WorldWideScience
1

Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

Brian C. O' Neill

2006-08-09

2

Decomposing demographic change into direct vs. compositional components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present and prove a formula for decomposing change in a population average into two components. One component captures the effect of direct change in the characteristic of interest, and the other captures the effect of compositional change. The decomposition is applied to time derivatives of averages over age and over subpopulations. Examples include decomposition of the change over time in the average age at childbearing and in the general fertility rate for China, Denmark and Mexico. A decomposition of the change over time in the crude death rate in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands is also presented. Other examples concern global life expectancy and the growth rate of the population of the world.

2002-07-01

3

Automated Improvement for Component Reuse  

OpenAIRE

Software component reuse is the key to significant gains in productivity. However, the major problem is the lack of identifying and developing potentially reusable components. This paper concentrates on our approach to the development of reusable software components. A prototype tool has been developed, known as the Reuse Assessor and Improver System (RAIS) which can interactively identify, analyse, assess, and modify abstractions, attributes and architectures that support r...

Ramachandran, Muthu

2005-01-01

4

Automated Improvement for Component Reuse  

CERN Document Server

Software component reuse is the key to significant gains in productivity. However, the major problem is the lack of identifying and developing potentially reusable components. This paper concentrates on our approach to the development of reusable software components. A prototype tool has been developed, known as the Reuse Assessor and Improver System (RAIS) which can interactively identify, analyse, assess, and modify abstractions, attributes and architectures that support reuse. Practical and objective reuse guidelines are used to represent reuse knowledge and to do domain analysis. It takes existing components, provides systematic reuse assessment which is based on reuse advice and analysis, and produces components that are improved for reuse. Our work on guidelines has been extended to a large scale industrial application.

Ramachandran, M

2005-01-01

5

The proposal of improved component selection framework  

OpenAIRE

Component selection is considered one of hard tasks in Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE). It is difficult to find the optimal component selection. CBSE is an approach that is used to develop a software system from pre-existing software components. Appropriate software component selection plays an important role in CBSE. Many approaches were suggested to solve component selection problem. In this paper the component selection is done by improving the integrated comp...

Alghabban, Weam Gaoud; Qureshi, M. Rizwan Jameel

2014-01-01

6

Clean Diesel Component Improvement Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research conducted in this program significantly increased the knowledge and understanding in the fields of plasma physics and chemistry in diesel exhaust, the performance and characteristics of multifunctional catalysts in diesel exhaust, and the complexities of controlling a combination of such systems to remove NOx. Initially this program was designed to use an in-line plasma system (know as a plasma assisted catalyst system or PAC) to convert NO {yields} NO{sub 2}, a more catalytically active form of nitrogen oxides, and to crack hydrocarbons (diesel fuel in particular) into active species. The NO{sub 2} and the cracked hydrocarbons were then flowed over an in-line ceramic NOx catalyst that removed NO{sub 2} from the diesel exhaust. Even though the PAC system performed well technically and was able to remove over 95% of NOx from diesel exhaust the plasma component proved not to be practical or commercially feasible. The lack of practical and commercial viability was due to high unit costs and lack of robustness. The plasma system and its function was replaced in the NOx removal process by a cracking reforming catalyst that converted diesel fuel to a highly active reductant for NOx over a downstream ceramic NOx catalyst. This system was designated the ceramic catalyst system (CCS). It was also determined that NO conversion to NO{sub 2} was not required to achieve high levels of NOx reduction over ceramic NOx catalyst if that catalyst was properly formulated and the cracking reforming produced a reductant optimized for that NOx catalyst formulation. This system has demonstrated 92% NOx reduction in a diesel exhaust slipstream and 65% NOx reduction from the full exhaust of a 165 hp diesel engine using the FTP cycle. Although this system needs additional development to be commercial, it is simple, cost effective (does not use precious metals), sulfur tolerant, operates at high space velocities, does not require a second fluid be supplied as a reductant, has low parasitic loss of 2-3% and achieves high levels of NOx reduction. This project benefits the public by providing a simple low-cost technology to remove NOx pollutants from the exhaust of almost any combustion source. The reduction of NOx emissions emitted into the troposphere provides well documented improvement in health for the majority of United States citizens. The emissions reduction produced by this technology helps remove the environmental constraints to economic growth.

None

2005-06-30

7

When celibacy matters: incorporating non-breeders improves demographic parameter estimates.  

Science.gov (United States)

In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans). In this species, the breeding cycle lasts almost a year and birds that succeed a given year tend to skip the next breeding occasion while birds that fail tend to breed again the following year. Most non-breeders remain unobservable at sea, but still a substantial number of observable non-breeders (ONB) was identified on breeding sites. Using multi-state capture-mark-recapture analyses, we used several measures to compare the performance of demographic estimates between models incorporating or ignoring ONB: bias (difference in mean), precision (difference is standard deviation) and accuracy (both differences in mean and standard deviation). Our results highlight that ignoring ONB leads to bias and loss of accuracy on breeding probability and survival estimates. These effects are even stronger when studied in an age-dependent framework. Biases on breeding probabilities and survival increased with age leading to overestimation of survival at old age and thus actuarial senescence and underestimation of reproductive senescence. We believe our study sheds new light on the difficulties of estimating demographic parameters in species/taxa where a significant part of the population does not breed every year. Taking into account ONB appeared important to improve demographic parameter estimates, models of population dynamics and evolutionary conclusions regarding senescence within and across taxa. PMID:23555965

Pardo, Deborah; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

2013-01-01

8

Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and their limitations on epidemiological analyses. We review sources of detailed, contemporary, freely available and relevant spatial demographic data focusing on low income regions where such data are often sparse and highlight the value of incorporating these through a set of examples of their application in disease studies. Moreover, the importance of acknowledging, measuring, and accounting for uncertainty in spatial demographic datasets is outlined. Finally, a strategy for building an open-access database of spatial demographic data that is tailored to epidemiological applications is put forward.

Tatem Andrew J

2012-05-01

9

Using online platforms for competence tests: A component of the demographic policy of Germany  

OpenAIRE

Lifelong learning represents a key response to the demographic challenge in Germany. In terms of professional success, not only hard skills but also soft skills hold importance. Indeed, the OECD competence tests PISA and PIAAC have come to the fore, although acquired skills are still relevant. Given the increasing skills shortages and the reduced half-life of qualifications, training continues to gain importance, including in the context of employer branding and companies´ corporate social r...

Spermann, Alexander

2014-01-01

10

Improving the Components of Speaking Proficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main concerns of language learners is how to improve their speaking proficiency in general and different components of speaking proficiency such as fluency, accuracy, accent, vocabulary, comprehension, and communication in particular. Accordingly, the present research attempts to investigate the effect of listening to different TV programs on improving different components of speaking proficiency. To achieve this purpose, a sample speaking test was given to twenty language learners as a pre-test. During the study, the participants had exposure to different programs from TV. After a period of three months, a post-test was administered. Then, the scores of each component in the pre-test were compared with that of the post-test. The result showed that the use of vocabulary as a component of speaking proficiency improves more. On the contrary, accuracy improves less than the other components.
Key words: Speaking proficiency; Improve; Vocabulary; Accuracy

Résumé: L'une des préoccupations principales des apprenants de langue est de savoir comment améliorer l'expression orale en général et maîtriser de différents composants de la compétence de l’expression orale comme la fluidité, la précision, l'accent, le vocabulaire, la compréhension et la communication en particulier. En conséquence, la présente recherche tente d'étudier l'effet d'écouter des émissions de différents programmes à la télé sur l'amélioration de la maîtrise de différents éléments de l'expression orale. Pour atteindre ce but, un test de langue a été donnée à vingt apprenants de langue comme un pré-test. Au cours de l'étude, les participants ont été exposés à de différents programmes de la télévision. Après une période de trois mois, un post-test a été donné. Ensuite, les scores de chaque composant dans le pré-test ont été comparés avec ceux du post-test. Le résultat a montré que l’un des éléments de compétence orale, l'utilisation du vocabulaire, s'améliore le plus. Au contraire, la précision s'améliore moins que les autres composants.
Mots-clés: Compétence de l’expression orale; Améliorer; Vocabulaire; Précision

Taher Bahrani

2011-07-01

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Improvement of Component Integration Testing Technique  

OpenAIRE

Component-based technology can increase reuse and productivity, but high-quality component-based systems are often difficult to implement. Component developers do not know the systems where the components will be used, while software engineers must develop new systems with limited knowledge on available components. We propose a new testing technique that generates, at the time of component development, integration test cases from the specification of the behavior expected from other component...

Khulood Salem Albeladi; Rizwan Jameel Qureshi, M.

2013-01-01

12

The projected hand illusion: component structure in a community sample and association with demographics, cognition, and psychotic-like experiences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The projected hand illusion (PHI) is a variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), and both are commonly used to study mechanisms of self-perception. A questionnaire was developed by Longo et al. (2008) to measure qualitative changes in the RHI. Such psychometric analyses have not yet been conducted on the questionnaire for the PHI. The present study is an attempt to validate minor modifications of the questionnaire of Longo et al. to assess the PHI in a community sample (n = 48) and to determine the association with selected demographic (age, sex, years of education), cognitive (Digit Span), and clinical (psychotic-like experiences) variables. Principal components analysis on the questionnaire data extracted four components: Embodiment of "Other" Hand, Disembodiment of Own Hand, Deafference, and Agency-in both synchronous and asynchronous PHI conditions. Questions assessing "Embodiment" and "Agency" loaded onto orthogonal components. Greater illusion ratings were positively associated with being female, being younger, and having higher scores on psychotic-like experiences. There was no association with cognitive performance. Overall, this study confirmed that self-perception as measured with PHI is a multicomponent construct, similar in many respects to the RHI. The main difference lies in the separation of Embodiment and Agency into separate constructs, and this likely reflects the fact that the "live" image of the PHI presents a more realistic picture of the hand and of the stroking movements of the experimenter compared with the RHI. PMID:25120179

Graham, Kyran T; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T; Holmes, Nicholas P; Waters, Flavie A

2015-01-01

13

When Celibacy Matters: Incorporating Non-Breeders Improves Demographic Parameter Estimates  

OpenAIRE

In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exula...

Pardo, Deborah; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

2013-01-01

14

Improvement of Component Integration Testing Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Component-based technology can increase reuse and productivity, but high-quality component-based systems are often difficult to implement. Component developers do not know the systems where the components will be used, while software engineers must develop new systems with limited knowledge on available components. We propose a new testing technique that generates, at the time of component development, integration test cases from the specification of the behavior expected from other components of the system. The technique presented in this paper supports both the component developer, who can early test the integration of the components with the system, and the software engineers, who can test concrete components at deployment time, simply re-using existing test cases.The technique presented in this paper supports both the component developer, who can early test the integration of the components with the system, and the software engineers, who can test components at deployment time. We used questionnaires to validate the proposed solution.

Khulood Salem Albeladi

2013-07-01

15

A Study for Improvement of Power Distribution Component (PDC)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process control cabinet consists of several subracks. Each sub-rack power delivered by backplane through power distribution component located in each sub-rack from main power. This power distribution component dissipates power like resistor between main power supply and cards. So some voltage drops are occurred. This paper studies power distribution component improvement to reduce damage by over voltage, over current, voltage drop and to keep reverse polarity protection, power switching

16

Pulsed lavage improves fixation strength of cemented tibial components  

OpenAIRE

Pulsatile lavage is purported to improve radiographic survival in cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Similarly, a potential improvement of fixation strength of the tibial tray has been assumed based on the increased cement penetration. In this study, the influence of pulsed lavage on fixation strength of the tibial component and bone cement penetration was evaluated in six pairs of cadaveric specimens. Following surgical preparation, the tibial surface was irrigated using pulsatile lavag...

Schlegel, Ulf J.; Siewe, Jan; Delank, Karl S.; Eysel, Peer; Pu?schel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M.; Uhlenbrock, Anne Gebert

2011-01-01

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Separating middle components by using improved pulse cascades  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new operation manner of pulse cascade was proposed. Compared with the pulse cascade without the improvement, smaller final pulse number and shorter transient time are needed, and it is more feasible in engineering. In separating multicomponent mixtures, compared with the conventional cascades, this improved pulse cascade is able to obtain the same degree of separation with shorter cascade lengths and fewer centrifuges. In the case that the cascade lengths and the total numbers of centrifuges are the same for separating a middle component, better performance is achieved, yielding higher concentration in the product and lower in the waste, in contrast to the conventional cascade. With an additional withdrawal at an appropriate middle stage chosen through optimization, a pulse cascade produces products with much higher concentration of the target middle component than a conventional cascade. (authors)

18

Managerial improvement efforts after finding unreported cracks in reactor components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2002 TEPCO found that there were unreported cracks in reactor components, of which inspection records had been falsified. Stress Corrosion Cracking indications found in Core Shrouds and Primary Loop Re-circulation pipes at some plants were removed from the inspection records and not reported to the regulators. Top management of TEPCO took the responsibility and resigned, and recovery was started under the leadership of new management team. First of all, behavioral standards were reconstituted to strongly support safety-first value. Ethics education was introduced and corporate ethics committee was organized with participation of external experts. Independent assessment organization was established to enhance quality assurance. Information became more transparent through Non-conformance Control Program. As for the material management, prevention and mitigation programs for the Stress Corrosion Cracking of reactor components were re-established. In addition to the above immediate recovery actions, long term improvement initiatives have also been launched and driven by our aspiration to excellence in safe operation of nuclear power plants. Vision and core values were set to align the people. Organizational learning was enhanced by benchmark studies, better systematic use of operational experience, self-assessment and external assessment. Based on these foundation blocks and with strong sponsorship from the top management, work processes were analyzed and improved by P processes were analyzed and improved by Peer Groups. (author)

19

A method for improving test rig performance using passive components  

Science.gov (United States)

The time waveform replication (TWR) algorithm is presently used in industry for calculating the actuation force needed to replicate a certain reference sensor output in a test rig. Power and force rate limitations restrict the feasible range of that actuation force. If the input force distribution of the reference test cannot be replicated in the test rig, the required test rig input force magnitudes may be large or the replication properties poor due to lack of controllability. To circumvent this, a theory of passive components to improve replication and limit the input force demands of dynamic test rigs is developed. The theory fits within the framework of the TWR algorithm.

Johansson, Anders T.; Abrahamsson, Thomas J. S.

2015-02-01

20

Demographic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic Research is a newly launched, peer-reviewed online journal of the population sciences published by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. The first article in Volume One (covering May 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999) has recently been posted: Cancer Rates over Age, Time, and Place: Insights from Stochastic Models of Heterogeneous Populations by James W. Vaupel and Anatoli I. Yashin. Articles are available in both HTML and .pdf formats. The Website provides detailed information about the journal's purpose, mission, submission guidelines, and review process.

21

Improving reactor safety systems using component redundancy allocation technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the improvements to the reliability of the safety systems of nuclear reactors using redundancy allocation technique. The study has been carried out using the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). PSA involves, among others, the use of fault and event tree tools in the evaluation of the safety system failure probabilities and the quantification of annual occurrence probability of the accidental conditions postulated in the design of the nuclear reactors. The PSA has been presented and discussed. The Egypt Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2, has been used as a case study. The failure probability of the already existing safety systems has been reviewed. The effect of the allocation of more redundant components to the existing safety systems on the failure probability of the systems has been evaluated. The event trees for two selected initiating events, from those events postulated in the ETRR-2 design, have been studied considering the allocation of more redundant components to the safety systems. The result of the study showed that further improvement could be introduced to the reliability of the Confinement Ventilation System (CVS). (author)

22

Codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components to improve Jewett transform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jewett Transform is not yet, it is being. First ideas on this metaphor are from 1980 while monitoring cerebral function. It was conceived in contrast with Fourier Transform. Its application is limited to Auditory Brain Stem Responses. It uses a non-orthogonal physiologically rooted basis. Non-orthogonal basis has limited power in front of orthogonal basis: no analytical method exists to evaluate the corresponding transforms and numerical methods are required. In previous works, numerical methods were replaced for by trained artificial neural networks. Jewett transform was applied to increase the training set. Being a physiologically inspired basis, it promises better understanding of analysis of these evoked responses. It is envisioned that diverse new transforms, tailored to different problem specificity are to emerge. Considering the short temporal influence of Jewett components, it is stated that codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components can be used to improve Jewett Transform. Previously used neural network was modified. Output vector codes are built up by grouping components instead of grouping parameters. This allows synaptic pruning in the artificial neural network. Only a fraction (0.49) of the previous network weights is used. Mean square error in fitting signal to model are acceptable (mean ?<0.3%, n= 600). Memorization is eliminated

23

Changing demographics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

24

A comparative method for improving the reliability of brittle components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculating the absolute reliability built in a product is often an extremely difficult task because of the complexity of the physical processes and physical mechanisms underlying the failure modes, the complex influence of the environment and the operational loads, the variability associated with reliability-critical design parameters and the non-robustness of the prediction models. Predicting the probability of failure of loaded components with complex shape for example is associated with uncertainty related to: the type of existing flaws initiating fracture, the size distributions of the flaws, the locations and the orientations of the flaws and the microstructure and its local properties. Capturing these types of uncertainty, necessary for a correct prediction of the reliability of components is a formidable task which does not need to be addressed if a comparative reliability method is employed, especially if the focus is on reliability improvement. The new comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws proposed here is based on an assumed failure criterion, an equation linking the probability that a flaw will be critical with the probability of failure associated with the component and a finite element solution for the distribution of the principal stresses in the loaded component. The probability that a flaw will be critical is determined directly, after a finite number of steps equal to the number of finite elements into which the component is divided. An advantage of the proposed comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws is that it does not rely on a Monte Carlo simulation and does not depend on knowledge of the size distribution of the flaws and the material properties. This essentially eliminates uncertainty associated with the material properties and the population of flaws. On the basis of a theoretical analysis we also show that, contrary to the common belief, in general, for non-interacting flaws randomly located in a stressed volume, the distribution of the minimum failure stress is not necessarily described by a Weibull distribution. For the simple case of a single group of flaws all of which become critical beyond a particular threshold value for example, the Weibull distribution fails to predict correctly the probability of failure. If in a particular load range, no new critical flaws are created by increasing the applied stress, the Weibull distribution also fails to predict correctly the probability of failure of the component. In these cases however, the probability of failure is correctly predicted by the suggested alternative equation. The suggested equation is the correct mathematical formulation of the weakest-link concept related to random flaws in a stressed volume. The equation does not require any assumption concerning the physical nature of the flaws and the physical mechanism of failure and can be applied in any situation of locally initiated failure by non-interacting entities.

Todinov, M.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX33 1HX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mtodinov@brookes.ac.uk

2009-02-15

25

Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

26

Improved methods of creep-fatigue life assessment of components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The improvement of life assessment methods contributes to a reduction of efforts at design and an effective long term operation of high temperature components, reduces technical risk and increases high economical advantages. Creep-fatigue at multi-stage loading, covering cold start, warm start and hot start cycles in typical loading sequences e.g. for medium loaded power plants, was investigated here. At hold times creep and stress relaxation, respectively, lead to an acceleration of crack initiation. Creep fatigue life time can be calculated by a modified damage accumulation rule, which considers the fatigue fraction rule for fatigue damage and the life fraction rule for creep damage. Mean stress effects, internal stress and interaction effects of creep and fatigue are considered. Along with the generation of advanced creep data, fatigue data and creep fatigue data as well scatter band analyses are necessary in order to generate design curves and lower bound properties inclusive. Besides, in order to improve lifing methods the enhancement of modelling activities for deformation and life time are important. For verification purposes, complex experiments at variable creep conditions as well as at creep fatigue interaction under multi-stage loading are of interest. Generally, the development of methods to transfer uniaxial material properties to multiaxial loading situations is a current challenge. For specific design purposes, a constitutive material model is introduced which is implemented as an user subroutine for Finite Element applications due to start-up and shut-down phases of components. Identification of material parameters have been performed by Neural Networks. (orig.)

Scholz, Alfred; Berger, Christina [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IfW), Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-07-01

27

Reassessing the Demographic Imperative  

Science.gov (United States)

For many years gerontologists have discussed the consequences of advances that have lengthened lives but have been less successful at improving the quality of those lives. While this debate continues, the resulting demographic shift in the age profile of the United States threatens to overwhelm our ability to care for those who most need…

Folts, W. Edward; Rosenberg, Edwin; Muir, Kenneth B.; Baumhover, Lorin A.

2005-01-01

28

Critical components required to improve deployable laboratory biological hazards identification  

Science.gov (United States)

An ever-expanding global military mission necessitates quick and accurate identification of biological hazards, whether naturally occurring or man-made. Coupled with an ever-present threat of biological attack, an expanded U.S. presence in worn-torn locations like Southwest Asia presents unique public health challenges. We must heed modern day "lessons learned" from Operation Desert Shield and the Soviet Afghanistan Campaign and guard against rapid incapacitation of troop strength from endemic disease and biological attack. To minimize readiness impacts, field hygiene is enforced, and research on better medical countermeasures such as antibiotics and vaccines continues. However, there are no preventions or remedies for all military-relevant infectious diseases or biological agents. A deployable, streamlined, self-contained diagnostic and public health surveillance laboratory capability with a reach-back communication is critical to meeting global readiness challenges. Current deployable laboratory packages comprise primarily diagnostic or environmental sample testing capabilities. Discussion will focus on critical components needed to improve existing laboratory assets, and to facilitate deployment of small, specialized packages far forward. The ideal laboratory model described will become an essential tool for the Combatant or Incident Commander to maintain force projection in the expeditionary environment.

Niemeyer, Debra M.

2004-08-01

29

The JT8D and JT9D engine component improvement: Performance improvement program  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA sponsored Engine Component Improvement - Performance Improvement Program at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft advanced the state of the art of thermal barrier coatings and ceramic seal systems, demonstrated the practicality of an advanced turbine clearance control system and an advanced fan design in the JT9D engine, and demonstrated the advantages of modern cooling, sealing, and aerodynamic designs in the high pressure turbine and compressor of the JT8D engine. Several of these improvements are already in airline service in JT8D and JT9D engines, and others will enter service soon in advanced models of these engines. In addition, the technology advances are being transferred to completely new engine configurations, the PW2037 engine and the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient Engine.

Gaffin, W. O.

1982-01-01

30

Serbian demographers on demography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this paper is to collect the opinions of the leading demographers in Serbia on four significant matters. The matters are: development, state and future of demography, the successfulness of researchers in this scientific discipline, improvement of the Stanovništvo journal, as well as the population priority of our society and range of population policies. Method: A qualitative interview was chosen as the instrument for data collection. Namely, a structured interview, based on nine questions was sent by e-mail to eleven addresses of relevant demographers in the second half of October 2013. The basic reason for sending questions by e-mail was the aspiration to obtain authentic replies which require time for contemplation. Ten completed questionnaires were returned within two weeks. On the one hand, an integral picture on the chosen themes for research was attempted to be obtained in the analysis of received opinions to certain groups of questions and on the other hand to portray the spectrum of different observations. The responses of our prominent demographers were analyzed and compared to clearly pronounced standpoints of eminent demographers published in world journals on similar themes and with findings of internet researches among members of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Results: The results show that there is a high level of consent among demographers in Serbia regarding the well positioning of demography in relation to other social studies and its good perspectives. The interviewed experts see the future of demography in its integration with a wide circle of sciences, the application of demography and/or greater engagement of researchers in carrying out public policies. However, the estimations of the interviewed demographers as regards the development and state of demography in Serbia are divided. Although a large number of topics had been listed, migrations and population ageing were singled out the most as significant for examining in the immediate future. The inclusion of Stanovništvo on the Science Citation Information Journal List and expanding the circle of authors were the basic recommendations of the respondents regarding better quality of the journal. All interviewed experts mentioned various kinds of knowledge and characteristics necessary for demographers to posses in order to be successful. Contrary to the homogeneous opinion that a demographer should be a superior-researcher, a wide range of responses were given to the question regarding selecting the best indicator for determining the successfulness of researchers in the study of population. As many as eight out of ten interviewed experts believe population ageing is the greatest population challenge which Serbia is facing. However, a low level of consensus appeared among the demographers as regards the range of the political response. Namely, five experts declared they were pessimists in view of the possibilities for mitigating the challenge they singled out. On the contrary, five interviewed experts expressed optimism, as they believe in the economic development of Serbia, the possibilities of institutional adjustments to demographic changes, and/or in man and his rationality. Conclusion: Demographers in Serbia highly appreciate the discipline they belong to. At the same time they are strict critics and have high expectations in all matters dealing with demography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006: Istraživanje demografskih fenomena u funkciji javnih politika u Srbiji

Raševi? Mirjana

2013-01-01

31

Improving the Quality of Adult Mortality Data Collected in Demographic Surveys: Validation Study of a New Siblings' Survival Questionnaire in Niakhar, Senegal  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In countries with limited vital registration, adult mortality is frequently estimated using siblings' survival histories (SSHs) collected during Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). These data are affected by reporting errors. We developed a new SSH questionnaire, the siblings' survival calendar (SSC). It incorporates supplementary interviewing techniques to limit omissions of siblings and uses an event history calendar to improve reports of dates and ages. We hypothesized that the SSC would improve the quality of adult mortality data. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective validation study among the population of the Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Senegal. We randomly assigned men and women aged 15–59 y to an interview with either the DHS questionnaire or the SSC. We compared SSHs collected in each group to prospective data on adult mortality collected in Niakhar. The SSC reduced respondents' tendency to round reports of dates and ages to the nearest multiple of five or ten (“heaping”). The SSC also had higher sensitivity in recording adult female deaths: among respondents whose sister(s) had died at an adult age in the past 15 y, 89.6% reported an adult female death during SSC interviews versus 75.6% in DHS interviews (p?=?0.027). The specificity of the SSC was similar to that of the DHS questionnaire, i.e., it did not increase the number of false reports of deaths. However, the SSC did not improve the reporting of adult deaths among the brothers of respondents. Study limitations include sample selectivity, limited external validity, and multiple testing. Conclusions The SSC has the potential to collect more accurate SSHs than the questionnaire used in DHS. Further research is needed to assess the effects of the SSC on estimates of adult mortality rates. Additional validation studies should be conducted in different social and epidemiological settings. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN06849961 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24866715

Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Masquelier, Bruno; Kanté, Almamy Malick; Douillot, Laetitia; Duthé, Géraldine; Sokhna, Cheikh; Delaunay, Valérie

2014-01-01

32

Improving airborne strapdown vector gravimetry using stabilized horizontal components  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating the deflections of the vertical along the flight line can yield geoid profiles which are valuable in the study of geodesy and geophysics, fortunately, the deflections can be measured directly by vector gravimetry. Airborne vector gravimetry using a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System and the Global Navigation Satellite System (SINS/GNSS) has shown promising results in previous studies. However, the quality of the SINS and GNSS is a major limitation; in particular, the attitude errors induced by the gyros will result in large measurement errors to the horizontal components of the gravity disturbance, and these measurement errors represent the behavior of low-frequency trend. An airborne vector gravimetry method used to remove the bias and low-frequency trends in the gravity disturbance estimated for each survey line has been developed. This method uses the horizontal components of the gravity disturbance computed from EGM2008 (Earth Gravitational Model 2008) as a reference. Firstly, the horizontal measurement results obtained from the gravimeter are divided into high- and low-frequency components according to the resolution of the EGM2008, and then, the bias and low-frequency trends of the low-frequency components are corrected using a linear fit to the EGM2008 reference data. Finally, the ultimate results can be acquired after combining the high-frequency components and the corrected low-frequency components. The data used was obtained from the SGA-WZ, which is the first strapdown airborne gravimeter developed in China. The results of this method are promising. The internal accuracy of the gravity disturbance's horizontal components for repeated survey lines exceeds 3.5 mGal, and the corresponding resolution is approximately 4.8 km based on 160-s data smoothing and an airplane averaging speed of approximately 216 km/h. After applying the WCF (Wavenumber Correlation Filter), the internal accuracy of the horizontal components exceeds 2 mGal. This can satisfy the requirement of the application in geodesy and solid earth geophysics.

Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Wu, Meiping

2013-11-01

33

RepComp - replicated software components for improved performance  

OpenAIRE

The current trend of evolution in CPU architectures favours increasing the number of processing cores in lieu of improving the clock speed of an individual core. While improving clock rates automatically benefits any software executing on that processor, the same is not valid for adding new cores. To take advantage of an increased number of cores, software must include explicit support for parallel execution. This work explores a solution based on diverse replication which allo...

Mariano, Paulo Alexandre Lima Da Silva

2011-01-01

34

Improvement of BCI Performance Through Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis Extraction  

OpenAIRE

Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings provide an important means of brain-computer communication, but their classification accuracy and transfer rate are limited by unexpected signal variations due to artifacts and noises. In this paper, a nonlinear independent component analysis (NICA) extraction method for brain signal based EEG-P300 are proposed. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through a comparison of well known extraction methods (i.e., AAR, JADE, and SOBI algorithm...

Arjon Turnip; Dwi Esti Kusumandari

2014-01-01

35

Improved dependent component analysis for hyperspectral unmixing with spatial correlations  

Science.gov (United States)

In highly mixed hyerspectral datasets, dependent component analysis (DECA) has shown its superiority over other traditional geometric based algorithms. This paper proposes a new algorithm that incorporates DECA with the infinite hidden Markov random field (iHMRF) model, which can efficiently exploit spatial dependencies between image pixels and automatically determine the number of classes. Expectation Maximization algorithm is derived to infer the model parameters, including the endmembers, the abundances, the dirichlet distribution parameters of each class and the classification map. Experimental results based on synthetic and real hyperspectral data show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Tang, Yi; Wan, Jianwei; Huang, Bingchao; Lan, Tian

2014-11-01

36

Improvement of BCI Performance Through Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG recordings provide an important means of brain-computer communication, but their classification accuracy and transfer rate are limited by unexpected signal variations due to artifacts and noises. In this paper, a nonlinear independent component analysis (NICA extraction method for brain signal based EEG-P300 are proposed. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through a comparison of well known extraction methods (i.e., AAR, JADE, and SOBI algorithms. Finally, the promising results reported here reflect the considerable potential of EEG for the continuous classification of mental states.

Arjon Turnip

2014-03-01

37

IMPROVEMENT OF A SOFTWARE COMPONENT FOR ATTRIBUTE CLASSIFICATION  

OpenAIRE

This diploma will introduce an approach to the solution to the problem of refactoring older functionality of attribute classification to newer, extended functionality with increased possibility of code reuse. The approach is based on well established concepts of refactoring. Refactoring is one of the key approaches for improvement of the code. The refactoring is done with the help of design patterns and the Extreme Programming (XP) principle "test first". The examples are presented in the Sma...

Potrc?, Martin

2012-01-01

38

Recent improvements of the accelerator components at the Unilac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience with coupling devices of various designs for the Wideroee, Alvarez and single-gap cavity structures are reported. Dome windows suffer from pin holes in the ceramic if not properly coated. Large domes tend to implode. Coaxial feed throughs, if used in an unbakable design, develop copper deposits on the vacuum side. Improvements of the reliability of rf power lines by the suppression of transients and a redesigned ceramic support for the center conductor are described. For the single-gap cavities, with their inherently high frequency detuning under rf power, a capacitive tuner was conceived to replace the usual magnetic tuning slugs

39

Improved Principal Component Analysis and its Application in the Evaluation of the Industrial Structure  

OpenAIRE

In this study, improved principal component analysis method is put forward to avoid the shortage of comprehensive evaluation dealt with principal component analysis method. When the contribution rate of the first principal components is short of asks, we can choose to rotate factor loading matrix and select multiple main components and synthesize and weigh the variation coefficient and variance contribution as weight coefficient, to set up a comprehensive evaluation model. As an example of th...

Li, Fen-hong

2013-01-01

40

High heat flux testing of beryllium components with improved diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beryllium is one of the most interesting materials to be used in nuclear fusion devices due to its promising properties. However, testing of beryllium components is quite challenging because of its toxicity and the required safety procedures. Within this paper an overview of high heat flux thermal fatigue tests carried out in the electron beam facility JUDITH 2 (Juelich Divertor Test Facility in the Hot Cells) at Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) on actively cooled beryllium mock ups is given. The performance of the mock ups was documented by temperature measurements as well as optical inspections before and after testing. Special attention was paid to the temperature diagnostics during the tests for two different reasons. Firstly, local overheating of the beryllium tiles, which are the proof of bonding failures, is detected by temperature measurements. Secondly, temperature information is exceptionally important to meet the required safety standards because of the toxicity of beryllium. In order to avoid evaporation of beryllium, a temperature limit for an automatic safety shut down of the electron beam facility JUDITH 2 was set to a certain value. Finally examples of the temperature distribution under different loading conditions for the beryllium mock ups are presented within this paper.

41

Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCARâ??s test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of imported oil, that much less air pollution, and an equivalent reduction in the trade deficit, which is expected to lower the inflation rate.

N.B. Elsner; J.C. Bass; S. Ghamaty; D. Krommenhoek; A. Kushch; D. Snowden; S. Marchetti

2005-03-31

42

Engine component improvement: JT8D and JT9D performance improvements  

Science.gov (United States)

A feasibility analysis screening method for predicting the airline acceptance of a proposed engine performance improvement modification was developed. Technical information derived from available test data and analytical models is used along with conceptual/preliminary designs to establish the predicted performance improvement, weight and installation characteristics, the cost for new production and retrofit, maintenance cost and qualitative characteristics of the performance improvement concepts being evaluated. These results are used to arrive at the payback period, which is the time required for an airline to recover the investment cost of concept implementation, and to predict the amount of fuel saved by a performance improvement concept. The assumptions used to calculate the payback period and fuel saved are discussed. A summary of the results when the screening method is applied is presented for several representative JT8D and JT9D performance improvement concepts. An example of the input information used to develop the summary results is shown.

Gaffin, W. O.

1978-01-01

43

Improved Principal Component Analysis and its Application in the Evaluation of the Industrial Structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, improved principal component analysis method is put forward to avoid the shortage of comprehensive evaluation dealt with principal component analysis method. When the contribution rate of the first principal components is short of asks, we can choose to rotate factor loading matrix and select multiple main components and synthesize and weigh the variation coefficient and variance contribution as weight coefficient, to set up a comprehensive evaluation model. As an example of the main indicators of Shangluo city Industrial data, the comparative study uses factor analysis and improved model, systematic classification with cluster analysis. The result shows that comprehensive evaluation of the improved model in the practical problems is more reasonable and objective.

LI Fen-Hong

2013-06-01

44

INVESTIGATIONS TO IMPROVE THE TRANSFERABILITY OF SPECIMEN RESULTS BY REAL COMPONENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the improvement of the lifetime calculation of components made of the titanium alloy Ti-6-4, a closed loop methodology from specimen to the component is presented. Based on forged pre-material specimens fatigue tests are done as a basic research, which are presented as S/N-curves. With the determined material data a lifetime calculation with the program FEMFAT is done on a typically fitting element. Finally the results of the lifetime calculation are compared to real component tests, which are done to evaluate the results of the lifetime calculation. The component tests are performed with constant and variable load. Therewith the transferability of specimen results to real components is shown. Additional fracture analysis by light microscope and scanning electron microscope is carried out to give further information of the influence factor of the lifetime and a further description between fracture behaviour of specimen and components.

Martin Riedler

2010-12-01

45

Shortest Component Path Generation of C2-Style Architecture Using Improved A* Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are always more than one shortest paths between two components in software architecture, and in the application of path selection with additional constraints, several optimal or near optimal paths are desired. Traditional A* algorithm has been successfully used in software testing activities such as finding the shortest path, selecting test suites and test suites prioritization. Little work has been specifically targeted towards the shortest component path of software architecture applications. In this paper, we propose an improved A* algorithm, and combine with an example to explain the algorithm solving process. Finally, we implement the A* algorithm and the improved A* algorithm, and the results are compared. It is shown that the shortest component path using improved A* algorithm is completely feasible and effective.

Lijun Lun

2014-06-01

46

An Improved Independent Component Analysis Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune System  

OpenAIRE

Traditional independent component analysis (ICA) method based on FastICA algorithm faced two main disadvantages. One is that the order of the independent components (ICs) is difficult to be determined and the other is that the FastICA algorithm often leads to local minimum solution, and the suitable source signals are not isolated. To alleviate these problems, an improved ICA algorithm based on artificial immune system (AIS) (called AIS-ICA) is presented. AIS is an attractive heuristic techni...

Li-Yuan Chen; Chi-Jie Lu

2013-01-01

47

Robotic Arm-assisted UKA Improves Tibial Component Alignment: A Pilot Study  

OpenAIRE

The alignment of the components of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) reportedly influences outcomes and durability. A novel robotic arm technology has been developed with the expectation that it could improve the accuracy of bone preparation in UKA. During the study period, we compared the postoperative radiographic alignment of the tibial component with the preoperatively planned position in 31 knees in 31 consecutive patients undergoing UKA using robotic arm-assisted bone preparation...

Lonner, Jess H.; John, Thomas K.; Conditt, Michael A.

2010-01-01

48

Multi-state component criticality analysis for reliability improvement in multi-state systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates and implements composite importance measures (CIM) for multi-state systems with multi-state components (MSMC). Importance measures are frequently used as a means to evaluate and rank the impact and criticality of individual components within a system yet they are less often used as a guide to prioritize system reliability improvements. For multi-state systems, previously developed measures sometimes are not appropriate and they do not meet all user needs. This study has two inter-related goals: first, to distinguish between two types of importance measures that can be used for evaluating the criticality of components in MSMC with respect to multi-state system reliability, and second, based on the CIM, to develop a component allocation heuristic to maximize system reliability improvements. The heuristic uses Monte-Carlo simulation together with the max-flow min-cut algorithm as a means to compute component CIM. These measures are then transformed into a cost-based composite metric that guides the allocation of redundant elements into the existing system. Experimental results for different system complexities show that these new CIM can effectively estimate the criticality of components with respect to multi-state system reliability. Similarly, these results show that the CIM-based heuristic can be used as a fast and effective technique to guide system reliability improvements

49

Engine component improvement: Performance improvement, JT9D-7 3.8 AR fan  

Science.gov (United States)

A redesigned, fuel efficient fan for the JT9D-7 engine was tested. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of the 3.8 AR fan on performance, stability, operational characteristics, and noise of the JT9D-7 engine relative to the current 4.6 AR Bill-of-Material fan. The 3.8 AR fan provides increased fan efficiency due to a more advanced blade airfoil with increased chord, eliminating one part span shroud and reducing the number of fan blades and fan exit guide vanes. Engine testing at simulated cruise conditions demonstrated the predicted 1.3 percent improvement in specific fuel consumption with the redesigned 3.8 AR fan. Flight testing and sea level stand engine testing demonstrated exhaust gas temperature margins, fan and low pressure compressor stability, operational suitability, and noise levels comparable to the Bill-of-Material fan.

Gaffin, W. O.

1980-01-01

50

Improvability theory for assembly systems: Two component?one assembly machine case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improvability theory for a simple assembly system consisting of two components and one assembly machine is developed. Both constrained and unconstrained formulations are addressed. In the constrained case, it is shown that the assembly is unimprovable with respect to workforce if each component machine is blocked as frequently as the assembly machine is starved for parts produced by this particular assembly machine. The system is unimprovable with respect to work-in-process if, roughly speaking, all buffers have equal average steady state occupancy. In the unconstrained improvability case, it is shown that the bottleneck machine can be identified by analyzing the probabilities of the so-called manufacturing blockages and starvations. A generalization to n component—one assembly machine system is also included.

Kuo C.-T

1997-01-01

51

Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2012-01-01

52

A method for socially evaluating the effects of long-run demographic paths on living standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The paper is motivated by the need for improved social evaluation of prospective demographic change in order to better inform policies that are designed to reduce the very long-run costs of population ageing and to achieve sustainable economic development. Objective: What is the very long-run social value of a given demographic path? What is the value of changes in mortality, immigration, fertility, and labour force participation? How important are shorter-term demographic changes relative to very long-term effects in determining the social value of the demographic path? Methods: A new simulation method is applied for socially evaluating demographic paths, by separating a demographic path into a stable population component and a transition path component. Sensitivity analyses are conducted with respect to demographic assumptions, labour force participation assumptions, and consumption needs by age, returns to scale, and intergenerational value judgements. Results: The application to Australia shows the considerable social cost, in terms of the loss of discounted consumption per capita, of improvements in mortality and gains from higher immigration and increased participation. The effect of fertility, however, is very sensitive to assumptions about the age-specific consumption needs of the population and social value judgements about intergenerational equity. Conclusions: Our method socially evaluates the very long-run implications of specified constant fertility, mortality, and migration, giving consideration to both the transition path and the ultimate stable state. Mortality improvement is costly and higher immigration is beneficial. The impact of higher fertility is sensitive to assumptions about consumption needs and intergenerational equity.

Nick Parr

2014-07-01

53

Improving accuracy of total knee component cementation: description of a simple technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty represents a common orthopedic surgical procedure. Achieving proper alignment of its components with the predrilled patellar and tibial peg holes prior to polymerization of the bone cement can be challenging. Technique After establishing the femoral, patellar and tibial bone cuts, the cancellous bone around the tibial keel, as well as the peg holes for the patella and femoral components are marked with methylene blue using a cotton swab stick. If bone cement is then placed onto the cut and marked bone edges, the methylene blue leaches through the bone cement and clearly outlines the tibial keel and predrilled femoral and patellar peg holes. This allows excellent visualization of the bone preparations for each component, ensuring safe and prompt positioning of TKA components while minimizing intraoperative difficulties with component alignment while the cement hardens. Conclusion The presented technical note helps to improve the accuracy and ease of insertion when the components of total knee arthroplasty are impacted to their final position.

Dayton Michael R

2009-10-01

54

Introduction of cooperating conductive components into the phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to improve the electric conductivity of Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor with the least amount of conductive component so as to maximize the improvement in low voltage cathodoluminescence, In2O3 and Cu nanowires (NWs) were simultaneously introduced to form Cu NWs/In2O3-attached Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor. In2O3 and Cu NWs play different roles in the formation of electrically conductive network, i.e., Cu NWs are suitable as conductive channels for charge transmission due to their one-dimensional morphology with large slenderness ratios, while the island-like In2O3 condensates form local conductive contacts joining the adjacent Cu NWs. Meanwhile, In2O3 forms attachment between Cu NWs and the phosphor. Owing to the cooperating effects between Cu NWs/In2O3 conductive components in the phosphor, the efficiency in low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved. -- Highlights: ? In2O3/Cu NWs were introduced in Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence. ? In2O3/Cu NWs play different key roles in the formation of electrically conductive network. ? The cooperating effect was proved by comparing the experimental data and the calculated results. ? The low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved

55

IMPROVING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR MULTIMODAL IMAGE FUSION  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study is to combine multiple images of a scene acquired by different sensors to create a new image with all important information from the input images. Recent studies show that bases trained using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is effective in multisensor fusion and has improved performance over traditional wavelet approaches. In the ICA based fusion, the coefficients of the input images are combined simply by selecting the coefficients with maximum magnitude. But...

Egfin Nirmala, D.; Bibin Sam Paul, A.; Vaidehi, V.

2013-01-01

56

Improved a Priori SNR Estimation for Speech Enhancement Incorporating Speech Distortion Component  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The well known decision-directed (DD approach drastically limits the level of musical noise, but the estimated a priori SNR matches the previous frame rather than the current one. Plapous introduced a novel method called two-step noise reduction (TSNR technique to refine the a priori SNR estimation of the DD approach. However, the performance of this method depends on the accurateness of the estimated speech in its second step. In this paper, we propose an improved approach for the a priori SNR estimation in DCT domain with two steps like the TSNR method. While in the second step, considering the two state components of the estimation error between speech signal and its estimation, the speech distortion component and residual noise component, we make the estimated speech subtracted by its speech distortion as a refined estimation for the clean speech signal. Because the speech distortion component is offset, the estimated a priori SNR is more accurate. A number of objective tests results show the improved performance of the proposed approach.    

Shifeng Ou

2013-09-01

57

Component improvement of free-piston Stirling engine key technology for space power  

Science.gov (United States)

The successful performance of the 25 kW Space Power Demonstrator (SPD) engine during an extensive testing period has provided a baseline of free piston Stirling engine technology from which future space Stirling engines may evolve. Much of the success of the engine was due to the initial careful selection of engine materials, fabrication and joining processes, and inspection procedures. Resolution of the few SPD engine problem areas that did occur has resulted in the technological advancement of certain key free piston Stirling engine components. Derivation of two half-SPD, single piston engines from the axially opposed piston SPD engine, designated as Space Power Research (SPR) engines, has made possible the continued improvement of these engine components. The two SPR engines serve as test bed engines for testing of engine components. Some important fabrication and joining processes are reviewed. Also, some component deficiencies that were discovered during SPD engine testing are described and approaches that were taken to correct these deficiencies are discussed. Potential component design modifications, based upon the SPD and SPR engine testing, are also reported.

Alger, Donald L.

1988-01-01

58

Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability Conceptual Design Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) components and systems. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration platform. I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the system; treating I&C as an integral part of the system design is innovative and will allow significant improvement in capabilities and performance. As systems become more complex and greater performance is required, traditional I&C design techniques become inadequate and more advanced I&C needs to be applied. New I&C techniques enable optimal and reliable performance and tolerance of noise and uncertainties in the system rather than merely monitoring quasistable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in NPP components after the design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. By incorporating I&C at the beginning of the design phase, the control system can provide superior performance and reliability and enable designs that are otherwise impossible. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the platform to demonstrate the performance and reliability improvements enabled by advanced embedded I&C.

Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Burress, T.; Fugate, D.; Holcomb, D.; Wilgen, J.; Miller, J.; Wilson, D.; Silva, P.; Whitlow, L.; Peretz, F.

2012-09-15

59

An Improved Independent Component Analysis Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional independent component analysis (ICA method based on FastICA algorithm faced two main disadvantages. One is that the order of the independent components (ICs is difficult to be determined and the other is that the FastICA algorithm often leads to local minimum solution, and the suitable source signals are not isolated. To alleviate these problems, an improved ICA algorithm based on artificial immune system (AIS (called AIS-ICA is presented. AIS is an attractive heuristic technique and has many advantages over other heuristic techniques such as it can be easily implemented and has great capability of escaping local optimal solutions The basic idea of the proposed AIS-ICA algorithm is to use AIS to determine the separating matrix of ICA. Simulation results from the artificial signal data illustrate the efficiency of the proposed AIS–ICA approach.

Li-Yuan Chen

2013-02-01

60

Improving the voltage quality of an inverter via by-passing the harmonic current components  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, a control strategy is proposed to improve the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage of an inverter. The physical interpretation of the control strategy is to connect shunt resonant filters at harmonic frequencies to the output so that the harmonic current components are by-passed and do not flow through the inverter. As a result, the voltage THD can be maintained low even when a nonlinear load is connected. Experimental results are provided to verify the analysis and design.

Zhong, Qing-Chang; Blaabjerg, Frede

2012-01-01

61

Infrared non destructive test of plasma facing components. Defect detection improvement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to control actively water cooled plasma facing components before their installation in Tore Supra, an infrared test bed called SATIR has been developed since 1994 by CEA. In 1998, the test bed was used industrially to test 60 High Heat Flux (HHF) elements for antenna limiters, designed to sustain an incident flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2}. In the future, approximately 1000 HHF elements will be controlled on SATIR. Since the beginning, some technical improvements have been performed on SATIR: increase of the temperature gradient, development of a new software for infrared data analysis, increase of control capacity. This paper points out the facility improvement and the application to HHF elements testing. Experimental results have been compared with a 3-D Finite Element calculation and show a good correlation. (author)

Durocher, A.; Chappuis, R.; Mitteau, R.; Moncel, L. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

1998-07-01

62

Infrared non destructive test of plasma facing components. Defect detection improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to control actively water cooled plasma facing components before their installation in Tore Supra, an infrared test bed called SATIR has been developed since 1994 by CEA. In 1998, the test bed was used industrially to test 60 High Heat Flux (HHF) elements for antenna limiters, designed to sustain an incident flux of 10 MW/m2. In the future, approximately 1000 HHF elements will be controlled on SATIR. Since the beginning, some technical improvements have been performed on SATIR: increase of the temperature gradient, development of a new software for infrared data analysis, increase of control capacity. This paper points out the facility improvement and the application to HHF elements testing. Experimental results have been compared with a 3-D Finite Element calculation and show a good correlation. (author)

63

Improvement of residual stress in reactor components by laser peening method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a laser peening method to prevent stress corrosion cracking (SCC) as a process for preventive maintenance of core components in nuclear reactors. This method, which utilizes the impulsive effect of underwater irradiation by intense laser pulses to improve residual stress on the material surface, requires no preconditioning of the material surface and is suitable for maintenance work in narrow spaces. Through experiments, we confirmed the effect of the laser peening method in improving the residual stress of stainless steel and suppressing SCC. A laser delivery system, remote maintenance equipment, and an on-line monitoring system were developed and the feasibility of the laser peening method was confirmed through full-scale mockup tests simulating maintenance work on the core shroud of a boiling water reactor (BWR). (author)

64

Application of improved hybrid interface substructural component modal synthesis method in vibration characteristics of mistuned blisk  

Science.gov (United States)

The large and complex structures are divided into hundreds of thousands or millions degrees of freedom(DOF) when they are calculated which will spend a lot of time and the efficiency will be extremely low. The classical component modal synthesis method (CMSM) are used extensively, but for many structures in the engineering of high-rise buildings, aerospace systemic engineerings, marine oil platforms etc, a large amount of calculation is still needed. An improved hybrid interface substructural component modal synthesis method(HISCMSM) is proposed. The parametric model of the mistuned blisk is built by the improved HISCMSM. The double coordinating conditions of the displacement and the force are introduced to ensure the computational accuracy. Compared with the overall structure finite element model method(FEMM), the computational time is shortened by 23.86%-31.56% and the modal deviation is 0.002%-0.157% which meets the requirement of the computational accuracy. It is faster 4.46%-10.57% than the classical HISCMSM. So the improved HISCMSM is better than the classical HISCMSM and the overall structure FEMM. Meanwhile, the frequency and the modal shape are researched, considering the factors including rotational speed, gas temperature and geometry size. The strong localization phenomenon of the modal shape's the maximum displacement and the maximum stress is observed in the second frequency band and it is the most sensitive in the frequency veering. But the localization phenomenon is relatively weak in 1st and the 3d frequency band. The localization of the modal shape is more serious under the condition of the geometric dimensioning mistuned. An improved HISCMSM is proposed, the computational efficiency of the mistuned blisk can be increased observably by this method.

Bai, Bin; Bai, Guangchen; Li, Chao

2014-11-01

65

IMPROVING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR MULTIMODAL IMAGE FUSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to combine multiple images of a scene acquired by different sensors to create a new image with all important information from the input images. Recent studies show that bases trained using Independent Component Analysis (ICA is effective in multisensor fusion and has improved performance over traditional wavelet approaches. In the ICA based fusion, the coefficients of the input images are combined simply by selecting the coefficients with maximum magnitude. But this method resulted in fused images with poor contrast, due to the distortion introduced in constant background areas. The performance of ICA based fusion can be greatly improved by using a region based approach with intelligent decision making in order to choose the significant regions in the source images. Hence, a new region based image fusion algorithm for combining visible and Infrared (IR images using Independent Component Analysis and Support Vector Machines (SVM is proposed. Region based joint segmentation of the source images is carried out in the spatial domain and important features of each region are computed in spatial and transform domain. A Support Vector Machine is trained to select the regions from the source images with significant features and the corresponding ICA coefficients are combined to form the fused ICA representation. The proposed algorithm is applied to different sets of multimodal images to validate the robustness of the algorithm and compared with some standard image fusion methods. The fusion results demonstrate that the proposed scheme performs better than the state-of-the-art image fusion methods and show a significant improvement in Entropy, Petrovic and Piella evaluation metrics.

D. Egfin Nirmala

2013-01-01

66

A socio-demographic study of aging in the Portuguese Population - The EPEPP study  

OpenAIRE

The increase in life expectancy (LE) observed in Western societies, has resulted in a steep rise of older population. This stresses the importance of the research on aging, to better adequate health and social care organization and improve the quality of life (QoL). The aim of the EPEPP-1 (abbreviated from the Portuguese name: Estudo do Perfil de Envelhecimento da Populac¸a˜o Portuguesa) study was to characterize the socio-demographic components of the elderly Portuguese populat...

Mota-pinto, A.; Rodrigues, Vi?tor; Botelho, Ama?lia; Veri?ssimo, Manuel Teixeira; Morais, Anto?nio; Alves, Catarina; Rosa, Manuel Santos; Oliveira, Catarina Resende

2010-01-01

67

Improvement of the two steps HIP diffusion welding process for fusion blanket sub-components manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: Hot Isostatic Pressing - Diffusion Welding is a preferred process for the fabrication of fusion blanket sub-components. The structural material is a ferritic-martensitic steel, Eurofer 97 (X10CrWTaV9-1). Several options can be envisaged depending on the kind of parts used to obtain the final structure. More precisely, flat sub-components such like caps, stiffening plates and cooling plates can in principle be manufactured using two mirror-like grooved plates joined together. The main problem is to avoid groove deformation during bonding. A process allowing achieving minimum deformation has been defined at CEA, but the joint mechanical properties are not satisfactory. The objective of the work is to improve the process performance in view of improving joint mechanical properties. The two steps HIP process consists in joining pairs of grooved plates in two steps: a low pressure HIP cycle with encapsulated channels to ensure joining with minimum groove deformation, and a high pressure HIP cycle with opened channels to achieve full bonding. Joints obtained by this process have degraded mechanical properties with regard to those obtained for plain samples with a single high pressure HIP cycle, and microstructure analyses reveal inclusions at the joint line. It seems that the two steps HIP process requires specific outgassing procedures. The main objective of this study is to optimise the current outgassing process. A first experiment whichtgassing process. A first experiment which consists in heating under vacuum Eurofer samples inserted in a quartz tube is led to precisely analyse the desorption phenomenon in order to find appropriate improved solutions. A series of experiments are then realised with an optimised outgassing device, new encapsulation methods and with several specimen designs (plain or grooved) to evaluate the effect of outgassing conditions on joints quality. The definition of an outgassing procedure that leads to acceptable joint qualities would enable the use of the 2 steps HIP process for the conception of fusion blanket sub-components. (authors)

68

Study and program plan for improved heavy duty gas turbine engine ceramic component development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A five-year program plan was generated from the study activities with the objectives of demonstrating a fuel economy of 213 mg/W . h (0.35 lb/hp-hr) brake specific fuel consumption by 1981 through use of ceramic materials, with conformance to current and projected Federal noise and emission standards, and to demonstrate a commercially viable engine. Study results show that increased turbine inlet and regenerator inlet temperatures, through the use of ceramic materials, contribute the greatest amount to achieving fuel economy goals. Further, improved component efficiencies (for the compressor, gasifier turbine, power turbine, and regenerator disks show significant additional gains in fuel economy. Fuel saved in a 500,000-mile engine life, risk levels involved in development, and engine-related life cycle costs for fleets (100 units) of trucks and buses were used as criteria to select work goals for the planned program.

Helms, H.E.

1977-05-01

69

An improved experimental procedure of separating a composite thermoluminescence glow curve into its components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an improved experimental procedure of separating a composite thermoluminescence glow curve into its components. Careful monitoring of the isothermal cleaning process using the initial rise method ensures the complete thermal removal of TL peaks. Digital subtraction of two experimental TL glow curves yields individual experimental TL glow peaks. Several standard methods (initial rise and whole glow curve) are used to obtain the energy values and frequency factors of the traps. The method has been used successfully to analyze the well-known composite TL glow curve of the dosimetric material LiF (TLD-100). The limitations of the method are illustrated by analyzing the highly complex TL glow curve of a UV irradiated synthetic calcite consisting of at least 6 TL peaks. Although the method works best for TL glow curves described by first order kinetics, it should also be applicable to more general kinetics.

Pagonis, Vasilis; Shannon, Colleen

2000-12-15

70

Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

71

Recent improvements in SPARK: Strong component decomposition, multivalued objects, and graphical interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Simulation Problem Analysis Research Kernel (SPARK) environment for simulation of nonlinear differential algebraic systems has been revised to improve modeling convenience, modeling flexibility, and solution efficiency. Solution efficiency has been enhanced by automatic decomposition of the problem into strongly connected components, characterized as separately solvable subproblems. The normally constructed data flow graph in SPARK allows such components to be identified and placed in the correct order for sequential solution resulting in significant speed-up for problems that are not strongly interconnected. Modeling flexibility has been enhanced by adding the Multivalued Objects. Whereas conventional SPARK objects represent single equations and produce a single result, this extension allows more complex objects which themselves solve simultaneous sets of equations for multiple results. The need for such objects arises when submodels are to be solved independently of the spark solver; e.g., to use a specially tailored algorithm. With regard to modeling convenience, the graphical user interface now allows model definition by selection and placement of object icons in a graphical window in an X-windows environment. These objects can be connected with macro links comprising multiple problem variables. The resulting problem is then translated into a Network Language Specification file for SPARK processing.

Buhl, W.F.; Erdem, A.E.; Winkelmann, F.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environmental Div.; Sowell, E.F. [California State Univ., Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1993-08-01

72

Disposition and demographic variables.  

OpenAIRE

The study investigated the relationship of the Five Factor Model of personality and general mental ability with an array of demographic variables that included age, socio-economic origin, educational attainment and marital status. Questionnaire data from 342 white-collar workers were analysed. Openness and mental ability were related to educational attainment, while mental ability was the only dispositional trait that was associated with socio-economic origin. Married individuals scored lower...

Bozionelos, N.

2004-01-01

73

Demographics in demand systems  

OpenAIRE

Household composition can be expected to affect the allocation of household expenditure among goods, at the very least because of economies of scale as household size increases and because different people have different needs (adults versus children, for example). Specifying demographic effects correctly in demand analysis is important both in order to estimate correct price and expenditure elasticities and for the purpose of making household welfare comparisons. A common way of including de...

Blow, Laura

2003-01-01

74

Inductive plethysmography components analysis and improved non-invasive postoperative apnoea monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-nine patients were monitored overnight for breathing distress patterns during postoperative analgesia. Nasal flow apnoea monitoring and pulse oximetry data were recorded at 50 Hz. Respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) tracked tidal volume (TV) thoracoabdominal motion, and supplemented the flow monitoring by identifying detected apnoea type. TVs were computed from linear combinations of the RIP signals, but calibrations showed that multiple regression approaches with fitting errors <1% had highly variable coefficients and estimate precisions. Simple least squares theory showed that unstable parameter calculation and coefficient variation with signal conditions were inherent in RIP calibration models. Principal components (PC) methods were well suited to mitigating these problems because the RIP signals were highly correlated. The two PCs tracked the relative changes in TVs and indicated the degree of signal asynchrony, enabling improved uncalibrated monitoring. For accurately measuring RIP phase differences, the cross-correlation function was calculated. A simple version of PC analysis is developed, avoiding matrices, to help clarify how RIP calibration problems can be addressed. The methods are illustrated for calibration in normal breathing, and for postoperative monitoring during Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Sum and difference combinations of the RIP signals could discriminate central from obstructive apnoeas to help improve flow monitoring efficacy on-line. PMID:10390020

Millard, R K

1999-05-01

75

An Improved Algorithm to Extract ERP Component for Brain-Computer Interfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the communication rates of brain-computer interface(BCI's), scientists are developing appropriate signal processing methods to extract the user's messages and commands from electroencephalograph (EEG). A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis(FastICA), possesses the advantages of simply structure and fast computation. However, in some cases, many signals are not completely independent, the stability of the algorithm won't be as ideal as people have expected. In fact, the reason that system does not converge steadily is the fixed step size in FastICA algorithm, that is, The negentropy J(wn+1TZ) of random vectors no longer monotonic increasing in the iterative process of separated vectors. We define a cost function ?J=J(wn+1TZ)-J(wnTZ) and a time-variant step size ?(t), and put forward a algorithm of adjusting step size by the variety of the cost function in iterative process. Results from a series of simulation and experiments show that, the stability and convergence of algorithm is improved. PMID:17281157

Chen, Yaguang; Gao, Kefang

2005-01-01

76

Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

77

Improved ultrasonic inspection of austenitic stainless steel components by signal averaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel austenitic materials is highly restricted by backscattered ultrasound which is either caused by the coarse grained structure and by the high anisotropy and herewith related steps in acoustic impedance at grain boundaries. The backscattered signal can be of the same amplitude as the signal from the reflector. Today, a lot of research and development work is done worldwide to improve the ultrasonic inspectability of these components. Regarding the test arrangement as chain in the sense of the communication theory, consisting of the test block, the probe, the UT-device and the signal processing unit, our work is connected with the tact link of this chain. In the A-scan the backscattered signal appears as interference structure. The distribution of the amplitudes depends on the probe position upon the surface of the specimen, on the test frequency and on the angle of incidence. Small variations of these parameters cause great changes in the backscattered signal interference structure, while the amplitude from a reflector remains constant. Adding up a certain number of A-scans from different positions, frequencies or angles, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is improved. In this contribution will be reported about the physical background of backscattering, necessary to understand the method, the diffident signal averaging techniques (averaging analog or digital signals, high-frequency or video signals, spatial-, frequency-, directideo signals, spatial-, frequency-, directional averaging), the experimental set up (on-line signal averaging unit) and the results obtained at austenitic welds or castings with improvements in SNR up to 20 dB

78

Identifying image preferences based on demographic attributes  

Science.gov (United States)

The intent of this study is to determine what sorts of images are considered more interesting by which demographic groups. Specifically, we attempt to identify images whose interestingness ratings are influenced by the demographic attribute of the viewer's gender. To that end, we use the data from an experiment where 18 participants (9 women and 9 men) rated several hundred images based on "visual interest" or preferences in viewing images. The images were selected to represent the consumer "photo-space" - typical categories of subject matter found in consumer photo collections. They were annotated using perceptual and semantic descriptors. In analyzing the image interestingness ratings, we apply a multivariate procedure known as forced classification, a feature of dual scaling, a discrete analogue of principal components analysis (similar to correspondence analysis). This particular analysis of ratings (i.e., ordered-choice or Likert) data enables the investigator to emphasize the effect of a specific item or collection of items. We focus on the influence of the demographic item of gender on the analysis, so that the solutions are essentially confined to subspaces spanned by the emphasized item. Using this technique, we can know definitively which images' ratings have been influenced by the demographic item of choice. Subsequently, images can be evaluated and linked, on one hand, to their perceptual and semantic descriptors, and, on the other hand, to the preferences associated with viewers' demographic attributes.

Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Lawrence, Daniel R.

2014-02-01

79

[Reforms and demographic crisis].  

Science.gov (United States)

During reformation years all basic medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes in Russia. Since 1992 there has been a steady-state decrease in the population due to the fact that mortality rates are extremely greater than birth ones. In 2001, the Russian population reduced in number by nearly a million. The birth rates are twice less than that requires for a simple reproduction of generations. Extremely high death rates remain among the population, in able-bodied males. The main reasons for the demographic crisis are the negative consequences of the implemented reforms rather than the transition from traditional to the new present-day reproduction of the population. It is problematic now to correct the situation via active migration of Russian-speaking persons. This requires enormous funds to provide comers with jobs and dwelling. It is unreal to diminish annual departure of 100 thousand persons, mainly young educated professionals from the country, though it is joust not only a demographic, but a strategic problem. In 2001 there was a some rise in birth rates. But this is the most illusive way of solving the demographic crisis. Just in the USSR, the high educational level of the population, the socioeconomic emancipation of females and progress in medicine gave rise to the transition to the present-day reproduction of the population, which is characterized by low birth and death rates. So the population is unlikely to be replenished by high birth rates. The main way of overcoming the demographic crisis is to reduce mortality and not to allow young people to die prematurely. For this it is necessary to know the biological mechanisms responsible for extremely high mortality. It is most likely to be due to breakdown in the dynamic stereotype of higher nervous performance, as stated by I. P. Pavlov. Today it is insufficient to control alcoholism, traumatism, and smoking by healthy lifestyle propaganda in order to reduce death rates in Russian. All these disasters took place after the Great Patriotic War, but an aspiration for long and happy life was prevalent in the consciousness of the people who has won the war. At present, neither the whole able-bodied population nor all young people have an internal aim at living long. To overcome this tragic gap in the consciousness requires primarily a great working motivation. PMID:12187540

Velichkovski?, B T

2002-01-01

80

Socio-demographic Psychosocial and Clinical Characteristics of Participants in e-HealthyStrides©: An Interactive ehealth Program to Improve Diabetes Self-Management Skills  

OpenAIRE

Diabetes self-management (DSM) training helps prevent diabetic complications. eHealth approaches may improve its optimal use. The aims were to determine a) acceptability of e-HealthyStrides© (an interactive, Internet-based, patient-driven, diabetes self-management support and social networking program) among Morehouse Community Physicians’ Network diabetics; b) efficacy for DSM behavior change c) success factors for use of e-HealthyStrides©. Baseline characteristics of pilot study partici...

Pemu, Priscilla E.; Quarshie, Alexander Q.; Josiah-willock, R.; Ojutalayo, Folake O.; Alema-mensah, Ernest; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

2011-01-01

81

IMPROVEMENT OF THE FISCAL COMPONENT OF THE MECHANISM OF INCOME POPULATION STATE REGULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the present stage of the country development it is important to create such a tax system that would positively affected the economic growth. Under conditions of restructuring the national economy and state budget deficit it is important that the fiscal component of the relationship between the state and taxpayers should contribute to the development of partner relationships between the two parties and not hinder their development and self-realization. The objective of this study is to identify 'bottlenecks' of the mechanism of taxing population incomes and find ways to resolve them. As practice of European countries shows, the main role in eliminating inequality in the distribution of income and assets is progressive taxation and social costs of the state. Having researched the current mechanism of personal income tax in Ukraine (especially wages through using scientific methods of research, including analysis and synthesis, analogy and modeling, grouping and gene­ralization, induction and deduction, scientific abstraction, the author found a number of problems and regularities that exist in the current mechanism of taxation, which were the main reason for constructing five models of improving the current mechanism of taxation of income from wages. Each model has its anticipated positive socioeconomic effects from the introduction and from application of an adjustment factor to the basic tax rate of 15 %. Its use aims to "smooth out" the instability of the tax burden in the current tax mechanisms and balance tax contribution of every citizen according to the level of earnings. A stepwise progression model of taxation provides compliance with the principle of vertical equity in taxation and has clear economic explanation. From the point of view of fair taxation, the stepwise progression will be most fair in the case, where the tax rate will continuously increase with every additional hryvnia of the taxable income (this provision is taken into account in the construction of the five proposed models. Based on the research, the total tax effect of using each model was calculated, which shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the introduction of the proposed models. The ways of improvement of the fiscal component of state regulation of incomes from wages in Ukraine in the long run were identified.

L. Zhebchuk

2014-09-01

82

Improving the Effectiveness of the Bio-slurry Extension Component of National Biodigester Program in Cambodia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management. Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth. Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g. monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring)

Islam, M. F.

2009-10-15

83

The demographic threshold  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The number of births in Slovenia has in the last twenty years almost halved, immigration has stopped and the number of older citizens is increasing while the whole population number is actually decreasing. This phenomenon has been termed ageing population, which is incorrect. In fact it means that there are increasingly more elder citizens, because they reach a higher age, but this is not the essential problem. A major inconsistency is in the term ageing population itself, by which we want to emphasise the problem of decreasing birth rates and not as a problem of people deceasing later. The condition when the number of births equals the number of deaths is called the demographic threshold. This problem is extremely pressing in Slovenia because our country is already below the demographic threshold, but not because of ageing. The decreasing number of inhabitants, strong decrease in the number of younger people and also the increasing number of older people, demand new approaches to planning, which cannot be based on imaginary growth, but on quality development. This also applies to cities.

Aleksander Jakoš

2002-01-01

84

A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP) algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance. PMID:25050399

Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiangping; Yin, Xianggen; Yang, Zengli; Wang, Lijun

2014-01-01

85

Sensitivity Analyses of Finite Element Parameters of Laser Shock Peening for Improving Fatigue Life of Metallic components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laser shock peening(LSP) is an innovative surface treatment technique, and it has been successfully used to improve the fatigue performance of metallic components. It is widely known, that cracks caused by metal fatigue occur only at the location where the metal is subject to tension, and not at the location where the metal is subjected to compression. Therefore, LSP can be employed to improve fatigue life because it generates a high-magnitude compressive residual stress on the surface and interior of metallic components. In this study, we analyzed the applicability of the LSP method in improving fatigue performance and evaluated the various parameters that influence the compressive residual stress. Further, we analyzed the change in the mechanical properties such as surface dynamic stress and the compressive residual stress on the surface and interior of metallic components.

Kim, Ju Hee; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-12-15

86

Sensitivity Analyses of Finite Element Parameters of Laser Shock Peening for Improving Fatigue Life of Metallic components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser shock peening(LSP) is an innovative surface treatment technique, and it has been successfully used to improve the fatigue performance of metallic components. It is widely known, that cracks caused by metal fatigue occur only at the location where the metal is subject to tension, and not at the location where the metal is subjected to compression. Therefore, LSP can be employed to improve fatigue life because it generates a high-magnitude compressive residual stress on the surface and interior of metallic components. In this study, we analyzed the applicability of the LSP method in improving fatigue performance and evaluated the various parameters that influence the compressive residual stress. Further, we analyzed the change in the mechanical properties such as surface dynamic stress and the compressive residual stress on the surface and interior of metallic components

87

Beyond Demographic Proxies: How Psychometrics and Demographics Shape Perceived Discretion  

OpenAIRE

Upper-echelons theory has provided a rich stream of research and correlations between the demographics of strategic leaders and firm outcomes are well documented. Despite repeated calls for more micro oriented research and research that explores not just if, but also how demographics shape outcomes, a lacuna remains. This paper takes on the challenge of defining and measuring the role that both demographics and psychometrics play in shaping, within the black-box processes. The paper is a rare...

Galavan, Robert J.

2011-01-01

88

Demographic Change and Transport  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findings from relevant fields of basic research, focusing on the increasingly heterogeneous nature of the ageing population. All CONSOL partners contributed to the report by writing parts of the report (authors), participating in the literature research and/or commenting to earlier versions of this report. We would like to give special thanks to Heather Ward for constructive suggestions and inspiring comments to an earlier version of this report.

Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina

2013-01-01

89

Are Demographic Diversity Effects Spurious?  

OpenAIRE

The substantial literature on the relationship between demographic diversity and team performance yields weak and/or inconsistent results. Using match-level data of all games played in the German soccer league Bundesliga over six seasons, this paper analyzes age, race and tenure diversity of the fielded team under different model specifications to test the robustness of demographic diversity effects. The empirical results reveal that the correlations between demographic diversity and the outc...

Stephan Nüesch

2009-01-01

90

[Integrating demographic and socioeconomic policies].  

Science.gov (United States)

"The article offers a theoretical model of integration between demographic and socioeconomic policy [in Bulgaria].... The author examines the changes in the population's demographic structures: changes in the sex ratio; ageing; [and] family nuclearisation.... The conclusion is drawn that in order to boost the effectiveness of the demographic policy, social practice and its scientific back-up should be even more fully integrated." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12287026

Minkov, M

1991-01-01

91

Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging  

OpenAIRE

A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

2010-01-01

92

Basic demographic processes on the Kvarner islands 1991-2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the basic demographic processes on the Kvarner islands in the last twenty years. The census data from this period show a constant population growth on the Kvarner islands and promote them into one of the most vital sub-regions of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County. The results of the analysis show that the mechanical component of the total population change, i.e. immigration, which managed to overcome the negative natural demographic trend, was the cause of this positive demographic trend. As a result, natural population change on the Kvarner islands 1991-2011 belongs to the "regeneration by immigration" type. However, since increased immigration did not influence the reduction of the negative natural demographic trend, it is safe to presume that "fictive" residents dominate the immigration contingent. This hypothesis is supported by the comparison of the census change index 2011/2001 and the type of demographic resources index in 2001.

Ivan Laji?

2013-06-01

93

Are Demographic Diversity Effects Spurious?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The substantial literature on the relationship between demographic diversity and team performance yields weak and/or inconsistent results. Using match-level data of all games played in the German soccer league Bundesliga over six seasons, this paper analyzes age, race and tenure diversity of the fielded team under different model specifications to test the robustness of demographic diversity effects. The empirical results reveal that the correlations between demographic diversity and the outcome of the game are confounded by mean values of the demographic attributes and contextual covariates.

Stephan Nüesch

2009-12-01

94

Improvements in High Speed, High Resolution Dynamic Digital Image Correlation for Experimental Evaluation of Composite Drive System Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Composite materials have the potential to reduce the weight of rotating drive system components. However, these components are more complex to design and evaluate than static structural components in part because of limited ability to acquire deformation and failure initiation data during dynamic tests. Digital image correlation (DIC) methods have been developed to provide precise measurements of deformation and failure initiation for material test coupons and for structures under quasi-static loading. Attempts to use the same methods for rotating components (presented at the AHS International 68th Annual Forum in 2012) are limited by high speed camera resolution, image blur, and heating of the structure by high intensity lighting. Several improvements have been made to the system resulting in higher spatial resolution, decreased image noise, and elimination of heating effects. These improvements include the use of a high intensity synchronous microsecond pulsed LED lighting system, different lenses, and changes in camera configuration. With these improvements, deformation measurements can be made during rotating component tests with resolution comparable to that which can be achieved in static tests

Kohlman, Lee W.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Handschuh, Robert Frederick

2013-01-01

95

How Could Germany Escape the Demographic Trap?  

OpenAIRE

Demographic change is perceived as a threat for wealth rather than a challenge in Germany. The debate on skilled labor shortage is a proof for this view. The paper surveys the most important German studies on skilled labor shortage. Meanwhile, a consensus on solutions has emerged in academia. Increasing the participation rates of elderly, women and facilitating qualified immigration as well as improving productivity are the mainstream recommendations. The paper provides descriptive statistica...

Kahlenberg, Christoph; Spermann, Alexander

2012-01-01

96

Improved error-tradeoff and error-disturbance relations in terms of measurement error components  

Science.gov (United States)

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is quantified by error-disturbance tradeoff relations, which have been tested experimentally in various scenarios. Here we shall report various error-disturbance tradeoff relations by decomposing the measurement errors and disturbance into two different components, namely, operator bias and fuzziness. Our uncertainty relations reveal the tradeoffs between these two components of errors, and imply various conditionally valid error-tradeoff relations for the unbiased and projective measurements. We also design a quantum circuit to measure the two components of the error and disturbance.

Lu, Xiao-Ming; Yu, Sixia; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Oh, C. H.

2014-10-01

97

Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

2010-01-01

98

Shortest Component Path Generation of C2-Style Architecture Using Improved A* Algorithm  

OpenAIRE

There are always more than one shortest paths between two components in software architecture, and in the application of path selection with additional constraints, several optimal or near optimal paths are desired. Traditional A* algorithm has been successfully used in software testing activities such as finding the shortest path, selecting test suites and test suites prioritization. Little work has been specifically targeted towards the shortest component path of software archite...

Lijun Lun; Lin Zhang,; Xin Chi; Hui Xu

2014-01-01

99

Transição demográfica / Demographic transition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem por objetivo principal analisar o papel que a dinâmica demográfica poderá exercer sobre a educação da população brasileira nas próximas décadas, com enfoque nas suas tendências e nas oportunidades que dela decorrem. Para atingir este objetivo, comenta-se brevemente alguns aspectos da [...] transição demográfica e aquilo que alguns estudiosos denominam janela de oportunidades. Em seguida, discute-se a evolução da estrutura etária brasileira, a partir da razão de dependência e suas perspectivas, enfatizando o processo de envelhecimento populacional. Posteriormente, aborda-se a evolução das matrículas e do sistema de educação no Brasil, para então discutir algumas perspectivas de desenvolvimento, tendo em vista a escolaridade. Abstract in english Without ignoring the complexity of the Brazilian educational system and the various elements that interact in it, this article aims at analyzing the role that population dynamics may have on the education of the population in coming decades, focusing on trends and the opportunities that arise from i [...] t. To achieve this goal, we comment briefly some aspects of demographic transition and what some scholars call window of opportunity. Then we discuss the evolution of the Brazilian age structure from the dependency ratio and its perspectives, emphasizing the process of population aging. Later, one evaluates about the evolution of enrollment and the education system in Brazil, and then discuss some prospects for development in view of schooling.

José Irineu Rangel, Rigotti.

2012-08-01

100

High cycle thermal fatigue issues in PWR nuclear power plants, life time improvement of some austenitic stainless steel components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Examples of high cycle thermal fatigue (HCTF) damage cases on PWR austenitic stainless steel components are reported. High cycle thermal fatigue risk is primarily due to mixing of cold and hot water, unexpected leaks of cold water through check valves or to turbulent penetration of hot water running in a main pipe into a connected line. When such thermal fatigue issues are identified in PWR power plants, manufacturing improvement such as inner surface polishing of austenitic stainless steel parts can be performed to increase the fatigue resistance of the components. (authors)

101

High order current spectral components utilisation to improve induction machine diagnostics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anomalous operations of induction motors caused by stator winding short circuits are analysed. The asymmetric machine is modelled by means of the space vector approach. The winding asymmetry is taken into account by considering each conductor of every single slot separately. Harmonic components of the permeance produced by the rotor slots are taken into account too. By this way it is possible to study easily the interactions between the different space and time harmonic fields by starting from the topological structure of the windings. The harmonic analysis of the currents is carried out. The behaviour of faulted induction machines is analysed by assuming the amplitudes of the negative sequence component at the supply angular frequency {omega} and the dominant slot harmonic components as diagnostic indexes. These diagnostic indexes are compared for different fault degrees. (orig.)

Filippetti, F. [Univ. of Bologna, Dept. of Electrical Engineering (Italy); Gentile, G.; Meo, S. [Univ. of Naples ' Frederico II' , Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Napoli (Italy); Ometto, A.; Rotondale, N. [University of L' Aquila, Dept. of Electrical Engineering (Italy)

2000-08-01

102

Demographics and remote locations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

103

The Improved Methods of Critical Component Classification for the SSCs of New NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Functional Importance Determination (FID) process classifies the components of a plant into four groups: Critical A, Critical B, Minor and No Impact. The output of FID can be used as the decision-making tool for maintenance work priority and the input data for preventive maintenance implementation. FID applied to new Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) can be accomplished by utilizing the function analysis results and safety significance determination results of Maintenance Rule (MR) program. Using Shin-Kori NPP as an example, this paper proposes the advanced critical component classification methods for FID utilizing MR scoping results

Lee, Sang Dae; Yeom, Dong Un; Hyun, Jin Woo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-10-15

104

The Effects of Selected Variations in the Components of Formative Evaluation to Improved Academic Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of two components of formative evaluation, frequency of measurement and use of data, were compared. Fifty-two learning disabled and educable mentally retarded students in grades 2-6, enrolled in regular class programs and receiving reading instruction in a special education resource room, were randomly assigned to either (1) a…

Mirkin, Phyllis K.; Deno, Stanley L.

105

An improved procedure for the three-component synthesis of highly substituted pyridines using ionic liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

A basic ionic liquid, [bmIm]OH, efficiently promotes a one-pot, three-component condensation of aldehydes, malononitrile, and thiophenols to produce highly substituted pyridines in high yields at room temperature. This reaction does not involve any hazardous organic solvent and toxic catalyst. The ionic liquid is recovered and recycled for subsequent reactions. PMID:17367198

Ranu, Brindaban C; Jana, Ranjan; Sowmiah, S

2007-04-13

106

Improvement of the wear behaviour of highly-loaded components and tools by multi-combined surface treatment  

OpenAIRE

This paper introduces a novel multi-combined surface treatment consisting of the individual treatments of plasma nitriding (PN), physical vapour deposition (PVD) and electron beam hardening (EBH). Using graded surface layers produced by such a combined surface treatment, it is possible to withstand the complex load conditions incurred by components and tools. It is shown, that the treatment sequences PN+EBH+PVD and EBH+PN+PVD are suitable for improving material...

Gundis Grumbt; Zenker Rolf; Heinz-Joachim Spies; Rainer Franke; Ingrid Haase

2014-01-01

107

Is the demographic dividend an education dividend?  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of changes in age structure on economic growth has been widely studied in the demography and population economics literature. The beneficial effect of changes in age structure after a decrease in fertility has become known as the "demographic dividend." In this article, we reassess the empirical evidence on the associations among economic growth, changes in age structure, labor force participation, and educational attainment. Using a global panel of countries, we find that after the effect of human capital dynamics is controlled for, no evidence exists that changes in age structure affect labor productivity. Our results imply that improvements in educational attainment are the key to explaining productivity and income growth and that a substantial portion of the demographic dividend is an education dividend. PMID:24302530

Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Lutz, Wolfgang; Sanderson, Warren

2014-02-01

108

How simulation of failure risk can improve structural reliability - application to pressurized components and pipes  

OpenAIRE

Probabilistic methods for failure risk assessment are introduced, with reference to load carrying structures, such as pressure vessels (PV) and components of pipes systems. The definition of the failure risk associated with structural integrity is made in the context of the general approach to structural reliability. Sources of risk are summarily outlined with emphasis on variability and uncertainties (V&U) which might be encountered in the analysis. To highlight the problem, in its practical...

Cioclov, Dimitru Dragos

2013-01-01

109

Improving the P-wave: Multi-component seismic helps extract more information from data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investment in multi-component 'full wave' seismic imaging by Apache Corporation to fine tune their exploration, development and reservoir management programs in Western Canada and around the world, is reported. Multi-component seismic helps with fluid and lithology issues, versus structural issues, and provides additional information such as the density and orientation of fractures. On the basis of work commitments from Apache, Trace Energy Services Limited invested more than $6 million to assemble field crew and acquire a System Four VectorSeis (VC) Cable recording system from Input/Output Systems of Houston. The VC System with 3,000 sensors and 9,000 channels is capable of acquiring three-component seismic data in the field -- primary or compressional (P-wave)and two shear wave (S-wave) vectors. The VC system consists of a network-based cable telemetry system, with fast deployment and wakeup, automatic testing capabilities, and redundant power distribution. It uses three-component digital accelerometers or sensors, which are high-fidelity instruments, measuring about two inches by two inches. The equipment is lighter than conventional analog geophones, making it possible to move at least 20 per cent more equipment per day. In Alberta, the VC System was used to shoot the 80 sq km, 12,000 shot 3-D survey of a gas-bearing Manville channel sand at Coronation, that sits at about 1,000 metres in the subsurface. Next on the agenda for Input/Output Systems is to marry the VC System with another of their successful inventions, the Explorer 860, a weight drop system alternative to conventional seismic sources. 2 photos.

Eaton, S.

2004-06-01

110

Addition of Alarm Pheromone Components Improves the Effectiveness of Desiccant Dusts Against Cimex lectularius  

OpenAIRE

We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rate...

Benoit, Joshua B.; Phillips, Seth A.; Croxall, Travis J.; Christensen, Brady S.; Yoder, Jay A.; Denlinger, David L.

2009-01-01

111

Demographic change and income distribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the interactions between demographic change and income distribution, especially in the context of government. Starting from a simple, descriptive life-cycle model of individual income, this paper established an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, 2 income maintenance programs are introduced: a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system. The resulting government budget constraints entail interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of demographic trends. The superimposition of different age structures on populations of otherwise identical characteristics is non-neutral with respect to income distribution: disregarding state interventions, population aging increases income inequality. This result may no longer generally hold if redistribution policies are taken into account. The paper provides an example of how indirect demographic effects may lead to a reversal of sign. In the absence of any government program, a higher ratio of pensioners to active workers raises income inequality. In the presence of a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and pay-as-you-go financed state pension system, a higher dependency ratio decreases income dispersion. The restoration of government budget equilibrium induces unintended distributional effects which put the incidence of demographic shifts in a different light. Varying important aging indicator with realistic forecast bounds leads to inequality fluctuations up to 35%. This illustrates the quantitative scale and hence the political importance of demographically caused inequality distortions. PMID:12316299

Von Weizsacker, R K

1989-03-01

112

Tourism Market and Demographic Changes  

OpenAIRE

This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensio...

Alexandru Nedelea

2008-01-01

113

The second demographic transition: A concise overview of its development.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article gives a concise overview of the theoretical development of the concept of the "second demographic transition" since it was coined in 1986, its components, and its applicability, first to European populations and subsequently also to non-European societies as well. Both the demographic and the societal contrasts between the first demographic transition (FDT) and the second demographic transition (SDT) are highlighted. Then, the major criticisms of the SDT theory are outlined, and these issues are discussed in the light of the most recent developments in Europe, the United States, the Far East, and Latin America. It turns out that three major SDT patterns have developed and that these evolutions are contingent on much older systems of kinship and family organization. PMID:25453112

Lesthaeghe, Ron

2014-12-23

114

Development of improved and corrosion-resistant surfaces for fossil power system components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this task is to develop the corrosion-resistant surfaces on a variety of fossil power system components. The Fe-Al alloys ranging in aluminum from 16 to 36 @ % are of interest. The surfaces of Fe-Al alloys can be produced by weld overlay. However, because of their limited room-temperature ductility, the production of weld wire for these compositions is not commercially feasible. The alloying element dilution during weld overlay also makes depositing exact surface composition rather difficult.

Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

1996-06-01

115

Improvement of ultrasonic testing methods of austeno-ferritic steel cast components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the low signal to noise ratio incountered in cast stainless steel components of P.W.R. reactor cooling system, usual ultrasonic testing aren't efficient. In order to enhance ultrasonics capabilities Electricite de France and C.E.A. have carried out a study main results of which are shown in this paper. These results include: Metallurgical structure effects: very high diffusion noise, beam distortion, low pass filter. Probe parameters that leed to examinations enhancement: focusing, aperture, damper. Efficient signal processing techniques: Split Spectrum, Image processing. Results of enhancement means on actual defects (shrinkage cavities). (authors). 2 refs., 9 figs

116

Improved convective heat transfer correlations for two-phase two-component pipe flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, six two-phase nonboiling heat transfer correlations obtained from the recommendations of our previous work were assessed. These correlations were modified using seven extensive sets of two-phase flow experimental data available from the literature, for vertical and horizontal tubes and different flow patterns and fluids. A total of 524 data points from five available experimental studies (which included the seven sets of data) were used for improvement of the six identified correlations. Based on the tabulated and graphical results of the comparisons between the predictions of the modified heat transfer correlations and the available experimental data, appropriate improved correlations for different flow patterns, tube orientations, and liquid-gas combinations were recommended

117

A Study on Selected Hot-Metal and Slag Components for Improved Blast Furnace Control  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this work was to gain an increasedunderstanding of selected blast furnace phenomena which couldbe utilized for an improved blast furnace process control. Thisthesis contributes with both a model study and an experimentalstudy on blast furnace tapping, and results from these findingscan be used to enhance the control of the blast furnace. The work was divided in two parts. The first part dealt witha model study for optimisation of the blast furnace burdencalculation. Duri...

Andersson, Annika

2003-01-01

118

Improvement of Mechanical Properties and Life Extension of High Reliability Structural Components by Laser Shock Processing  

OpenAIRE

Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is being consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals and is being developed as a practical process amenable to production engineering. The main acknowledged advantage of the laser shock pro...

Ocan?a Moreno, Jose Luis; Morales Furio?, Miguel; Porro Gonza?lez, Juan Antonio; Iordachescu, Danut; Diaz Mun?oz, Marcos; Ruiz Lara Luis, Leonardo; Correa Guinea, Carlos

2011-01-01

119

IMPROVED SEARCH OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATABASES FOR SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC INVERSION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 2{sup 4n} bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of ''compatible'' models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 2{sup 4n} as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing.

Casini, R.; Lites, B. W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Ramos, A. Asensio [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, c/Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ariste, A. Lopez [THEMIS, CNRS UPS 853, c/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

2013-08-20

120

IMPROVED SEARCH OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATABASES FOR SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC INVERSION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 24n bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of ''compatible'' models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 24n as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing

121

Entropy based determination of optimal principal components of Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer data for improved land cover classification  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperspectral data finds applications in the domain of remote sensing. However, with the increase in amounts of information and advantages associated, come the "curse" of dimensionality and additional computational load. The question most often remains as to which subset of the data best represents the information in the imagery. The present work is an attempt to establish entropy, a statistical measure for quantifying uncertainty, as a formidable measure for determining the optimal number of principal components (PCs) for improved identification of land cover classes. Feature extraction from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) data was achieved utilizing Principal Component Analysis (PCA). However, determination of optimal number of PCs is vital as addition of computational load to the classification algorithm with no significant improvement in accuracy can be avoided. Considering the soft classification approach applied in this work, entropy results are to be analyzed. Comparison of these entropy measures with traditional accuracy assessment of the corresponding "hardened" outputs showed results in the affirmative of the objective. The present work concentrates on entropy being utilized for optimal feature extraction for pre-processing before further analysis, rather than the analysis of accuracy obtained from principal component analysis and possibilistic c-means classification. Results show that 7 PCs of the APEX dataset would be the optimal choice, as they show lower entropy and higher accuracy, along with better identification compared to other combinations while utilizing the APEX dataset.

Kallepalli, A.; Kumar, A.; Khoshelham, K.

2014-11-01

122

Improvement of the wear behaviour of highly-loaded components and tools by multi-combined surface treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel multi-combined surface treatment consisting of the individual treatments of plasma nitriding (PN, physical vapour deposition (PVD and electron beam hardening (EBH. Using graded surface layers produced by such a combined surface treatment, it is possible to withstand the complex load conditions incurred by components and tools. It is shown, that the treatment sequences PN+EBH+PVD and EBH+PN+PVD are suitable for improving material properties. These multi-combined surface treatments lead to a significant improvement in load-supporting capacity. Critical load values of cohesive failure measured by scratch tests are tripled when compared to the individual treatment of PVD, and increased by at least 20% in comparison to the duplex treatments of EBH+PVD or PN+PVD. The metallurgical compatibility of the single treatments is essential for the success of combined treatments. Material-specific limitations are defined, which exclude failure due to crack initiation, the occurrence of retained austenite, and tempering effects. Based on the model wear-test assembly block-on-cylinder, it was proved, that the specific wear rate of multi-combined treated specimens is reduced about 20-50% while wear of counterpart components is decreased as well. The triplex surface heat treatment introduced opens up new prospects for highly-loaded components and tools.

Gundis Grumbt

2014-01-01

123

Proportional hazards models for improving the analysis of light water reactor component failure data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications

124

Proportional-hazards models for improving the analysis of light-water-reactor-component failure data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications

125

Improvement of passive shielding to reduce background components to determinate radioactivity at low energy gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new system that has the ability to reduce background components to apply for environmental studies. This system uses gamma spectrometry with semi-empirical self-absorption correction and practical method for routine measurements of the mass activity radionuclides at low energy such as 210Pb (46.5 keV), 234Th (63.3 keV) and 226Ra (186.2 keV). The reliability and precision of proficiency test must pass for final scores all the analytical determinations of received ''acceptable'' for all radionuclides. Our work shows an experiment developed for the calculation of self-absorption correction in that case that the sample's chemical composition is unknown.

126

Proportional-hazards models for improving the analysis of light-water-reactor-component failure data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications.

Booker, J.B.; Johnson, M.E.; Easterling, R.G.

1981-01-01

127

Improvement of passive shielding to reduce background components to determinate radioactivity at low energy gamma rays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a new system that has the ability to reduce background components to apply for environmental studies. This system uses gamma spectrometry with semi-empirical self-absorption correction and practical method for routine measurements of the mass activity radionuclides at low energy such as {sup 210}Pb (46.5 keV), {sup 234}Th (63.3 keV) and {sup 226}Ra (186.2 keV). The reliability and precision of proficiency test must pass for final scores all the analytical determinations of received ''acceptable'' for all radionuclides. Our work shows an experiment developed for the calculation of self-absorption correction in that case that the sample's chemical composition is unknown.

Thanh, Tran Thien [VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Physics; Ton Duc Thang Univ., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Div. of Nuclear Physics; Loan, T.T.H.; Nhon, M.V.; Tao, C.V. [VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Physics

2014-06-15

128

Video Image Object Tracking Algorithm based on Improved Principal Component Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the existing object tracking algorithms are very difficult to adapt the object appearance changes caused by illumination changes, large pose variations, and partial or full occlusions, an object tracking algorithm based on two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA and sparse-representation is proposed in this paper. The tracking algorithm adopts 2DPCA and sparse-representation to establish object appearance model. In order to reduce dimension of object template, incremental subspace updating algorithm is introduced to online update the object template, reduce the requirement of memory space and enhance the precision of object appearance description. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm is robust for image illumination variance and object partial occlusion.

Liping Wang

2014-05-01

129

Learning modifies odor mixture processing to improve detection of relevant components.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey bees have a rich repertoire of olfactory learning behaviors, and they therefore are an excellent model to study plasticity in olfactory circuits. Recent behavioral, physiological, and molecular evidence suggested that the antennal lobe, the first relay of the olfactory system in insects and analog to the olfactory bulb in vertebrates, is involved in associative and nonassociative olfactory learning. Here we use calcium imaging to reveal how responses across antennal lobe projection neurons change after association of an input odor with appetitive reinforcement. After appetitive conditioning to 1-hexanol, the representation of an odor mixture containing 1-hexanol becomes more similar to this odor and less similar to the background odor acetophenone. We then apply computational modeling to investigate how changes in synaptic connectivity can account for the observed plasticity. Our study suggests that experience-dependent modulation of inhibitory interactions in the antennal lobe aids perception of salient odor components mixed with behaviorally irrelevant background odors. PMID:25568113

Chen, Jen-Yung; Marachlian, Emiliano; Assisi, Collins; Huerta, Ramon; Smith, Brian H; Locatelli, Fernando; Bazhenov, Maxim

2015-01-01

130

Studies on selective adsorption of biogas components on pillared clays: approach for biogas improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative adsorptions of four gases (natural gas and landfill gas components), viz., CO2, CH4, C2H6, and N2, were studied on four different pillared clays (PILCs) to develop a selective material. Such material could be useful forthe separation/purification process of waste gases. These materials (PILCs) were prepared from two different natural montmorillonite clays, by pillaring with Al2O3 and ZrO2, separately and were characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption and XRD. The adsorption isotherms for pure component gases were determined for each PILC, up to 10(3) kPa. The isotherms data were explored to calculate the selectivity of PILCs for either gas in any binary mixture. It was observed that the surface area of the clays pillared with Al2O3 was higher than that of the clays pillared with ZrO2. At the highest studied equilibrium pressure, the order of maximum adsorption was found to be CO2 > C2H6 > CH4 > N2 for each material. With the help of adsorption modeling, the selective adsorption from binary mixtures was predicted at different equilibrium pressures and compositions. Among the four PILCs, a ZrO2 PILC was found to be the most suitable material, in terms of separation possibility. To further assess the efficiency of these materials in commercial processes, the adsorption capacity in terms of working capacity was also calculated at two different regeneration pressures, i.e., at 1.0 atm and 1.0 Torr. PMID:19192789

Pires, João; Saini, Vipin K; Pinto, Moisés L

2008-12-01

131

Relationship Among Yield Components and Selection Criteria for Yield Improvement in Safflower Carthamus tinctorious L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirteen safflower mutants along with parental varieties and Mexican Lines were studied for variability, heritability, genetic advance and coheritability in irrigated and drought stress condition. Genotypic and phenotypic variances were highest for height and number of seed in capitulum. Whereas the maximum genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variability were found in number of capitulum and number of seed in capitulum. Heritability estimates ranged from very low to high. Maximum heritability of 0/94 in irrigated condition was obtained for 100 seed weight and 0/711 in drought condition was obtained for capitulum diameter. In irrigated condition high heritability for capitulum weight, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity and in drought stress condition for number of seed in capitulum, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity with high genetic advances was obtained that these traits could be improved through mass selection. Coheritability estimates indicated that in irrigated condition selection for 100 grain weight, capitulum weight, number of seed in capitulum and in drought stress condition selection for stem diameter, capitulum diameter, 100 seed weight and number of seed in capitulum would improve the yield.

Asadi Ali Akbar

2006-01-01

132

Use of independent component analysis to improve signal-to-noise ratio in multi-probe fluorescence microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In conventional multi-probe fluorescence microscopy, narrow bandwidth filters on detectors are used to avoid bleed-through artefacts between probes. The limited bandwidth reduces the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection, often severely compromising one or more channels. Herein, we describe a process of using independent component analysis to discriminate the position of different probes using only a dichroic mirror to differentiate the signals directed to the detectors. Independent component analysis was particularly effective in samples where the spatial overlap between the probes is minimal, a very common case in cellular microscopy. This imaging scheme collects nearly all of the emitted light, significantly improving the image signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, we focused on the detection of two fluorescence probes used in vivo, NAD(P)H and ANEPPS. The optimal dichroic mirror cutoff frequency was determined with simulations using the probes spectral emissions. A quality factor, defined as the cross-channel contrast-to-noise ratio, was optimized to maximize signals while maintaining spatial discrimination between the probes after independent component analysis post-processing. Simulations indicate that a ?3 fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio using the independent component analysis approach can be achieved over the conventional narrow-band filtering approach without loss of spatial discrimination. We confirmed this predicted performance from experimental imaging of NAD(P)H and ANEPPS in mouse skeletal muscle, in vivo. For many multi-probe studies, the increased sensitivity of this 'full bandwidth' approach will lead to improved image quality and/or reduced excitation power requirements. PMID:25159193

Dao, L; Lucotte, B; Glancy, B; Chang, L-C; Hsu, L-Y; Balaban, R S

2014-11-01

133

Improvement of the fatigue characteristics of steel components through selective application of surface residual stresses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Higher pressure residual stresses and therefore improved fatigue strength characteristics can be achieved by an overlaid prestress during surface treatment; the preceding research project has shown this. Shot peening, stress peening, and rolling were the surface treatment techniques used. Between the applied prestress and the achieved pressure residual stress, a relationship had been found that could be described by a formula. On the one hand, a good correspondence resulted between the precalculated pressure residual stresses achieved in the case of shot-peened soft material states and rolled annealed material states; on the other hand, computation and reality in the case of shot peening of annealed steels deviated from each other. To clear up this discrepancy, the superposition of load burden stresses and residual stresses was monitored after the individual treatment steps and during release in the present investigation. (orig./MM)

134

A new approach for improving coronary plaque component analysis based on intravascular ultrasound images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) is a clinically available technique for atherosclerosis plaque characterization. It, however, suffers from a poor longitudinal resolution due to electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated acquisition. This article presents an effective algorithm for IVUS image-based histology to overcome this limitation. After plaque area extraction within an input IVUS image, a textural analysis procedure consisting of feature extraction and classification steps is proposed. The pixels of the extracted plaque area excluding the shadow region were classified into one of the three plaque components of fibro-fatty (FF), calcification (CA) or necrotic core (NC) tissues. The average classification accuracy for pixel and region based validations is 75% and 87% respectively. Sensitivities (specificities) were 79% (85%) for CA, 81% (90%) for FF and 52% (82%) for NC. The kappa (kappa) = 0.61 and p value = 0.02 indicate good agreement of the proposed method with VH images. Finally, the enhancement in the longitudinal resolution was evaluated by reconstructing the IVUS images between the two sequential IVUS-VH images. PMID:20691915

Taki, Arash; Hetterich, Holger; Roodaki, Alireza; Setarehdan, S K; Unal, Gozde; Rieber, Johannes; Navab, Nassir; König, Andreas

2010-08-01

135

Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herval mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. In addition, these extracts induced the same effects on the peritoneal macrophages. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression - IL-1{beta}, IL-6, LT and iNOS-were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. (author). 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Chonan (Korea)

1999-04-01

136

Improved grinding quality inspection of large bearing components using Barkhausen noise analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Assuring that the finished surfaces of precision large bearing components are free from grinding injury is important due to the high initial value of these bearings, heavy application loadings and high costs associated with potential reduced service life. Inspecting bearing raceway surfaces for grind burn can be done by nital etching but this method is time consuming, involves using hazardous acids, is non-quantitative and does not provide information about residual stresses. An experimental study was performed to assess scanning Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) to detect various levels of induced grind injury on four steels used in large bearing ring production. Test samples having approximately 0.25 m diameter were fabricated from bearing steels heat treated by case carburizing, induction hardening and through hardening. A series of grinding cycles was designed and subsequently the entire ground surface on each sample was tested by scanning BNA. Selected samples were then evaluated by nital etching or destructive metallurgical tests. BNA results are compared with specific grinding power, nital etch and destructive measurements to show BNA to be an effective technique for identification of grind injury on these steel materials. Similar relative trends in the BNA response are present regardless of alloy or heat treatment.

Kolarits, Francis M.

2014-02-01

137

Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

138

Plasma Performance Improvement with Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in NSTX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lithium as a plasma-facing material has many attractive features, including a reduction in the recycling of hydrogenic species and the potential for withstanding high heat and neutron fluxes in fusion reactors. Recent NSTX experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and recurring benefits of lithium coatings on plasma-facing components (PFC's) to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. They included decreases in the plasma density and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate. Extended periods of MHD quiescence were also achieved, and measurements of the visible emission from the lower divertor showed a reduction in the deuterium, carbon, and oxygen line emission. Other salient results with lithium evaporation included a broadening of the electron temperature profile, and changes in edge density gradients that benefited electron Bernstein wave coupling. There was also a reduction in ELM frequency and amplitude, followed by a period of complete ELM suppression. In general, it was observed that both the best and the average confinement occurred after lithium deposition and that the increase in WMHD occurs mostly through an increase in We. In addition, a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) is being installed on NSTX this year. As the first fully-toroidal liquid metal divertor target, experiments with the LLD can provide insight into the behavior of metallic ITER PFC's should they liquefy during high-power divertor tokamak operations. The NSTX lithium coating and LLD experiments are important near-term steps in demonstrating the potential of liquid lithium as a solution to the first-wall problem for both magnetic and inertial fusion reactors

139

Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

Mari-Ann Flyvholm

2013-10-01

140

Counting Heads: Israel's Demographic Imperative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Israel is a country uniquely affected by demography, insofar as the state is bound by an explicitly Jewish nature. This balance has forced Israel to combat external demographic threats from before 1948 up until the present. The implementation of policies including the endorsement of “transfer”—a euphemism for the expulsion of Palestinians in 1948, the razing of Palestinian villages, discriminatory legislation and the creation of facts on the ground—are a logical extension of the Zionist ideology. The construction of the West Bank Barrier (WBB is the current manifestation of Israeli demographic fears and the Zionist desire to further curb non-Jewish elements.

Kristofer J. Petersen-Overton

2008-01-01

141

On an efficient modification of singular value decomposition using independent component analysis for improved MRS denoising and quantification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An efficient modification of singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed in this paper aiming at denoising and more importantly at quantifying more accurately the statistically independent spectra of metabolite sources in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Although SVD is known in MRS applications and several efficient algorithms exist for estimating SVD summation terms in which the raw MRS data are analyzed, however, it would be more beneficial for such an analysis if techniques with the ability to estimate statistically independent spectra could be employed. SVD is known to separate signal and noise subspaces but it assumes orthogonal properties for the components comprising signal subspace, which is not always the case, and might impose heavy constraints for the MRS case. A much more relaxing constraint would be to assume statistically independent components. Therefore, a modification of the main methodology incorporating techniques for calculating the assumed statistically independent spectra is proposed by applying SVD on the MRS spectrogram through application of the short time Fourier transform (STFT). This approach is based on combining SVD on STFT spectrogram followed by an iterative application of independent component analysis (ICA). Moreover, it is shown that the proposed methodology combined with a regression analysis would lead to improved quantification of the MRS signals. An experimental study based on synthetic MRS signals has been conducted to evaluate the herein proposed methodologies. The results obtained have been discussed and it is shown to be quite promising

142

DEMOGRAPHIC DATA FOR CENSUS 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include ...

143

The Demographic Situation in Croatia  

OpenAIRE

In the paper authors discuss demographic features in Croatia since the half of the 19th century till 1996, paying a special attention to the period since early fifties onwards. Beside the population migration, vital statistic, projections and population development program have been analysed. It is possible to compare Croatia with some European countries using tabelar views.

Snježana Mr?en; Mladen Friganovi?

1998-01-01

144

Basic demographic processes on the Kvarner islands 1991-2011  

OpenAIRE

The paper describes the basic demographic processes on the Kvarner islands in the last twenty years. The census data from this period show a constant population growth on the Kvarner islands and promote them into one of the most vital sub-regions of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County. The results of the analysis show that the mechanical component of the total population change, i.e. immigration, which managed to overcome the negative natural demographic trend, was the cause of this positive dem...

Ivan Laji?; Roko Mišeti?

2013-01-01

145

Estimation of Properties of Pure Components Using Improved Group-Contribution+ (GC+) Based Models and Uncertainty Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components are needed to carry out tasks such as process design and computer aided molecular/mixture design among others. The experimental values of properties of many important pure components have not been measured due to many reasons, and hence they must be estimated. Predictive methods such as the group-contribution+ (GC+) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) are generally suitable to estimate the needed property values. For assessing the quality and reliability of the selected property prediction method, an engineer needs to know the uncertainties in the estimated property values obtained from that method. With this information, the engineer can then perform better- informed design calculations by taking into account these uncertainties. Hence, given the importance of reliable estimation of properties and uncertainties in the property estimates in the engineering calculations, this work aims to revise and improve GC+ method based estimation of properties as well as to estimate the confidence intervals of estimated property values. To this end, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis, in general, is developed and used. In total 21 properties of pure components, which include normal boiling point, critical constants, normal melting point among others have been analysed. The statistical analysis of the model performance for these properties is highlighted through several illustrative examples. Important issues related to property modeling such as thermodynamic consistency of the predicted properties (relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature etc.) are analysed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only the estimated property values using the GC+ approach, but also the uncertainties in the estimated property values. This feature allows one to evaluate the effects of these uncertainties on the product-process design calculations thereby contributing to better-informed and reliable engineering solutions.

Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent

146

Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m{sup ?2}, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material.

Vignal, N., E-mail: nicolas.vignal@cea.fr; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

2013-10-15

147

Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m?2, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material

148

Component test results from the bearing life improvement program for the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxidizer turbopumps  

Science.gov (United States)

Interim results from a component test program to improve ball bearing life in the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxygen turbopumps are presented. Two specific bearing applications, using liquid oxygen as the bearing coolant, are addressed. The first, the thrust bearing of the low pressure pump, operates at relatively slow speed with predominantly axial load and little temperature rise in the bulk coolant. Testing has demonstrated a very significant reduction in bearing wear by increasing the bearing internal clearance. Heat generation data was obtained that indicates heavy, intermittent cage-to-ball contact occurs, providing a possible explanation for the observed wear. The second application is the turbine end bearings of the high pressure pump. These bearings operate at high speed and load with the possibility of significant coolant vaporization. Tests on production bearings and bearings having modified internal clearance and curvature yielded scattered but generally poor lives. A dramatic improvement was achieved by coating the standard cage with a thin film of fluorinated ethylene propylene and 15 percent molybdenum disulfide. Very promising results have also been obtained by replacing the standard balls with ones made of silicon nitride, especially in combination with the coated cage.

Keba, John E.

1992-01-01

149

Improvement of Fatigue Life of Welded Structural Components of a Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engine by Grinding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The crankshaft housings of large two-stroke diesel engines are welded structures subjected to constant amplitude loading and designed for infinite life at full design load. A new design of the so-called frame box has been introduced in the engine using butt weld joints of thick plates, welded from one side only, with no access to the root side. Various investigations on the fatigue life of the structural components of this new design have been carried out. The present investigation concentrates on the improvement in fatigue life which may be obtained by grinding of the weld toes. The tests performed showed a significant increase in fatigue life due to the grinding, ranging from a factor of approx. 2.8 to infinity, depending on the load level. Although the number of tests was limited, the results indicate a favourable change of slope of the S-N curve, from m=3 for the test series without grinding to m=6 for the test series with grinding. In one of the test series, it was observed that in most cases crack initiation moved from the weld toe to the non-ground surface between the ground areas at the weld toes. Tests were made on steel S 275, on centrally and eccentrically loaded test specimens.

Agerskov, Henning; Hansen, Anders V.

2004-01-01

150

Introduction to new demographic model for humans  

OpenAIRE

The Gompertz model since 1825 has significantly contributed to interpretation of ageing in biological and social sciences. However, in modern research findings, it is clear that the Gompertz model is not successful to describe the whole demographic trajectories. In this letter, a new demographic model is introduced especially to describe human demographic trajectories, for example, for Sweden (2002). The new model is derived from the Weibull model with an age-dependent shape...

Weon, Byung Mook

2004-01-01

151

Demographic features of old people in Belgrade  

OpenAIRE

The process of demographic ageing is one of the most apparent features of the demographic development of Serbia. The increase of the percentage of aged population is also present in Belgrade, although Belgrade itself, being the center of immigration and the major urban agglomeration, has a specific population development. This paper analyzes the dynamics and demographic features of the citizens of Belgrade older than 60, in the period between 1981 and 2000. It discusses the changes in gender ...

Devedži? Mirjana

2007-01-01

152

Demographic change, human capital and endogenous growth  

OpenAIRE

This paper employs a large scale overlapping generations (OLG) model with endogenous education to evaluate the quantitative role of human capital adjustment for the economic consequences of demographic change. We find that endogenous human capital formation is an important adjustment mechanism which substantially mitigates the macroeconomic impact of demographic change. Welfare gains from demographic change for newborn households are approximately three times higher when households endogenous...

Ludwig, Alexander; Schelkle, Thomas; Vogel, Edgar

2007-01-01

153

A Novel Image Component Transmission Approach to Improve Image Quality and Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks  

OpenAIRE

Due to resource constraints, digital image transmissions are a significant challenge for image sensor based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). In this paper, we propose a novel robust and energy-efficient scheme, called Image Component Transmission (ICT) in WSN by providing various levels of reliability during image transmissions. Different components in the embedded wavelet image bit stream are considered and essential components of the compressed image such as the information for the positions...

Wei Wang,; Dongming Peng; Honggang Wang; Hamid Sharif

2007-01-01

154

Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

Seth Owusu-Agyei

2012-12-01

155

Educational Resources, Student Demographics and Achievement Scores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the role of selected variables in explaining changes in reading and mathematics achievement scores of fourth-graders in a low-wealth school district in North Carolina. Examines school and teacher characteristics, selected expenditures per student, and student demographics. Concludes that certain student demographic factors are…

Okpala, Comfort O.

2002-01-01

156

Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic

Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

2013-01-01

157

A Novel Image Component Transmission Approach to Improve Image Quality and Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to resource constraints, digital image transmissions are a significant challenge for image sensor based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. In this paper, we propose a novel robust and energy-efficient scheme, called Image Component Transmission (ICT in WSN by providing various levels of reliability during image transmissions. Different components in the embedded wavelet image bit stream are considered and essential components of the compressed image such as the information for the positions of significant wavelet coefficients are transmitted with higher quality assurance. Relatively less important components such as the information for the values of pixels are transmitted with lower overhead. Simulation results show the proposed scheme achieves higher energy efficiency in WSN, with image transmission quality enhanced considerably by up to 6dB in terms of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR.

Wei Wang

2007-01-01

158

Public health and demographic statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this program is to assess the methodology and available data sources appropriate for use in analytical studies and environmental impact statements concerning the health effects of nuclear power plants. The techniques developed should be applicable as well to evaluation of the known risks of high levels of radiation exposure and of conflicting evidence on low-level effects, such as those associated with the normal operations of nuclear power plants. To accomplish this purpose, a two-pronged approach has been developed. The first involves a determination of the public health and demographic data sources of local, state, and federal origin that are available for use in analyses of health effects and environmental impact statements. The second part involves assessment of the methods used by epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other scientists as found in the literature on health effects. This two-pronged approach provides a means of assessing the strength and shortcomings of studies of the impact of nuclear facilities on the health of the general population in a given locality

159

CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

LIVIU RADU

2014-11-01

160

Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

161

Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates. Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead on programs that aim to enable choice about childbearing; in concrete terms this means measures such as one-off payments, improving childcare availability, and addressing worklife balance concerns.1 As an issue, low fertility is seen as a particular problem for a number of European and East Asian advanced industrialized countries. Germany and Japan stand out in having experienced especially low fertility over a sustained period of time, while countries with an established and generous welfare state or long traditions of migration appear to buck these trends among members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

2013-01-01

162

An efficient method to improve the clustering performance for high dimensional data by Principal Component Analysis and modified K-means  

OpenAIRE

Clustering analysis is one of the main analytical methods in data mining. K-means is the most popular andpartition based clustering algorithm. But it is computationally expensive and the quality of resultingclusters heavily depends on the selection of initial centroid and the dimension of the data. Several methodshave been proposed in the literature for improving performance of the k-means clustering algorithm.Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is an important approach to unsupervised dimensi...

Tajunisha; Saravanan

2011-01-01

163

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LUNG CANCER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lung cancer worldwide is the most common malignancy in men, whereas in women it ranks second. At the same time the lung cancer is the leading cause of cancerrelated death. Today, smoking is considered as the major cause of lung cancer. About 90% of lung cancers in men and 78 % of lung cancers in women may be associated with long-term smoking. A total of 173 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC and SCLC were included in this prospective-retrospective study. In the study, all patients were divided into two groups: operable ( 117 and inoperable (56. To quantify the association of certain risk factors and the incidence of lung cancer, an odds ratio (OR 95 % CI was calculated. To determine the level of significance, the value of p <0.05 was taken, and the value of p <0.01 was taken for high significance. The mean age of the group was 60.2 ± 8.7 years, with the youngest patient in the study group aged 31 and the oldest 75 years. There were 80 pensioners (46.25% and 59 (34,1% able-bodied patients in the structure of the socioeconomic status. In regard to smoking status, the majority were smokers. The period of smoking was over 20 years and longer; in regard to intensity of smoking they were divided into three groups: smokers with more than 20 years of smoking experience and more than one pack of cigarettes per day - 49.13%, smokers with more than 20 years of smoking experience and one pack of cigarettes per day - 5.78%, and smokers who smoke more than 20 years but not continuously - 15.61%. Occupational exposure was present in 16.18% of the study population, while positive family history was present in 20.81% of patients. Regarding heredity, applying the Chi-square test, we have shown that heredity has a highly significant correlation with the type of cancer reported in both groups. The demographic characteristics of the test are shown to be statistically significant in relation to lung cancer.

Gordana Antuleska-Bel?eska

2014-06-01

164

A method for socially evaluating the effects of long-run demographic paths on living standards  

OpenAIRE

Background: The paper is motivated by the need for improved social evaluation of prospective demographic change in order to better inform policies that are designed to reduce the very long-run costs of population ageing and to achieve sustainable economic development. Objective: What is the very long-run social value of a given demographic path? What is the value of changes in mortality, immigration, fertility, and labour force participation? How important are shorter-term de...

Nick Parr; Ross Guest

2014-01-01

165

Public pension reform, demographics, and inequality.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Starting from a simple, descriptive model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system is introduced. The resulting government budget constraint entails interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of an aging population. Several policy conflicts arise. The point is re-emphasized by an analysis of the German Pension Reform Act of 1992. The study reveals that the design of the pension formula decisively drives the relation between demographics and inequality." PMID:12319695

Von Weizsacker, R K

1995-05-01

166

Prospective Demographic Study of Cosmetic Surgery Patients  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The authors sought to examine and assess cosmetic surgery patient demographics as well as age in relation to partner, in a prospective manner, analyzing data for any significant correlations. Design: The authors conducted a prospective study utilizing a survey. Setting: The study was conducted in a private, nonacademic dermatological practice. Participants: Three hundred thirty-six patients participated in this study. Results: Demographics of onabotulinumtoxinA/abobotulinumtoxinA ...

Schlessinger, Joel; Schlessinger, Daniel; Schlessinger, Bernard

2010-01-01

167

Human population growth and the demographic transition  

OpenAIRE

The world and most regions and countries are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the huge expansion of human numbers: four billion have been added since 1950. Projections for the next half century expect a highly divergent world, with stagnation or potential decline in parts of the developed world and continued rapid growth in the least developed regions. Other demographic processes are also undergoing extraordinary change: women's...

Bongaarts, John

2009-01-01

168

Evolutionary demographic models for mortality plateaus  

OpenAIRE

Plateaus in the age pattern of hazard functions at extreme ages have been discovered in large populations of medflies, Drosophila, nematodes, and people. Mueller and Rose [(1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 15249–15253] have proposed several age-structured demographic models to represent effects of mutation accumulation and antagonistic pleiotropy on randomly evolving schedules of demographic rates. They assert that “evolutionary theory [as embodied in their models] predicts late-life ...

Wachter, Kenneth W.

1999-01-01

169

Changing demographics of the American population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1950, the United States has been in the midst of a profound demographic change: the rapid aging of the population. The baby boom generation began turning 65 in 2011 and is now driving growth at the older ages of the population. This article highlights geriatric demographic changes and illustrates how these and future trends will have wide ranging implications for the US health care system. PMID:25459538

Halaweish, Ihab; Alam, Hasan B

2015-02-01

170

Foundations of demographic theory : choise, process, context  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation contributes to the theoretical foundation of demography by developing a framework of concepts and causal mechanisms that are required to attain a comprehensive understanding of demographic phenomena and demographic change, especially to the conceptually tools for the design of effective reproductive health programs. It develops a comprehensive framework for fertility behaviour and includes a case study in which the model is applied to family planning and reproductive health ...

Bruijn, Bart Jan

1999-01-01

171

Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography and with its multidisciplinary nature, demography gets closer and closer to the field of "woman issues".

Devedži? Mirjana

2006-01-01

172

Group-contribution+ (GC+) based estimation of properties of pure components: Improved property estimation and uncertainty analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this work is to present revised and improved model parameters for group-contribution+ (GC+) models (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) employed for the estimation of pure component properties, together with covariance matrices to quantify uncertainties in the estimated property values. For this purpose, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis of GC models and CI models using maximum-likelihood estimation theory is developed. For parameter estimation, large data-sets of experimentally measured property values of pure components of various classes (hydrocarbons, oxygenated components, nitrogenated components, poly-functional components, etc.) taken from the CAPEC database are used. In total 18 pure component properties are analyzed, namely normal boiling point, critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume, normal melting point, standard Gibbs energy of formation, standard enthalpy of formation, normal enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization at 298 K, enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, flash point, auto ignition temperature, Hansen solubility parameters, Hildebrand solubility parameter, octanol/water partition coefficient, acentric factor, and liquid molar volume at 298 K. Important issues related to property modeling such as reliability and predictive capability of the property prediction models, and thermodynamic consistency of the predicted properties (such as, relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature) are also analyzed and discussed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only the estimated pure component property values but also the uncertainties (e.g. prediction errors in terms of 95% confidence intervals) in the estimated property values. This feature allows one to evaluate the effects of these uncertainties on product-process design, simulation and optimization calculations, contributing to better-informed and more reliable engineering solutions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent

2012-01-01

173

The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

Raševi? Mirjana

2006-01-01

174

Improving the time frame reduction for reuse of roof rack components in cars using Case-based reasoning  

OpenAIRE

Now a days where technological advancements are growing at a rapid pace, it has become a common norm for all the manufacturing companies to be abreast with these advancements for being competitive in market. This thesis deals with development of one such common norm for one of the products (Roof rack component) for company Thule. The main aim of the thesis is to curtail the products lead time to market and this was achieved by using an artificial intelligence technique i.e., Case-based reason...

Harish Acharya, Maniyoor; Sudsawat, Suppatarachai

2012-01-01

175

IMPROVED REAL-TIME FACE RECOGNITION BASED ON THREE LEVEL WAVELET DECOMPOSITION-PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE  

OpenAIRE

The development of research in the field of real-time face recognition is a study that is being developed in the last decade. Face recognition is used to identify person from an image or video. Recognition rate and computation time of real-time face recognition is one of the big challenges that must be developed. This study proposes a model of face recognition using the method of feature extraction by combining three level wavelet decomposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and using...

Edy Winarno; Agus Harjoko; Aniati Murni Arymurthy; Edi Winarko

2014-01-01

176

Use of computed tomography slices 3D-reconstruction as a powerful tool to improve manufacturing processes on aeroengine components  

Science.gov (United States)

TURBOMECA has been using computed tomography for several years as an inner-health analysis powerful tool for engine components. From 2D slices of the examined part, detailed information about lacks or inclusions could easily be extracted. But, measurements on internal features were quickly required because no other NDT methods were able to do it. CT has thus logically become a powerful 2D dimensional measuring tool. Recently, with new software and the latest computers able to deal with huge files, CT has become a powerful 3D digitization tool and now, TOMO ADOUR can offer a complete solution for reverse engineering of complex parts. Several months ago, TURBOMECA introduced CT into many development, validation and industrialization processes and has demonstrated how to take corrective actions to process deviation on their aeroengine components by: extracting the nonexisting CAD model of a part, generating CAD compatible data to check dimensional conformity and, eventually correct design misfits or manufacturing drifts, highlighting the metallurgical health of first article parts, making the decision of repairing the defining the appropriate method, generating a file (.STL) to build a rapid prototype or a file to pilot tool parts for machining, calculating physical properties such as behavior or flow analysis on a "real" model. The image also allows a drawing to be made of a part that was originally produced by a supplier or competitor. This paper will be illustrated with a large number of examples.

Castellan, C.; Dastarac, D.

2000-05-01

177

Feature extraction based on time-frequency and Independent Component Analysis for improvement of separation ability in Atrial Fibrillation detector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to redundancy of over-dimensioned information, observed often in originally recorded biomedical signals, feature extraction and selection has become focus of much researches connected with biomedical signal processing and classification. Mixed new feature vector combined from time-frequency signal representation (obtained after wavelet transform) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) applied for non-stationary signals is proposed as a preliminary stage in ECG waveform classification for patients with Atrial Fibrillation (AF). Discrete fast wavelet transform coefficients parameters including energy and entropy measures and components extracted as a result of FastICA algorithm implementation after optimization gave the best classifier performance of whole AF ECG classifier system. System was positively verified on the set of clinically classified ECG signals for control and atrial fibrillation (AF) disease patients taken from MITBIH data base. The measures of specificity and sensitivity computed for the set of 20 AF and 20 patients from control group divided into learning and verifying subsets were used to evaluate presented pattern recognition structure. Different types of wavelet basic functions for feature extraction stage and kernels for SVM classifier structure calculation were tested to find the best system architecture. Obtained results showed, that the ability of generalization and separation for enriched feature extraction based system increased, due to selectively choosing only the most representative features for analyzed AF detection problem. PMID:19163327

Kostka, Pawel S; Tkacz, Ewaryst J

2008-01-01

178

Privacy-Preserving Demographic Filtering Alambic Management System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recommender systems are used as a way to user choices that needs to solve the protection problem in e-commerce. For solving such a problem we need to protect the privacy interests of users by hiding their identity and demographic features such as age, sex, geographical location, wealth, level of education, etc. and sometimes users buying preferences along with behavior. An E-commerce service provider allow commercial interests of users to protect data by recommending not to reveal valuable information that is related to market trends to the third parties. This paper concentrates only on recommender system that depends on demographic filtering which is familiar by making recommendations on feedback of previous users. The proposed system is called LAMBIC which is used to improve the privacy protection depending on semi-trusted third party by attaining limited confidence using such recommender systems. The process is to split the user’s data between the service provider and the third party in such a way that neither of them share the private data and protect it by preserving using demographic filtering.

M. SAI

2012-09-01

179

Improvements in Low-Frequency, Ultrasonic Phased-Array Evaluation for Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This particular study focused on the evaluation of custom-designed, low-frequency (500 kHz) phased-array (PA) probes for examining welds in thick-section cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping. In addition, research was conducted to observe ultrasonic sound field propagation effects from known coarse-grained microstructures found in parent CASS material. The study was conducted on a variety of thick-wall, coarse-grained CASS specimens that were previously inspected by an older generation 500-kHz PA-UT probe and acquisition instrument configuration. This comparative study describes the impact of the new PA probe design on flaw detection and sizing in a low signal-to-noise environment. The set of Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) CASS specimens examined in this study are greater than 50.8-mm (2.0-in.) thick with documented flaws and microstructures. These specimens are on loan to PNNL from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. The flaws contained within these srolina. The flaws contained within these specimens are thermal fatigue cracks (TFC) or mechanical fatigue cracks (MFC) and range from 13% to 42% in through-wall extent. In addition, ultrasonic signal continuity was evaluated on two CASS parent material ring sections by examining the edge-of-pipe response (corner geometry) for regions of signal loss.

180

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

181

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC UNBALANCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Population and economy are permanently followed by the manifestation of unbalances both in quantity and inquality. For population, the demographic evolution is determined by its natural movement, at world level, which is aresult of natality and mortality, and also by migration, locally. Balance is an ideal status. It would be utopian, though,to consider that a balance could be reached, even for a short period of time. Essentially, the most efficient actions thatcan be done are preventing some demographic unbalances and removing their effects. In order to accomplish this it isimportant to analyze the causes and effects of every phenomenon that affects the demographic unbalance, and toestablish how to diminish it. These issues are very complex as some elements of influence are both causes and effectsof the unbalances. However, people have proved that they are able to respond to these dangers, by continuouslyadapting to the environment. The demographic phenomena are influenced by a multitude of factors, especially thenatural, social, historical, economical ones. Within these factors, the existence of resources and the way to implementthem significantly enrich the demographic evolution, as the population dimension depends on economy.

JEMBOIU GEORGE-NICOLAE

2013-02-01

182

On-line monitoring for improving performance of nuclear power plants. Part 2: Process and component condition monitoring and diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA's work in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management is aimed at enhancing the capability of Member States to utilize good engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports activities such as improving nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational licence renewal, and modernization of the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants in Member States. The subject of improving the performance of nuclear power plants by utilizing on-line condition monitoring of instrumentation and control systems in plants was suggested by the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in 2003. It was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2004-2007. This is the second report on the use of on-line monitoring (OLM) in nuclear power plants. The first report, On-Line Monitoring for Improving Performance of Nuclear Power Plants, Part 1: Instrument Channel Monitoring (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-1.1), focused on application of OLM to verify the static (calibration) and dynamic (response time) performance of process instruments in nuclear power plants. This second report extends the application of OLM to equipment and process condition monitoring encompassing an array of technologies, including vibration monitoring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts mooring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts monitoring, motor current signature analysis and noise diagnostics, as well as vibration analysis of the reactor core and the primary circuit. Furthermore, this report includes the application of modelling technologies for equipment and process condition monitoring. A majority of these technologies depend on existing data from existing sensors and first principles models to estimate equipment and process behaviour using empirical and physical modelling techniques. In doing so, pattern recognition tools such as neural networks, fuzzy classification of data, multivariate state estimation and other means are used. These means are described in this report, and examples of their application and implementation are provided. It should be pointed out that OLM data are routinely collected in nuclear power plants for a variety of purposes, but that these data are not often trended or used for long term predictive maintenance purposes. This report promotes the idea of trending such data and provides guidance on how this trending may be performed to yield a new maintenance tool for nuclear power plants. This report was produced by experts and advisors from numerous IAEA Member States

183

Comparing Simple Quasar Demographics Models  

CERN Document Server

This paper explores several simple model variations for the connections among quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos for redshifts 1 < z < 6. A key component of these models is that we enforce a self-consistent black hole (BH) history by tracking both BH mass and BH growth rate at all redshifts. We connect objects across redshift with a simple constant-number-density procedure, and choose a fiducial model with a relationship between BH and galaxy growth rates that is linear and evolves in a simple way with redshift. Within this fiducial model, we find the quasar luminosity function (QLF) by calculating an "intrinsic" luminosity based on either the BH mass or BH growth rate, and then choosing a model of quasar variability with either a lognormal or truncated power-law distribution of instantaneous luminosities. This gives four model variations, which we fit to the observed QLF at each redshift. With the best-fit models in hand, we undertake a detailed comparison of the four fiducial models, and explore...

Veale, Melanie; Conroy, Charlie

2014-01-01

184

Selection criteria for the improvement of seed yield and its components in advances generations of lentil (lens culinaris medik)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present study was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during the years 2006 and 2007 with the objectives; to study the inheritance of seed yield and related traits in both hybridized (F6) and mutated (M6) populations of lentil and to determine the best selection criterion for the improvement of seed yield. Different genetic parameters (variances, heritabilities, genetic gains and correlations) were computed to study the inheritance pattern and interrelationships of different traits. High heritability was observed for days to flower (97.40%), plant height (90.80%), pods per plant (86.20%), hundred seed weight (83.50%) and seed yield per plant (91.80%) in F6 and for days to flower (96.9%), days to mature (91.8%), hundred seed weight (89.0%) and seed yield per plant (94.0%) in M6 generation. High heritability coupled with moderate to high genetic advance was noted for plant height (90.8%, 16.29) pods per plant (86.20%, 25.53) hundred seed weight (83.50%, 35.67) and seed yield per plant (91.80%, 35.84) in F6 generation and for days to flower (96.9%, 25.08), hundred seed weight (89.0%, 25.56) and seed yield per plant (94.0%, 37.01) in M6 generation. The traits mentioned were found to be under the control of additive genes. Seed yield had positive and significant correlation with pods per plant in M6 and with seed weight in both generations. It was concluded that seed weight and pods per plant may be used as selection criterion in bnt may be used as selection criterion in both hybridized and mutated populations for the improvement of seed yield. (author)

185

Use of the CT component of PET CT to improve PET MR registration: demonstration in soft-tissue sarcoma  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated improvements to PET-MR image registration offered by PET-CT scanning. Ten subjects with suspected soft-tissue sarcomas were scanned with an in-line PET-CT and a clinical MR scanner. PET to CT, CT to MR and PET to MR image registrations were performed using a rigid-body external marker technique and rigid and non-rigid voxel-similarity algorithms. PET-MR registration was also performed using transformations derived from the registration of CT to MR. The external marker technique gave fiducial registration errors of 2.1 mm, 5.1 mm and 5.3 mm for PET-CT, PET-MR and CT-MR registration. Target registration errors were 3.9 mm, 9.0 mm and 9.3 mm, respectively. Voxel-based algorithms were evaluated by measuring the distance between corresponding fiducials after registration. Registration errors of 6.4 mm, 14.5 mm and 9.5 mm, respectively, for PET-CT, PET-MR and CT-MR were observed for rigid-body registration while non-rigid registration gave errors of 6.8 mm, 16.3 mm and 7.6 mm for the same modality combinations. The application of rigid and non-rigid CT to MR transformations to accompanying PET data gives significantly reduced PET-MR errors of 10.0 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. Visual comparison by two independent observers confirmed the improvement over direct PET-MR registration. We conclude that PET-MR registration can be more accurately and reliably achieved using the hybrid technique described than through direct rigid-body registration of PET to MR.

Somer, Edward J.; Benatar, Nigel A.; O'Doherty, Michael J.; Smith, Mike A.; Marsden, Paul K.

2007-12-01

186

An Improved Face Recognition Technique Based on Modular Multi-directional Two-dimensional Principle Component Analysis Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a new method named modular multi-directional two-dimensional principle component analysis (M2D2DPCA is proposed for face recognition. First, the original images are rotated at some predetermined angles so that we may extract features from the images in any direction. Then we divide the rotated images into smaller sub-images and apply 2DPCA approach to each of these sub-images.  Finally we propose a fusion method named modular multi-directional 2DPCA (M2D2DPCA to combine a bank of preliminary results in different directions. Compared with conventional 2DPCA based algorithms, the advantage of the proposed method is that it can extract significant features from the images in any direction and avoid the effects of varying illumination and facial expression. The results of the experiments on ORL and Yale datasets show that the proposed M2D2DPCA method can obtain a higher recognition rate than the conventional 2DPCA based methods.

Xiaoqing Dong

2014-12-01

187

Independent component analysis-based artefact reduction: application to the electrocardiogram for improved magnetic resonance imaging triggering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is required during magnetic resonance (MR) examination for monitoring patients under anaesthesia or with heart diseases and for synchronizing image acquisition with heart activity (triggering). Accurate and fast QRS detection is therefore desirable, but this task is complicated by artefacts related to the complex MR environment (high magnetic field, radio-frequency pulses and fast switching magnetic gradients). Specific signal processing has been proposed, whether using specific MR QRS detectors or ECG denoising methods. Most state-of-the-art techniques use a connection to the MR system for achieving their task, which is a major drawback since access to the MR system is often restricted. This paper introduces a new method for on-line ECG signal enhancement, called ICARE, which takes advantage of using multi-lead ECG and does not require any connection to the MR system. It is based on independent component analysis (ICA) and applied in real time. This algorithm yields accurate QRS detection for efficient triggering

188

Improvement in molecule exchange efficiency in Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo: development and implementation of the continuous fractional component move.  

Science.gov (United States)

The continuous fractional component Monte Carlo (CFC MC) move (J Chem Theory Comput, 2007, 3, 1451) is extended to the Gibbs ensemble. The algorithm is validated against conventional simulations for the Lennard Jones fluid and a flexible water model. The method is also used to compute the vapor-liquid coexistence densities of a model for SO(2). The CFC molecule exchange move relies on the gradual insertion and deletion of molecules in conjunction with a self-adapting bias potential. As a result, the method does not require the formation of spontaneous voids in the dense fluid phase to be successful, leading to molecule exchange acceptance probabilities that are nearly independent of temperature. For example, over 1% of the vapor-liquid molecule exchange moves are successful for water at 280 K, whereas advanced rotational and configurational bias methods have success rates of less than 0.03%. The CFC move can be combined with other Monte Carlo moves to enable efficient simulation of dense strongly associating fluids that are to this point infeasible to model with standard methods. PMID:18478586

Shi, Wei; Maginn, Edward J

2008-11-30

189

Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain with Imperfect Quality of Commodity Components in Uncertain State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a mathematical model for four-level defective goods supply chain with imperfect quality of commodity components in an uncertain state to maximize profit of supply chain. It is assumed that the inspection of incoming parts in suppliers is randomly done and incomplete. This lead some of the manufactured products will not be properly manufactured because of defective parts and are considered as defective goods and in most cases, the defective products can be repaired by replacing with the good parts. The defective parts will be collected and then returned to the suppliers for repairing. Out proposed model considers defective parts problem by optimizing the costs of production, maintenance, shipping, reworking on the defective goods and parts, shortage in retailers due to the production of defective goods and cost of capital incurred by the companies. The model can anticipate the active suppliers/manufacturers/distributors and the quantity of parts and goods that must be exchanged between them. Our proposed model is novel and we used MINOS solver and LINGO software to solve the problem. The results ascertained the correctness and fine function of the proposed model.

Salah Alden Ghasimi

2013-07-01

190

Development and improvement of synthetic imaging methods for non-destructive ultrasonic testing of complex industrial components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this thesis was, initially, to evaluate phased array methods for ultrasonic Non Destructive Testing (NDT) in order to propose optimizations, or to develop new alternative methods. In particular, this works deals with the detection of defects in complex geometries and/or materials parts. The TFM (Total Focusing Method) algorithm provides high resolution images and several representations of a same defect thanks to different reconstruction modes. These properties have been exploited judiciously in order to propose an adaptive imaging method in immersion configuration. We showed that TFM imaging can be used to characterize more precisely the defects. However, this method presents two major drawbacks: the large amount of data to be processed and a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially in noisy materials. We developed solutions to these two problems. To overcome the limitation caused by the large number of signals to be processed, we propose an algorithm that defines the sparse array to activate. As for the low SNR, it can be now improved by use of virtual sources and a new filtering method based on the DORT method (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator). (author)

191

Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

Blau, Peter J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Kirkham, Melanie J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Bansal, Dinesh G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities

2012-09-20

192

The role of migration in demographic development of the community of Valjevo  

OpenAIRE

Participation of migration component in demographic development of the community Valjevo, is significant in the past, as well as nowadays. First part of this paper is related with historical development of migration to the end of World War II, while the next part comprise modern migratory movements.

Sre?kovi? Jelena

2002-01-01

193

The role of migration in demographic development of the community of Valjevo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participation of migration component in demographic development of the community Valjevo, is significant in the past, as well as nowadays. First part of this paper is related with historical development of migration to the end of World War II, while the next part comprise modern migratory movements.

Sre?kovi? Jelena

2002-01-01

194

Have cementless and resurfacing components improved the medium-term results of hip replacement for patients under 60 years of age?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and purpose - The optimal hip replacement for young patients remains unknown. We compared patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), revision risk, and implant costs over a range of hip replacements. Methods - We included hip replacements for osteoarthritis in patients under 60 years of age performed between 2003 and 2010 using the commonest brand of cemented, cementless, hybrid, or resurfacing prosthesis (11,622 women and 13,087 men). The reference implant comprised a cemented stem with a conventional polyethylene cemented cup and a standard-sized head (28- or 32-mm). Differences in implant survival were assessed using competing-risks models, adjusted for known prognostic influences. Analysis of covariance was used to assess improvement in PROMs (Oxford hip score (OHS) and EQ5D index) in 2014 linked procedures. Results - In males, PROMs and implant survival were similar across all types of implants. In females, revision was statistically significantly higher in hard-bearing and/or small-stem cementless implants (hazard ratio (HR) = 4) and resurfacings (small head sizes (< 48 mm): HR = 6; large head sizes (? 48 mm): HR = 5) when compared to the reference cemented implant. In component combinations with equivalent survival, women reported significantly greater improvements in OHS with hybrid implants (22, p = 0.006) and cementless implants (21, p = 0.03) (reference, 18), but similar EQ5D index. For men and women, National Health Service (NHS) costs were lowest with the reference implant and highest with a hard-bearing cementless replacement. Interpretation - In young women, hybrids offer a balance of good early functional improvement and low revision risk. Fully cementless and resurfacing components are more costly and do not provide any additional benefit for younger patients. PMID:25285617

Jameson, Simon S; Mason, James; Baker, Paul; Gregg, Paul J; Porter, Martyn; Deehan, David J; Reed, Mike R

2015-02-01

195

Some Demographic Correlates of Changing Newspaper Circulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are varied opinions on the relationship between the circulation penetration of the American daily newspapers and certain demographic indicators. Previous studies have treated the growth of circulation figures by utilizing gross national data and have indicated the role newspaper circulation plays in defining the limits of major urban…

Eberhard, Wallace B.

196

Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

Peng, Xizhe

2013-01-01

197

A Demographic Profile of Cuban Americans.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study offers a demographic profile of the U.S. Cuban population, using data from the decennial census and current population surveys. Part one estimates the number of Cuban Americans and describes their geographic distribution nationwide. Part two compares the socioeconomic characteristics (age, gender, educational attainment, income,…

Boswell, Thomas D.

198

Resource implications of demographic change for education  

OpenAIRE

The aims of the paper are as follows: to establish how much has been spent in real terms on cere education activities at each level over the last fifteen years; to derive projections of future resource requirements of the Department of Education in the light of recent and projected demographic change; and to assess the likely implications of such change.

Mccullagh, John

1995-01-01

199

Current demographical processes in the Penza region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the basic ethnic groups of the Penza region and identifies the demographic processes taking place within each group. The author comes to a conclusion that these processes are determined by the features of the historical development and socioeconomic standing of the ethnic groups.

Pronin Ye.

2013-01-01

200

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

201

The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

Phillips, Stephanie

2012-01-01

202

Retroperitoneal fibrosis. Demographic, clinical and pathological findings.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis including the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostic criteria and effective treatment of the disease. METHODS This study was carried out at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital, Irbid, Jordan, during the year 2001. Records of 15 patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, clinical and pathological cri...

Bani-hani, Kamal E.; Bani-hani, Ibrahim H.; Al-heiss, Hussein A.; Omari, Hamza Z.

2002-01-01

203

Changing demographics and shrinking engineering enrollments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that changing U.S. population demographics, poor academic preparation, and a decreasing interest in engineering among college student indicate possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. If we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S., the engineering talent pool must be enlarged to include women and minority men

204

Demographic situation and development in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nepal economic development has not kept pace with population growth. The government must develop a vigorous dual program to promote economic development and to reduce population growth. Previous efforts to promote economic development, using a macrolevel approach, failed to improve the economic conditions for the majority of Nepal's citizens. The macrolevel approach required large capital outlays and resulted in an influx of foreign investors and the importation of inappropriate technologies from the developed countries. As a result, urbanization and pollution increased, and both the proportion and the absolute number of poor persons increased. A microlevel approach is now being instituted by the government, and an emphasis is being placed on meeting the basic needs of the poor and on promoting economic self-sufficiency. The country has extensive water resources which can be tapped for irrigation purposes. Nepal also has rich mineral deposits which should be exploited in such a way as to ensure that the profits accrue to the Nepalese. The country has an abundance of manpower resources, but there is a dearth of skilled workers. Unemployment, especially in rural areas, is a serious problem, and efforts should be made to either develop the agricultural sector or create new jobs in other sectors. Nepal's demographic problems include rapid population growth, the influx of a large number of migrants from India, and a high rural to urban migration rate. In 1981, the population size was 15 million, the annual growth rate was 2.6%, the crude birth rate was 38.5, the crude death rate was 18.4, and life expectancy was 47.5 years. The government is currently developing plans 1) to promote the development of core sectors of the economy, 2) to provide family planning services for the poor, 3) to meet the basic needs of rural residents in order to stem the flow of migration to urban areas, 4) to mobilize women to play an active role in the country's development and population programs, 5) to introduce population education into the school curriculum, 6) to promote economic development research, and 7) to coordinate the work of the numerous family planning agencies and organizations which are operating in the country. Many voluntary, international, foreign, and government agencies are involved in Nepal's economic and population endeavors. These organizations are listed. PMID:12339820

Pradhanang, A L

1983-01-01

205

Demographic determinants of formation and use of human capital in Ukraine: differential analysis and forecast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the problem that is little investigated in domestic economics. It assesses the impact of demographic processes on the prospects of accumulation and productivity of human capital. The author argues that focusing only in the quality of education and training that is inherent in most modern research, minimizes the effectiveness of human capital management as an economic asset. A man is a demographic basis of human capital accumulation. Accordingly, the particular demographic processes such as fertility, mortality, migration, development and disintegration of families, require careful analysis. The main objectives of the study related to the specification of the impact of demographic situation on the effectiveness of formation and use of human capital. It was found that due to the increasing demographic crisis in Ukraine initial conditions of accumulation of human capital at all levels of the economic system deteriorated significantly. It was substantiated that the renovation of demographic policy is a key factor for improving the efficiency of social investment; it also causes optimization of relations in various spheres of social interaction.

Melnychuk, Dmytro Petrovych

2014-05-01

206

[The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].  

Science.gov (United States)

This work describes and analyzes the "European model of demographic transition" and compares it to the fertility transition in Latin America, arguing that two different types of demographic transition coexist in Latin America. Chesnais has defined 3 principal postulates of the theory of demographic transition that he believes are universally valid: the precedence in time of mortality decline; the occurrence of reproductive transition in 2 phases, limitation of marriages followed by limitation of births; and the influence of economic growth on the initiation of the secular fertiilty decline. This work is largely limited to discussion of the first 2 postulates. In all the European transitions analyzed, mortality has declined before the occurrence of fertility changes. Exceptions cited in the literature have probably been caused by omissions or other problems in the data. The level of mortality at the beginning of the transition and the rate of decline differ, giving unique character to each transition. Imbalances resulting from mortality decline are at the root of modern fertility transitions. The French demographic transition was distinguished by early appearance of birth limitation by married couples, as part of the regulation of population growth. In the rest of Europe, during the pretransitional period, the traditional system of reproduction was regulated primarily by control of nuptiality. Only at a second stage was marital fertiity controlled, when limitation of marriage was no longer sufficient or had exceeded the limits of social acceptability. All countries of Northern and Western Europe recorded increased proportions definitively single as the demographic situation began to change, until the moment when couples began to limit births. The demographic transition in Latin America began at the end of the 19th century, with mortality decline. Fertility increased initially in Latin America as it had in Europe and for the same reasons, but the impact was greater in Latin America because of the much more rapid mortality decline. In Latin America, in the face of the fertility increase of the mid-20th century, there was no attempt to control nuptiality, as in traditional European populations, to limit family size. Nuptiality control as a mechanism of demographic regulation was never socially acceptable in Latin America. The beginning of the Latin American transition occurred in urban areas, among more educated women who were over 20 years old at marriage. The fertility transition in these privileged sectors was quite similar to that in Europe. But a second transition has occurred among impoverished women conserving traditional reproductive patterns of early marriage and numerous closely spaced births. Availability of modern contraception among rural and marginal urban women has allowed termination of childbearing, but usually at relatively high levels of fertility. Fertility decline, in this case, does not reflect improvements in living conditions. PMID:12287032

Zavala De Cosio, M E

1992-12-01

207

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials on materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a power feeding system for the primary system. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phase of the clad. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clad. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR. (author)

208

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR

209

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. (1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. (2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. (3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. (4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. (5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. (6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR.

Suh, Jeong Hun; Kim, J. S.; Han, J. H.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, S. S

2000-08-01

210

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials on materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a power feeding system for the primary system. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phase of the clad. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clad. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR. (author)

Suh, Jeong Hun; Kim, J. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Lim, Y. S

1999-08-01

211

Demographic growth and development of spa places in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of population growth and components of demographic growth in five most important spa settlements in Serbia: Vrnjacka banja, Niska banj, Banja Koviljaca. As indices of demographic development, we have analyzed: natural and mechanical movement of population, age and sex, activity and sex, households and apartments in spa places. The finding is that demographic development of spa places in Serbia has been politically influenced. Due to dismantling state territory of former Yugoslavia, the choice of domestic tourist destination for Serbian population became smaller. Because of that, spas became more important tourist destination which fostered demographic growth of those places. The data analysis demonstrated that during the last six decades, population in all spa places increased with higher insensitive compare with the rest of Serbia. This is the result of high inmigration, particularly in the last decade, when the share of this movement was over 90%. The pacing of population ageing in spa places, did not follow ageing of total population in Serbia. Average age in Serbia between 1961-2002. increased for 31.8%, while in spas population ageing was more intensify with 36.4% increase. The number of household showed constant increase from census to census, as well as in Serbia as in each of spa places with no exception. Average size of household in spas in 1948. was smaller than the average in Serbia for almost one member. By the year 2002. the average sizes of households in spas and in Serbia was almost equalized. Spa places suffered sortage of apartments in 1948. By the year 2002. the evidence showed considerable surplus which as the biggest in Vrnjacka Banja spa. The amount of surplus was 15%, which is higher than the average in Serbia. The purpose of this surplus is rent and accommodation of spa visitors. Overall results point out that despite of population decrease of Serbia, spa places enjoy more and more permanent residents. Among the reasons economic stability of spa places (in the areas of services and medical care should be emphasized, which triggered inmigration increase, outmigration decrease, and slower rate of ageing (despite of small rate of natural increase.

?ur?ev Branislav S.

2007-01-01

212

An efficient method to improve the clustering performance for high dimensional data by Principal Component Analysis and modified K-means  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clustering analysis is one of the main analytical methods in data mining. K-means is the most popular andpartition based clustering algorithm. But it is computationally expensive and the quality of resultingclusters heavily depends on the selection of initial centroid and the dimension of the data. Several methodshave been proposed in the literature for improving performance of the k-means clustering algorithm.Principal Component Analysis (PCA is an important approach to unsupervised dimensionality reductiontechnique. This paper proposed a method to make the algorithm more effective and efficient by using PCAand modified k-means. In this paper, we have used Principal Component Analysis as a first phase to findthe initial centroid for k-means and for dimension reduction and k-means method is modified by usingheuristics approach to reduce the number of distance calculation to assign the data-point to cluster. Bycomparing the results of original and new approach, it was found that the results obtained are moreeffective, easy to understand and above all, the time taken to process the data was substantially reduced.

Tajunisha

2011-03-01

213

Componente demográfico do sistema de informação da atenção à saúde indígena, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brasil / Composante demographique du systeme d'information a l'attention de la sante indigene, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Bresil / Demographic component of the information system of the attention to indigenous health, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo analisa a consistência do módulo demográfico do Sistema de Informação da Atenção da Saúde Indígena para o Distrito Especial Indígena Xavante (DSEI), Mato Grosso, no período de 1999 a 2004. Os dados foram obtidos através de relatórios disponibilizados pelo SIASIWEB. A base de dados foi in [...] vestigada com vistas a detectar inconsistências, incluindo mais de um registro para um mesmo evento. Para todo o DSEI, a taxa de mortalidade infantil (TMI) no período passou de 89,2 para 83,8 por mil após as correções na base de dados. Ao se analisar por polo-base, as alterações foram ainda mais substanciais. No caso do Polo-base de Água Boa, a redução da TMI foi de 43,3 para 21,3 por mil. As taxas brutas de mortalidade e de natalidade também experimentaram redução após as correções. Esses achados evidenciam problemas significativos na base de dados sobre saúde do povo Xavante, com a geração de indicadores demográficos que se distanciam da situação real da população. Os autores destacam a necessidade de aprimoramento da coleta e análise dos dados demográficos no âmbito do sistema de informação sobre a saúde indígena. Abstract in english This study analyzes the consistence of the demographic module of the System of Information of Attention to Indigenous Health for the Shavante Indian Indigenous Special District (in Portuguese, DSEI), Mato Grosso, from 1999 to 2004. The data were obtained through reports made available by SIASIWEB. T [...] he database was investigated trying to detect inconsistencies, including more than a single registration for the same event. For the whole DSEI, the infant mortality rate (in Portuguese, TMI) in the period went from 89,2 to 83,8 per thousand after the corrections in the database. Analyzing by base headquarters, the alterations were even more substantial. In the case of the Água Boa base headquarters, the reduction of TMI went from 43,3 to 21,3 per thousand. The gross mortality and birth rates also experienced reduction after the corrections. Those discoveries evidence significant problems in the database on the health of the Shavante people, generating demographic indicators that are distant of the real situation of the population. The authors point out the need of enhancement of the collection and analysis of the demographic data in the extent of the system of information about the indigenous health.

Luciene Guimarães de, Souza; Ricardo Ventura, Santos.

214

Demographic perspectives on Saudi Arabia's development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic movements likely to be taking place in Saudi Arabia were hypothesized on the basis of general knowledge. The discussion reports on population size, general Arab demographic patterns, general determinants of fertility, Arab fertility patterns, Saudi fertility patterns, mortality in general, mortality in the Middle East, mortality in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian population growth, immigration, the changing composition of the work force, and third plan targets. Some doubt exists as to the size of Saudi Arabia's population, but there is little question that the total is growing rapidly. This expansion is taking place through stepped up immigration and a relatively high natural growth of indigenous Saudis, but statistics on population size, structure, and on the number of births and deaths leaves the magnitude of a number of important demographic trends in doubt. Yet, considerable evidence exists that several of the Arab countries in the region with fairly good demographic data are likely to have similar demographic patterns. In depth analysis of the demographic dynamics of these countries, particularly Jordan and Kuwait, identified several common elements bearing on several key parameters. Using what Saudi data is available and making comparisons with these neighboring countries, one can, based on expected levels of birth and death rates, indirectly infer the natural growth of Saudi Arabia's population. With several notable exceptions, Saudi Arabia's demographic patterns show a marked similarity to those experienced in the region as a whole. The average rate of population growth in both Saudi Arabia and the Arab region is about 3% a year and in both instances fertility rates are high. The demographic structure of these countries is characterized by the youthfulness of the population. In most of the Arab countries, the population aged 15 years or under accounts for over 48% of the population. The rate of the economically active population is low, ranging from 22% to 32% of the total population, with the female participation rate varying from 3.5% to 18.5%. In the nonagricultural sector, the average activity rate of women over the age of 15 usually does not exceed 6%. Arab countries are also characterized by their high infant mortality rates. In 1975 these rates ranged from 60 to 200/1000. Illiteracy rates for the group, as a whole, are also high, and they are significantly higher among women than among men. A multipurpose survey conducted in Saudi Arabia during 1976 and 1977 reported a live birthrate of 54.2/1000. This is somewhat above the UN figure of 49.5 for the country and over the average for Arab countries of 46.6 for 1975. The mortality rate for the Saudi population is 14.1/1000. If one accepts the birth and death rates indicated by the multipurpose survey, the population is growing at a national rate of 3% or more per year. PMID:12340437

Looney, R E

1985-06-01

215

The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey  

CERN Document Server

In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

Price, C Aaron

2012-01-01

216

Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations  

OpenAIRE

Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of t...

Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos; D Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-01

217

Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors  

OpenAIRE

ObjectiveBecause of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.Materials & MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fe...

Esmaili Gourabi, Hamed; Bidabadi, Elham; Cheraghalipour, Fatemeh; Aarabi, Yasaman; Salamat, Fatemeh

2012-01-01

218

Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity  

OpenAIRE

To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global) is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global) is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global) is the populat...

Cohen, Joel E.

2008-01-01

219

Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions  

OpenAIRE

Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy–economic growth model that accounts for a...

O Neill, Brian C.; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Leiwen; Pachauri, Shonali; Zigova, Katarina

2010-01-01

220

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC UNBALANCES  

OpenAIRE

Population and economy are permanently followed by the manifestation of unbalances both in quantity and inquality. For population, the demographic evolution is determined by its natural movement, at world level, which is aresult of natality and mortality, and also by migration, locally. Balance is an ideal status. It would be utopian, though,to consider that a balance could be reached, even for a short period of time. Essentially, the most efficient actions thatcan be done are preventing some...

JEMBOIU GEORGE-NICOLAE

2013-01-01

221

Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective  

OpenAIRE

The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the co...

Devedži? Mirjana

2006-01-01

222

Optimal response to a demographic shock  

OpenAIRE

We examine the optimal policy response to an exogenously given demographic shock. Such a shock affects negatively the financing of retirement pensions, and we use optimal fiscal policy in order to determine the optimal strategy of the social security administration. Our approach provides specific policy responses in an environment that guarantees the financial sustainability of existing retirement pensions. At the same time, pensions will be financed in a way that by construction generates no...

Conesa, Juan Carlos; Garriga, Carlos

2005-01-01

223

Education and lifetime income during demographic transition  

OpenAIRE

The paper studies the power of educational investments in relation to transfers for fostering lifetime income and for reducing income inequality in Germany. The welfare analysis is based on a model of age-dependent human capital accumulation, featuring dynamic complementarities in skill formation over the life cycle, and calibrated for the period of ongoing demographic transition until 2080. If policy aims at reducing the inequality of lifetime income among people of the same g...

Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Reuß, Karsten

2013-01-01

224

Demographic and transportation parameters in RADTRAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent efforts at Sandia National Laboratories have focused not only on modification of the RADTRAN transportation risk analysis code but also on updating the default parameters for population, land use, and roadway characteristics used by the code. Changes to the code have been discussed earlier in this Conference. This paper summarizes the results of a review of transportation and demographic parameters, performed to complement recent model modifications

225

Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories  

OpenAIRE

Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, this leads to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this article we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few ...

Sumour, M. A.; El-astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

2007-01-01

226

Complexity and Demographic Explanations of Cumulative Culture  

OpenAIRE

Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing— while favoured by increasing—population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more li...

Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

2014-01-01

227

Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelih...

Garrigan Daniel

2009-01-01

228

The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks  

OpenAIRE

The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both per capita savings and per capita consumption increase in the new steady state.A drop in the birth rate, while keeping the death rate constant, reduces per capita savings, but increases per capita c...

Heijdra, B. J.; Ligthart, J. E.

2004-01-01

229

IMPROVING SOFTWARE QUALITY IN THE SERVICE PROCESS INDUSTRY USING AGILITY WITH SOFTWARE REUSABLE COMPONENTS AS SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF INDIAN SERVICE PROVIDERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a software – based business process outsourcing (BPO environment, the quality of services delivered to clients hinges on the quality of software used in processing the service. Software quality attributes have been defined by ISO/IEC standards but different organisations give priorities to specific attributes based on client’s requirements and the prevailing environment. The aim of this study is to identify and demonstrate the particular software development process that guarantees an acceptable level of software quality within a specific domain that would translate to desired quality of services delivered to clients. Therefore, this study through a mixed method approach investigated BPO service providers in India to ascertain what software quality means to their respective organisations, what software quality attributes are given priority and how it could be improved. The findings suggest that software quality is highly dependent on the software development process. The vast majority of successful organisations operated in-house software development through the establishment of software product line as a platform to embed software reusable components within an agile framework. Through this process, there is significant reduction in defect density, thereby improving the software quality. This software quality is also translated to the quality of services delivered to clients

Charles Ikerionwu

2014-07-01

230

Education, Elderly Health, and Differential Population Aging in South Korea: A Demographic Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Mare and Maralani 2006 by using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA. Results: First, improvements in education lead to improvements in health among the elderly. Intermediate demographic factors make positive contributions to this improvement. Second, improvements in education lead to a decline in the ratios of offspring to the elderly because better-educated people have fewer children. However, this decrease is not substantial. Third, improvements in education increase the ratio of college-educated offspring to the unhealthy elderly because of improvements in both offspring's education and elderly health. Conclusions: The results suggest that improvements in education change configurations of the elderly and their offspring's generations, mitigating the negative consequences of population aging, such as increasing burdens of elderly support.

Bongoh Kye

2014-03-01

231

DEMOGRAPHIC UNCERTAINTY IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS. (R825347)  

Science.gov (United States)

We built a Ricker's model incorporating demographic stochasticity to simulate the effects of demographic uncertainty on responses of gray-tailed vole (Microtus canicaudus) populations to pesticide applications. We constructed models with mark-recapture data collected from populat...

232

Influence of Demographic Factors on Students’ Beliefs in Learning Mathematics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning mathematics has been recognized by many as important. It does not only develop students’ ability to think in quantitative terms but can also enhance skills such as analytical and problem solving skills. However, to enable us to tell our students how important mathematics is we have to understand students’ beliefs in learning mathematics so as to find ways to improve students’ performance in mathematics. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between business students’ beliefs in learning mathematics and demographic factors. Data were collected from three hundred and seventy six students in three higher learning institutions enrolled in business mathematics class. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the sample and Pearson chi-square test will be used to test students’ beliefs and the relationship between students’ beliefs and demographic factors (gender, institutions, previous mathematics grade, secondary education and major. Our results suggest that students’ beliefs are positive and significant in learning mathematics. Using Pearson chi-square test, generally the results suggest that there are significant differences in means between students’ beliefs based on institutions and mathematics grade. In addition, we find that overall there are no significant differences in means between beliefs based on gender, secondary education and major.

Izah Mohd Tahir

2009-07-01

233

Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([11C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [11C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The ina generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

234

Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from these data, suggesting that the ABC approach will be a useful tool for analyzing large genome-wide datasets.

Li Sen

2012-03-01

235

The Epidemiology and Demographics of Hip Dysplasia  

OpenAIRE

The etiology of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown. There are many insights, however, from epidemiologic/demographic information. A systematic medical literature review regarding DDH was performed. There is a predominance of left-sided (64.0%) and unilateral disease (63.4%). The incidence per 1000 live births ranges from 0.06 in Africans in Africa to 76.1 in Native Americans. There is significant variability in incidence within each racial group by geographic location. The in...

Loder, Randall T.; Skopelja, Elaine N.

2011-01-01

236

Demographic Surprises Foreshadow Change in Neoliberal Egypt  

OpenAIRE

in the Egypt of 2008, half the population has known only one president, Husni Mubarak. And the rate of population growth, at its peak when Mubarak assumed office in 1981, has stopped declining as it had been in the 1990s. A new kind of population increase has begun. Such are the lessons of the provisional results of the Egyptian general population and housing census, conducted in November 2006 in accordance with the regular ten-year cycle. These demographic surprises have important implicatio...

Denis, Eric

2008-01-01

237

Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions. (letter)

238

The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an astronomical journal. Finally, there is some evidence that participation in the AAVSO has a greater impact on the respondents' view of their role in astronomy compared to that expected through increasing amateur astronomy experience alone.

Price, A.

2012-04-01

239

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. Methodology: A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Results were expressed as percentages. Results: Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. Conclusion: SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions. (author)

240

Socio-demographic factors of geriatric depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Depression is a common mental health problem in geriatric population and the overall prevalence rate of depression in this age group varies between 10 and 20%. Objective: To study the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in geriatric population. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done on 74 community-based mental health surveys on depression in geriatric population, which were conducted in the continents of Asia, Europe, Australia, North America, and South America. All the studies were conducted between 1955 and 2005. The researchers had included only community-based cross-sectional surveys and some prospective studies that had not excluded depression on baseline. These studies were conducted on homogenous community of geriatric population in the world, who were selected by simple random sampling technique. A qualitative analysis was conducted to study the socio-demographic factors of depression. Results and Conclusion: The two non-modifiable risk factors found to be significantly associated with depression in geriatric population were "older age group" and "female gender". However, the potentially modifiable risk factors for depression in the geriatric population were identified as low socioeconomic status, loss of spouse, living alone, chronic co-morbidities, cognitive impairment, bereavement and restricted activities of daily living (ADL.

Barua Ankur

2010-01-01

241

Land use and demographic grids in Cosyma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatial distribution of the population, agricultural production, economic activity, and the position of land and sea, are important elements of accident consequence codes. These data are necessary in evaluating the health effects within the population arising from the external dose, inhalation and ingestion pathways. These distributions are also essential in calculating the economic impact of implementing countermeasures, such as relocation and food bans. This paper includes a discussion of the agricultural production and population distribution information available for EC countries, their resolution, availability and sources. The gridded data included in the COSYMA system are described. Particular aspects, such as the difficulties involved with using economic land use information, are also explained. Future developments, and their effect on the requirements for land use and demographic grids, are outlined

242

Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations  

CERN Document Server

Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-01

243

Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global is the population-weighted mean of the life expectancy at birth of all countries, then B(global x e(global always exceeds P(global unless all countries have the same life expectancy at birth.

Joel E. Cohen

2008-05-01

244

Some demographical aspects of the newly nominated towns in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present paper tries to present some demographical aspects of the newest towns declared in the post-socialist period in Romania. First we draw a sketch of the current demographic tendencies and structures, as basis for the evolution of settlements and new towns. In the second part of our paper we describe a few elements of the demographic profile of new towns declared in post-socialist period.

Berekméri Mária

2007-01-01

245

Demographic Changes: The Impact for Safe Blood Supply  

OpenAIRE

The population structure in most European countries is currently changing, with a shift from younger to older age groups. Only sparse data exist on the impact of these demographic changes on future blood demand and supply. Data on blood recipients are sparse and unconnected to data on blood donors. The first part of this review summarizes studies on the effect of the demographic change on blood supply and demand. With respect to studies in North America and Europe on the impact of demographic...

Greinacher, Andreas; Fendrich, Konstanze; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

246

Demographic and Professional Dimensions of Child Care Proviers  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this investigation was to develop a demographic profile of current child care providers in 3 selected Western states. Further, this study sought to assess dimensions of professionally in the day to day activities of child care workers. Utilizing a mailed questionnaire, 226 child care providers in Salt Lake City, Utah; Eugene, Oregon; and Boise, Idaho were surveyed for information on demographics and professional dimensions. Results suggest that the demographic profile crea...

Armga, Carol Joan

1987-01-01

247

India’s demographic dividend: opportunities and threats  

OpenAIRE

Demographic transition creates a small window for countries to leverage their demographic dividend and leapfrog to a higher level of income-employment situation. This opportunity comes in the middle stage of demographic transition when the population pyramid shows signs of maturity and bulges in the middle, indicating a relatively larger share of youth or working age persons in total population, and hence a low dependency ratio. Consequently, countries can engage this human resource to augmen...

Majumder, Rajarshi

2013-01-01

248

Fertility in the Age of Demographic Maturity: An Essay  

OpenAIRE

As humanity is moving into a new age of its demographic evolution, I call it demographic maturity, the emerging demographic configurations – generational sub-replacement fertility, advanced aging and potential population implosion – call for new ways of thinking about population and new policy approaches. While we live longer and healthier, we also reproduce less and less. We are stuck in a culture of low fertility. The strong motivations for foregoing motherhood are financial: a two-sala...

Anatole Romaniuk

2010-01-01

249

Demographic change and public sector budgets in a federal system  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the effects of demographic change on public finances in a federal system. We develop a simple methodical procedure to measure the effect of demographic changes on public revenues and expenditures. We apply our method to the local, state and federal government sector as well as on the social security system in Germany. Our results suggest that demographic change will lead to significant vertical fiscal imbalances between the different layers of government. In addition we sh...

Hofmann, Michael; Kempkes, Gerhard; Seitz, Helmut

2008-01-01

250

Demographic factors social-economic development of the industrial city / ??????????????? ??????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????  

OpenAIRE

The author gives the evaluation of the demographic potential of Volgograd basing on the analysis of the main demographic indexes: fertility, mortality, nuptiality, migration. It is considered reproducing the population Volgograd, as process of the change the generations of the people through births and deaths. Happens to the estimation of the main demographic factors reproduction: total fertility rate factor to birth rate, gross- and net-factor. The executed forecast of the change to number o...

???????? ????? ???????, Sergeeva E. U.; ??????? ??? ????????????, Galenko M. V.

2009-01-01

251

A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation  

OpenAIRE

The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indi...

Jamal Abdul Nasir; Tahir, M. H.

2011-01-01

252

Demographic changes and processes in Negotin municipality settlement network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of demographic factors of the studied area points to the different demographic development models. Uneven economic and regional development of industry caused the regional demographic polarization of the population of Negotin municipality. In relatively short period, the transition has caused spontaneous urbanization and deagrarization. All that influenced the faster tempo of social and demographic processes, especially the migrations towards Negotin, which led to the developmental unevenness and regional polarization to the zone of population concentration (town and the suburban areas. Contrary to the town center, there are depopulation rural areas, with outstanding economic undevelopment.

Živkovi? Ljiljana

2006-01-01

253

[Demographic change and state income support: an incidence analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

"Starting from a simple, descriptive life-cycle model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, two income maintenance programs are introduced: a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system. The resulting government budget constraints entail interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of demographic trends. Several policy conflicts arise." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12316190

Von Weizsacker, R K

1989-01-01

254

Blood Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...

255

Demographics, Velocity Distributions, and Impact Type as Predictors of AIS 4+ Head Injuries in Motor Vehicle Crashes  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to determine differences between the United States-based NASS and CIREN and Australia-based ANCIS databases in occupant-, crash-, and vehicle-related parameters for AIS 4+ head injuries in motor vehicle crashes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine roles of the change in velocity (DV), crash type (frontal, far-side, nearside, rear impact), seatbelt use, and occupant position, gender, age, stature, and body mass in cranial traumas. Belted and unbelted non-ejected occupant (age >16 years) data from 1997–2006 were used for the NASS and CIREN datasets, and 2000–2010 for ANCIS. Vehicle model year, and occupant position and demographics including body mass index (BMI) data were obtained. Injuries were coded using AIS 1990–1998 update. Similarities were apparent across all databases: mean demographics were close to the mid-size anthropometry, mean BMI was in the normal to overweight range, and representations of extreme variations were uncommon. Side impacts contributed to over one-half of the ensemble, implying susceptibility to head trauma in this mode. Odds of sustaining head injury increased by 4% per unit increase in DV (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03–1.04, p<0.001; adjusted for other variables); one-half for belted compared to unbelted occupants (OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.37–0.61, p<0.001); nearside, then far-side had significantly higher odds than frontal, and no difference by gender or position (front-left, front-right). Similar crash- and occupant-related outcomes from the two continents indicate a worldwide need to revise the translation acceleration-based head injury criterion to include the angular component in an appropriate format for improved injury assessment and mitigation. PMID:22105402

Yoganandan, Narayan; Fitzharris, Michael; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.; Rinaldi, James; Maiman, Dennis J.; Fildes, Brian N.

2011-01-01

256

Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System  

OpenAIRE

Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) by showing the patterns and...

Seth Owusu-Agyei; Nettey, Obed Ernest A.; Charles Zandoh; Abubakari Sulemana; Robert Adda; Seeba Amenga-Etego; Cheikh Mbacke

2012-01-01

257

Critical pulse power components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Critical components for pulsed power conditioning systems will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on those components requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems, especially when operation at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time are necessary. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. In particular, opening switches are essentially nonexistent for most applications. Insulaton in all systems and components requires development and improvement. Efforts under way in technology base development of pulse power components will be discussed.

Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

1981-01-01

258

Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multitude of environmental problems abound in Tanzania. The problems range from declining land resources, de-vegetation, urban and air pollution, degradation of the marine environment to the destruction of biological diversity. A thorough analysis of these manifestations of environments decline reveal the presence of linkages to economic, political, cultural and demographic constraints which have been at the crux of Tanzania's efforts towards emancipation. We attested that societies are always dialect and integral parts of the global entity. As such the analysis of any societal problem can not be sufficiently tackled by basing on a 'micro level' societal specific factors. We need to expand our horizon and include 'macro level' elements which impinges on the society under study. Imperatively, influences on any environment, social or biophysical, whether positive or negative, emanates either or both from within the specific society and or from without. In our study we set out to provide an insight into the nature and character of man and environment interaction in Arumeru district, Northern Tanzania. We intended to investigate the extent to which changes in the household production patterns as a result of environmental stress and the consequent resource management strategies influence and are hitherto influenced by population growth. The aspects of demographic changes especially patterns of growth and settlement, agrarian production such as land tenure, food and cash uction such as land tenure, food and cash crop interventions, non-farm activities and management of the commons were studies. Further, local adaptation to crisis including environmental stress and emerging markets were explored. he theoretical model adopted in analysing the man-land environment relationship in Arumeru district and the ensuing findings, give legitimacy to the position that issues of population growth or decline cannot be separated from questions of economic and social development, or from the environmental concerns related to the management of resources both at global and local levels. We found out empirically that despite the dwindling natural resource base, the people in Arumeru still maintain their demographic dynamism. For them, it is a rational thing to do. The explanation for this phenomenon is not discrete, but spans the whole range of the population-resource continuum. From the demographic transition point of view, the society has not reached the threshold where child labour is valueless. In Arumeru, the children are still valued for their labour as they participate in both agro-pastoral related income generating activities. Further, children are still old age insurers. Thus, the age long traditions which favour the persistence of high fertility regimes are still in force. Having children is still a pleasure which costs nothing and hence the family size is rarely determined by the household's income. The interplay of proximate determinants of fertility is found to have an effect on the population increase in the district. People enter into marriage unions at very young ages, while the breastfeeding duration has drastically decreased in recent years. Furthermore, postpartum abstinence is no longer observed and incidences of pathological infertility have been tremendously reduced, thanks to modern medicine. All these factors support high fertility regimes. The argument that rapid population growth always leads to environmental decline and thus forces rural economies into diminishing returns, over-utilisation of resource and pauperisation is rejected. Despite the population increase and dwindling resource base in Arumeru, food security, rural incomes and standard of living have consistently improved throughout the century. The situation in the study area somehow accommodate the Boserupian model, where population growth triggers agricultural intensification, but in this case, the forces which triggers change did not emanate from within, but were externally generated. Institutional arrangements and the markets played a significant role in

259

An eco-evolutionary model for demographic and phenological responses in migratory birds  

OpenAIRE

Many migratory birds have changed their timing of arrival at breeding grounds in response to recent climate change. Understanding the adaptive value and the demographic consequences of these shifts are key challenges. To address these questions we extend previous models of phenological adaptation to climate change under territory competition to include feedback from population dynamics, winter survival and habitat productivity. We study effects of improved pre-breeding survival and of earlier...

Niclas Jonzén; Smallegange, Isabel M.; Jacob Johansson

2012-01-01

260

Demographic factors associated with knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms in a UK population-based survey.  

OpenAIRE

Greater public awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms might result in earlier presentation with improved cure by available treatments, but little is known about the extent of public knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms. We asked a sample of the general population about knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms and assessed demographic characteristics associated with differences in knowledge. A population-based telephone enquiry into knowledge of colorectal cancer-associated symptoms was con...

Yardley, C.; Glover, C.; Allen-mersh, T. G.

2000-01-01

261

The Effects of the Demographic Transition on Economic Growth : Implications for Japan  

OpenAIRE

Demographic transition implies severe challenges for high income nations, for instance Japan, as the population decreases due to declines in birth rates as well as the higher rate of elderly population. More women are entering the labor market which affects birth rates. In addition, technological progress has improved health care and standard of living, bringing up life expectancies. However, the elderly population is increasing, elevating the dependency ratio which dampens the economic growt...

Sundman, Marie-lor

2011-01-01

262

Demographic costs of inbreeding revealed by sex-specific genetic rescue effects  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Inbreeding can slow population growth and elevate extinction risk. A small number of unrelated immigrants to an inbred population can substantially reduce inbreeding and improve fitness, but little attention has been paid to the sex-specific effects of immigrants on such "genetic rescue". We conducted two subsequent experiments to investigate demographic consequences of inbreeding and genetic rescue in guppies. Results Populations established...

Zajitschek Felix; Rk, Zajitschek Susanne; Brooks Robert C

2009-01-01

263

Impact of demographic policy on population growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative overpopulation is eliminated. This represents the primary difference between the demographic law of socialism and the law of capitalism. In the Soviet Union a gradual decrease of the birthrate and the growth rate of population is evident. The industrialization of the country and collectivization of the peasant farms carried into effect within a short time by the Soviet rule ensured quick progress in economy. The high standard of economic and cultural development achieved in the Soviet Union soon affected the indices of the population's production. The birthrate in the Soviet Union was affected essentially by the causes acting toward its decrease as in the western countries, but under socialist conditions of production these asserted themselves largely in a different way. The experience of the Soviet Union demonstrates that by making use of the scientific and technical knowledge at the command of humankind, industrialization can be realized. PMID:12313935

Podyashchikh, P

1968-01-01

264

Societal implication and challenges of demographic change – some introductory remarks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This introduction into the special issue of European Countryside describes the need to move from knowledge to action and from simplification to complexification in contemporary discourses about demographic change. While the first movement arguably refers to the contributions of this issue the latter is a plea towards more specification and differentiation when investigating and assessing phenomena of demographic change.

?erni?-Mali Barbara

2014-03-01

265

Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

2012-01-01

266

Christian Schools and Demographic Change: Two Case Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores how two Christian school systems have responded to neighborhood demographic change. Researchers conducted interviews, attended meetings, and reviewed documents to explore two case studies--one of a school struggling to redefine its identity, purpose, and vision in response to demographic change, and another school that has…

Huyser, Mackenzi; Boerman-Cornell, Bill; DeBoer, Kendra

2011-01-01

267

China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

Peng, Xizhe

2013-01-01

268

Demographic Faultlines: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting…

Thatcher, Sherry M. B.; Patel, Pankaj C.

2011-01-01

269

An Eco-Evolutionary Model for Demographic and Phenological Responses in Migratory Birds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many migratory birds have changed their timing of arrival at breeding grounds in response to recent climate change. Understanding the adaptive value and the demographic consequences of these shifts are key challenges. To address these questions we extend previous models of phenological adaptation to climate change under territory competition to include feedback from population dynamics, winter survival and habitat productivity. We study effects of improved pre-breeding survival and of earlier food abundance peak. We show that phenological responses depend strongly on equilibrium population density via effects on territory competition. When density is high, improved pre-breeding survival affects selection pressures more than shifts of the resource peak. Under certain conditions, an advanced food peak can even select for later arrival due to competitive release. Improved pre-breeding survival has positive effects on population density that in many cases is stronger than negative effects of an advanced food peak. The fraction of young in the population decreases in all scenarios of change, but food peak shifts only affect population structure marginally unless population density is low. This work thus provides several missing links between phenological adaptation and demographic responses, and augments the toolbox for interpreting ongoing phenological shifts in migratory birds. We illustrate the utility of our model by explaining different patterns in demographic trends and phenological shifts in populations of Pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca across Western Europe.

Niclas Jonzén

2012-11-01

270

Improving the peer interactions of students with emotional and behavioral disorders through self-evaluation procedures: a component analysis and group application.  

OpenAIRE

We conducted two experiments examining the effects of a self-evaluation package on the peer interactions of students described as emotionally or behaviorally disordered. Experiment 1 assessed the additive effects of various components of a self-evaluation package on the frequency of inappropriate and appropriate peer interactions. The components assessed were rewards alone, rewards plus discussion, and self-evaluation plus rewards. Results showed limited effectiveness when rewards alone and r...

Kern, L.; Wacker, D. P.; Mace, F. C.; Falk, G. D.; Dunlap, G.; Kromrey, J. D.

1995-01-01

271

Demographic processes: past, present and future - selected issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This papers refers to demographic processes in the period from the 19th century through to the present and tries to define what they will look like in the future. Demographic trends i.a. relating to fertility, mortality, migrations, the process of family-union-household formation and dissolution, and the process of population ageing, are described by the concepts of demographic transformations: first, second and third. The transformation of demographic trends has coexisted and will coexist with globalization processes, though the scope of the mutual influence changes over time. Despite the fact that it takes place in various geographical regions, the transformation of demographic trends is characterised by high cultural diversity and socio-economic development.

Fr?tczak, Ewa Zofia

2013-01-01

272

Demographic and clinical characteristics of parapsoriasis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background an Aim: parapsoriasis is a rare chronic idiopathic dermatosis which commonly manifests with round or oval scaling and itching erythematosus plaques on trunk and extremities. Considering the size of the lesions, parapsoriasis is divided into two groups: small plaque and large plaque. Study of demographic characteristics of this disease may help to identify the high risk groups who are more susceptible to cutaneous lymphoma with high mortality as well as proper allocation of health service resources.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, affected parapsoriasis patients whom were referred to Razi Hospital in Tehran between April 2003 to March 2009 were studied. Three hundred and twenty patients were investigated for variables: age, sex, place of residence, location of the lesions and clinical subgroups according to the histopathology reports.Results: 53.4% of patients were female. The disease was most commonly observed in age group of 20 to 50 years and the mean age of the patients was 43.3 years. Eighty-five percent of the patients were inhabitant of Tehran province. 88.1% of patients had large plaque lesions and 11.9% had small plaque lesions. The most common sites of lesions were on the trunk (53.4% followed by the extremities (38.7%.Conclusion: Based on these findings, it was determined that parapsoriasis most commonly affects middle-aged women. Involvement of trunks and extremities were most commonly observed. Large plaque type was the most common type. 

Nafiseh Esmaeili

2012-12-01

273

Risk society and the second demographic transition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EnglishProminent "risk society" theorists such as Giddens and Beck have identifiedrisk as a fundamental organizing principle of contemporary society. Importantly, a major cause of riskawareness and anxiety in modern society is individualism . . a concept Lesthaeghe linked to changes infamily formation. In this regard, of the types of risk discussed in the sociological literature,"interpersonal risks" associated with cohabitation, marriage, and parenting are of obvious salience.This paper explores how the modern "risk society" thesis, and the concept of interpersonal risk couldmaterially contribute to understanding the second demographic transition.FrenchDes theorists connu tells que Giddens et Beck qui promeuvent "la société de risqué" ont identifié le risqué comme un principe fundamental de l'organisation de la société contemporaine. De l'importance est que l'individualisme, … un concept que Lesthaeghe a relié aux changements dans la formation de la famille, est une cause majeuire de la reconnaissance du risqué et de l'anxiété dans la société moderne. En ce qui concerne le risqué, de tous les genres de risqué discutés dans la literature sociologique, les risques "interpersonnels" associés à la cohabitation, le marriage et l'élevement des enfants sont plus communs. Ce papier examine la possibilité que l'idée d'une "société de risqué" moderne, et le concept du risqué interpersonnel pourraient contribuer à la comprehension de la deuxiéme transition démographique.

Hall, David R.

2002-01-01

274

THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demographic decline can create major dysfunctionalities not only on a social level but also from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. First, an accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, second, the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economic increase. The social-economic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All these impose a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

LIVIU RADU

2013-05-01

275

Regional differences in low birth weight in Spain: biological, demographic and socioeconomic variables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary The geographic and demographic dimensions of Spain, in terms of surface and number of inhabitants, and its heterogeneous socioeconomic development offer an adequate opportunity to study the provincial differences in birth weight from 1996 to 2010, focusing on possible factors determining the relative frequency of low birth weight. The study analysed geographic differences with regard to biological, demographic and socioeconomic factors that interfere with the female reproductive pattern. The variables considered here were: birth order, proportion of premature deliveries, mother's age, multiparity, mother's country of origin and professional qualifications. Two periods (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were compared by means of principal components analysis. An increase in the relative frequency of deliveries weighing less than 2500 g occurred in most of the 52 geographic units studied, differences being significant in 42. Only in five cases was there a non-significant reduction in the proportion of low weight births. The first component after principal component analysis indicated that low birth weight was positively related to maternal age and to multiple deliveries, and negatively to the mother's low professional qualification. The second component related positively to the incidence of premature deliveries and to non-Spanish status and negatively in the case of primiparous mothers. The progressive increase in low birth weight incidence observed in Spain from 1996 onwards has occurred with considerable variation in each province. In part, this diversity can be attributed to the unequal reproductive patterns of immigrant mothers. PMID:24524355

Fuster, Vicente; Zuluaga, Pilar; Colantonio, S E; Román-Busto, J

2015-01-01

276

Lab experiments in demographic fieldwork: Understanding gender dynamics in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Anthropological literature has long linked bridewealth payments to decision-making about fertility. Recent research underscores the significance of men's preferences regarding women's reproductive behavior, and suggests that bridewealth payments place constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. Yet because survey data on bridewealth are rare, and the collection of new survey data on bridewealth presents serious challenges, this explanation could not be tested. Objective: Our objective in this paper is to highlight the potential utility of lab experiments (in particular, vignette experiments for improving our understanding of gender relations in Africa, using the hypothesized effect of bridewealth on normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy as an illustration. Methods: We discuss our reasons for turning to lab experiments, and to vignette experiments in particular. We also summarize a series of studies (Horne, Dodoo, and Dodoo 2013; Dodoo, Horne, and Biney 2014 which have implemented our experimental approach. Results: Our experimental evidence shows that bridewealth payments are associated with greater normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. We also find that these negative effects of bridewealth are consistent across participant ages, and do not appear to be ameliorated by female schooling. Conclusions: We conclude that lab experiments in general (and vignette experiments in particular are underutilized methodological tools that may be useful for helping us gain a better understanding of the cultural context of gender relations in Africa; and that demographic research more generally may benefit from taking advantage of the strengths of experimental methods.

F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo

2014-12-01

277

Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

278

Other components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

279

Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

Dejan Mar?i?

2007-01-01

280

Demographics of Giant Planets--Insights from Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The demographics of giant planets arise from a combination of the physical properties and evolution of protoplanetary disks, the planet formation process itself, and the dynamical evolution of planets post-formation. In this talk, I will review each of these contributions to giant planet demographics with an emphasis on how future discoveries can be used to separate and constrain their effects. I will particularly discuss how giant planet demographics will constrain the mechanism by which giant planets form, an old theoretical problem on the cusp of an observational breakthrough.

Murray-Clay, Ruth

2014-06-01

281

The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart  

CERN Document Server

The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

Wilder, Stanley

2013-01-01

282

The verification of virtual community members socio-demographic profile  

CERN Document Server

This article considers the current problem of investigation and development of the method of web-members' socio-demographic characteristics' profile validation based on analysis of socio-demographic characteristics. The topicality of the paper is determined by the necessity to identify the web-community member by means of computer-linguistic analysis of their information track (all information about web-community members, which posted on the Internet). The formal model of basic socio-demographic characteristics of virtual communities' member is formed. The algorithm of these characteristics verification is developed.

Fedushko, Solomia; Peleschyshyn, Andriy; Syerov, Yuriy

2013-01-01

283

Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105,000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. PMID:25186307

Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

2014-10-01

284

Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137?823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. PMID:25399021

Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

2014-12-01

285

Demographic and clinical characteristics of UK military veterans attending a psychological therapies service.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims and method To investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics of subgroups of UK veterans attending a dedicated psychological therapies service following the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) treatment model. Veterans accessing a newly established service in the north-west were categorised into three groups: early service leavers, those with a physical disability, and substance and/or alcohol misusers. Anxiety, depression and social functioning were measured pre- and post-treatment. Results Veterans vary in their demographic and clinical characteristics as well as in treatment efficacy, as measured by the post-treatment scores on probable depression and anxiety. Therapy appears to be most effective in early service leavers, whereas veterans with a physical disability or a substance or alcohol misuse problem tend not to do as well in terms of symptoms of depression or anxiety. Clinical implications This study highlights the importance of targeting different veteran subgroups for dedicated psychological therapy. PMID:25505626

Giebel, Clarissa M; Clarkson, Paul; Challis, David

2014-12-01

286

Demographic and clinical characteristics of UK military veterans attending a psychological therapies service  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims and method To investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics of subgroups of UK veterans attending a dedicated psychological therapies service following the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) treatment model. Veterans accessing a newly established service in the north-west were categorised into three groups: early service leavers, those with a physical disability, and substance and/or alcohol misusers. Anxiety, depression and social functioning were measured pre- and post-treatment. Results Veterans vary in their demographic and clinical characteristics as well as in treatment efficacy, as measured by the post-treatment scores on probable depression and anxiety. Therapy appears to be most effective in early service leavers, whereas veterans with a physical disability or a substance or alcohol misuse problem tend not to do as well in terms of symptoms of depression or anxiety. Clinical implications This study highlights the importance of targeting different veteran subgroups for dedicated psychological therapy. PMID:25505626

Giebel, Clarissa M.; Clarkson, Paul; Challis, David

2014-01-01

287

75 FR 45173 - Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information on Applicants...Commission (EEOC) form, Demographic Information on Applicants...agencies, along with other demographic information, as part of their...application. DATES: This change will become effective...

2010-08-02

288

Wielowymiarowa Analiza Zmian Demograficznych W Polsce W ?wietle Koncepcji Zrównowa?onego Rozwoju / Multivariate Data Analysis of Demographic Change in Poland in the Light of Sustainable Development Concept  

OpenAIRE

Sustainable development assumes improvement in the quality of living of present and future generations by achieving social, economic and environmental balance. Demographic changes play a significant role in this process due to their long-term impact on social and economic outcomes. The population of Poland is relatively young in comparison to other EU members but it is ageing very rapidly. This demographic process raises challenges for social policy, which include changes in the quality of li...

Justyna Wilk; Tomasz Bart?omowicz

2013-01-01

289

Digital pathology evaluation of complement C4d component deposition in the kidney allograft biopsies is a useful tool to improve reproducibility of the scoring  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Complement C4d component deposition in kidney allograft biopsies is an established marker of antibody-mediated rejection. In the Banff 07 classification of renal allograft pathology, semi-quantitative evaluation of the proportion of C4d-positive peritubular capilaries (PTC) is used. We aimed to explore the potential of digital pathology tools to obtain quantitative and reproducible measure of C4d deposition in the renal allograft tissue. 34 routine kidney allograft b...

Laurinavicius Arvydas; Brazdziute Ernesta

2011-01-01

290

Studies, analyses, available materials and technologies for plasma facing components - Applications and future improvements for negative Ion sources of neutral beam injectors  

OpenAIRE

One of the most critical issues for present fusion machines, and even more for next generation ITER and fusion reactor prototypes, is the reliability and fatigue & wearing resistance of plasma facing components. The engineering problem is very challenging and the research in this field requires a number of multidisciplinary competences such as thermo-mechanics, thermo-hydraulics and the knowledge of materials capable of resisting to thermal fatigue cycles under intense irradiation for very lo...

Pavei, Mauro

2012-01-01

291

The Correlation between Effective Factors of E-learning and Demographic Variables in a Post-Graduate Program of Virtual Medical Education in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an  attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc) studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60); a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test) by using SPSS (V.16). The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05); whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (P<0.05). Knowing the extent to which these factors can influence effective e-learning can help managers and designers to make the right decisions about educational components of e-learning, i.e. content, educator, system and learner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners. PMID:25415821

Golband, Farnoosh; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mirhosseini, Fakhrossadat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

2014-11-01

292

Demographic parameters of individual E.coli within and among controlled environment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In most biodemographic studies, demographic parameters, such as lifespan and reproduction, are quantified from populations without controlling environmental or genetic influences. To accurately quantify the demographic parameters, we need to isolate the system from stochastic extrinsic factors. This can be achieved by working on isogenic populations under controlled environments. We use a microfluidic device to limit stochastic processes to their molecular components. The high throughput microfluidic device traps thousands of individual E. coli cells and tracks them over their lifespan. The devise allows a precise control of the culture media and temperature, i.e. the extrinsic environment. Preliminary results indicate substantial variation of lifespan and reproduction within the same environment, and significant shifts in mean lifespan and reproduction among environments. Variance in lifespan and reproduction decreases with increased temperature, as do the means. This study is setting the baseline observations on a range of temperature. This experimental setup opens a prolific research line, which will allow us to explore demographic effects of nutrients availability, molecular signals from bacteria’s host, and antibiotics on individual cells. Those individual level effects can then be scaled to the population level.

Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

293

Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution  

OpenAIRE

This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using more robust estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national level. We also take into account the urbanization rate and the average household size neglec...

Neumayer, Eric

2004-01-01

294

The Circumstances and Effects of Demographic Crisis in Poland  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this article is to answer the ?uestion: what caused the demographic crises in Poland after 1989? Poland used to be a country with one of the highest TFR (Total Fertility Rate) in the Communist Block. During the last twenty years its TFR dropped until Poland became a country with the lowest TFR in Europe. This demographic process is responsible for an increasingly aging society, which means there is an increasing proportion of old people (60+). This process undermines the balan...

Balicki, Janusz

2010-01-01

295

Olfactory Function : The Influence of Demographic, Cognitive, and Genetic Factors  

OpenAIRE

Olfactory function is affected by demographic, cognitive, and genetic factors. In the present thesis, three empirical studies investigated individual differences in olfactory ability. Study I explored demographic and cognitive correlates in common olfactory tasks; odor detection, odor discrimination, and odor identification. The results indicated that old age influenced performance negatively in all tasks, and that semantic memory proficiency and executive functioning were related to odor dis...

Hedner, Margareta

2013-01-01

296

A global view on demographic pressure and labour market participation  

OpenAIRE

Demographic change across the globe puts pressure on labour markets and public finances. Most studies on ageing focus on the projected development of the old age dependency ratio, being the ratio of persons 65 or older relative to the working age population. This ratio gives a very incomplete picture of the (fiscal) pressure from demographic changes. In this study, besides the share of the dependent population composed of the young and the old, we also include the share of the working age pop...

Groot, Loek; Peeters, Marga

2011-01-01

297

ROMANIAN DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND THE INVESTMENTS ON CAPITAL MARKET  

OpenAIRE

The growing interest for investments in capital markets creates the need for studies focused on monitoring and analysing demographic environment in which the investors operate. Its analysis may represent a starting point for finding out opportunities and threats brought by environment for the evolution of Financial Investment Services Companies in Romania. Our paper starts from the assumption that the behaviour of the investor in financial services is influenced by the demographic factors. We...

Petric Ioana Ancuta

2010-01-01

298

Fiscal sustainability and policy rules: Under changing demographic forecasts  

OpenAIRE

All practical evaluations of fiscal sustainability that include the effects of population ageing must utilize demographic forecasts. It is well known that such forecasts are uncertain, and that has been taken into account in some studies by using stochastic population projections jointly with economic models. We develop this approach further by introducing regular demographic forecast revisions that are embedded in stochastic population projections. This allows us to separate systematically, ...

Lassila, Jukka; Valkonen, Tarmo; Alho, Juha M.

2011-01-01

299

DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGES AND SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC PENSIONS EXPENDITURES  

OpenAIRE

The demographic changes that are likely to be experienced in the European Union in the coming decades determine governments to find solutions in order to provide the sustainability of social public expendituresThe literature usually focuses on elements which underline the effects of macroeconomic parameters on the size of public pension expenditure: Samuelson (1958), Cass and Yaari (1966), Blanchard (1985), and Gertler (1999). However demographic effects, notably fertility rate and old-age de...

Milo? Marius Cristian

2012-01-01

300

Labour force sustainability under conditions of demographic ageing  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents the impact of demographic ageing on the size and age composition of the labour force in Serbia. With an unchanged rate of activity, demographic ageing will lead to a reduction in the size of work force. After leaving the working age of baby-boom generations after 2010 a continuous decline of working age population is expected. Even expected immigration after 2020 in 90% cases will not prevent its further decline. Certain institutional measures, such as moving the age limit ...

Radivojevi? Biljana; Nikitovi? Vladimir

2010-01-01

301

The economic impact of demographic structure in OECD countries  

OpenAIRE

We examine the impact of demographic structure, the proportion of the population in each age group, on growth, savings, investment, hours, interest rates and inflation using a panel VAR estimated from data for 20 OECD economies, mainly for the period 1970-2007. This flexible dynamic structure with interactions among the main macroeconomic variables allows us to estimate long-run effects of demographic structure on the individual countries. Our estimates confirm the importance of these effects.

Aksoy, Yunus; Grasl, Tobias; Smith, Ron P.

2012-01-01

302

Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees  

OpenAIRE

The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits – short turnover times – are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification...

Baker, Timothy R.; Pennington, R. Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F.; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard, Gerardo; Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Ie?da; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J. W.

2014-01-01

303

Demographic Change and Pharmaceuticals' Stock Returns  

OpenAIRE

We analyze how demographic change affected profits and returns across pharmaceutical industries over the last twenty years. Fluctuations in different age group sizes influence the estimated demand changes for age-sensitive drugs, such as antibacterials for young, antidepressants for middle-aged, and antithrombotics for old people. These demand changes are predictable as soon as a specific age group is born. We use consumption and demographic data to forecast future consumption demand growth f...

Manuel Ammann; Rachel Berchtold; Ralf Seiz

2011-01-01

304

Demographic change and industry-specific innovation patterns in Germany  

OpenAIRE

In Germany, a thread to growth is perceived from demographic change. Demographic change means that a population is aging with the perspective of shrinking. The key question is whether an aging and shrinking population has enough talents to sustain the innovation process that is at the basis of our prosperity. In this paper we deal with the age distributions of inventivity. Specifically, we confirm past conjectures that inventive productivity is age dependent and unequally distributed among in...

Henseke, Golo; Tivig, Thusnelda

2007-01-01

305

Demographic change and the labour share of income  

OpenAIRE

Despite similar levels of per capita income, education, and technology the development of labour shares in OECD countries has displayed different patterns since 1960. The paper examines the role of demography in this regard. Employing an overlapping generations model we first examine the mechanisms through which demographic change can affect labour shares. Model simulations show that demographic effects on the labour share are larger in open than in closed economies. Empirical estimates, cond...

Schmidt, Torsten; Vosen, Simeon

2010-01-01

306

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

OpenAIRE

The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had sig...

Said Pournaghash-Tehrani; Zahra Feizabadi

2007-01-01

307

Demographic dynamics and population issues in the Mediterranean  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: The Mediterranean Basin is an area of sharply contrasting trends in demographic growth and socio-economic development; the effects of their interactions are becoming increasingly urgent and difficult to manage. Fewer children are being born - whether this is due, as Adolphe Landry would have said, to an individual principle of rationalising life or, as for Frank Notestein and Kingsley Davis, supporters of the demographic transition theory, to the emergence of a modern form of econom...

Pace, Roberta; Parant, Alain

2014-01-01

308

Demographic Trends in Texas Bond Elections  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to hold a successful bond election is a vital part of the superintendency in Texas. Aging facilities, increasing student enrollments, and technological needs exacerbate the need to gain community support for capital improvement projects. Appropriate facilities are needed not only for the physical space they provide, but also because…

Hickey, Wesley D.; Bingham Linn, Genie; Vaughn, Vance

2008-01-01

309

Coaching as a Key Component in Teachers' Professional Development: Improving Classroom Practices in Head Start Settings. OPRE Report 2012-4  

Science.gov (United States)

Head Start CARES (Classroom-based Approaches and Resources for Emotion and Social Skill Promotion) is a large-scale, national research demonstration that was designed to test the effects of a one-year program aimed at improving pre-kindergarteners' social and emotional readiness for school. To facilitate the delivery of the program, teachers…

Lloyd, Chrrishana M.; Modlin, Emmily L.

2012-01-01

310

????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? (independent component analysis) ?? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????  

OpenAIRE

??????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? (Independent Component Analysis) ?? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????. ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? (?????? ?? ?????? ?...

????????????????, ??????????

2008-01-01

311

A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi-component and the quality control of TCMs and TCM prescriptions. PMID:25618711

Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

2015-03-01

312

Improved estimation of parametric images of cerebral glucose metabolic rate from dynamic FDG-PET using volume-wise principle component analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Parametric images can represent both spatial distribution and quantification of the biological and physiological parameters of tracer kinetics. The linear least square (LLS) method is a well-estimated linear regression method for generating parametric images by fitting compartment models with good computational efficiency. However, bias exists in LLS-based parameter estimates, owing to the noise present in tissue time activity curves (TTACs) that propagates as correlated error in the LLS linearized equations. To address this problem, a volume-wise principal component analysis (PCA) based method is proposed. In this method, firstly dynamic PET data are properly pre-transformed to standardize noise variance as PCA is a data driven technique and can not itself separate signals from noise. Secondly, the volume-wise PCA is applied on PET data. The signals can be mostly represented by the first few principle components (PC) and the noise is left in the subsequent PCs. Then the noise-reduced data are obtained using the first few PCs by applying 'inverse PCA'. It should also be transformed back according to the pre-transformation method used in the first step to maintain the scale of the original data set. Finally, the obtained new data set is used to generate parametric images using the linear least squares (LLS) estimation method. Compared with other noise-removal method, the proposed method can achieve high statistical reliability in the generated parametric images. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated both with computer simulation and with clinical dynamic FDG PET study.

Dai, Xiaoqian; Tian, Jie; Chen, Zhe

2010-03-01

313

China’s Savings and Current Account Balance: A Demographic Transition Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we build an overlapping generation model to analyze how China’s family planning policy affects the demographic structure and the dependency ratios. We also employ the Cointegration Test and Granger Causality Test to examine the relationship between Chinese population dependency ratios and the national savings rate, as well as the relationship between relative productivity differences and the national current account balance. We find that the family planning policy can be sustainable with respect to these metrics. The current account balance reflects the transfer of savings over time and space. We posit that the demographic structure determines the savings transfer over time, while the relative productivity difference determines the savings transfer across the space. This transfer does not change the total welfare calculated on a national or generational basis. Consequently, focusing on improving the consumption rate to boost the economy without consideration of demographic structure transition warrants further serious discussion. Similarly, too much attention to short-term current account surplus or deficit is not productive.

Chao Zhu

2011-11-01

314

Alternative methods to attach components in printed circuit boards to improve their recyclability / Métodos alternativos de fijación de componentes de circuitos impresos para mejorar su reciclabilidad  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las Placas de Circuitos Impresos constituyen la base de la industria electrónica. Sin embargo, generan residuos de difícil eliminación y reciclaje, debido a la diversidad de materiales y componentes presentes y su difícil separación. La sustitución de soldaduras de Pb-Sn por aleaciones libres de plo [...] mo intenta minimizar la toxicidad que implica la presencia de Pb, pero no aborda la separación de los componentes para su posterior reutilización y/o reciclaje. Este artículo presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre el problema ambiental que constituyen las placas de circuitos impresos, el estudio de alternativas de fijación, pruebas de fiabilidad para comparar con las placas convencionales y sistemas comerciales para validar o servir de base para futuras investigaciones, enfocadas hacia el desmontaje de PCI. Además, se muestran algunos estudios incipientes mediante prototipos para la realización de pruebas visuales y funcionales. Abstract in english Printed circuit boards (PCB), which form the basis of the electronics industry, generate wastes that are difficult to dispose of and recycle due to the diversity of their materials and components and their difficult separation. The replacement of Pb-Sn welding for lead-free alloys to attach componen [...] ts in printed circuit boards is an attempt to minimize the problem of Pb toxicity, but it does not change the problem of separation of the components for later reuse and/or recycling. This article presents a review of the environmental problem of printed circuit boards, the initial development of alternative fixation studies, and reliability tests for comparison with conventional boards and commercial systems to validate or serve as a basis for future research, focused on PCB disassembly for recycling. At present, initial studies were performed by using prototypes for visual and functional tests.

André, Canal-Marques; Maria Rita, Ortega-Vega; José-María, Cabrera; Célia de, Fraga-Malfatt.

2014-08-01

315

How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation, t-test, Anova and Tukey analysis. As a result of this research; it has been seen that, there is no statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees work at hotel establishments considering their gender and marital status. Besides, it has been understood that, there is a statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees considering their ages, education levels, incomes, and length of time in tourism sector.

Derya KARA

2010-12-01

316

Estimating components of variance in demographic parameters of Tawny Owls, Strix aluco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Survival rates of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco were estimated using recapture and recovery data from approximately 20,000 nestling and adult owls ringed between 1980 and 1999 in southern Finland. Survival rates averaged 33% in the first year of life, 64% in the second, and 73% in subsequent years, but varied dramatically among years. Approximately 50% of annual variation in survival could be explained by stage of the vole cycle and severity of winter weather. Capture probabilities, an index of breeding propensity, varied dramatically among years, and could almost entirely be explained by the vole cycle, superimposed on a long-term increase in capture effort. Matrix models based on mean values in each year of the vole cycle, predict that in 2 out of 3 years, the population would decline by 13%-15% per year, offset by a large increase in the 3rd year. Numbers of nesting pairs are predicted to be low in one of three years, with no long-term trend, consistent with observed estimates of active nests.

Saurola, P.

2004-01-01

317

Estimating components of variance in demographic parameters of Tawny Owls, Strix aluco  

OpenAIRE

Survival rates of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) were estimated using recapture and recovery data from approximately 20,000 nestling and adult owls ringed between 1980 and 1999 in southern Finland. Survival rates averaged 33% in the first year of life, 64% in the second, and 73% in subsequent years, but varied dramatically among years. Approximately 50% of annual variation in survival could be explained by stage of the vole cycle and severity of winter weather. Capture probabilities, an index of br...

Saurola, P.; Francis, C. M.

2004-01-01

318

Influence of alumina component on melt formation in sintering process and sinter quality improving technology; Shoketsuko yueki seisei ni oyobosu alumina seibun no eikyo to hinshitsu kaizen gijutsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been intended to suppress unfavorable influence of Al2O3 on production rate, product yield and sinter quality. Therefore, discussions were given by using a pot test and a factory experiment on a technology to build a `magnetite + fine calcium ferrite + silicate slag` (MCS) structure (a combination method for `a high-rate mixture of FeO + use of coarser limestone` (FS)). Building in the MCS structure can suppress unfavorable effect of Al2O3 on product yield and sinter quality. A method to combine the `high-rate mixture of FeO` with the `high-rate mixture of FeO + use of coarser limestone` increases this structure and brings about the effects of improving the product yield and sinter quality and reducing NOx emission. Furthermore, the FS method increases this structure still further and maintains the productivity. The MCS structure contains Al2O3 at a level of more than two times greater than in the average sinter ratio. In the factory experiment of the combination method for the `high-rate mixture of FeO + use of coarser limestone`, effects of improving the product yield by 1.3% and RDI by 1.5% were verified. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Hosotani, Y.; Konno, N.; Kabuto, S.; Kitamura, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Abe, T.

1997-06-01

319

The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs. Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications, psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%, middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years, high school educated (62.4%, low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income, and received Medicaid (35.9% or Medicare (12.6%. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. One-quarter (25.6% of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7% reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7% reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ? 2. Diabetes mellitus was common (35.8%, and moderate/severe depression was present in 16% of participants. Participants were sedentary (835.3 ± 1,644.2 Kcal burned per week, obese (59.7%, and had poor global physical health, poor eating habits, high health literacy, and good overall mental health. Conclusions A majority of patients in the CAATCH trial exhibited adverse lifestyle behaviors, and had significant medical and psychosocial barriers to adequate BP control. Trial outcomes will shed light on the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for BP control when implemented in real-world medical settings that serve high numbers of low-income hypertensive African-Americans with multiple co-morbidity and significant barriers to behavior change.

Diaz-Gloster Marleny

2011-09-01

320

Modelling the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in South Africa and the likely impact of interventions  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes an approach to incorporating the impact of HIV/AIDS and the effects of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes into a cohort component projection model of the South African population. The modelled HIV-positive population is divided into clinical and treatment stages, and it is demonstrated that the age profile and morbidity profile of the HIV-positive population is changing significantly over time. HIV/AIDS is projected to have a substantial demographic impact in ...

Rob Dorrington; Johnson, Leigh F.

2006-01-01

321

Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies. PMID:24916007

Hope, Andrew G; Ho, Simon Y W; Malaney, Jason L; Cook, Joseph A; Talbot, Sandra L

2014-09-01

322

Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kombewa HDSS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) grew out of the Kombewa Clinical Research Centre in 2007 and has since established itself as a platform for the conduct of regulated clinical trials, nested studies and local disease surveillance. The HDSS is located in a rural part of Kisumu County, Western Kenya, and covers an area of about 369 km(2) along the north-eastern shores of Lake Victoria. A dynamic cohort of 141 956 individuals drawn from 34 718 households forms the HDSS surveillance population. Following a baseline survey in 2011, the HDSS continues to monitor key population changes through routine biannual household surveys. The intervening period between set-up and baseline census was used for preparatory work, in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping. Routine surveys capture information on individual and households including residency, household relationships, births, deaths, migrations (in and out) and causes of morbidity (syndromic incidence and prevalence) as well as causes of death (verbal autopsy). The Kombewa HDSS platform is used to support health research activities, that is clinical trials and epidemiological studies evaluating diseases of public health importance including malaria, HIV and global emerging infectious diseases such as dengue fever. PMID:25009309

Sifuna, Peter; Oyugi, Mary; Ogutu, Bernhards; Andagalu, Ben; Otieno, Allan; Owira, Victorine; Otsyula, Nekoye; Oyieko, Janet; Cowden, Jessica; Otieno, Lucas; Otieno, Walter

2014-08-01

323

Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

Abdoul Hossain Madani

2010-01-01

324

Memory-endowed US cities and their demographic interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in a European country (Spain), indicating more coherent evolution in US cities. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (such as the American Civil War) or economic crisis (such as the 1929 Stock Market Crash). PMID:25551139

Hernando, A; Hernando, R; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

2015-01-01

325

On-Line Monitoring and Dynamic Feature Trending as a Means to Improve In-Service Inspection, Maintenance, and Long-Term Assessment of Systems and Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent publication of an international standard on vibration monitoring of reactor internal structures (IEC 61502, standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission) concludes a long-standing development of methods for a new type of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control system. This new system differs from traditional monitoring systems, as it is aimed primarily at early failure detection. Useful information is provided to plant operators, but in particular to the inspection/maintenance personnel. Powerful modern computer technology allows - in an effective manner - correlation and spectral analysis, feature extraction and trending, alert level monitoring, and remote data/signature transmission of dynamic process signals such as neutron noise, vibration signals, pressure noise, etc. The signature and feature trends are stored in a central databank and form a useful reference for assessment of components and systems in case of actual incipient failure development or at the estimated end of the plant lifetime as part of the aging condition assessment measures.The standard IEC 61502 is used as an example for early failure detection and on-line condition monitoring methods based on signature analysis and feature vector monitoring in general. The reasons/background for structuring this particular standard in a mandatory and an optional part as well as the resulting consequences are explained. But emphasis is also placed on demonstration of the principlso placed on demonstration of the principles, i.e., measurement analysis and usefulness of such methods for maintenance and refurbishment strategies. The transferability of the methods is discussed when applied for other tasks, for instance, for condition/aging assessment of process instrumentation

326

Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (? 4400 ?g DM1/m{sup 2}) and 30 mg/kg (? 6000 ?g DM1/m{sup 2}) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 ?g DM1/m{sup 2}). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic activity. • When conjugated in T-DM1, higher doses of DM1 can be tolerated. • Antibody-drug conjugates may improve the therapeutic window for cytotoxic agents.

Poon, Kirsten Achilles, E-mail: achilles.kirsten@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Tibbitts, Jay [UCB, Brussels (Belgium); Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States)

2013-12-01

327

Demographic Factors and Knowledge Sharing Quality among Malaysian Government Officers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of the important elements in knowledge management. Previous works indicate that employees are reluctant to share knowledge among themselves. Many factors impede knowledge sharing among employees in organizations. One of those factors is demography. The purpose of this study is to find out the differences among government officers’ knowledge sharing quality in terms of demographic factors. A survey of 48 respondents using questionnaire as data collection method was conducted. The results show that demographic variables are not significant predictors to government officers’ knowledge sharing quality.

Mohd Bakhari Ismail

2009-12-01

328

Ecological and demographic consequences of a nuclear war  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of a nuclear war upon ecological and demographic processes is estimated. The direct effect of nuclear detonations, the radioactive contamination of territories, the pollution by heavy metals and acid rain, as well as the effect of the sharp decline in temperature of the atmosphere ('nuclear winter') are taken into consideration. Estimated is the extent of destruction for the ecosystems of different types. The recovery of ecosystems is shown to be extremely slow or impossible. Demographic and genetic predictions for the nuclear war consequences are presented for various regions of the world. (author)

329

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spirituality. At the end, discussion and conclusion of the study is given.

Huma Ali

2011-10-01

330

Motivating the population to cope with the demographic change  

OpenAIRE

The effects of the demographic challenge will change the nature of politics and the emphasis of political sectors over the next 20 years, especially on a local level. This calls for new ways of thinking, new social skills and a new frame of awareness to allow for sustainable development. The community of Illingen in the Saarland, a town of 18,000 residents, has not denied the demographic change, but has accepted it. It shows how the populace, politics and administration have been confronted w...

Ko?nig, Armin

2009-01-01

331

Macroeconomic impacts of demographic change in Scotland: a computable general equilibrium analysis  

OpenAIRE

This paper combines a multi-period economic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling framework with a demographic model to analyse the macroeconomic impact of the projected demographic trends in Scotland. Demographic trends are defined by the existing fertility-mortality rates and the level of annual net-migration. We employ a combination of a demographic and a CGE simulation to track the impact of changes in demographic structure upon macroeconomic variables under different scenarios f...

Lisenkova, Katya

2007-01-01

332

Índices de seleção no aprimoramento simultâneo dos componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro / Selection index for simultaneously improving fruit production components of assai palm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a estratégia seletiva mais adequada para o incremento simultâneo de componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea). Implantou-se um experimento com 25 progênies de meio-irmãos, no Município de Santa Izabel, PA, tendo-se utilizado o delineam [...] ento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcela de cinco plantas. Os índices de seleção de Smith & Hazel, Williams, e Mulamba & Mock foram aplicados em três estratégias seletivas. Foram utilizados, como pesos econômicos, os coeficientes de variação genéticos, a herdabilidade, a razão entre a correlação genética do caráter selecionado com a produção de frutos, e a somatória de todos os caracteres que compõem o índice e a produção de frutos. Aponderação pela razão das correlações permitiu que os índices de seleção discriminassem as melhores progênies nas diferentes estratégias de seleção avaliadas. A seleção simultânea por meio do índice de Mulamba & Mock, quanto ao número de meses em frutificação, ao número de cachos colhidos, à produção de frutos e ao número de ráquilas no cacho, estima ganhos de forma mais robusta. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the most appropriate strategy to simultaneously increase fruit production components of assai palm (Euterpe oleracea). An experiment with 25 half-sib progenies was carried out in the county of Santa Isabel, PA, Brazil, using a randomized complete block des [...] ign with four replicates and five plants per plot. The Smith & Hazel, Williams, and Mulamba & Mock's selection indexes were applied in three selective strategies. The coefficients of genetic variation, heritability, the ratio between the genetic correlation of the trait under selection and fruit yield, and the sum of all genetic correlations between the traits that comprise the index and fruit yield were used as economic weights. Weighting of the correlation ratio allowed the selection indexes to discriminate the best progenies in the different selection strategies evaluated. Simultaneous selection by the Mulamba & Mock index, as to the number of fruiting months, number of bunches harvested, fruit yield, and number of rachilles per bunch, robustly estimates genetic gains.

Davi Henrique Lima, Teixeira; Maria do Socorro Padilha de, Oliveira; Flávia Maria Avelar, Gonçalves; José Airton Rodrigues, Nunes.

2012-02-01

333

Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (~4400 ?g DM1/m(2)) and 30 mg/kg (~ 6000 ?g DM1/m(2)) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2mg/kg (1600 ?g DM1/m(2)). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. PMID:24035823

Poon, Kirsten Achilles; Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph; Tibbitts, Jay; Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa

2013-12-01

334

Experience and further improvement of ISI on steam generator tubing and RPVs with equipment and software developed by Siemens, applicable to all types of LWR components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experience with mechanized in-service inspections of light water reactors in Germany, along with that with in-service inspections abroad following different code requirements, has been encompassing the past 16 years. New experience and results were obtained recently by the implementation of advanced inspection systems for LWR pressure vessel and primary circuits. The system comprises a streamlined manipulating concept, e.g. for RPV inspection, such as the central mast manipulator, which proves to be easily adaptable to different RPV types and geometries along with that with the WWER type. The so-called ALOK technique has also been put into practice providing complete A-scan information and allowing sensitive detection of defects and clear discrimination of background noise. Other problem areas are associated with complex geometries such as those of the nozzles or with materials which do not lend themselves easily to a standard inspection such as trimetal welds. The solution to these problems is offered by the phased array technique with UT tomography as the signal processing technique. Another significant area of PWR-ISI is the inspection of SG tubing. An automated defect detection system has been developed and field-proven for further reliability and performance improvement or optimization. This system is based on a specifically developed multifrequency mixing method which has demonstrated high capacity for signal to noise ratio enhancement (e.g., by suppressioise ratio enhancement (e.g., by suppression of tube sheet and roller expansion signals) as well as for close-margin determination of tube wall degradation. The automated system also helps to eliminate the influence of the human factor in the tedious scanning through all the tube data available. The modular design of the channel head manipulator also allows for tube repair and UT inspection of welds. (author). 20 figs

335

Discussion on an informative system set-up for the registration and processing of reliability data on FBR components in view of its application to design and safety studies and plant exploitation improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the set-up and management activities carried-out by ENEA-VEL in collaboration with NIER in the development of a reliability data bank on fast reactor components; this data bank consists of an informative system implemented on the IBM 3090 computer of the ENEA centre of Bologna starting from the software of the CEDB, set-up by CCR Euratom of Ispra for the registration of reliability data on thermal reactor components. This report will contain a detailed description of all the modules (engineering, operating, etc.) provided in the informative system and of the modifications introduced by ENEA in order to adapt them to the peculiarities of the fast reactors and to increase its flexibility; a short description of the available data processing methods will be also included. It will be followed by a comparison between the results obtained applying the classical methods and the particular ones set-up by ENEA: this comparison will be useful to demonstrate the importance of the method applied in order to obtain significative reliability processed data. This report will be also useful to show the importance of the set-up data bank in the improvement of the component design and of the plant safety and exploitation with particular reference to the research of the critical areas and to the definition of the best inspection and maintenance programs

336

Demographic differences between health care workers who did or did not respond to a safety and organizational culture survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Areas for institutional improvement to enhance patient safety are commonly identified by surveying health care workers' (HCWs attitudes, values, beliefs, perceptions and assumptions regarding institutional practices. An ideal response rate of 100% is rarely achieved in such surveys, and non-response bias can occur when non-respondents differ from respondents on a dimension likely to influence survey conclusions. The conditions for non-response bias to occur can be detected by comparing demographic characteristics of respondents and non-respondents and relating any differences to findings in the literature of differences in the construct of interest as a function of these demographic characteristics. The current study takes this approach. Findings All 5,609 HCWs at a university medical center were invited to participate in a survey measuring safety and organizational culture (response rate = 53.40%. Respondents indicated their professional group, gender, age group, years of working in the hospital and executive function. Because all HCWs were invited, the demographic composition of the group who did not respond was known. Differences in the demographic composition of respondents and non-respondents were compared using separate Pearson's chi-square tests for each demographic characteristic. Nurses and clinical workers were generally more likely to respond than were physicians, laboratory workers and non-medical workers. Male HCWs were less likely to respond than were females, HCWs aged younger than 45 years old had a lower response rate than did HCWs aged 45 to 54 years old, HCWs who had worked in the hospital for less than 5 years were less likely to respond than were those who had worked in the hospital for 5 years or more and HCWs without an executive function were less likely to respond than were executives. Conclusions Demographic characteristics can be linked to response rates and need to be considered in conducting surveys among HCWs. The possibility of non-response bias can be reduced by conducting analyses separately as a function of relevant demographic characteristics, sampling a higher percentage of groups that are known to be less likely to respond, or weighting responses with the reciprocal of the response rate for the respective demographic group.

Nap Raoul E

2011-09-01

337

Improvement in functional characteristics of aluminum-silicon cast components through the utilization of a novel electromagnetic treatment of liquid melts  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present dissertation the study of Electromagnetic Stirring (ES) and Electromagnetic Stirring and Vibration (ESV) techniques in several Al-Si hypo and hypereutectic alloys were conducted. Five ES and ESV workstations were designed and tested in order to develop a technology capable of conducting melt treatments on Al-Si hypereutectic alloys at temperatures above liquidus. The 390 series alloys were selected because they have shown comparable wear characteristics to cast iron (currently used for cylinder liner applications) three times higher thermal conductivity, the difference in thermal expansion coefficient thermal between the Al-Si alloys was 319 alloy. The ES technique was effectively used in a semi-solid state to refine the microstructure of the 319 alloy used to cast engine blocks. For instance the ES treatment was capable of reducing the grain of the 319 alloy size by 600%, and partially eliminates the dendrites. However, the ES treatment had negligible effect on Al-Si eutectic, Mg and Cu enriched phases and was limited to the semi-solid state and for hypoeutectic alloys. The ESV technique was successfully implemented to modify the primary Si particles in Al-Si hypereutectic (390.1(I), 390.1(II), 393.2(I) and 393.2(II)) alloys at temperatures as high as ˜100°C above liquidus. The effectiveness of the ESV melt treatment is higher as the temperature gets closer to liquidus. For the first time the application of ESV treatments were able to modify the microstructure of Al-Si hypereutectic alloys from the liquid state. A novel algorithm known as the "Image Analysis Based Si Modification Level " to determine the effect of the ESV melt treatment on the microstructure. Thermal analysis shows that the liquidus temperature increases up to 15°C as a function of the ESV melt treatment conditions and alloy composition. Therefore, thermal analysis can be used as on-line technique to predict this SiML. Additionally, this SiML, Vickers microhardness and Brinell hardness presented similar behaviour as a function of the ESV melt treatment conditions. The SiML increased from 4.3 to 7.7 and the microhardness increased up to 35% in heat treated test samples, while Brinell hardness increased 25%. Using multiple regression analysis a correlation between the ESV melt treatment conditions, the results of TA, SiML and Vickers and Brinell hardness was established. With multiple regression analysis, several algorithms were developed to predict the SiML or mechanical properties based on the ESV melt treatment conditions or the TA results. These algorithms are a powerful tool for on line determination of the SiML of the mechanical properties of ESV treated castings. The tensile properties of the ESV treated melts were determined in test bars cast in the Stahl mould. The ESV melt treated test samples presented an improvement of ˜20% in as cast conditions and ˜30% after the heat treatment. A fractography analysis of the test bars was conducted and was found that the primary Si and the shrinkage pores are responsible for the lower mechanical properties of the test bars cast with untreated melt. Additionally, the improvement of the tensile properties of the ESV melt treated samples was due to the elimination of the porosity and the highly refined Si due to the melt treatment. The ESV treated melts were utilized to cast prototype pistons and cylinder liners. The cylinder liners were used to produce prototype V6 engine blocks. The prototype engine blocks were cast at NEMAK of Canada Corporation with cast in prototype Al-Si cylinder liners. The mechanical characteristics and the microstructure were evaluated following Ford's Materials Specifications for cylinder liners and regular production engine blocks in the bulkhead sections. Soundness (porosity) and mechanical properties in the V6 prototype engine blocks were assessed in comparison to the regular production engine block. The porosity measurements indicated that the prototype engine blocks presented a 40% less poro

Robles Hernandez, Francisco Carlos

338

GCS component development cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

2012-09-01

339

SOCIAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES IN RURAL AREAS OF BURYATIYA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the social and demographic situation in the rural areas of the Republic of Buryatia. It was revealed that the position of the modern rural society, the main trends of its social change has affected not only the processes that occurred in the country in the 90-ies of the last century, but also more of the early Soviet period. Based on the analysis of the statistics shows the main features of the demographic situation in rural areas: depopulation, gender imbalance, aging of the population. This article examines the socio-demographic situation in the rural areas of the Republic of Buryatia. It was revealed that the position of the modern rural society, the main trends of its social change has affected not only the processes that occurred in the country in the 90-ies of the last century, but also more of the early Soviet period. Based on the analysis of the statistics shows the main features of the demographic situation in rural areas: depopulation, gender imbalance, aging of the population.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-2

????????? ??????????? ?????????

2013-08-01

340

Are We Ready for the Approaching Demographic Tsunami?  

Science.gov (United States)

For those at the high school and college levels who have been tracking the demographic changes occurring throughout the United States during the past few decades, it came as no surprise when recent U.S. Census statistics revealed that the 2010 kindergarten class is 25% Hispanic, up from 19% in 2000, and 5% Asian, up from 4% in 2000. The class is…

Vargas, Bolgen; Conlon, Jill E.

2011-01-01

341

Assessing population viability while accounting for demographic and environmental uncertainty  

OpenAIRE

Predicting the future trend and viability of populations is an essential task in ecology. Because many populations respond to changing environments, uncertainty surrounding environmental responses must be incorporated into population assessments. However, understanding the effects of environmental variation on population dynamics requires information on several important demographic parameters which are often difficult to estimate. Integrated population models facilitate the integration of ti...

Oppel, Steffen; Hilton, Geoff; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fenton, Calvin; Daley, James; Gray, Gerard; Vickery, Juliet; Gibbons, David

2014-01-01

342

Changing Faces: Suburban School Response to Demographic Change  

Science.gov (United States)

As minority populations continue to grow, suburban school systems will bear a larger responsibility for educating students of color. Rapid demographic change may mean that students of color could walk into suburban schools ill prepared to address their academic and social needs. The focus of this study was to examine how and why several suburban…

Evans, Andrea E.

2007-01-01

343

Personality, Demographics, and Acculturation in North American Refugees.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study predicts willingness of refugees to acculturate to North American society based on selected demographic and psychological variables. The hypothesis is that most previous research on refugee adaptation has overemphasized sociological variables such as age, time in the country, and level of education and underemphasized psychological…

Smither, Robert; Rodriquez-Giegling, Marta

344

Selected Demographics, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Diversity of Preservice Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, preservice teachers' demographic variables such as race, innercity program experiences, religious affiliation, and cross-cultural friendships are examined to see if they influence the preservice teachers' beliefs on issues of diversity. The data are from a Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and a Professional Beliefs About…

Dedeoglu, Hakan; Lamme, Linda L.

2011-01-01

345

Demographics of Deaf Education: More Students in More Places  

Science.gov (United States)

We have witnessed important changes in the demographics of the deaf and hard of hearing student population receiving special education services during the past quarter century. The ethnic, intervention, and educational setting profiles are more diverse and dispersed. On top of the federal policy changes driving emerging intervention and continuing…

Mitchell, R. E., Karchmer, M. A.

2006-01-01

346

Demographic Survey of Female Faculty in Technology Education Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the general program information and the demographic status of female faculty in four-year technology education programs in the United States. Information was gathered through a literature review and a questionnaire mailed to all 70 technology education programs listed in the 1994 International Technology…

Heidari, Farzin

347

A Socio- Demographic Profile of Infant Deaths in A Tribal Block of South Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With progressive reduction in infant mortality rate (IMR and advent of technology, socio – demographic determinants assume more importance (than biological, more so in remote and inaccessible areas, which incidentally also record high IMR. Study was carried out in a tribal block of South Gujarat to generate socio- demographic profile for 48 infant deaths reported during one year. Data was collected through house to house survey on a designed questionnaire. Amongst 48 death cases, literacy rates amongst mothers and fathers were 64.6 and 75% respectively. Occupation wise 81.3% fathers and 52.1% mothers were farm laborer. Joint families were in 81.3% cases and 85.4% belonged to lower social class. Teenage pregnancy was found in 56.3% cases. Age of 25% mothers’ at birth was below 20 years. First birth order was found in 47.9% cases. Birth spacing was less than 2 years in 60.4% cases. It is concluded that improving literacy, increasing age at pregnancy, increasing birth spacing (> 2 years along with overall socioeconomic improvement of community can help in attaining the further reduction in infant mortality.

Amul Patel, Pradeep Kumar, Naresh Godara, Vikas K Desai

2011-01-01

348

Cartographic form of comparison of demographic indicators in Vojvodina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographic characteristics of a specific geospace represent its most dynamic part and one of the basic goals of the research in the geographic science. The cartographic method, as a part of the system of methods in the geographic science, is very important in the research concerning quantitative parameters of the population (the number of inhabitants, population density, the structure (contingents, dynamics (structural changes, natural trends and migrations. The complexity of the application of the cartographic method could be exemplified in the following phases: 1. Spatial distribution of the population in the specific spatial units, 2. Temporal changeability of the cartographic facts (fixing the temporal determination, change of demographic indicators in a specific temporal system The development of science and informatics led to the application of metricity in the process of cartography and interpretation of the thematic content of a chart. Demographic indicators are presented as numeric series, which graphically could be represented in the three aspects of semio-proportional cartography: the differentiated, the comparative and the unified one. These three aspects would be applied for the numerical data of demographic indicators of the population of Vojvodina (according to different census years and counties. The differentiated aspect of semio-proportions would show the changes in the number of inhabitants according to the census years in relation to the year 1953, the comparative aspect would compare the number of inhabitants, areas and population density in 1981 and 2002, and the unified aspect would show the number of the employed in different branches of business in 1991 and 2002. Presentation of numerical data as graphic indicators enables a faster and easier observation of changes in the demographic indicators in Vojvodina, as well as perception of regularities in further trends.

Živkovi? Dragica

2006-01-01

349

Hyperfrequency components  

Science.gov (United States)

The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

1994-09-01

350

Questões emergentes na análise demográfica: o caso brasileiro New issues in demographic analysis: the case of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo levanta questões emergentes para a análise demográfica brasileira. O trabalho começa com uma análise dos três componentes da dinâmica demográfica, enfatizando a questão sobre o declínio da fecundidade e a possibilidade de a mesma atingir níveis abaixo da reposição. As tendências futuras de emigração internacional também são discutidas. Passando para as conseqüências demográficas desta dinâmica, o texto aborda, ainda, a demografia dos efeitos de composição, ressaltando as conseqüências demográficas do diferencial de fecundidade por educação materna e mostrando que a dinâmica de melhoria educacional das mães mais que compensa este diferencial. O dividendo demográfico é discutido tanto conceitualmente quanto empiricamente, ficando indicada uma agenda para estudos futuros. Finalmente, uma discussão mais conceitual sobre transferências intergeracionais tenta colocar o debate na perspectiva do gasto público brasileiro, enfatizando trabalhos relevantes que começam a ser desenvolvidos.This article begins with a review of the three components of demography, stressing the decline in fertility, with the possibility of the country's reaching a level of below replacement fertility. Studies on new trends in Brazilian emigration are considered relevant for future research. The demography of compositional effects is discussed in terms of an exercise with fertility differentials according to the mothers´ education. The exercise shows that the historical improvement in mothers´ education has offset the possible adverse effects of high fertility among mothers with low levels of education. The demographic dividend is discussed both conceptually and empirically, and directions for future studies are indicated. Finally, the article presents a conceptual discussion on intergenerational transfers, with emphasis on public expenditures and social policy. New studies being developed on this topic are also mentioned.

Eduardo Luiz Gonçalvez Rios-Neto

2005-12-01

351

Assessing economic and demographic factors that influence United States dairy demand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-fat dairy products are key components of a healthy diet for all Americans. As the USDA increases its focus on nutrition and healthy eating, it is important to understand the underlying demands for dairy products, both the healthy and the less healthy ones. The consumption of fluid milk products has decreased over the last decade, whereas milk used for manufactured dairy products such as cheese, ice cream, yogurt, and butter, and for use as an ingredient in other food products, has risen. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of changes in demographic variables, retail prices, and total dairy expenditure on at-home consumption of dairy products, using purchase data from Nielsen 2007 Homescan (ACNielsen, New York, NY) data. To derive the demand elasticities for 16 products, a censored Almost Ideal Demand System model is used. Results reveal that demographic variables do have effects on the purchase of the 16 products, and own-price elasticities are 1 or greater for all 16 products for both uncompensated and compensated elasticities except 4: ice cream, refrigerated yogurt, processed cheese, and margarine. A substitution relationship exists among all fluid milk categories, natural and processed cheese, low-fat ice cream, and refrigerated yogurt, butter, and margarine. PMID:21700062

Davis, C G; Yen, S T; Dong, D; Blayney, D P

2011-07-01

352

Prevalence, Health and Demographic Characteristics of Emergency Department Patients with Diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of diabetes in Southern California emergency department (ED patients and describe the self-reported general health, demographic and social characteristics of these patients with diabetes. Methods: Between April 2008 and August 2008, non-critical patients at two Southern California EDs completed a 57-question survey about their chronic medical conditions, general health, social and demographic characteristics. Results: 11.3% of the 1,303 patients surveyed had diabetes. Patients with diabetes were similar to ED patients without diabetes with respect to gender, ethnicity and race. However, patients with diabetes were older (51 vs. 41, less likely to have a high school education (64.0% vs. 84.7%, less likely to speak English (44.9% vs. 55.4%, and less likely to be uninsured (33.3% vs. 49.5%. Additionally, patients with diabetes had markedly lower self-reported physical health scores (37.1 vs. 45.8 and mental component score and mental health scores (42.0 vs. 47.4 compared with ED patients without diabetes. Conclusion: In this study of two Southern California EDs, 11.3% of surveyed patients had diabetes. These patients were often poorly educated, possessed limited English language skills and poor physical health. ED personnel and diabetes educators should be mindful of these findings when designing interventions for ED patients with diabetes. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:419-422.

Menchine, Michael D

2010-12-01

353

Demographic and genetic factors shaping contemporary metapopulation effective size and its empirical estimation in salmonid fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The preservation of biodiversity requires an understanding of the maintenance of its components, including genetic diversity. Effective population size determines the amount of genetic variance maintained in populations, but its estimation can be complex, especially when populations are interconnected in a metapopulation. Theory predicts that the effective size of a metapopulation (meta-N(e)) can be decreased or increased by population subdivision, but little empirical work has evaluated these predictions. Here, we use neutral genetic markers and simulations to estimate the effective size of a putative metapopulation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). For a weakly structured set of rivers, we find that meta-N(e) is similar to the sum of local deme sizes, whereas higher genetic differentiation among demes dramatically reduces meta-N(e) estimates. Interdemic demographic processes, such as asymmetrical gene flow, may explain this pattern. However, simulations also suggest that unrecognized population subdivision can also introduce downward bias into empirical estimation, emphasizing the importance of identifying the proper scale of distinct demographic and genetic processes. Under natural patterns of connectivity, evolutionary potential may generally be maintained at higher levels than the local population, with implications for conservation given ongoing species declines and habitat fragmentation. PMID:21522167

Palstra, F P; Ruzzante, D E

2011-10-01

354

HTR components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volume 1 describes in detail the situation of the R+D Programs in the domain of heat conducting Components within the PNP-Project, materials development and testing devices (PNP, KVK=Komponenten-Versuch-Kreislauf, EVA II and vibration simulator SAMSON) and fabrication conditions. Planning requirements and development aims of the He/He-intermediate heatexchanger are discussed in the view of stress analysis, fabrication and quality assurance. The heat exchanger with helical configuration is discussed concerning Thermohydraulics, vibration analysis and the development of a novel high temperature insulating material for the PNP-Project. (GL)

355

Influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the quality of life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of life is a multidimensional concept, which is best expressed by the subjective well-being. Evaluation of the quality of life is the basis for measuring the well-being, and the determination of factors that determine the quality of life quality is the basis for its improvement Objective. To evaluate and assess the determinants of the perceived quality of life of group distinguishing features which characterize demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the population in Serbia aged over 20 years (9479 examinees. The quality of life was expressed by the perception of well-being (pleasure of life. Data on the examinees (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected by using a questionnaire for adults of each household. To process, analyze and present the data, we used the methods of parametric descriptive statistics (mean value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, variance analysis and factor analysis. Results. Although men evaluated the quality of life with a slightly higher grading, there was no statistically significant difference in the evaluation of the quality of life in relation to the examinee’s gender (p>0.005. Among the examinees there was a high statistically significant difference in grading the quality of life depending on age, level of education, marital status and type of job (p<0.001. In relation to the number of children, there was no statistically significant difference in he grading of the quality of life (p>0.005. Conclusion. The quality of life is influenced by numerous factors that characterize each person (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individual. Determining factors of the quality of life are numerous and diverse, and the manner and the strength of their influence are variable.

Grbi? Gordana

2011-01-01

356

Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

Swiaczny F.

2010-01-01

357

DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCES ON MENTAL HEALTH OF COLLEGE STUDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students mental health is a public issues, public health policy makes at the international level, are very well concerned about this issue become of the increasing rate of suicide, among students their amenity, depression and involvement in high risk behavior .The aim of the study was to understand the influences of demographic variables on mental health of college students. The mental health scale (MHS constructed and standardized by Kamlesh Sharma (2002 was used to measure the mental health. 500 samples were taken based on Purposive sampling method .Statistical method such as t- test, and correlation analysis was used in the present study to test the hypothesis and interpret the data. The findings of the study were there is an influence of demographic variables on mental health of college students

G. RAMANATHAN

2013-03-01

358

ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF EUROPEAN UNION CAUSED BY THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to offer a realistic perspective upon the imminent situation of demographic ageing issue in European Union. The forecasts are not reasons to major concern for the society but rather to become more responsible and not to neglect a problem that could affect our future. The demographic overview of Europe for 2011 – 2060 shows low birth rates, an increase in life expectancy and migration flows having an impact on population. As a result, the parent generation will no longer completely be replaced by the next generation of children and the narrowed active population will have to sustain a large number of persons far advanced in the age. Economic consequences of this social trend, such as increased expenditures on pensions, extended health care costs and the employment problems, are also discussed in order to define the best policy option available.

Iulia-Alexandra Perc?

2011-09-01

359

Demographics Associated with Autistic Spectrum Diagnosis in England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing body of work elucidating the demographics surrounding autistic spectrum disorders. This study sought to develop the local evidence base, enhance the awareness of educationalists in north Manchester and test the hypothesis that young people from all cultural groups are able to access the mental health service. The Social Communication Assessment and Intervention Team in the North Manchester Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service received 89 referrals of children with suspected autism between April 2010 and June 2011. Information was available about 69 cases. Some cases are still in the process of assessment while 20 children and young adults have received a diagnoses of autistic spectrum disorders; 4 African Caribbean, 11 White British, 3 Pakistani, 1 dual heritage and 1 did not complete the form. Further demographics and implications for training are discussed.

Mischa N.C. Mockett

2012-05-01

360

ROMANIAN DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND THE INVESTMENTS ON CAPITAL MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing interest for investments in capital markets creates the need for studies focused on monitoring and analysing demographic environment in which the investors operate. Its analysis may represent a starting point for finding out opportunities and threats brought by environment for the evolution of Financial Investment Services Companies in Romania. Our paper starts from the assumption that the behaviour of the investor in financial services is influenced by the demographic factors. We focus on some of them, in a descriptive manner. Specifically, they are: monthly net average incomes, gender, age, employment rate and education level of the population. This study also presents a short case of a Financial Investment Services Company named Target Capital.

Petric Ioana Ancuta

2010-07-01

361

Demographic noise can lead to the spontaneous formation of species  

CERN Document Server

When a collection of phenotypically diverse organisms compete with each other for limited resources, with competition being strongest amongst the most similar, the population can evolve into tightly localised clusters. This process can be thought of as a simple model of the emergence of species. Past studies have neglected the effects of demographic noise and studied the population on a macroscopic scale, where species formation is found to depend upon the shape of the curve describing the decline of competition strength with phenotypic distance. In the following, we will show how including the effects of demographic noise leads to a radically different conclusion. Two situations are identified: a weak-noise regime in which the population exhibits patterns of fluctuation around the macroscopic description, and a strong-noise regime where species appear spontaneously even in the case that all organisms have equal fitness.

Rogers, Tim; Rossberg, Axel G

2011-01-01

362

Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits--short turnover times--are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L

2014-05-01

363

Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees  

Science.gov (United States)

The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits – short turnover times – are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Wiens, John

2014-01-01

364

Measuring the Environmental Dimensions of Human Migration: The Demographer's Toolkit.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the empirical literature linking environmental factors and human migration has grown rapidly and gained increasing visibility among scholars and the policy community. Still, this body of research uses a wide range of methodological approaches for assessing environment-migration relationships. Without comparable data and measures across a range of contexts, it is impossible to make generalizations that would facilitate the development of future migration scenarios. Demographic researchers have a large methodological toolkit for measuring migration as well as modeling its drivers. This toolkit includes population censuses, household surveys, survival analysis and multi-level modeling. This paper's purpose is to introduce climate change researchers to demographic data and methods and to review exemplary studies of the environmental dimensions of human migration. Our intention is to foster interdisciplinary understanding and scholarship, and to promote high quality research on environment and migration that will lead toward broader knowledge of this association. PMID:25177108

Fussell, Elizabeth; Hunter, Lori M; Gray, Clark L

2014-09-01

365

Plague mortality and demographic depression in later medieval England.  

OpenAIRE

Both direct and indirect evidence implies that England experienced a lengthy period of stagnant or declining population during the later fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Black Death of 1348-1349 had brought about profound changes in England's agrarian economy, and this subsequent demographic depression is most commonly interpreted by historians as the result of plague mortality, recurring in severe outbreaks after the disease's introduction into the country. This paper reviews the evid...

Poos, L. R.

1981-01-01

366

Demographic differences between degree and diploma student nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the assumptions and the motivation of students undertaking degree and diploma courses. The socio-demographic characteristics are explored in order to illuminate the discussion. The areas covered focus on the students' gender, age, education, reasons for choosing nursing, and expectations of the course. The students undertaking degree courses were further sub-divided into those attending universities running four-year degree courses and 'new universities; (formerly polytechnics) offering three-year degree courses. PMID:7703148

Winson, S K

367

Testing for fertility stalls in demographic and health surveys  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This study compares two methods for testing fertility trends and fertility stalls using Demographic and Health Surveys data. The first method is based on linear regression and uses the equivalence of period and cohort estimates with the same cumulative fertility at age 40, the same number of births, and the same distribution of women by parity. The second method is based on logistic regression. It assumes that the age pattern of fertility is constant over short periods of t...

Garenne Michel L

2011-01-01

368

Job satisfaction and demographic variables - is there any link?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the analysis of job satisfaction perceived by the Indian overseas bank employees in Chidambaram and Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu. The employees working in Indian overseas bank were selected for the study. The study indicates that the job satisfaction perceived by the bank employees is medium and the demographic variables such as gender, age, educational qualification, experience, marital status, and income significantly influence the job satisfaction perception of employees.

Mallika Neelamegam

2010-10-01

369

Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary re...

Mirela Mihi?; Ivana Kursan

2010-01-01

370

TAXPAYERS KNOWLEDGE: A DESCRIPTIVE EVIDENCE ON DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN MALAYSIA  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this paper is to determine the demographic factors in influence the behavior of taxpayers. Levene's test shows that there is no significant mean different between male and female, no significant mean different between government and private servants tax knowledge score. Furthermore, there is no significant different between Chinese and Indian score, the different is only 0.10%. As the analysis goes further, Levene' test shows that there is a significant mean different between...

Mohd Rizal Palil

2005-01-01

371

Job satisfaction and demographic variables - is there any link?  

OpenAIRE

This article focuses on the analysis of job satisfaction perceived by the Indian overseas bank employees in Chidambaram and Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu. The employees working in Indian overseas bank were selected for the study. The study indicates that the job satisfaction perceived by the bank employees is medium and the demographic variables such as gender, age, educational qualification, experience, marital status, and income significantly influence the job satisfaction perception of employees.

Mallika Neelamegam

2010-01-01

372

DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCES ON MENTAL HEALTH OF COLLEGE STUDENTS  

OpenAIRE

Students mental health is a public issues, public health policy makes at the international level, are very well concerned about this issue become of the increasing rate of suicide, among students their amenity, depression and involvement in high risk behavior .The aim of the study was to understand the influences of demographic variables on mental health of college students. The mental health scale (MHS) constructed and standardized by Kamlesh Sharma (2002) was used to measure the mental heal...

Ramanathan, G.; Venkatammal, P.

2013-01-01

373

The Path to Prosperity: A Political Model of Demographic Change  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a formal model that characterizes the political mechanisms of demographic change, establishing a critical link in economic development. We demonstrate that fertility decisions are determined by three fundamental political variables: political stability, political capacity and political freedom. Modeling strategic multi-objective policy setting by the government, we derive a set of equilibrium conditions that enable poor nations to escape a poverty trap and to successfully ...

Feng, Yi; Kugler, Jacek; Zak, Paul

1999-01-01

374

Demographic and Economic Trends: Implications for International Mobility  

OpenAIRE

About three percent of the world’s 6.1 billion people were international migrants in 2000. Population growth is expected to slow between 2000 and 2050 in comparison to 1950-2000, but international migration is expected to rise as persisting demographic and economic inequalities that motivate migration interact with revolutions in communications and transportation that enable people to cross borders. The default policy option to manage what is sometimes deemed out-of-control m...

Martin, Philip

2009-01-01

375

Preface to the Rostock Debate on Demographic Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first Rostock Debate on Demographic Change, which took place on February 21, 2006, centered on the following question: Should governments in Europe push much more aggressively for gender equality to raise fertility? The four debaters were Laurent Toulemon from the Institut National d'Etudes Demograhiques (France, Dimiter Philipov from the Vienna Institute of Demography (Austria, Livia Oláh from Stockholm University (Sweden, and Gerda Neyer from the Max Planck Institute (Germany

Laura Bernardi

2011-02-01

376

Demographic and environmental stochasticity in predator-prey metapopulation dynamics  

OpenAIRE

1. We studied the metapopulation dynamics and persistence of an extinction-prone predator-prey interaction. We show that the dynamics of the system are influenced by both stochastic and deterministic processes. 2. Using host-parasitoid metapopulation data, we develop appropriate descriptors of the local within-patch population dynamics. In particular, we show that the local dynamics are well described by a Markov chain. We show that the local dynamics are determined predominately by demograph...

Bonsall, Mb; Hastings, A.

2004-01-01

377

Recent demographic-economic processes in the Belgrade agglomeration  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, basic characteristics of demographic and economic changes in the area of Belgrade agglomeration in the second half of 20th century has been researched, and a global trend of their establishments and motions has been indicated. Changes of territorial arrangement, spatial distribution and structural features of population, within the agglomeration itself, were in close interaction with directions of development and expansion of urban region. Belgrade agglomeration development fol...

Vojkovi? Gordana; Mileti? Radmila; Miljanovi? Dragana

2010-01-01

378

Stochastic environmental effects, demographic variation, and economic growth  

OpenAIRE

We consider a stochastic environment to study interactions among pollution growth, demographic changes, and economic growth. Drawing on the empirical findings of slow convergence patterns of pollution shocks (viz., with a long-memory), we build an analytical framework where stochastic environmental feedback effects on population changes are reflected upon aggregate economic growth. Long-memory in economic growth, in our model, is shown to arise due to the inherent stochasticity in environment...

Azomahou, Theophile; Mishra, Tapas

2009-01-01

379

Demographic Change and Federal Systems: Some Preliminary Results for Germany  

OpenAIRE

The paper examines the effects of demographic change on federal, state and local government expenditures in Germany. Public spending is decomposed into almost 30 categories (functions) and simple estimates of age cost profiles are derived. Using population forecasts and assuming timeinvariant age cost profiles we estimate the effects of the ageing of the Germany society on the level and structure of expenditures at the three layers of governments. Our results show that subnational governments...

Seitz, Helmut; Freigang, Dirk; Kempkes, Gerhard

2005-01-01

380

Fertility, mortality, and the developed worlds demographic transition  

OpenAIRE

This study uses Fehr, Jokisch, and Kotlikoff?s (2004a) dynamic general equilibrium model to analyze the effects of changes in fertility and mortality on the developed world?s demographic transition. The model features three regions – the U.S., Japan, and the EU-15 – and incorporates age- and time-specific fertility and mortality rates, detailed fiscal institutions, and international capital mobility, subject to adjustment costs. Our simulations confirm the offsetting fiscal and economic c...

Fehr, Hans; Jokisch, Sabine; Kotlikoff, Laurence J.

2004-01-01

381

The provision of local public goods and demographic change  

OpenAIRE

The main contribution of this thesis is a comprehensive analysis of the influence of changes in the population structure on local communities, in particular with respect to the provision of publicly provided goods. The focus is placed on the consequences of two of the major processes of demographic change, namely aging and shrinking. The three main chapters of this contribution consider the effects at the local level from both a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The first model focuse...

Monte?n, Anna

2012-01-01

382

Demographic Transition, Environmental Concern and the Kuznets Curve  

OpenAIRE

In an endogenous growth model with pollution and abatement we characterize the socially optimal solution. We find that the rate of growth depends negatively on the weight of environmental care in utility and positively on the population growth rate. We also find a trade-off between growth and environmental quality beyond which an environmental Kuznets curve is derived in the long term. This one emerges fromthe implications of the demographic transition for the rate of population growth, and t...

Aznar-ma?rquez, J.; Ruiz-tamarit, Jose

2005-01-01

383

Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population...

Abdoul Hossain Madani; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi; Madhurima Dikshit; Teamur Aghamolaie; Debanshu Bhaduri

2010-01-01

384

The impact of demographic change on human capital accumulation  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates whether and to what extent demographic change has an impact on human capital accumulation. The effect of the relative cohort size on educational attainment of young adults in Germany is analyzed utilizing data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for West-German individuals of the birth cohorts 1966 to 1986. These are the cohorts which entered the labor market since the 1980's. Particular attention is paid to the effect of changes in labor market conditions, which cons...

Fertig, Michael; Schmidt, Christoph M.; Sinning, Mathias G.

2009-01-01

385

Preface to the Rostock Debate on Demographic Change  

OpenAIRE

The first Rostock Debate on Demographic Change, which took place on February 21, 2006, centered on the following question: Should governments in Europe push much more aggressively for gender equality to raise fertility? The four debaters were Laurent Toulemon from the Institut National d'Etudes Demograhiques (France), Dimiter Philipov from the Vienna Institute of Demography (Austria), Livia Oláh from Stockholm University (Sweden), and Gerda Neyer from the Max Planck Institute (Germany)

Laura Bernardi; Pascal Hetze

2011-01-01

386

Internal consistency of demographic assumptions in the shared socioeconomic pathways  

OpenAIRE

A new set of alternative socioeconomic scenarios for climate change researches—the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs)—includes for the first time a more comprehensive set of demographic conditions on population, urbanization, and education as the central scenario elements, along with other aspects of society, in order to facilitate better analyses of challenges to climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, it also raises a new question about the internal consistency of assumptio...

Jiang, Leiwen

2014-01-01

387

Cartographic form of comparison of demographic indicators in Vojvodina  

OpenAIRE

Demographic characteristics of a specific geospace represent its most dynamic part and one of the basic goals of the research in the geographic science. The cartographic method, as a part of the system of methods in the geographic science, is very important in the research concerning quantitative parameters of the population (the number of inhabitants, population density), the structure (contingents), dynamics (structural changes), natural trends and migrations. The complexity of the applicat...

Živkovi? Dragica; Jani?-Siridžanski Marina; Jovanovi? Jasminka

2006-01-01

388

Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize  

OpenAIRE

The food/feed quality of a variety of genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab Bt-toxin was tested over the life-cycle of Daphnia magna, an arthropod commonly used as model organism in ecotoxicological studies. Demographic responses were compared between animals fed GM or unmodified (UM) near isogenic maize, with and without the addition of predator smell. Age-specific data on survival and birth rates were integrated and analysed using life tables and Leslie matrices. Survival, fecun...

Bøhn, Thomas; Traavik, Terje; Primicerio, Raul

2010-01-01

389

Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa  

OpenAIRE

Two of the main forces driving European emigration in the late nineteenth century were real wage gaps between sending and receiving regions and demographic booms in the low-wage sending regions (directly augmenting the supply of potential movers as well as indirectly making already-measured employment conditions less attractive). These two features are even more prominent in Africa today, but do or can Africans respond to them with the same elasticity as in the days of ?free? migration? Our n...

Hatton, Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

2001-01-01

390

Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing and research in the USA. People with a domination value orientation believe wildlife should be managed for human benefit and are more likely to prioritize human well-being over wildlife in t...

Vaske, J. J.; Jacobs, M. H.; Sijtsma, M. T. J.

2011-01-01

391

Graphite components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reflector of the AVR reactor consists of needle coke graphite ARS/AMT made by the firm of Sigri GmbH. Although its orientation anisotropy is greater than those of materials developed in the last few years, the reflector graphite shows comparatively good dimensional stability in the conditions prevailing in the AVR reactor, as shown by tests on irradiation samples. It was also found that the strength increased. No damage was found during inspections in 1984 of the upper side and ceiling reflector. After a 20 year operating period, the graphite components of the AVR reactor should be in an excellent state. This will be possible to prove when samples are taken from the graphite reflector and examined in the context of a dismantling program. (orig.)

392

Demographic and Attitudinal Factors Influencing Doctoral Student Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Higher education administrators face challenges in providing a welcoming environment for doctoral students in higher education institutions, as they must identify factors influencing students’ satisfaction in order to provide a supportive environment, reduce attrition rates, and promote persistence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of doctoral student satisfaction from demographics and attitudes concerning the campus environment. Participants were 132 (33 male, 99 female doctoral students from two private nonprofit universities in the New York metropolitan area of the United States who completed either a web-based or paper/pencil survey in which demographics and opinions regarding student satisfaction were sought. Regression analysis on participant attitudes found that university services, advisor, and students were all significant predictor variables. Other demographic predictor variables included years in graduate school, race, and ethnicity. Of particular importance, as doctoral students progress in their program by year, dissatisfaction increases. This could be due to the increasing pressures of successfully completing the dissertation, the progress of which can be heavily influenced by advisor-student relationship. Overall findings may assist education administrators and institutional planners in making campus environments welcoming to students thereby increasing both student satisfaction and retention.

Sabina Nwenyi

2013-12-01

393

Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary research results. With respect to the subject matter, research goals as well as previous findings and primary research results, corresponding hypotheses were set and mainly confirmed. The results showed that demographic factors, such as the age and working status, are related to most impulse buying indicators and to the impulsivity collective indicator. However, household income produced opposite results. Household income proved to have no major influence on the majority of impulse buying indicators but to be related noticeably to the collective impulsivity indicator, indicating that this result should be regarded with caution. Research results also pointed to the fact that the majority of individual indicators (innovativeness, tendency to the fashionable and shopping enjoyment are positively and negatively related to the impulse buying behavior and that individual difference factors have a greater influence on impulse buying than do demographic characteristics. The paper also summarizes research limitations as well as the work contribution and future research guidelines.

Mirela Mihi?

2010-06-01

394

Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25 students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

Paul Rohe Milton

2011-06-01

395

Fertility in the Age of Demographic Maturity: An Essay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As humanity is moving into a new age of its demographic evolution, I call it demographic maturity, the emerging demographic configurations – generational sub-replacement fertility, advanced aging and potential population implosion – call for new ways of thinking about population and new policy approaches. While we live longer and healthier, we also reproduce less and less. We are stuck in a culture of low fertility. The strong motivations for foregoing motherhood are financial: a two-salary wage is better than one even for the higher middle class. No less important is the woman’s financial independence in a societal environment where marriage as an institution is under considerable stress. Motherhood is to be rewarded adequately for its highly important social role and it has to be sufficient to reassure potential mothers of their financial concerns. What is required is a more balanced resource allocation between production and reproduction. The old welfare type hand-outs like child bonuses do not work. Societies, particularly the rich, ought to realize that to raise fertility, even to generational replacement level, not only is a much greater financial effort called for but some of the tenants of the liberal economy need to be put into question to make room for social concerns such a renewal of generations, if they want to survive as national entities. This essay advocates a stationary population as the best response to challenges such as ecological health, national identity and cohesion, and possibly world peace.

Anatole Romaniuk

2010-01-01

396

Demographic stochasticity and evolution of dispersion I. Spatially homogeneous environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The selection of dispersion is a classical problem in ecology and evolutionary biology. Deterministic dynamical models of two competing species differing only in their passive dispersal rates suggest that the lower mobility species has a competitive advantage in inhomogeneous environments, and that dispersion is a neutral characteristic in homogeneous environments. Here we consider models including local population fluctuations due to both individual movements and random birth and death events to investigate the effect of demographic stochasticity on the competition between species with different dispersal rates. In this paper, the first of two, we focus on homogeneous environments where deterministic models predict degenerate dynamics in the sense that there are many (marginally) stable equilibria with the species' coexistence ratio depending only on initial data. When demographic stochasticity is included the situation changes. A novel large carrying capacity ([Formula: see text]) asymptotic analysis, confirmed by direct numerical simulations, shows that a preference for faster dispersers emerges on a precisely defined [Formula: see text] time scale. We conclude that while there is no evolutionarily stable rate for competitors to choose in these models, the selection mechanism quantified here is the essential counterbalance in spatially inhomogeneous models including demographic fluctuations which do display an evolutionarily stable dispersal rate. PMID:24682331

Lin, Yen Ting; Kim, Hyejin; Doering, Charles R

2015-02-01

397

Shifting demographics mean that the NHS must change. To cope with these new demands we must radically reassess how we design services and use technology to provide care.  

OpenAIRE

In a time of fiscal austerity, few topics are as emotive as the protection of the NHS. Tim Linehan argues that demographic trends will make it harder and harder to fund the NHS in the future. Innovative solutions are needed – solutions like Kent’s telehealth initiative, which can offer improvements to patient health, but at much lower cost.

Linehan, Tim

2011-01-01

398

Relationships between high-stakes testing policies and student achievement after controlling for demographic factors in aggregated data.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the mandate of No Child Left Behind, high-stakes achievement testing is firmly in place in every state. The few studies that have explored the effectiveness of high-stakes testing using NAEP scores have yielded mixed results. This study considered state demographic characteristics for each NAEP testing period in reading, writing, mathematics, and science from 1992 through 2002, in an effort to examine the relation of high-stakes testing policies to achievement and changes in achievement between testing periods. As expected, demographic characteristics and their changes were related significantly to most achievement outcomes, but high-stakes testing policies demonstrated few relationships with achievement. The few relationships between high-stakes testing and achievement or improvement in reading, writing, or science tended to appear only when demographic data were missing; and the minimal relationships with math achievement were consistent with findings in previous research. Considering the cost and potential unintended negative consequences, high-stakes testing policies seem to provide a questionable means of improving student learning.

Gregory J. Marchant

2006-11-01

399

Demographic change and regional labour markets: the case of Eastern Germany  

OpenAIRE

Demographic change will be one of the most challenging issues for industrialized economies in the decades to come. In this paper, we focus on the impact of demographic change on labour markets. By setting up a stylized model of a regional labour market, we are able to analyze the interaction of labour demand and supply during demographic transitions. The simulation results for eastern Germany, a forerunner in the demographic process, show that the population decline will not help to reduce th...

Henschel, Beate; Pohl, Carsten; Thum, Marcel

2008-01-01

400

Component Compatibility in Component Based Development?  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a research on component compatibility in component based development. Component-based software engineering is a process that emphasizes the design and construction of computer-based systems using reusable software components. Commercial components repositories contain hundred thousand components that make component selection an extremely difficult and time expensive task. Often component selected by functional features are incompatible or the integration effort...

Dr. Hardeep Singh; Anitpal Kaur?

2014-01-01

401

Demographic and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa, Turkey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The design and development of school health programmes will require information at demographic characteristics of schoolchildren and the major health burdens of the school-age group, the opportunities for intervention and the appropriateness of the available infrastructure. This study aims to analyse demographic and parasitic infections status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa province of south-eastern Turkey. Method Three primary schools were randomly selected in the shantytown, apartment and rural districts. A total of 1820 schoolchildren between 7–14 years age were took part to the survey of whom 1120 (61.5% were boys and 700 (38.4% were girls. A child form (including child's name, sex, age, school grade and parasitic infections and school survey form (including condition of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soaps on the basins and presence of garbage piles around to the schools were used for demographic, parasitic and sanitary surveys. Stool samples were examined by cellophane thick smear technique for the eggs of intestinal helminths. Results The demographic survey showed that number of schoolchildren was gradually decreased as their age's increase in shantytown school. The sex ratio was proportional until the second grade, after which the number of females gradually decreased in children in shantytown and rural schools while, in apartment area, schoolchildren was proportionally distributed between age groups and gender even the high-grade students. The prevalence of helminthic infections was %77.1 of the schoolchildren in shantytown, 53.2% in apartment district and 53.1% of rural area. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species and followed by Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species in three schools. Sanitation survey indicated that the tap water was limited in shantytown school, toilet's sanitation was poor, available no soaps on lavatories and garbage piles were accumulated around the schools in shantytown and rural area, while, the school in apartment area was well sanitised. Conclusions These results indicated that burden of parasitic infections and poor sanitation conditions constituted public health importance among to the shantytown schoolchildren. School health programmes including deworming and sanitation activities through the health education and improvement of sanitation conditions in the schools have a potential to better health and education for schoolchildren. These programmes also offer the potential to reach significant numbers of population in the shantytown schools with high level of absenteeism.

Seyrek Adnan

2003-09-01

402

Determinants and treatment of hypertension in South Africans: The first Demographic and Health Survey  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To identify the groups of patients with high prevalence and poor control of hypertension in South Africa. METHODS: In the first national Demographic and Health Survey, 12 952 randomly selected South Africans aged 15 years and older were surveyed. Trained interviewers completed questionna [...] ires on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and the management of hypertension. This cross-sectional survey included blood pressure, height and weight measurements. Logistic regression analyses identified the determinants of hypertension and the treatment status. RESULTS: A high risk of hypertension was associated with less than tertiary education, older age groups, overweight and obese people, excess alcohol use, and a family history of stroke and hypertension. Hypertension risk was lowest in rural blacks and significantly higher in obese black women than in women with a normal body mass index. Improved hypertension control was found in the wealthy, women, older persons, Asians, and persons with medical insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Rural black people had lower hypertension prevalence rates than the other groups. Poorer, younger men without health insurance had the worst level of hypertension control.

Krisela, Steyn; Debbie, Bradshaw; Rosana, Norman; Ria, Laubscher.

2008-05-01

403

Biology and demographic growth parameters of cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora) on faba bean (Vicia faba) cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on five faba bean, Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) cultivars was evaluated. Colony development, biology, and demographic parameters were studied to measure the cowpea aphid performance. Two methods, whole plant and detached leaf, were used in these experiments. After 14 d , the number of apterous adult, nymphs, and total cowpea aphids were significantly lower in cultivar Gazira2 and highest on cultivar Misr1. Assuming that low aphid numbers per plant represented high resistance, the order of resistant cultivars was as follows: Gazira2 > Misr > Giza3 Improved > Goff1 > Misr1. Aphid infestation significantly inhibited plant growth compared with uninfested plants, as indicated by factorial analysis using plant height (F = 41.38, P < 0.0001). The detached-leaf biological assay showed that the cultivar Gazira2 was less suitable than Misr1 because it had longer prereproductive, reproductive, and post reproductive periods, longer total longevity, and lower number of progeny. Similarly, demographic parameters also justified the suggested lower suitability of Gazira2 compared with Misr1, indicated by significantly lower net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, but longer generation time and doubling time on Gazira2. It was shown that cowpea aphid performed differently on the whole plant as compared with detached leaves. The detached-leaf biological assay is recommended for future experiments because it is more accurate and efficient and it produces reliable data. PMID:25368064

Soffan, A; Aldawood, A S

2014-01-01

404

Associations between fecal indicator bacteria prevalence and demographic data in private water supplies in Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 1.7 million Virginians rely on private water sources to provide household water. The heaviest reliance on these systems occurs in rural areas, which are often underserved with respect to available financial resources and access to environmental health education. This study aimed to identify potential associations between concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (coliforms, Escherichia coli) in over 800 samples collected at the point-of-use from homes with private water supply systems and homeowner-provided demographic data (household income and education). Of the 828 samples tested, 349 (42%) of samples tested positive for total coliform and 55 (6.6%) tested positive for E. coli. Source tracking efforts targeting optical brightener concentrations via fluorometry and the presence of a human-specific Bacteroides marker via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) suggest possible contamination from human septage in over 20 samples. Statistical methods implied that household income has an association with the proportion of samples positive for total coliform, though the relationship between education level and FIB is less clear. Further exploration of links between demographic data and private water quality will be helpful in building effective strategies to improve rural drinking water quality. PMID:25473992

Smith, Tamara; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Hagedorn, Charles; Lawrence, Annie H; Benham, Brian; Ling, Erin; Ziegler, Peter; Marmagas, Susan West

2014-12-01

405

Patterns of self-management practices undertaken by cancer survivors: variations in demographic factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study purpose was to examine self-management (SM) use among cancer survivors; and to explore variations in uptake of SM in survivorship and whether these differed in relation to age, income, gender, ethnicity, cancer type and treatment type. This is an important area for exploration as SM utilisation has the potential to impact on the health status, health behaviours and quality of life (QoL) of cancer survivors. A postal survey was conducted among 445 cancer survivors identified from a hospital in the West Midlands, UK. Demographic data were collected and respondents were asked to identify which practices across six SM categories - diet, exercise, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), psychological therapies, support groups and spirituality/religion - they had used (if any). The findings indicate that the large majority (91%) had used some form of SM after their cancer treatment. Exercise (84%) and diet (56%) were the most popular SM interventions for cancer survivors and socio-demographic and cancer-related factors were associated with SM uptake. These findings can form the basis for designing and implementing appropriate SM interventions aimed at improving the health, well-being and QoL of cancer survivors. PMID:25265011

Shneerson, C; Taskila, T; Holder, R; Greenfield, S; Tolosa, I; Damery, S; Gale, N

2014-09-29

406

Biology and Demographic Growth Parameters of Cowpea Aphid (Aphis craccivora) on Faba Bean (Vicia faba) Cultivars  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on five faba bean, Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) cultivars was evaluated. Colony development, biology, and demographic parameters were studied to measure the cowpea aphid performance. Two methods, whole plant and detached leaf, were used in these experiments. After 14 d, the number of apterous adult, nymphs, and total cowpea aphids were significantly lower in cultivar Gazira2 and highest on cultivar Misr1. Assuming that low aphid numbers per plant represented high resistance, the order of resistant cultivars was as follows: Gazira2 > Misr > Giza3 Improved > Goff1 > Misr1. Aphid infestation significantly inhibited plant growth compared with uninfested plants, as indicated by factorial analysis using plant height (F = 41.38, P < 0.0001). The detached-leaf biological assay showed that the cultivar Gazira2 was less suitable than Misr1 because it had longer prereproductive, reproductive, and post reproductive periods, longer total longevity, and lower number of progeny. Similarly, demographic parameters also justified the suggested lower suitability of Gazira2 compared with Misr1, indicated by significantly lower net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, but longer generation time and doubling time on Gazira2. It was shown that cowpea aphid performed differently on the whole plant as compared with detached leaves. The detached-leaf biological assay is recommended for future experiments because it is more accurate and efficient and it produces reliable data. PMID:25368064

Soffan, A.; Aldawood, A. S.

2014-01-01

407

Demographic patterns, attitudes and practices of women attending an antenatal clinic in rural Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish the demographic patterns, attitudes, and practices of women attending an antenatal clinic in an isolated rural area, 175 women were interviewed by questionnaire, and 7 groups of 5 women were interviewed in focus discussion groups. Further demographic information was collected using routine registration data and was compared with similar data gathered from an under-10 years' clinic held in the same place on different days. This showed differences in caste distribution for antenatal clinic attenders compared to those attending the under-10 years' clinic. Almost 1/4 of the women were prepared to walk a considerable distance to attend the antenatal clinic. Compared to the national literacy rate, women attending here were more likely to be literate and to have attended the hospital for their previous delivery. Foetal lie was of particular concern to women attending this clinic. Even among this biased population, the majority of women still delivered at home with only the assistance of a female relative or friend. Sudhenis (traditional birth attendants) were used in only a small number of cases. Education, not only of the sudhenis, but also of local women, is important in improving perinatal care in rural areas. PMID:12283775

Kirkpatrick, M; Lamichhane, S

1990-01-01

408

The Predictive Role of Happiness, Optimism and Demographical Status in Engagement in Health-related Behaviors  

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Full Text Available Introduction: With regard to the importance of life style for health promotion, this research aimed to investigate the predictive role of happiness, optimism and demographical status in engagement in health-related Behaviors for high school students in Semnan. Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive design, 217 (104 boys and 113 girls high school students in Semnan were selected through a two-stage cluster sampling and completed the Demographical Information Questionnaire, The Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI, Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R and The Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHP. Data analysis was performed through correlation and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS.Results: Results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status, and engagement in health-related behaviors (P0/05.Conclusion: Happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status are important for engagement in health-related behaviors by high school students. The principal implication of this research is set an agenda of intervention for improvement of these factors as an important foundation to engagement in health-related behaviors and health promotion of high school students.

Isaac Rahimian Boogar

2013-01-01

409

The Influence of Demographic Profiles on Emotional Intelligence: A Study on Polytechnic Lecturers in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to identify, understand, experience and express human emotions in a healthy productive way. The benefits of demonstrating high frequency of emotional intelligence in the workplace is vast especially in service based professions like teaching. Therefore this study aimed to explore the level of EI among lectures from a polytechnic in Malaysia and in the same time explore the influence of demographic profiles towards those levels. Demographic profiles such as gender, age group, occupational grade, working experience in the current job and prior working experience in the industry are selected. The Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Concise version was distributed to all the academic departments and the total number of respondents were n=162. Findings show that the overall level of EI is average. The findings proved that the levels of emotional intelligence among the lecturers improved with age, teaching experience, grade and education where else gender and prior working were not contributing factors© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

Jeya Amantha Kumar

2012-04-01

410

Demographic and health indicators in Gulf Cooperation Council nations with an emphasis on Qatar  

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Full Text Available Qatar is a rapidly developing wealthy state that is part of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a group of six countries that share relatively similar economic and cultural profiles. We aimed to capture key health indicators and demographic data from Qatar and GCC countries by examining 1980-2010 data from the World Bank Databank and WHO report. The results highlighted a unique demographic profile in Qatar, which has the lowest age dependency ratio, highest male to female ratio, and second highest migrant population in the world. In comparison to other GCC countries, Qatar had the highest life expectancy and the lowest communicable disease and-all cause mortality rates.The GCC countries generally had a low percentage of their population over age 65, a high percentage of migrants, a very low crude death rate and very high overweight and obesity prevalence. Examination of data trends showed a decline in birth rate and fertility rate with significant improvement in under-five and maternal mortality rates over the last three decades

Hekmat Alrouh

2013-03-01

411

Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [{sup 11}C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([{sup 11}C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [{sup 11}C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

Razifar, Pasha [Molecular Imaging and CT Research, GE Healthcare, WI 53188, Waukesha (United States); Engler, Henry [Department of Medical Science, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Blomquist, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Ringheim, Anna; Estrada, Sergio [Uppsala Imanet AB, GE Healthcare, Box 967, SE-751 09, Uppsala (Sweden); Laangstroem, Bengt [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergstroem, Mats [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-06-07

412

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had significant effect on physical violence; specifically, hitting and psychological violence; specifically, denying choices and cessation of intermarital intercourse. Also, the level of education had significant effect on the physical (e.g., throwing objects) and psychological (e.g., Cessation of marital intercourse and denying choices). Finally, present results indicated that the level of income, by itself, did not have any effects on experiencing any types of violence by men but its effect was visible and significant in the presence of the other two factors, the age and the level of education. The results in the present study are, in fact, only of their kinds in that the characteristics of abused men by their wives are assessed in male victims of domestic violence and can contribute to further understanding of the types of men susceptible to victimization by their wives. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that other demographic variables such as the number of children, the type of housing (ownership of the house or renting) and so on, were also determined in this study, but given their lack of any significant effects on the occurrence of violence of any kind against men, were not mentioned in the study.

Pournaghash-Tehrani, Said; Feizabadi, Zahra

413

Social implication of demographic changes in the European Union countries  

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Full Text Available The process of demographic changes in European countries is characterized by greater and greater ageing of the population, as a result of the decline in the rate of natural increase and the rise in life expectancy. Europeans have less and less children, they live longer and face the problems how to ensure a safe old age. Noticed trends of change will be intensified till the middle of the new millennium (2050, when the following situation is expected: the decline in the number of children (0-14 years for almost 20% and the active-working population (15-64, while there will be more "old persons" (65-79 for more than 44%, and "the oldest" persons (80 or more for even 180%. Ageing of the population characterizes all regions, but is specially pronounced in the countries in the south and countries in transition. Faced with the challenges of the disturbances in the demographic structure, the members of the European Union (25 developed an entire spectrum of measures and activities to prevent the negative social-economic consequences. Creation of "the policy of ageing" at the Union level develops within the co-ordination (OMC of the process of modernization of the social security system (old-age pension insurance, health insurance, social and child protection; it also implies the creation of conditions for "the active old age" (increase in employment and staying as long as possible on the job market, the development of "the new forms of solidarity" between generations (as a consequence of the increase of the coefficient of dependency between active working and supported population, preventing poverty and social exclusion, etc. Strategic documents, directions and national action-plans determined the concrete measures needed to face the demographic challenges.

Vukovi? Drenka

2006-01-01

414

Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wagsupply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

415

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had significant effect on physical violence; specifically, hitting and psychological violence; specifically, denying choices and cessation of intermarital intercourse. Also, the level of education had significant effect on the physical (e.g., throwing objects and psychological (e.g., Cessation of marital intercourse and denying choices. Finally, present results indicated that the level of income, by itself, did not have any effects on experiencing any types of violence by men but its effect was visible and significant in the presence of the other two factors, the age and the level of education. The results in the present study are, in fact, only of their kinds in that the characteristics of abused men by their wives are assessed in male victims of domestic violence and can contribute to further understanding of the types of men susceptible to victimization by their wives. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that other demographic variables such as the number of children, the type of housing (ownership of the house or renting and so on, were also determined in this study, but given their lack of any significant effects on the occurrence of violence of any kind against men, were not mentioned in the study.

Said Pournaghash-Tehrani

2007-01-01

416

Social implication of demographic changes in the European Union countries  

OpenAIRE

The process of demographic changes in European countries is characterized by greater and greater ageing of the population, as a result of the decline in the rate of natural increase and the rise in life expectancy. Europeans have less and less children, they live longer and face the problems how to ensure a safe old age. Noticed trends of change will be intensified till the middle of the new millennium (2050), when the following situation is expected: the decline in the number of children (0-...

Vukovi? Drenka

2006-01-01

417

The demographic cequence of the Chernobyl' NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1990 the total population evacuated due to the ChNPP accident was questionared. The analysis of the data obtained became the initial base for the demographic characteristics of this population. In 1991 about 40.000 people were planned to move. The estimation of the age of the moved, their marital status makes it possible to prognose their social child-bearing and economic value for the places where they were moved. In 1991 it was supposed that not only the moved population might have given birth to regenerations the necessary rate but also their mortality might play a significant role in the increase of the death rate

418

The impact of the demographic transition on capital formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

"The population of the United States is aging. We review a variety of the implications this has for U.S. national saving rates, and discuss the policy issues that they raise. After reviewing what different models would predict for household saving over the next several decades, we consider how the demographic transition may also affect national saving through changes in government behavior. Ways in which the composition of household saving might change as individuals age are also analyzed along with the implications of changes in government fiscal policy for asset composition." PMID:12344600

Auerbach, A J; Kotlikoff, L J

1992-01-01

419

Assessing the demographic and public service impacts of repository siting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Demographic and public service impacts are likely to be among the most evident of those changes resulting from nuclear waste repository development. Knowledge of the characteristics of such impacts and of the means to assess them is critical. The first section of this chapter examines those likely to be unique to repositories. The second section describes the alternatives for assessing such impacts and the particular difficulties likely to affect the assessments. Given the state of development of techniques for assessing impacts and the range of factors that must be considered, perhaps their best use is as a means of sensitizing decision makers to the potential implications of their decisions. 2 tables

420

Demographic factors associated with knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms in a UK population-based survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greater public awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms might result in earlier presentation with improved cure by available treatments, but little is known about the extent of public knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms. We asked a sample of the general population about knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms and assessed demographic characteristics associated with differences in knowledge. A population-based telephone enquiry into knowledge of colorectal cancer-associated symptoms was conducted by a commercial telephone market-research company. Persons called were asked if they knew any symptom of colorectal cancer. Those who answered 'yes' were asked to state any symptom. The ability to state a colorectal cancer-associated symptom was correlated with demographic characteristics, and the strength of the relation between stating a colorectal cancer associated and unassociated symptom (discrimination) was also assessed. 1019 persons (respondents) from an age, sex, and social class-balanced general population sample were questioned. 328 (31%) of respondents stated a colorectal cancer-associated symptom. Regression analysis identified older age, female sex and higher social class as being significantly associated with ability to state a colorectal cancer-associated symptom. There was a weak trend (P = 0.054) towards a relationship between ability to state an associated symptom and stating fewer unassociated symptoms. These results reveal a total ignorance of colorectal cancer symptoms in the majority of respondents and suggest a need for improved public education about colorectal cancer. Public education should be directed at population groups with higher risk and the least knowledge of colorectal cancer. PMID:10858687

Yardley, C; Glover, C; Allen-Mersh, T G

2000-05-01

421

Predictors of treatment outcome among Asian pathological gamblers (PGs): clinical, behavioural, demographic, and treatment process factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on predictors of treatment outcome among pathological gamblers (PGs) is inconclusive and dominated by studies from Western countries. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the current study examined demographic, clinical, behavioural and treatment programme predictors of gambling frequency at 3, 6 and 12-months, among PGs treated at an addiction clinic in Singapore. Measures included the Hospital anxiety and depression scale, gambling symptom assessment scale (GSAS), personal well-being index (PWI), treatment perception questionnaire and gambling readiness to change scale. Treatment response in relation to changes in symptom severity, personal wellbeing and abstinence were also assessed. Abstinence rates were 38.6, 46.0 and 44.4 % at 3, 6 and 12-months respectively. Significant reductions in gambling frequency, GSAS, and improvement in PWI were reported between baseline and subsequent outcome assessments, with the greatest change occurring in the initial three months. No demographic, clinical, behavioural or treatment programme variable consistently predicted outcome at all three assessments, though treatment satisfaction was the most frequent significant predictor. However, being unemployed, having larger than average debts, poor treatment satisfaction and attending fewer sessions at the later stages of treatment were associated with significantly poorer outcomes, up to 1-year after initiating treatment. These findings show promise for the effectiveness of a CBT-based treatment approach for the treatment of predominantly Chinese PGs. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Taken together, the findings suggest early treatment satisfaction is paramount in improving short-term outcomes, with baseline gambling behaviour and treatment intensity playing a more significant role in the longer term. PMID:22945784

Guo, Song; Manning, Victoria; Thane, Kyaw Kyaw Wai; Ng, Andrew; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wong, Kim Eng

2014-03-01

422

Advanced Power Electronics Components  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

Schwarze, Gene E.

2004-01-01

423

Valor nutritivo de los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala / Nutritive value of the forage components of an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En una vaquería de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas, con el objetivo de determinar algunos indicadores del valor nutritivo en los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas (Cynodon nlemfuensis y Panicum maximum) y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham en condiciones comerciales, [...] se selecciona­ron las especies más representativas de la composición florística y se evaluaron por la degradación in situ de la materia seca y la técnica de producción de gas in vitro en función del momento de muestreo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar la degradación de la materia seca de P. maximum cv. Likoni y L. leucocephala a las 48 y 72 horas (P Abstract in english In a dairy unit of the Genetic Enterprise of Matanzas, with the objective of determining some indicators of the nutritive value in the forage components of an association of improved grasses (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Panicum maximum) and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham under commercial condition [...] s, the most representative species of the floristic composition were selected and evaluated by the in situ degradation of dry matter and the in vitro gas production technique regarding the sampling moment. Significant differences were found when comparing the dry matter degradation of P. maximum cv. Likoni and L. leucocephala after 48 and 72 hours (P

Tania, Sánchez; E.R, Ørskov; L, Lamela; R, Pedraza; O, López.

2008-09-01

424

Verification Components Reuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Design verification of ASICs is often approached in an ad-hoc manner without the care, planning and scrutiny that usually accompanies a typical design effort. As the complexity of ASIC design increases, it is expected that the complexity of verification environments of such designs will increase as well. To reduce development time and effort, design reuse or the use of design blocks from one project to the next is often practiced. In this work, and in an effort to improve the efficiency of design verification efforts, we propose a methodology that advocates verification components reuse. The proposed approach utilizes a bottom-up, functional design verification strategy that encourages building and using modular and reusable verification components. The design of the hardware for the IEEE Ten Gigabit Ethernet standard is used to illustrate the feasibility and applicability of this approach. 

Assim Sagahyroon

2012-11-01

425

Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation. PMID:21219719

Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

2010-11-01

426

Radiation oncologists in 2000: demographic, professional, and practice characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe the demographic, professional, and practice characteristics of radiation oncologists, emphasizing comparisons to data from a similar 1995 Survey. Methods and Materials: In spring 2000, we surveyed 603 randomly selected radiation oncologists by mail, using a one-page questionnaire - 455 responded. We weighted responses to make answers representative of all radiation oncologists in the United States. Results: Approximately 45% of post-training, professionally active, radiation oncologists were <45 years old and 22% were women. Forty-two percent of radiation oncologists in training were women. Thirty-three percent of radiation-oncology-only practices were solo practices. The greatest percentage of post-training, professionally active, radiation oncologists were in nonacademic private radiation oncology practices. Fifty-three percent of post-training, professionally active, radiation oncologists reported that their workload was about right. Eighteen percent of individuals 60-64 years old and approximately two-thirds of those ?65 years old were not working (retired). The full-time equivalency of those aged 55-74 fell by 12 percentage points between 1995 and 2000. Conclusions: Most demographic, professional, and practice characteristics remained relatively constant between 1995 and 2000, with the exception of work status patterns. Radiation oncologists reported a more balanced workload than that reported by diagnostic radiologists. The surplus of radinostic radiologists. The surplus of radiation oncologists, which was predicted in the mid-1990s, was not demonstrated

427

Russian Federation: From the first to second demographic transition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demographic transition in Russia was accelerated by several social cataclysms during the "Soviet type" modernization. Frequent changes in the timing of births and marriages engendered a mass "abortion culture". Contraceptive devices of poor quality were produced on a limited scale. The Soviet regime promulgated pronatalism and considered contraception to contradict this ideology. There have been two waves of government policy interventions. In the 1930s and 1940s restrictive and propaganda measures prevailed. These failed to yield serious effects. In the 1980s, policies aimed at lessening the tension between full-time employment and maternal roles. These generated shifts in birth timing, namely shorter birth intervals and earlier second and third births, however increase in completed cohort fertility was minimal. A third wave started in 2007. Preoccupied with continuous depopulation, authorities intend to boost births by substantially increasing benefits. The mid-1990s was a turning point in the change of fertility and nuptiality models. The 1970s birth cohorts marry and become parents later. They delay first and second births and increasingly begin partnerships with cohabitation. Contraception is replacing abortion. New attitudes and perceptions about family, partnership, childbearing, and family planning are emerging. A major transformation typical for developed countries, the Second Demographic Transition, is underway. Nevertheless, many neo-traditional features of fertility and nuptiality remain. These distinguish Russia from most European countries and will persist in the near future. Completed fertility, however, hardly differs from the average European level.

Sergei Zakharov

2008-07-01

428

Demographic stochasticity and evolution of dispersion II: Spatially inhomogeneous environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic stochasticity, the random fluctuations arising from the intrinsic discreteness of populations and the uncertainty of individual birth and death events, is an essential feature of population dynamics. Nevertheless theoretical investigations often neglect this naturally occurring noise due to the mathematical complexity of stochastic models. This paper reports the results of analytical and computational investigations of models of competitive population dynamics, specifically the competition between species in heterogeneous environments with different phenotypes of dispersal, fully accounting for demographic stochasticity. A novel asymptotic approximation is introduced and applied to derive remarkably simple analytical forms for key statistical quantities describing the populations' dynamical evolution. These formulas characterize the selection processes that determine which (if either) competitor has an evolutionary advantage. The theory is verified by large-scale numerical simulations. We discover that the fluctuations can (1) break dynamical degeneracies, (2) support polymorphism that does not exist in deterministic models, (3) reverse the direction of the weak selection and cause shifts in selection regimes, and (4) allow for the emergence of evolutionarily stable dispersal rates. Dynamical mechanisms and time scales of the fluctuation-induced phenomena are identified within the theoretical approach. PMID:24671427

Lin, Yen Ting; Kim, Hyejin; Doering, Charles R

2015-02-01

429

Clinicoinvestigational and demographic profile of children with thalassemia major.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are an estimated 200 million carriers of the ?-thalassemia gene worldwide, 20 million being in India. The mean prevalence in India is 3.3 %. Objective To evaluate the clinico-investigational profile and the demographic characteristics of patients with thalassemia major (TM). Methods This was a retrospective analysis of the clinico-demographic profile at presentation of patients of TM diagnosed in the Paediatric Hematology Clinic of our hospital. Results The clinical profile of 964 patients of TM was analyzed. The mean age at presentation of untransfused children was 13.2 ± 9.7 months. Nearly 2/3(rd) children presented before 1 year of age. Almost 40 % had symptoms for 3 months prior to presentation. The manifestations at presentation included pallor and failure to thrive. About 40 % presented with severe anemia, with a hemoglobin of rate was about 90 %. Conclusions Thalassemia needs greater public awareness and prevention strategies in our country. Some communities are at high risk as compared to others. Education programs and compulsory antenatal screening appear to be the order of the day. PMID:25548457

Trehan, Amita; Sharma, Nivedita; Das, Reena; Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, R K

2015-03-01

430

Demographic and Economic Dependency Ratios – Present and Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present research article, we outline the distinction between the demographic dependency ratio and the economic dependency ratio and present its evolution in Romania within the European Union, but not restrictive to the EU27. The evolution of demographic dependency ratio changed dramatically in Romania in the last 15 years comparing to the UE27. On the other hand, the evolution of economic dependency ratios is much more relevant because it also reflects the problems the economy is facing and should be brought to the fore in the political debates and to decision makers. In the paper we present the factors that are leading to the increase of the economic dependency ratio and we conclude with the solutions which a state has to adopt in order to prevent excessive public debt and structural gaps due to long term rise in economic dependency ratio. Moreover, policy-makers must face up the painful inter-temporal transfer choices that have to be done. Our concern about Eastern-European Countries is strengthened by the global results reached by OECD through Minilink Model Study, IMF Study of G7 and QUEST II Model that suggest the fall of the living standards over the next 50 years due to economic dependency ratio. For Romania we considered two main solution to this problem: increasing birth rate (long term solution and lowering the unemployment rate through investment and a high rate of EU funds absorption (medium term solution.

Mihail Titu

2012-10-01

431

Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

Lu, Wei [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2014-01-01

432

Managing diversity: Changing demographics in the engineering workplace  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technological development creates a need for better educated workers with increased basic, analytical, and interpersonal skills. At the same time, both the population of 22-yr olds and the numbers of traditional students who are choosing careers in engineering and science are decreasing, creating a gap between engineering and construction needs and available trained resources. If more and better caliber students are not attracted to engineering, industry is expected to face selective shortages in the future. There is no question that the demographic composition of the next generation of engineers will significantly differ from that of today's engineers. Industry must recognize the changes that are occurring and take action to ensure that there continues to be an adequate supply of technically qualified workers in light of these demographic changes. In its role as adviser and coordinator of industry action, ANS can play a vital role in ensuring that the industry actions are timely and effective. The ANS should form a committee to study the changing composition of future engineers and constructors and formulate an effective action plan that industry can use to continue to attract able, top-performing students to the engineering field

433

Contrasting demographic histories of the neighboring bonobo and chimpanzee  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Pleistocene epoch was a period of dramatic climate change that had profound impacts on the population sizes of many animal species. How these species were shaped by past events is often unclear, hindering our understanding of the population dynamics resulting in present day populations. We analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes representing all four recognized chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo to infer the recent demographic history and used simulations to exclude a confounding effect of population structure. Our genus-wide Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed surprisingly dissimilar demographic histories of the chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo, despite their overlapping habitat requirements. Whereas the central and eastern chimpanzee subspecies were inferred to have expanded tenfold between around 50,000 and 80,000 years ago and today, the population size of the neighboring bonobo remained constant. The changes in population size are likely linked to changes in habitat area due to climate oscillations during the late Pleistocene. Furthermore, the timing of population expansion for the rainforest-adapted chimpanzee is concurrent with the expansion of the savanna-adapted human, which could suggest a common response to changed climate conditions around 50,000-80,000 years ago.

Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands

2014-01-01

434

Socio-Demographic Predictors of EFL Teacher Efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on teachers’ beliefs and their impact on teacher cognition has been arelevant topic for educational inquiry for some decades. Teachers’ actions are tied totheir beliefs, perceptions, assumptions and motivation levels. Thus, research on teacher