluation of health conditions, levels of nutrition, and especially factors such as infant mortality, fertility, marriage patterns, and migration as indicators of the impact of the economic depression is full of pitfalls that are not always obvious. Few Latin American countries have civil registration systems capable of providing accurate and up-to-date mortality and fertility data. Indirect methods currently in use were intended to analyze longterm levels and trends and are of little use for short-term fluctuations. Data on internal migration are scarce even in developed countries. Even when recent data are available it is often difficult or impossible to obtain data for comparison. Infant mortality and malnutrition levels, for example, are serious problems in many parts of Latin America, but series of data capable of demonstrating that they are truly consequences of the economic crisis are lacking. Another challenge is to separate the demographic effects of the debt crisis from longterm structural processes. The possibility of time lags and of different time frames may increase confusion. Almost a year must pass before effects on birth rates can be expected, for example. Neutralizing mechanisms may obscure the effects sought. Thus, the most impoverished urban sectors may return to the countryside to seek refuge in subsistence agriculture; their departure would in some measure diminish the consequences of recession in the urban economy. The type of cross-sectional analysis of differential fertility and mortality that is currently stressed in demographic studies is of limited utility for understanding the demographic impact of economic oscillations, for which a longitudinal approach is required. The next section of the article compares evidence of the effects of the recession of the 1980s with the Great Depression of the 1930s and with historical crises, suggesting that contemporary economic recessions have little in common in terms of causes or demographic consequences with historic crises. Specific studies and available data are then examined in the areas of fertility and mortality, longterm consequences of the economic recession, and migration. PMID:12317738

Hakkert, R

1991-01-01

355

Aspects for Run-time Component Integration  

OpenAIRE

Component framework technology has become the cornerstone of building a family of systems and applications. A component framework defines a generic architecture into which specialized components can be plugged. As such, the component framework leverages the glue that connects the different inserted components together. We have examined a middle ground between aspect-oriented programming and computational reflection that improves the dynamics of this gluing process such that interaction betwee...

Truyen, Eddy; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Joosen, Wouter; Verbaeten, Pierre

2011-01-01

356

Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [{sup 11}C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([{sup 11}C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [{sup 11}C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

Razifar, Pasha [Molecular Imaging and CT Research, GE Healthcare, WI 53188, Waukesha (United States); Engler, Henry [Department of Medical Science, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Blomquist, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Ringheim, Anna; Estrada, Sergio [Uppsala Imanet AB, GE Healthcare, Box 967, SE-751 09, Uppsala (Sweden); Laangstroem, Bengt [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergstroem, Mats [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-06-07

357

Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits--short turnover times--are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L

2014-05-01

358

Demographic corrections for the modified Telephone Screening for Cognitive Status  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted mTICS total score, and depression and premorbid intellect further enhanced this prediction. These results were comparable when only examining the 153 cognitively intact subjects. By using these corrections, clinicians and researchers can more accurately predict an individual’s cognitive status with this telephone screening measure. PMID:23767464

Dennett, Kathryn; Tometich, Danielle; Duff, Kevin

2013-01-01

359

Demographic corrections for the modified telephone interview for cognitive status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community-dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted mTICS total score, and depression and premorbid intellect further enhanced this prediction. These results were comparable when only examining the 153 cognitively intact subjects. By using these corrections, clinicians and researchers can more accurately predict an individual's cognitive status with this telephone screening measure. PMID:23767464

Dennett, Kathryn; Tometich, Danielle; Duff, Kevin

2013-01-01

360

Demographics Associated with Autistic Spectrum Diagnosis in England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing body of work elucidating the demographics surrounding autistic spectrum disorders. This study sought to develop the local evidence base, enhance the awareness of educationalists in north Manchester and test the hypothesis that young people from all cultural groups are able to access the mental health service. The Social Communication Assessment and Intervention Team in the North Manchester Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service received 89 referrals of children with suspected autism between April 2010 and June 2011. Information was available about 69 cases. Some cases are still in the process of assessment while 20 children and young adults have received a diagnoses of autistic spectrum disorders; 4 African Caribbean, 11 White British, 3 Pakistani, 1 dual heritage and 1 did not complete the form. Further demographics and implications for training are discussed.

Mischa N.C. Mockett

2012-05-01

361

What Future Expects Humanity After the Demographic Transition Time?  

CERN Document Server

The variant of phenomenological theory of humankind future existence after time of demographic transition based on treating the time of demographic transition as a point of phase transition and taking into account an appearing of the new phase of mankind is proposed. The theory based on physical phenomenological theories of phase transitions and classical equations for system predatory-preys for two phases of mankind, take into account assumption about a multifractal nature of the set of number of people in temporal axis and contains control parameters. The theory includes scenario of destroying of existent now human population by new phase of humanity and scenario of old and new phases co-existence. In particular cases when the new phase of mankind is absent the equations of theory may be formulated as equations of Kapitza, Foerster, Hoerner, Kobelev and Nugaeva, Johansen and Sornette phenomenological theories of growth of mankind.

Kobelev, L Yu

2000-01-01

362

Outcomes of cause related marketing: a demographic analysis  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study determines the cause related marketing practices in Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry. Further this study investigates the relationship among the determinants of CRM and demographic variables. The sample size of this study was 629. The concern respondents were the post graduate students and employees of different universities and organizations. SPSS was used to analyze the data. This study finds that CRM is proven as strategic tool with multi-dimensional objective...

Ahmad, Syed Tauqeer; Batool, Irem; Quarshi, Salman Ali; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran; Niazi, Ghulam Shabbir Khan

2010-01-01

363

Demographic and Attitudinal Factors Influencing Doctoral Student Satisfaction  

OpenAIRE

Higher education administrators face challenges in providing a welcoming environment for doctoral students in higher education institutions, as they must identify factors influencing students’ satisfaction in order to provide a supportive environment, reduce attrition rates, and promote persistence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of doctoral student satisfaction from demographics and attitudes concerning the campus environment. Participants were 132 (33 male, 99 ...

Sabina Nwenyi; Timothy Baghurst

2013-01-01

364

Influence of socio-demographic factors on SRAVEN performance  

OpenAIRE

This exploratory study aimed to investigate the influence of specific socio-demographic variables on a computerized test of non-verbal neuropsychological performance. Six hundred and thirty South African first year students were assessed using the University of Pennsylvania Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (PennCNP). Fluid intelligence was measured by a computerized version of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices (SRAVENS). Analysis of variance indicated that gender, hom...

Murphy, Raegan; Cassimjee, Nafisa; Schur, Clare

2011-01-01

365

Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demograp...

Akeredolu Patricia; Olusile Adeyemi; Esan Temitope; Esan Ayodeji

2004-01-01

366

Gnathic osteosarcomas: A 10-year multi-center demographic study  

OpenAIRE

Background: Osteosarcomas (OS) of the jaws are uncommon lesions representing 6-8% of skeletal OS. We assessed the characteristics, demographics, prevalence clinical and histopathological findings and distribution of gnathic OS relative to non-gnathic OS in four major treatment centers. Materials and Methods: This study assessed 13 gnathic OS patients of 98 OS patients from four major referral centers during 1996-2007. The age distribution, gender, involved site, clinical findings, s...

Azizi T; Mhk, Motamedi; Jafari S.

2009-01-01

367

Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa  

OpenAIRE

Two of the main forces driving European emigration in the late nineteenth century were real wage gaps between sending and receiving regions and demographic booms in the low-wage sending regions (directly augmenting the supply of potential movers as well as indirectly making already-measured employment conditions less attractive). These two features are even more prominent in Africa today, but do or can Africans respond to them with the same elasticity as in the days of ?free? migration? Our n...

Hatton, Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

2001-01-01

368

Rural areas in Poland from a demographic perspective  

OpenAIRE

The article presents an analysis and a critical assessment of rural areas in Poland in the years 1999–2011 from a demographic perspective. The analysis is based on indicators characterising population density, population structure by gender and age, migrations of population, and vital statistics. In order to classify and compare rural areas, the k-means method is employed. The sample of rural areas used in the study contains all 2,173 rural and urban-rural gminas (excluding ...

Biegan?ska, Jadwiga

2013-01-01

369

Children Versus Ideas: an “Influential” Theory of Demographic Transition  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, I build on Blackmore (2000) to propose a formal theory of demographic transition (fertility decline) and associated growth of the stock of knowledge. The novelty of this theory is to entirely exclude private consumption from the objective function of the decision makers, and to assume that their goal is to maximize their social influence, that is, the number of people in the next generation utilizing their ideas. With high communication costs, one’s ideas are utilized main...

Zakharenko, Roman

2009-01-01

370

Demographic characterization and social patterns of the Neotropical pampas deer  

OpenAIRE

The most endangered subspecies of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus uruguayensis is an endemic cervidae of the Uruguayan temperate grasslands. The aim of our study was to assess the demographic trends, grouping structure and dynamic of this small and isolated population. We surveyed the population during seven years and detected an average of 117 (+ 72.7 SD) individuals (44 censuses). The average population structure observed was 55% adult females, 34% adult males, 10% juveniles, and 1% fawn...

Cosse, Mariana; Gonza?lez, Susana

2013-01-01

371

Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption  

OpenAIRE

This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that...

Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

2012-01-01

372

Transformations of the World’s Population: the Demographic Revolution  

OpenAIRE

The Handbook offers students clear and informed chapters on the history of globalization and key theories that have considered the causes and consequences of the globalization process. There are substantive sections looking at demographic, economic, technological, social and cultural changes in globalization. The Handbook examines many negative aspects - new wars, slavery, illegal migration, pollution and inequality - but concludes with an examination of responses to these problems through hu...

Macinnes, John; Pe?rez Di?az, Julio

2009-01-01

373

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERS OF PATIENTS WITH TUBERCOLOSIS: ISFAHAN 1998-1999  

OpenAIRE

Introduction. Tuberculosis is a wide spread disease in the world. It is a health problem in every where. The prevalence of tuberculosis have been increased since several years ago due to some factors such as AIDS. For management of this problem, we need to data about our identified patients. Then we can have a solution for disease control. We demonstrate the patients demographic characters in our province. Methods. All of 164 identified patients under treatment for tuberculosis in Isfaha...

Salehi, H.; Poor Ahmad, M.

2001-01-01

374

Socioeconomic and Demographic Determinants of Mental Health across Canadian Communities  

OpenAIRE

Background Many factors contribute to health. This study uses community level data to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and demographic factors as well as physical health on community mental health outcomes. Method Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the impact of determinants on community mental health outcomes for men and women using community level data from up to 113 health regions covering almost the entire population in Canada. Results Study findings indicate that commu...

Jalil Safaei

2012-01-01

375

Islamic Credit Card: Are Demographic Factors a Good Indicator?  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates on the relationship between demographic factors and the usage of Islamic credit card as well as Conventional credit card demonstrates their interdependencies. The debatable issues as been addressed by many authorities not only in terms of the numbers of credit card flooding the nation’s economy, but the amount of transactions that end up with payment default and the numbers of credit card fraud as been recorded which threatened the economy should be seriously focused...

Norudin Mansor; Azman Che Mat

2009-01-01

376

Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence) in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate studen...

Paul Rohe Milton; Patton, Beth J.

2011-01-01

377

Demographic Transition, Environmental Concern and the Kuznets Curve  

OpenAIRE

In an endogenous growth model with pollution and abatement we characterize the socially optimal solution. We find that the rate of growth depends negatively on the weight of environmental care in utility and positively on the population growth rate. We also find a trade-off between growth and environmental quality beyond which an environmental Kuznets curve is derived in the long term. This one emerges fromthe implications of the demographic transition for the rate of population growth, and t...

Aznar-ma?rquez, J.; Ruiz-tamarit, Jose

2005-01-01

378

Long-term demographic consequences of a seed dispersal disruption  

OpenAIRE

The loss or decline of vertebrate frugivores can limit the regeneration of plants that depend on them. However, empirical evidence is showing that this is still very scarce, as functionally equivalent species may contribute to maintain the mutualistic interaction. Here, we investigated the long-term consequences of the extinction of frugivorous lizards on the population persistence of a Mediterranean relict shrub Cneorum tricoccon (Cneoraceae). We examined the demographic parameters among 26 ...

Traveset, Anna; Gonza?lez-varo, Juan P.; Valido, Alfredo

2012-01-01

379

Demographic Regulators in Small-Scale World-Systems  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a simulation of world-systems theory’s iteration model of early human societies. The polities modeled are composed of sedentary foragers and/or simple horticulturalists that rely upon basic subsistence technologies and display low levels of internal differentiation. World-systems theory’s iteration model integrates several processes of demographic regulation: environmental constraints, migration, intra-polity conflict, and inter-polity warfare. Computer simulation of t...

Fletcher, Jesse B.; Jacob Apkarian; Hanneman, Robert A.; Hiroko Inoue; Kirk Lawrence; Christopher Chase-Dunn

2011-01-01

380

Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize  

OpenAIRE

The food/feed quality of a variety of genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab Bt-toxin was tested over the life-cycle of Daphnia magna, an arthropod commonly used as model organism in ecotoxicological studies. Demographic responses were compared between animals fed GM or unmodified (UM) near isogenic maize, with and without the addition of predator smell. Age-specific data on survival and birth rates were integrated and analysed using life tables and Leslie matrices. Survival, fecun...

Bøhn, Thomas; Traavik, Terje; Primicerio, Raul

2009-01-01

381

Privacy-Preserving Demographic Filtering Alambic Management System  

OpenAIRE

The recommender systems are used as a way to user choices that needs to solve the protection problem in e-commerce. For solving such a problem we need to protect the privacy interests of users by hiding their identity and demographic features such as age, sex, geographical location, wealth, level of education, etc. and sometimes users buying preferences along with behavior. An E-commerce service provider allow commercial interests of users to protect data by recommending not to reveal valuabl...

Sai, M.

2012-01-01

382

Examination of recreational motives of individuals: Demographic differences  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the motivational factors that motivate individuals to the recreational exercise participation with regard to demographic variables. 302 male (55,1%) and 246 female (44,9%) with a total of 548 recreational exercise participants from 9 health and fitness centers, in Ankara, participated voluntarily to this study. “Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure” was used as means of data collection instrument. Independent Samples t-test was ...

Hamdi Alper Güngörmü?; Fatih Yene; Bülent Gürbüz

2014-01-01

383

[Hereditary spherocytosis: Review. Part I. History, demographics, pathogenesis, and diagnosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hereditary spherocytosis is the most frequent hereditary anemia excluding beta thalassemia in Argentina. Historical, demographic, genetic and pathogenic aspects of the disease are reviewed, and confirmatory laboratory tests are described. Special characteristics on the outcome of the disease in our population and prevalent protein deficiencies in our country are described. Emphasis is given on new available laboratory tests, which allow an earlier diagnosis using volume of blood samples significantly smaller than required for conventional tests. PMID:25622164

Donato, Hugo; Crisp, Renée Leonor; Rapetti, María Cristina; García, Eliana; Attie, Myriam

2015-01-01

384

The re-identification risk of Canadians from longitudinal demographics  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The public is less willing to allow their personal health information to be disclosed for research purposes if they do not trust researchers and how researchers manage their data. However, the public is more comfortable with their data being used for research if the risk of re-identification is low. There are few studies on the risk of re-identification of Canadians from their basic demographics, and no studies on their risk from their longitudinal data. Our objective was ...

Neisa Angelica; Tamblyn Robyn; Buckeridge David; El Emam Khaled; Jonker Elizabeth; Verma Aman

2011-01-01

385

Job satisfaction and demographic variables - is there any link?  

OpenAIRE

This article focuses on the analysis of job satisfaction perceived by the Indian overseas bank employees in Chidambaram and Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu. The employees working in Indian overseas bank were selected for the study. The study indicates that the job satisfaction perceived by the bank employees is medium and the demographic variables such as gender, age, educational qualification, experience, marital status, and income significantly influence the job satisfaction perception of employees.

Mallika Neelamegam

2010-01-01

386

Job satisfaction and demographic variables - is there any link?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the analysis of job satisfaction perceived by the Indian overseas bank employees in Chidambaram and Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu. The employees working in Indian overseas bank were selected for the study. The study indicates that the job satisfaction perceived by the bank employees is medium and the demographic variables such as gender, age, educational qualification, experience, marital status, and income significantly influence the job satisfaction perception of employees.

Mallika Neelamegam

2010-10-01

387

Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System  

OpenAIRE

The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observ...

Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A.; Go?mez-olive?, F. Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A.; Clark, Benjamin D.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G.; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B.; Wagner, Ryan G.

2012-01-01

388

Demographic Variables for Wild Asian Elephants Using Longitudinal Observations  

OpenAIRE

Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species’ remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitore...

Silva, Shermin; Webber, C. Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U. S.; Pushpakumara, T. V.; Weerakoon, Devaka K.; Wittemyer, George

2013-01-01

389

Relationships between high-stakes testing policies and student achievement after controlling for demographic factors in aggregated data.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the mandate of No Child Left Behind, high-stakes achievement testing is firmly in place in every state. The few studies that have explored the effectiveness of high-stakes testing using NAEP scores have yielded mixed results. This study considered state demographic characteristics for each NAEP testing period in reading, writing, mathematics, and science from 1992 through 2002, in an effort to examine the relation of high-stakes testing policies to achievement and changes in achievement between testing periods. As expected, demographic characteristics and their changes were related significantly to most achievement outcomes, but high-stakes testing policies demonstrated few relationships with achievement. The few relationships between high-stakes testing and achievement or improvement in reading, writing, or science tended to appear only when demographic data were missing; and the minimal relationships with math achievement were consistent with findings in previous research. Considering the cost and potential unintended negative consequences, high-stakes testing policies seem to provide a questionable means of improving student learning.

Gregory J. Marchant

2006-11-01

390

Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that most of the sampled NHIS patrons and non patrons were literate, engaged in meaningful employment, mostly married with average income, and were still in their active ages, and demonstrated meaningful exposure to insurance health information, which enable them to be or not to be active participants of the scheme. From the regression analysis, it was evident that all the variables except religion influenced insurance consumption positively whereas religion affects health insurance consumption negatively. Based on this, we recommended among other things, a re-alignment of health insurance marketing strategies with consumers socio-economic and demographic characteristics, as a measure to boost patronage.Key words: Socio-Economic; Demographic; Health insurance; Consumption

Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

2012-10-01

391

Fertility in the Age of Demographic Maturity: An Essay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As humanity is moving into a new age of its demographic evolution, I call it demographic maturity, the emerging demographic configurations – generational sub-replacement fertility, advanced aging and potential population implosion – call for new ways of thinking about population and new policy approaches. While we live longer and healthier, we also reproduce less and less. We are stuck in a culture of low fertility. The strong motivations for foregoing motherhood are financial: a two-salary wage is better than one even for the higher middle class. No less important is the woman’s financial independence in a societal environment where marriage as an institution is under considerable stress. Motherhood is to be rewarded adequately for its highly important social role and it has to be sufficient to reassure potential mothers of their financial concerns. What is required is a more balanced resource allocation between production and reproduction. The old welfare type hand-outs like child bonuses do not work. Societies, particularly the rich, ought to realize that to raise fertility, even to generational replacement level, not only is a much greater financial effort called for but some of the tenants of the liberal economy need to be put into question to make room for social concerns such a renewal of generations, if they want to survive as national entities. This essay advocates a stationary population as the best response to challenges such as ecological health, national identity and cohesion, and possibly world peace.

Anatole Romaniuk

2010-01-01

392

Demographic stochasticity and evolution of dispersion I. Spatially homogeneous environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The selection of dispersion is a classical problem in ecology and evolutionary biology. Deterministic dynamical models of two competing species differing only in their passive dispersal rates suggest that the lower mobility species has a competitive advantage in inhomogeneous environments, and that dispersion is a neutral characteristic in homogeneous environments. Here we consider models including local population fluctuations due to both individual movements and random birth and death events to investigate the effect of demographic stochasticity on the competition between species with different dispersal rates. In this paper, the first of two, we focus on homogeneous environments where deterministic models predict degenerate dynamics in the sense that there are many (marginally) stable equilibria with the species' coexistence ratio depending only on initial data. When demographic stochasticity is included the situation changes. A novel large carrying capacity ([Formula: see text]) asymptotic analysis, confirmed by direct numerical simulations, shows that a preference for faster dispersers emerges on a precisely defined [Formula: see text] time scale. We conclude that while there is no evolutionarily stable rate for competitors to choose in these models, the selection mechanism quantified here is the essential counterbalance in spatially inhomogeneous models including demographic fluctuations which do display an evolutionarily stable dispersal rate. PMID:24682331

Lin, Yen Ting; Kim, Hyejin; Doering, Charles R

2015-02-01

393

Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25 students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

Paul Rohe Milton

2011-06-01

394

Demographic and Attitudinal Factors Influencing Doctoral Student Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Higher education administrators face challenges in providing a welcoming environment for doctoral students in higher education institutions, as they must identify factors influencing students’ satisfaction in order to provide a supportive environment, reduce attrition rates, and promote persistence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of doctoral student satisfaction from demographics and attitudes concerning the campus environment. Participants were 132 (33 male, 99 female doctoral students from two private nonprofit universities in the New York metropolitan area of the United States who completed either a web-based or paper/pencil survey in which demographics and opinions regarding student satisfaction were sought. Regression analysis on participant attitudes found that university services, advisor, and students were all significant predictor variables. Other demographic predictor variables included years in graduate school, race, and ethnicity. Of particular importance, as doctoral students progress in their program by year, dissatisfaction increases. This could be due to the increasing pressures of successfully completing the dissertation, the progress of which can be heavily influenced by advisor-student relationship. Overall findings may assist education administrators and institutional planners in making campus environments welcoming to students thereby increasing both student satisfaction and retention.

Sabina Nwenyi

2013-12-01

395

Demographic and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The design and development of school health programmes will require information at demographic characteristics of schoolchildren and the major health burdens of the school-age group, the opportunities for intervention and the appropriateness of the available infrastructure. This study aims to analyse demographic and parasitic infections status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa province of south-eastern Turkey. Method Three primary schools were randomly selected in the shantytown, apartment and rural districts. A total of 1820 schoolchildren between 7–14 years age were took part to the survey of whom 1120 (61.5% were boys and 700 (38.4% were girls. A child form (including child's name, sex, age, school grade and parasitic infections and school survey form (including condition of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soaps on the basins and presence of garbage piles around to the schools were used for demographic, parasitic and sanitary surveys. Stool samples were examined by cellophane thick smear technique for the eggs of intestinal helminths. Results The demographic survey showed that number of schoolchildren was gradually decreased as their age's increase in shantytown school. The sex ratio was proportional until the second grade, after which the number of females gradually decreased in children in shantytown and rural schools while, in apartment area, schoolchildren was proportionally distributed between age groups and gender even the high-grade students. The prevalence of helminthic infections was %77.1 of the schoolchildren in shantytown, 53.2% in apartment district and 53.1% of rural area. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species and followed by Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species in three schools. Sanitation survey indicated that the tap water was limited in shantytown school, toilet's sanitation was poor, available no soaps on lavatories and garbage piles were accumulated around the schools in shantytown and rural area, while, the school in apartment area was well sanitised. Conclusions These results indicated that burden of parasitic infections and poor sanitation conditions constituted public health importance among to the shantytown schoolchildren. School health programmes including deworming and sanitation activities through the health education and improvement of sanitation conditions in the schools have a potential to better health and education for schoolchildren. These programmes also offer the potential to reach significant numbers of population in the shantytown schools with high level of absenteeism.

Seyrek Adnan

2003-09-01

396

The Predictive Role of Happiness, Optimism and Demographical Status in Engagement in Health-related Behaviors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: With regard to the importance of life style for health promotion, this research aimed to investigate the predictive role of happiness, optimism and demographical status in engagement in health-related Behaviors for high school students in Semnan. Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive design, 217 (104 boys and 113 girls high school students in Semnan were selected through a two-stage cluster sampling and completed the Demographical Information Questionnaire, The Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI, Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R and The Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHP. Data analysis was performed through correlation and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS.Results: Results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status, and engagement in health-related behaviors (P0/05.Conclusion: Happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status are important for engagement in health-related behaviors by high school students. The principal implication of this research is set an agenda of intervention for improvement of these factors as an important foundation to engagement in health-related behaviors and health promotion of high school students.

Isaac Rahimian Boogar

2013-01-01

397

Demographic and health indicators in Gulf Cooperation Council nations with an emphasis on Qatar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Qatar is a rapidly developing wealthy state that is part of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a group of six countries that share relatively similar economic and cultural profiles. We aimed to capture key health indicators and demographic data from Qatar and GCC countries by examining 1980-2010 data from the World Bank Databank and WHO report. The results highlighted a unique demographic profile in Qatar, which has the lowest age dependency ratio, highest male to female ratio, and second highest migrant population in the world. In comparison to other GCC countries, Qatar had the highest life expectancy and the lowest communicable disease and-all cause mortality rates.The GCC countries generally had a low percentage of their population over age 65, a high percentage of migrants, a very low crude death rate and very high overweight and obesity prevalence. Examination of data trends showed a decline in birth rate and fertility rate with significant improvement in under-five and maternal mortality rates over the last three decades

Hekmat Alrouh

2013-03-01

398

Demographic mechanisms in the coexistence of two closely related perennials in a fluctuating environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The demographic variability and life history differentiation of two closely related shrubs (Atriplex canescens and A. acanthocarpa) were investigated in the Chihuahuan Desert, and the results were interpreted in the context of theories of coexistence in fluctuating environments. Demographic information was recorded during three annual intervals and analyzed employing matrix projection models. A. canescens had lower lambda (finite rate of population increase), higher longevity and generation time and slower convergence to a stable population structure than A. acanthocarpa. In favorable years for recruitment (those when, for both species, lambda > 1), the lambda of A. acanthocarpa was higher than that of A. canescens; in unfavorable years (when lambda Atriplex acanthocarpa behaved as an opportunistic species that benefitted from sporadic favorable conditions and declined rapidly when conditions deteriorated. In contrast, A. canescens behaved as a tolerant species able to withstand years when conditions were poor, but which could not gain any advantage over A. acanthocarpa when conditions improved. By each having a relative advantage over the other on opposite ends of the contrasting climatic conditions experienced in the Chihuahuan Desert, they are able to coexist. Their contrasting life histories agreed with the theoretical predictions for the operation of the two mechanisms of species coexistence in fluctuating environments: the storage effect and the relative non-linearity of competition. Based on these results, we conclude by speculating on the nature of succession in arid communities. PMID:18283500

Verhulst, Johannes; Montaña, Carlos; Mandujano, María Carmen; Franco, Miguel

2008-05-01

399

Biology and demographic growth parameters of cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora) on faba bean (Vicia faba) cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on five faba bean, Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) cultivars was evaluated. Colony development, biology, and demographic parameters were studied to measure the cowpea aphid performance. Two methods, whole plant and detached leaf, were used in these experiments. After 14 d , the number of apterous adult, nymphs, and total cowpea aphids were significantly lower in cultivar Gazira2 and highest on cultivar Misr1. Assuming that low aphid numbers per plant represented high resistance, the order of resistant cultivars was as follows: Gazira2 > Misr > Giza3 Improved > Goff1 > Misr1. Aphid infestation significantly inhibited plant growth compared with uninfested plants, as indicated by factorial analysis using plant height (F = 41.38, P < 0.0001). The detached-leaf biological assay showed that the cultivar Gazira2 was less suitable than Misr1 because it had longer prereproductive, reproductive, and post reproductive periods, longer total longevity, and lower number of progeny. Similarly, demographic parameters also justified the suggested lower suitability of Gazira2 compared with Misr1, indicated by significantly lower net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, but longer generation time and doubling time on Gazira2. It was shown that cowpea aphid performed differently on the whole plant as compared with detached leaves. The detached-leaf biological assay is recommended for future experiments because it is more accurate and efficient and it produces reliable data. PMID:25368064

Soffan, A; Aldawood, A S

2014-01-01

400

A REVIEW OF RESEARCH ARTICLES ON INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON GREEN BUYING BEHAVIOR  

OpenAIRE

It is imperative to study demographic factors while studying buying behavior of customers as demographic factors are the major determinants of buying behavior. To verify the green buying behavior of customers and to evaluate the influence of demographic factors on green buying behavior, researchers have critically analyzed, research articles, research papers and research reports of this aspect. The review found thirty three articles that studied demographic factors from va...

Barge, Dipti S.; , Dinkar K. More; Bhola, Sarang S.

2014-01-01

401

Predictive Validity of Demographically-Adjusted Normative Standards for the HIV Dementia Scale  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the current study was to develop and validate demographically-adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). Given the association between demographic variables and the HDS summary score, demographically-adjusted normative standards may enhance the classification accuracy of the HDS. Demographically-adjusted normative standards were derived from a sample of 182 seronegative healthy participants and were subsequently applied to a sample of 135 HIV-1 seropositive indi...

Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Scott, J. Cobb; Childers, Meredith; Beck, Jennifer Marquie; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

2007-01-01

402

The role of socio-demographic variables and their interaction effect on sense of coherence  

OpenAIRE

Orientation: Socio-demographics play a role in sense of coherence (SOC), indicating the strength of resistance resources available to employees from different socio-demographic groupings.Research purpose: To explore whether and how socio-demographic variables and their interactive effect determine a distinctively high or low SOC.Motivation for the study: Various studies include an exploration of the role of socio-demographic attributes on SOC, yet do not investigate the interactive effect of ...

Antoni Barnard

2013-01-01

403

Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on social inclusion in the host society and focus on improving social support networks in order to foster and maintain the health and HRQoL of this group. PMID:25835714

Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

2015-01-01

404

Developing a Model Component  

Science.gov (United States)

The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

Fields, Christina M.

2013-01-01

405

The ethnic aspects of demographic processes in the Baltic region states  

OpenAIRE

This article focuses on the problems pertaining to the regionalisation of geo-demographic situation in the Baltic region. Particular attention is paid to the influence of ethnic factors on the parameters and trends of demographic processes. The author comes to a conclusion about the achievement of demographic homeostasis in most ethnos-nations in the Baltic region.

Khrushchev S. A.

2010-01-01

406

Typology of adults diagnosed with mental disorders based on socio-demographics and clinical and service use characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorder is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Its cost and negative impact on productivity are substantial. Consequently, improving mental health-care system efficiency - especially service utilisation - is a priority. Few studies have explored the use of services by specific subgroups of persons with mental disorder; a better understanding of these individuals is key to improving service planning. This study develops a typology of individuals, diagnosed with mental disorder in a 12-month period, based on their individual characteristics and use of services within a Canadian urban catchment area of 258,000 persons served by a psychiatric hospital. Methods From among the 2,443 people who took part in the survey, 406 (17% experienced at least one episode of mental disorder (as per the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI in the 12 months pre-interview. These individuals were selected for cluster analysis. Results Analysis yielded four user clusters: people who experienced mainly anxiety disorder; depressive disorder; alcohol and/or drug disorder; and multiple mental and dependence disorder. Two clusters were more closely associated with females and anxiety or depressive disorders. In the two other clusters, males were over-represented compared with the sample as a whole, namely, substance abuses with or without concomitant mental disorder. Clusters with the greatest number of mental disorders per subject used a greater number of mental health-care services. Conversely, clusters associated exclusively with dependence disorders used few services. Conclusion The study found considerable heterogeneity among socio-demographic characteristics, number of disorders, and number of health-care services used by individuals with mental or dependence disorders. Cluster analysis revealed important differences in service use with regard to gender and age. It reinforces the relevance of developing targeted programs for subgroups of individuals with mental and/or dependence disorders. Strategies aimed at changing low service users' attitude (youths and males or instituting specialised programs for that particular clientele should be promoted. Finally, as concomitant disorders are frequent among individuals with mental disorder, psychological services and/or addiction programs must be prioritised as components of integrated services when planning treatment.

Perreault Michel

2011-04-01

407

RTD Component 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall objective of RTD Component 2 is to improve our knowledge on radionuclide retention processes which are currently not well understood in order to judge if they have to be considered for predictive analysis of the far field of geological repositories. The main topics dealt with in RTD Component 2 are the effect of the presence of inorganic/organic colloids, mineral redox processes and several aspects of microbiologically mediated processes on the transport of radionuclide. Knowledge gained in RTDC-2 will be transferred as direct input parameters for the host rock specific RTDC's 3-5. Scientific work in the nanometer resolution range with trace radionuclide concentrations expected to be found in far-field environments are a big analytical challenge and progress of scientific process understanding therefore relies inter alia on further development of analytical methods as well as on molecular modeling approaches. RTD Component 2 has been structured in 4 work packages and results obtained in the second project year are briefly summarized for each WP. Further, in detail information can be found in the Scientific and Technical contributions and publications listed in chapter 4. Advances within the work packages are reported: WP2.1: Formation, migration and transport processes of inorganic colloids; WP2.2: Formation migration and transport processes of organic/humic colloids; WP2.3: Radionuclide redox transformation on minerals; WP2.4: Impact of biogeochemical proerals; WP2.4: Impact of biogeochemical processes

408

Demographic Properties of the First 200 Radiotherapy Patients in the Southeast Anatolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cancer rates are increasing globally in the 21st century and this situation is more pronounced in developing countries. One of the main treatment modality of cancer is radiotherapy and underdeveloped countries are especially problematic in terms of radiotherapy facilities. Radiotherapy has a long-standing history in Turkey but there are inadequacies because of the developmental inequalities between regions in the country. We wanted to evaluate the patient profile of our radiotherapy center as it is the only center in Southeast Anatolia. Clinical and demographic properties of the patients has been investigated and interpreted with comparing the data with literature. Lung cancer in males and breast cancer in females constitude the largest group of patients but urological malignancies were seldom. In conclusion less than expected cancer patients are admitted to our center and general pattern of care in cancer patients must be improved in Southeast part of our country.

Bilgehan Karaday?

2006-01-01

409

An Analysis of Competencies and Moderating Influence of Demographic Profiles – Evidence From Exporting Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing numbers of organizations involved in exporting intensifies the competition level. Therefore, to manage the competition effectively, organizations need the necessary competencies. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between competencies and export performance. The competencies tested are in the area of personal traits, management, production and marketing. The results showed that except for personal traits, all the competencies have an influence on export performance. Demographic characteristics (key decision makers’ demographics and organizational demographics are also tested to identify whether they have moderating effects on the relationship between competencies and export performance. These include key decision makers’ demographics (age, education, overseas exposure and employment experience and organizational demographics (age, size of organization and export experience. The result showed age and education (key decision maker’s demographics have an effect in the relationship between competencies and export performance. However, all the organizational demographics tested have a moderating effect.

R.N. Anantharaman

2008-12-01

410

Social implication of demographic changes in the European Union countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process of demographic changes in European countries is characterized by greater and greater ageing of the population, as a result of the decline in the rate of natural increase and the rise in life expectancy. Europeans have less and less children, they live longer and face the problems how to ensure a safe old age. Noticed trends of change will be intensified till the middle of the new millennium (2050, when the following situation is expected: the decline in the number of children (0-14 years for almost 20% and the active-working population (15-64, while there will be more "old persons" (65-79 for more than 44%, and "the oldest" persons (80 or more for even 180%. Ageing of the population characterizes all regions, but is specially pronounced in the countries in the south and countries in transition. Faced with the challenges of the disturbances in the demographic structure, the members of the European Union (25 developed an entire spectrum of measures and activities to prevent the negative social-economic consequences. Creation of "the policy of ageing" at the Union level develops within the co-ordination (OMC of the process of modernization of the social security system (old-age pension insurance, health insurance, social and child protection; it also implies the creation of conditions for "the active old age" (increase in employment and staying as long as possible on the job market, the development of "the new forms of solidarity" between generations (as a consequence of the increase of the coefficient of dependency between active working and supported population, preventing poverty and social exclusion, etc. Strategic documents, directions and national action-plans determined the concrete measures needed to face the demographic challenges.

Vukovi? Drenka

2006-01-01

411

Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wagsupply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

412

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had significant effect on physical violence; specifically, hitting and psychological violence; specifically, denying choices and cessation of intermarital intercourse. Also, the level of education had significant effect on the physical (e.g., throwing objects) and psychological (e.g., Cessation of marital intercourse and denying choices). Finally, present results indicated that the level of income, by itself, did not have any effects on experiencing any types of violence by men but its effect was visible and significant in the presence of the other two factors, the age and the level of education. The results in the present study are, in fact, only of their kinds in that the characteristics of abused men by their wives are assessed in male victims of domestic violence and can contribute to further understanding of the types of men susceptible to victimization by their wives. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that other demographic variables such as the number of children, the type of housing (ownership of the house or renting) and so on, were also determined in this study, but given their lack of any significant effects on the occurrence of violence of any kind against men, were not mentioned in the study.

Pournaghash-Tehrani, Said; Feizabadi, Zahra

413

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had significant effect on physical violence; specifically, hitting and psychological violence; specifically, denying choices and cessation of intermarital intercourse. Also, the level of education had significant effect on the physical (e.g., throwing objects and psychological (e.g., Cessation of marital intercourse and denying choices. Finally, present results indicated that the level of income, by itself, did not have any effects on experiencing any types of violence by men but its effect was visible and significant in the presence of the other two factors, the age and the level of education. The results in the present study are, in fact, only of their kinds in that the characteristics of abused men by their wives are assessed in male victims of domestic violence and can contribute to further understanding of the types of men susceptible to victimization by their wives. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that other demographic variables such as the number of children, the type of housing (ownership of the house or renting and so on, were also determined in this study, but given their lack of any significant effects on the occurrence of violence of any kind against men, were not mentioned in the study.

Said Pournaghash-Tehrani

2007-01-01

414

Evaluating the demographic buffering hypothesis with vital rates estimated for Weddell seals from 30years of mark-recapture data  

Science.gov (United States)

1.Life-history theory predicts that those vital rates that make larger contributions to population growth rate ought to be more strongly buffered against environmental variability than are those that are less important. Despite the importance of the theory for predicting demographic responses to changes in the environment, it is not yet known how pervasive demographic buffering is in animal populations because the validity of most existing studies has been called into question because of methodological deficiencies. 2.We tested for demographic buffering in the southern-most breeding mammal population in the world using data collected from 5558 known-age female Weddell seals over 30years. We first estimated all vital rates simultaneously with mark-recapture analysis and then estimated process variance and covariance in those rates using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We next calculated the population growth rate's sensitivity to changes in each of the vital rates and tested for evidence of demographic buffering by comparing properly scaled values of sensitivity and process variance in vital rates. 3.We found evidence of positive process covariance between vital rates, which indicates that all vital rates are affected in the same direction by changes in annual environment. Despite the positive correlations, we found strong evidence that demographic buffering occurred through reductions in variation in the vital rates to which population growth rate was most sensitive. Process variation in vital rates was inversely related to sensitivity measures such that variation was greatest in breeding probabilities, intermediate for survival rates of young animals and lowest for survival rates of older animals. 4.Our work contributes to a small but growing set of studies that have used rigorous methods on long-term, detailed data to investigate demographic responses to environmental variation. The information from these studies improves our understanding of life-history evolution in stochastic environments and provides useful information for predicting population responses to future environmental change. Our results for an Antarctic apex predator also provide useful baselines from a marine ecosystem when its top- and middle-trophic levels were not substantially impacted by human activity. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology ?? 2011 British Ecological Society.

Rotella, J.J.; Link, W.A.; Chambert, T.; Stauffer, G.E.; Garrott, R.A.

2012-01-01

415

Assessing the demographic and public service impacts of repository siting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Demographic and public service impacts are likely to be among the most evident of those changes resulting from nuclear waste repository development. Knowledge of the characteristics of such impacts and of the means to assess them is critical. The first section of this chapter examines those likely to be unique to repositories. The second section describes the alternatives for assessing such impacts and the particular difficulties likely to affect the assessments. Given the state of development of techniques for assessing impacts and the range of factors that must be considered, perhaps their best use is as a means of sensitizing decision makers to the potential implications of their decisions. 2 tables

416

DEMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF FAMILIES BREAKFAST HABITS IN TURKEY  

OpenAIRE

Face-to-face surveys have been carried out with 252 people from various quarters of Izmit to determine what the breakfast habits of Turkish families are and whether these habits differ according to demographic characteristics. The survey scale, which was utilized for the purpose of this study, consisted of twenty-five questions prepared according to the nine-grade scale. A “One-way Anova” test was applied to the data that we obtained from these face-to-face surveys so as to determine firs...

Teki?n, Vasfi Nadir; C?eli?kkol, Ethem Soner; Uc?kun, Ceylan Gazi

2013-01-01

417

A Demographic Study of Information Technology Professionals' Organizational Citizenship Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB has been suggested to facilitate organizational functioning. However, previous research has found that information technology (IT professionals exhibit significantly lower OCB than non-IT professionals. To explain this phenomenon, this research includes demographic variables including age, gender, and tenure and examines their impact on the OCB of these highly skilled professionals. Using IT professionals as the unit of analysis with a sample size of 85, the results indicate that age and tenure are significant predictors of an IT professional’s OCB. Results of this research can be used by organizations and managers to establish a work environment where OCB is encouraged.

Shih Yung Chou

2011-02-01

418

Demographic correlates of fatigue in a university family health centre.  

Science.gov (United States)

To delineate the demographic correlates of the fatigued patient, 297 patients attending a family practice centre were investigated. Women were more frequently tired than were men; patients with less than a college education were over-represented, and employed persons were more robust than the unemployed. Fatigue was also associated with lack of exercise, nightly wakening and the presence of children less than six years old in the household. There were no significant relationships between fatigue and age, smoking or 'reducing' diets. The results of the study shed new light on the correlates of fatigue and confirmed some long-standing beliefs. PMID:3609547

Valdini, A F; Steinhardt, S I; Jaffe, A S

1987-06-01

419

The demographic cequence of the Chernobyl' NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1990 the total population evacuated due to the ChNPP accident was questionared. The analysis of the data obtained became the initial base for the demographic characteristics of this population. In 1991 about 40.000 people were planned to move. The estimation of the age of the moved, their marital status makes it possible to prognose their social child-bearing and economic value for the places where they were moved. In 1991 it was supposed that not only the moved population might have given birth to regenerations the necessary rate but also their mortality might play a significant role in the increase of the death rate

420

Demographic Data and Clinical Characteristics of 202 Cerebral Palsy Cases  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who applied to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinic.Materials and Methods: Data of the 202 cases who had reffered to our outpatient clinic between December 2005 and June 2007 was evaluated retrospectively.Results: Ninety-four of the cases were girls and 108 were boys. Their mean age was 6.98 years (1-33 years). The distribution of cerebral palsy ...

Esma Öcal Eriman; Afitap ?ça?as?o?lu; Esma Demirhan; ?eyma Koluk?sa; Huriye Aras; Sema Halilo?lu; Hatice ?ule Baklac?o?lu

2009-01-01

421

The Epidemiology and Demographics of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis  

OpenAIRE

The etiology of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is unknown with many insights coming from epidemiologic/demographic information. A systematic medical literature review regarding SCFE was performed. The incidence is 0.33/100,000 to 24.58/100,000 children 8 to 15 years of age. The relative racial frequency, relative to Caucasians at 1.0, is 5.6 for Polynesians, 3.9 for Blacks, and 2.5 for Hispanics. The average age is 12.0 years for boys and 11.2 years for girls. The physiologic age wh...

Loder, Randall T.; Skopelja, Elaine N.

2011-01-01

422

Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation. PMID:21219719

Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

2010-11-01

423

Demographics and management of dog-bite victims at a level two hospital in KwaZulu-Natal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dog bites are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly where rabies is endemic. There is also a significant financial burden attached to prophylactic treatment to diminish the risk of rabies infection. KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) has a high incidence of human rabi [...] es yet little is known about the demographics of dog bites in the province. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the demographics of dog bites in Northern KZN. Methods. Records of all dog bites presenting to the main referral hospital in northern KZN between August 2007 and September 2011 were analysed. RESULTS: We collected data for 821 instances of dog bite. Male children aged 6 - 10 years are most likely to present with dog bites, while women >40 years are more likely to present than men in the same age bracket. While initial vaccine administration is high (98%) with all grades of bite, only 82% of grade 3 bites receive immunoglobulin. CONCLUSION: Our results correlate well with two large studies of the demographics of dog bites, but are the first to show a reverse in male preponderance of presentations above the age of 40 years. Reasons for low rates of immunoglobulin administration in grade 3 bites are discussed. Finally, methods are suggested to improve data collection and the care of patients presenting with dog bites.

S J W, Kent; B, Naicker; D R, Wood.

424

Demographic and health surveillance of mobile pastoralists in Chad: integration of biometric fingerprint identification into a geographical information system.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a pressing need for baseline demographic and health-related data to plan, implement and evaluate health interventions in developing countries, and to monitor progress towards international development goals. However, mobile pastoralists, i.e. people who depend on a livestock production system and follow their herds as they move, remain marginalized from rural development plans and interventions. The fact that mobile people are hard to reach and stay in contact with is a plausible reason why they are underrepresented in national censuses and/or alternative sequential sample survey systems. We present a proof-of-concept of monitoring highly mobile, pastoral people by recording demographic and health-related data from 933 women and 2020 children and establishing a biometric identification system (BIS) based on the registration and identification of digital fingerprints. Although only 22 women, representing 2.4% of the total registered women, were encountered twice in the four survey rounds, the approach implemented is shown to be feasible. The BIS described here is linked to a geographical information system to facilitate the creation of the first health and demographic surveillance system in a mobile, pastoralist setting. Our ultimate goal is to implement and monitor interventions with the "one health" concept, thus integrating and improving human, animal and ecosystem health. PMID:19021114

Weibel, Daniel; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Utzinger, Jürg; Hattendorf, Jan; Abdoulaye, Mahamat; Madjiade, Toguina; Zinsstag, Jakob

2008-11-01

425

The demographic and academic profile of Irish dental school faculty members.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

AIM: This paper reviews the demographic, academic and professional profile of Irish dental school faculty members. Faculty duties are explored. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Custom-designed questionnaires were distributed to faculty members for self-completion, adopting a \\'mixed-method\\' approach with quantitative and qualitative components. Response rate was 64.60%. RESULTS: Demographic profile reveals a male-dominated regime (64%). Males also occupy a disproportionate number of senior academic positions. The age profile mirrors international trends with 75% of staff over 40 and c.33% over 50, including 78% of professorial staff (p < 0.001). Dental school faculties are comprised of highly educated professionals with the following qualifications: 89% BDS, 43% FDS, 39% Masters, 16% Doctorates. Most (77%) have 10+ years of clinical experience, while 47% have over 20 years\\' experience. Clinical experience varied by age, rank (p < 0.001) and gender (p < 0.05). A review of contractual agreements and duties confirms the major role of part-time clinical staff in dental education, comprising the largest single group (48%) delivering the bulk of the clinical teaching. However, 54% of part-time clinical staff have less than five years teaching experience.