WorldWideScience
 
 
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Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

Brian C. O' Neill

2006-08-09

2

Automated Improvement for Component Reuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Software component reuse is the key to significant gains in productivity. However, the major problem is the lack of identifying and developing potentially reusable components. This paper concentrates on our approach to the development of reusable software components. A prototype tool has been developed, known as the Reuse Assessor and Improver System (RAIS) which can interactively identify, analyse, assess, and modify abstractions, attributes and architectures that support r...

Ramachandran, Muthu

2005-01-01

3

[Cities and towns of Perigord and Pays de Brive: functional and demographic approach (third quarter of the twentieth century). Part 3. Demographic growth and its components].  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the third in a series of articles based on the author's thesis. In the present article, demographic growth and its components are examined for the cities and towns in the French regions of Perigord and Pays de Brive over the period 1954-1975. Particular attention is given to the impact of migration, and trends in age structure and socio-occupational composition are discussed. PMID:12279440

Genty, M

1981-01-01

4

Improving the Components of Speaking Proficiency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the main concerns of language learners is how to improve their speaking proficiency in general and different components of speaking proficiency such as fluency, accuracy, accent, vocabulary, comprehension, and communication in particular. Accordingly, the present research attempts to investigate the effect of listening to different TV programs on improving different components of speaking proficiency. To achieve this purpose, a sample speaking test was given to twenty language learners...

Taher Bahrani; Rahmatollah Soltani

2011-01-01

5

When celibacy matters: incorporating non-breeders improves demographic parameter estimates.  

Science.gov (United States)

In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans). In this species, the breeding cycle lasts almost a year and birds that succeed a given year tend to skip the next breeding occasion while birds that fail tend to breed again the following year. Most non-breeders remain unobservable at sea, but still a substantial number of observable non-breeders (ONB) was identified on breeding sites. Using multi-state capture-mark-recapture analyses, we used several measures to compare the performance of demographic estimates between models incorporating or ignoring ONB: bias (difference in mean), precision (difference is standard deviation) and accuracy (both differences in mean and standard deviation). Our results highlight that ignoring ONB leads to bias and loss of accuracy on breeding probability and survival estimates. These effects are even stronger when studied in an age-dependent framework. Biases on breeding probabilities and survival increased with age leading to overestimation of survival at old age and thus actuarial senescence and underestimation of reproductive senescence. We believe our study sheds new light on the difficulties of estimating demographic parameters in species/taxa where a significant part of the population does not breed every year. Taking into account ONB appeared important to improve demographic parameter estimates, models of population dynamics and evolutionary conclusions regarding senescence within and across taxa. PMID:23555965

Pardo, Deborah; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

2013-01-01

6

When Celibacy Matters: Incorporating Non-Breeders Improves Demographic Parameter Estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans). In this species, the breeding cycle lasts almost a year and birds that succeed a given year tend to skip the next breeding occasion while birds that fail tend to breed again the following year. Most non-breeders remain unobservable at sea, but still a substantial number of observable non-breeders (ONB) was identified on breeding sites. Using multi-state capture-mark-recapture analyses, we used several measures to compare the performance of demographic estimates between models incorporating or ignoring ONB: bias (difference in mean), precision (difference is standard deviation) and accuracy (both differences in mean and standard deviation). Our results highlight that ignoring ONB leads to bias and loss of accuracy on breeding probability and survival estimates. These effects are even stronger when studied in an age-dependent framework. Biases on breeding probabilities and survival increased with age leading to overestimation of survival at old age and thus actuarial senescence and underestimation of reproductive senescence. We believe our study sheds new light on the difficulties of estimating demographic parameters in species/taxa where a significant part of the population does not breed every year. Taking into account ONB appeared important to improve demographic parameter estimates, models of population dynamics and evolutionary conclusions regarding senescence within and across taxa.

Pardo, Deborah; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

2013-01-01

7

Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models.Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites.In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and their limitations on epidemiological analyses. We review sources of detailed, contemporary, freely available and relevant spatial demographic data focusing on low income regions where such data are often sparse and highlight the value of incorporating these through a set of examples of their application in disease studies. Moreover, the importance of acknowledging, measuring, and accounting for uncertainty in spatial demographic datasets is outlined. Finally, a strategy for building an open-access database of spatial demographic data that is tailored to epidemiological applications is put forward. PMID:22591595

Tatem, Andrew J; Adamo, Susana; Bharti, Nita; Burgert, Clara R; Castro, Marcia; Dorelien, Audrey; Fink, Gunter; Linard, Catherine; John, Mendelsohn; Montana, Livia; Montgomery, Mark R; Nelson, Andrew; Noor, Abdisalan M; Pindolia, Deepa; Yetman, Greg; Balk, Deborah

2012-01-01

8

Impact of the demographic component on the market of educational services of Astrakhan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present development stage of higher education system is characterized by keen interest in it, but thus demand from year to year falls in connection with an adverse demographic situation. The number of graduates of schools in the city of Astrakhan for the last five years was cut off by half; the system of the unified state examination led to increase of mobility of graduates and their outflow to the capital region, and higher educational institutions, having lost demand for paid edu-cational service as the main source of the income, are compelled to fill up the budget at the expense of the income bringing activity.

Romantsova Elena Victorovna

2013-06-01

9

Laser Peening For Improving Metallic Components  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Suitable variation of residual stress profiles, fatigue strength and frequently also corrosion resistance of a material, are key requirements to be fulfilled for usability and long life of a vital machine component. Laser Peening (LP) is an innovative surface treatment which was initially developed for the aeronautic industry as the method for the improvement of the fatigue cracking resistance of the turbine spades of an aircraft, such as Falcon F-16 and Rockwell F-22. LP is based on plasm...

Grum, Janez; Trdan, Uros; Ocan?a Moreno, Jose Luis; Porro Gonza?lez, Juan Antonio

2010-01-01

10

Influence of migrational components of the Srem district on demographic growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The areas of Srem, and other parts of Vojvodina, are characterized by the constant movement of the population. Most causes of migration are economic, social, ethnic or political reasons. Migration could be voluntarily or forced, mass or individual, occasional or planned. The stated causes of migration occurring in Srem since 1961 to 1991 were mainly routed to the cities for economic reasons. The cities have absorbed the largest number of migrants provided by the rural hinterland. More intensive population movement was towards larger regional centers, resulting in some differences between urban settlements. The intensity and direction of movement of the population is largely dependent on the economic developed area. At the end of the twentieth century there were mass migrations from the territory of the former Yugoslavia. These migrations have affected to the demographic growth of population of Srem district. .

Petkovi? Dara

2010-01-01

11

Improved component mode synthesis and variants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This survey focuses on the two known model order reduction schemes being widely integrated in various commercial finite element packages, namely, the static and dynamic condensation methods. The advantages as well as the corresponding drawbacks have been extensively analyzed in several papers throughout the last decades. Based on combining the beneficial properties of the aforementioned methods, several alternative reduction methodologies are outlined in this paper, i.e., the generalized improved reduction system method, the generalized component mode synthesis and the improved component mode synthesis with its generalized version, which incorporate in a more efficient way the system's inertia terms. Therefore, the associated error regarding higher frequency ranges of interest is better controlled. Basis of these methodologies is the so-called master and slave degrees of freedom partitioning, the right selection of which highly influences the reduced order model's dynamics. The methods are tested and verified on a rather small three-dimensional bar structure and on the lever part of a turbocharger's variable turbine geometry. Several reduced order models are generated by varying both the number of Craig-Bampton modes and the selection of the required master degrees of freedom. A comparison is conducted based on the modal criterion of the corresponding eigenvectors and the associated computation time required.

Koutsovasilis, Panagiotis, E-mail: PKoutsovasilis@borgwarner.com [BorgWarner Turbo Systems Engineering GmbH, Structural Mechanics/Calculations and Simulations/Turbo Systems (Germany)

2013-04-15

12

Improved component mode synthesis and variants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey focuses on the two known model order reduction schemes being widely integrated in various commercial finite element packages, namely, the static and dynamic condensation methods. The advantages as well as the corresponding drawbacks have been extensively analyzed in several papers throughout the last decades. Based on combining the beneficial properties of the aforementioned methods, several alternative reduction methodologies are outlined in this paper, i.e., the generalized improved reduction system method, the generalized component mode synthesis and the improved component mode synthesis with its generalized version, which incorporate in a more efficient way the system’s inertia terms. Therefore, the associated error regarding higher frequency ranges of interest is better controlled. Basis of these methodologies is the so-called master and slave degrees of freedom partitioning, the right selection of which highly influences the reduced order model’s dynamics. The methods are tested and verified on a rather small three-dimensional bar structure and on the lever part of a turbocharger’s variable turbine geometry. Several reduced order models are generated by varying both the number of Craig–Bampton modes and the selection of the required master degrees of freedom. A comparison is conducted based on the modal criterion of the corresponding eigenvectors and the associated computation time required.

2013-04-01

13

When Celibacy Matters: Incorporating Non-Breeders Improves Demographic Parameter Estimates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exula...

Pardo, Deborah; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

2013-01-01

14

The Effectiveness of Institutional Intervention on Minimizing Demographic Inertia and Improving the Representation of Women Faculty in Higher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women remain under-represented among full time tenured/tenure-track science and engineering faculty at research universities in the United States despite their increasing availability in the employment pool. In response, intervention strategies aimed at boosting their participation have been introduced at university and national levels. Efforts to improve women’s representation may be challenged by demographic inertia, the tendency for the maintenance of the entrenched population structure that favors men despite improvements in women’s vital parameters. Here, we investigate the effectiveness of the U.S. National Science Foundation’s ADVANCE institutional intervention program at curtailing demographic inertia at a research university dubbed ‘Snow State University’ (SSU. We found that demographic inertia’s impact on women’s representation was lessened during ADVANCE. Yet to achieve long-lasting improvements in women’s representation, universities will need to increase their recruitment of women at the associate and full professor ranks while maintaining promotion and retention probabilities favorable to women over the long-term.

Amanda V. Bakian

2010-06-01

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Formal and substantial Internet information skills: The role of socio-demographic differences on the possession of different components of digital literacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The literature about digital inequality has pointed out the role of so-called "digital skills" in contributing to a full exploitation of the opportunities of the Web for individuals. Research has started to measure the differences in online skills on a socio-demographic base, finding relevant disparities. Since different components of digital skills have been described in theory, it is not clear which of them are influenced by specific social variables and which are not. This study goes a ste...

Gui, Marco

2007-01-01

16

Improving the Accuracy of Demographic and Molecular Clock Model Comparison While Accommodating Phylogenetic Uncertainty  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments in marginal likelihood estimation for model selection in the field of Bayesian phylogenetics and molecular evolution have emphasized the poor performance of the harmonic mean estimator (HME). Although these studies have shown the merits of new approaches applied to standard normally distributed examples and small real-world data sets, not much is currently known concerning the performance and computational issues of these methods when fitting complex evolutionary and population genetic models to empirical real-world data sets. Further, these approaches have not yet seen widespread application in the field due to the lack of implementations of these computationally demanding techniques in commonly used phylogenetic packages. We here investigate the performance of some of these new marginal likelihood estimators, specifically, path sampling (PS) and stepping-stone (SS) sampling for comparing models of demographic change and relaxed molecular clocks, using synthetic data and real-world examples for which unexpected inferences were made using the HME. Given the drastically increased computational demands of PS and SS sampling, we also investigate a posterior simulation-based analogue of Akaike's information criterion (AIC) through Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), a model comparison approach that shares with the HME the appealing feature of having a low computational overhead over the original MCMC analysis. We confirm that the HME systematically overestimates the marginal likelihood and fails to yield reliable model classification and show that the AICM performs better and may be a useful initial evaluation of model choice but that it is also, to a lesser degree, unreliable. We show that PS and SS sampling substantially outperform these estimators and adjust the conclusions made concerning previous analyses for the three real-world data sets that we reanalyzed. The methods used in this article are now available in BEAST, a powerful user-friendly software package to perform Bayesian evolutionary analyses.

Baele, Guy; Lemey, Philippe; Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A.; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.

2012-01-01

17

Improving the accuracy of demographic and molecular clock model comparison while accommodating phylogenetic uncertainty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments in marginal likelihood estimation for model selection in the field of Bayesian phylogenetics and molecular evolution have emphasized the poor performance of the harmonic mean estimator (HME). Although these studies have shown the merits of new approaches applied to standard normally distributed examples and small real-world data sets, not much is currently known concerning the performance and computational issues of these methods when fitting complex evolutionary and population genetic models to empirical real-world data sets. Further, these approaches have not yet seen widespread application in the field due to the lack of implementations of these computationally demanding techniques in commonly used phylogenetic packages. We here investigate the performance of some of these new marginal likelihood estimators, specifically, path sampling (PS) and stepping-stone (SS) sampling for comparing models of demographic change and relaxed molecular clocks, using synthetic data and real-world examples for which unexpected inferences were made using the HME. Given the drastically increased computational demands of PS and SS sampling, we also investigate a posterior simulation-based analogue of Akaike's information criterion (AIC) through Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), a model comparison approach that shares with the HME the appealing feature of having a low computational overhead over the original MCMC analysis. We confirm that the HME systematically overestimates the marginal likelihood and fails to yield reliable model classification and show that the AICM performs better and may be a useful initial evaluation of model choice but that it is also, to a lesser degree, unreliable. We show that PS and SS sampling substantially outperform these estimators and adjust the conclusions made concerning previous analyses for the three real-world data sets that we reanalyzed. The methods used in this article are now available in BEAST, a powerful user-friendly software package to perform Bayesian evolutionary analyses. PMID:22403239

Baele, Guy; Lemey, Philippe; Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Alekseyenko, Alexander V

2012-09-01

18

Identification of components to optimize improvement in system reliability  

Science.gov (United States)

The fields of reliability analysis and risk assessment have grown dramatically since the 1970's. There are now bodies of literature and standard practices which cover quantitative aspects of system analysis such as failure rate and repair models, fault and event tree generation, minimal cut sets, classical and Bayesian analysis of reliability, component and system testing techniques, and decomposition methods. In spite of the growth in the sophistication of reliability models, however, little has been done to integrate optimization models within a reliability analysis framework. That is, often reliability models focus on characterization of system structure in terms of topology and failure/availability characteristics of components. A number of approaches have been proposed to help identify the components of a system that have the largest influence on overall system reliability. While this may help rank order the components, it does not necessarily help a system design team identify which components they should improve to optimize overall reliability (it may be cheaper and more effective to focus on improving two or three components of smaller importance than one component of larger importance). In this paper, we present an optimization model that identifies the components to be improved to maximize the increase in system MTBF, subject to a fixed budget constraint. A dual formulation of the model is to minimize cost, subject to achieving a certain level of system reliability.

Painton, L.; Campbell, J.

19

Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rig...

2012-01-01

20

Evaluation of the Improved Three-Component Adaptive Processor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of the original three-component adaptive processor revealed that improvements in signal-to-noise ratio are much greater for Rayleigh waves than for Love waves. A new algorithm has been proposed for Love wave processing to put the effectiveness ...

A. C. Strauss

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Improvements for Image Compression Using Adaptive Principal Component Extraction (APEX)  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues of image compression and pattern classification have been a primary focus of researchers among a variety of fields including signal and image processing, pattern recognition, data classification, etc. These issues depend on finding an efficient representation of the source data. In this paper we collate our earlier results where we introduced the application of the. Hilbe.rt scan to a principal component algorithm (PCA) with Adaptive Principal Component Extraction (APEX) neural network model. We apply these technique to medical imaging, particularly image representation and compression. We apply the Hilbert scan to the APEX algorithm to improve results

Ziyad, Nigel A.; Gilmore, Erwin T.; Chouikha, Mohamed F.

1997-01-01

22

Measures to improve the availability of nuclear components from the viewpoint of a component supplier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Basis Safety Concept (BSC) mandatory in Germany for pressure-retaining components in nuclear power plants provides a significant contribution towards improving plant availability. The use of tough materials with good welding properties satisfies basis safely requirements much in the same way as, being the result of process optimization, the application of narrow-gap welding for butt welds and of pulsed TIG welding for the tube to tube-sheet joints in steam generators of pressurized-water reactors

1985-01-01

23

Demographic Elements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author sets out to present the evolution of the population in Osica de Sus commune in the period between 1871 and 2009, with a focus on the evolution of the main demographic processes which occurred and continue to occur in the contemporary period.

ION PAUL POPESCU

2010-06-01

24

Changing demographics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

1991-10-06

25

Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of...

Williams, Jill R.; Schatz, Enid J.; Clark, Benjamin D.; Collinson, Mark A.; Clark, Samuel J.; Jane Menken; Kathleen Kahn; Tollman, Stephen M.

2010-01-01

26

Managerial improvement efforts after finding unreported cracks in reactor components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2002 TEPCO found that there were unreported cracks in reactor components, of which inspection records had been falsified. Stress Corrosion Cracking indications found in Core Shrouds and Primary Loop Re-circulation pipes at some plants were removed from the inspection records and not reported to the regulators. Top management of TEPCO took the responsibility and resigned, and recovery was started under the leadership of new management team. First of all, behavioral standards were reconstituted to strongly support safety-first value. Ethics education was introduced and corporate ethics committee was organized with participation of external experts. Independent assessment organization was established to enhance quality assurance. Information became more transparent through Non-conformance Control Program. As for the material management, prevention and mitigation programs for the Stress Corrosion Cracking of reactor components were re-established. In addition to the above immediate recovery actions, long term improvement initiatives have also been launched and driven by our aspiration to excellence in safe operation of nuclear power plants. Vision and core values were set to align the people. Organizational learning was enhanced by benchmark studies, better systematic use of operational experience, self-assessment and external assessment. Based on these foundation blocks and with strong sponsorship from the top management, work processes were analyzed and improved by Peer Groups. (author)

2006-09-01

27

Codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components to improve Jewett transform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jewett Transform is not yet, it is being. First ideas on this metaphor are from 1980 while monitoring cerebral function. It was conceived in contrast with Fourier Transform. Its application is limited to Auditory Brain Stem Responses. It uses a non-orthogonal physiologically rooted basis. Non-orthogonal basis has limited power in front of orthogonal basis: no analytical method exists to evaluate the corresponding transforms and numerical methods are required. In previous works, numerical methods were replaced for by trained artificial neural networks. Jewett transform was applied to increase the training set. Being a physiologically inspired basis, it promises better understanding of analysis of these evoked responses. It is envisioned that diverse new transforms, tailored to different problem specificity are to emerge. Considering the short temporal influence of Jewett components, it is stated that codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components can be used to improve Jewett Transform. Previously used neural network was modified. Output vector codes are built up by grouping components instead of grouping parameters. This allows synaptic pruning in the artificial neural network. Only a fraction (0.49) of the previous network weights is used. Mean square error in fitting signal to model are acceptable (mean ?<0.3%, n= 600). Memorization is eliminated

2007-11-01

28

Improved Joining of Metal Components to Composite Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems requirements for complex spacecraft drive design requirements that lead to structures, components, and/or enclosures of a multi-material and multifunctional design. The varying physical properties of aluminum, tungsten, Invar, or other high-grade aerospace metals when utilized in conjunction with lightweight composites multiply system level solutions. These multi-material designs are largely dependent upon effective joining techAn improved method of joining metal components to matrix/fiber composite material structures has been invented. The method is particularly applicable to equipping such thin-wall polymer-matrix composite (PMC) structures as tanks with flanges, ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liners for high heat engine nozzles, and other metallic-to-composite attachments. The method is oriented toward new architectures and distributing mechanical loads as widely as possible in the vicinities of attachment locations to prevent excessive concentrations of stresses that could give rise to delaminations, debonds, leaks, and other failures. The method in its most basic form can be summarized as follows: A metal component is to be joined to a designated attachment area on a composite-material structure. In preparation for joining, the metal component is fabricated to include multiple studs projecting from the aforementioned face. Also in preparation for joining, holes just wide enough to accept the studs are molded into, drilled, or otherwise formed in the corresponding locations in the designated attachment area of the uncured ("wet') composite structure. The metal component is brought together with the uncured composite structure so that the studs become firmly seated in the holes, thereby causing the composite material to become intertwined with the metal component in the joining area. Alternately, it is proposed to utilize other mechanical attachment schemes whereby the uncured composite and metallic parts are joined with "z-direction" fasteners. The resulting "wet" assembly is then subjected to the composite-curing heat treatment, becoming a unitary structure. It should be noted that this new art will require different techniques for CMC s versus PMC's, but the final architecture and companion curing philosophy is the same. For instance, a chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) fabrication technique may require special integration of the pre-form and

Semmes, Edmund

2009-01-01

29

A comparative method for improving the reliability of brittle components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculating the absolute reliability built in a product is often an extremely difficult task because of the complexity of the physical processes and physical mechanisms underlying the failure modes, the complex influence of the environment and the operational loads, the variability associated with reliability-critical design parameters and the non-robustness of the prediction models. Predicting the probability of failure of loaded components with complex shape for example is associated with uncertainty related to: the type of existing flaws initiating fracture, the size distributions of the flaws, the locations and the orientations of the flaws and the microstructure and its local properties. Capturing these types of uncertainty, necessary for a correct prediction of the reliability of components is a formidable task which does not need to be addressed if a comparative reliability method is employed, especially if the focus is on reliability improvement. The new comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws proposed here is based on an assumed failure criterion, an equation linking the probability that a flaw will be critical with the probability of failure associated with the component and a finite element solution for the distribution of the principal stresses in the loaded component. The probability that a flaw will be critical is determined directly, after a finite number of steps equal to the number of finite elements into which the component is divided. An advantage of the proposed comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws is that it does not rely on a Monte Carlo simulation and does not depend on knowledge of the size distribution of the flaws and the material properties. This essentially eliminates uncertainty associated with the material properties and the population of flaws. On the basis of a theoretical analysis we also show that, contrary to the common belief, in general, for non-interacting flaws randomly located in a stressed volume, the distribution of the minimum failure stress is not necessarily described by a Weibull distribution. For the simple case of a single group of flaws all of which become critical beyond a particular threshold value for example, the Weibull distribution fails to predict correctly the probability of failure. If in a particular load range, no new critical flaws are created by increasing the applied stress, the Weibull distribution also fails to predict correctly the probability of failure of the component. In these cases however, the probability of failure is correctly predicted by the suggested alternative equation. The suggested equation is the correct mathematical formulation of the weakest-link concept related to random flaws in a stressed volume. The equation does not require any assumption concerning the physical nature of the flaws and the physical mechanism of failure and can be applied in any situation of locally initiated failure by non-interacting entities.

Todinov, M.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX33 1HX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mtodinov@brookes.ac.uk

2009-02-15

30

Material Gradients in Oxygen System Components Improve Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxygen system components fabricated by Laser Engineered Net Shaping (TradeMark) (LENS(TradeMark)) could result in improved safety and performance. LENS(TradeMark) is a near-net shape manufacturing process fusing powdered materials injected into a laser beam. Parts can be fabricated with a variety of elemental metals, alloys, and nonmetallic materials without the use of a mold. The LENS(TradeMark) process allows the injected materials to be varied throughout a single workpiece. Hence, surfaces exposed to oxygen could be constructed of an oxygen-compatible material while the remainder of the part could be one chosen for strength or reduced weight. Unlike conventional coating applications, a compositional gradient would exist between the two materials, so no abrupt material boundary exists. Without an interface between dissimilar materials, there is less tendency for chipping or cracking associated with thermal-expansion mismatches.

Forsyth, Bradley S.

2011-01-01

31

Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

2001-07-01

32

THE DYNAMIC OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC COMPONENT OF THE OLT AND JIU BORDERED SUB-CARPATHIANS IN THE TRANSITION PERIOD – AS A PREMISE OF THE ECONOMICAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the transition period, the Sub-Carpathians between Olt and Jiu were characterised by a reduced growth of the demographic potential, but especialy by a large mobility due to the socio-economical development and the balance between the rural and urban environment. From a spatial perspective, the Northern frame has reduced its demographic potential in the last 17 years, even more than the rural dorsal between the two bordering cities. Overall, the two extremities have increased their demographic potential, even if the evolutional tendencies have changed along the 17 years.The „centrality” degree and the vicinity of the capital and of the E 70 highway, determine, in the case of Râmnicu Vâlcea, a much higher territorial demographic “binding capacity”. Although still within the upper echelons from the perspective of the socio-economical development indicators, and moreover from that of the demographic resource descriptors (alphabetization indices, etc., the studied perimeter is in a constant demographic potential reduction process (proportionally the same with the distance towards the bordering urban center, firstly of the young one (atracted by the two urbane centers and secondly of the young and qualified –in general (rural and urban –in the benefit of the country’s main urban centers and especially the capital.

Simona M?L?ESCU

2008-05-01

33

Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. Objective: To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. Design: This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. Results and Conclusions: This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.

Jill R. Williams

2010-08-01

34

Ways of organization improvement of process component mounting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recommendations on efficiency increase and decrease of labour input of process component mounting are suggested on the basis of experience in organization of works on mounting thermal equipment at NPP and TPP

1987-01-01

35

ISI effectiveness improvement of WWER type primary circuit components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-service inspection (ISI) qualification programme in the Czech Republic is based on the Czech Round Robin Test and two Phare projects focused on ISI qualification of WWER 440-213 type components: reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and main primary piping components other than RPV. The manufacture of three test assemblies for RPV and five test blocks for other primary components with implanted defects is in progress. Performance of ISI qualification is intended for all the five test assemblies. The present phase of the inspection qualification programme is focused on performance demonstration capabilities of both ultrasonic testing equipment, ultrasonic techniques and in-service inspection procedures used or intended for inspections of both the WWER 440 and WWER 1000 critical primary circuit components. The background of this phase is based on the information gathered on current inspection rules and evaluation of results relating to manufacture, pre-service and in-service inspections and applicable procedures used for inspection of critical primary circuit components

1997-03-11

36

An Improved Incremental Localization Algorithm Based on Principal Component Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With respect to the problem that, the traditional increment localization method, only the heteroscedasticity caused by the error accumulation is considered unilaterally, a kind of incremental localization algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA is proposed. In this study, principal component analysis method is adopted to eliminate the influence caused by multiple co-linearity. On this basis, it is expected to utilize a feasible weight least squares method to solve the heteroscedasticity problem caused by error accumulation in practical environment. Principal component analysis method may help to eliminate the effect of multiple co-linearity, as well as to reduce noise. In the computation process, residual obtained in practical calculation may be used as the weight for the weighted least squares, making the algorithm more close to practical deployment and leading to higher localization accuracy.

Jiguang Chen

2014-01-01

37

Improving airborne strapdown vector gravimetry using stabilized horizontal components  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating the deflections of the vertical along the flight line can yield geoid profiles which are valuable in the study of geodesy and geophysics, fortunately, the deflections can be measured directly by vector gravimetry. Airborne vector gravimetry using a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System and the Global Navigation Satellite System (SINS/GNSS) has shown promising results in previous studies. However, the quality of the SINS and GNSS is a major limitation; in particular, the attitude errors induced by the gyros will result in large measurement errors to the horizontal components of the gravity disturbance, and these measurement errors represent the behavior of low-frequency trend. An airborne vector gravimetry method used to remove the bias and low-frequency trends in the gravity disturbance estimated for each survey line has been developed. This method uses the horizontal components of the gravity disturbance computed from EGM2008 (Earth Gravitational Model 2008) as a reference. Firstly, the horizontal measurement results obtained from the gravimeter are divided into high- and low-frequency components according to the resolution of the EGM2008, and then, the bias and low-frequency trends of the low-frequency components are corrected using a linear fit to the EGM2008 reference data. Finally, the ultimate results can be acquired after combining the high-frequency components and the corrected low-frequency components. The data used was obtained from the SGA-WZ, which is the first strapdown airborne gravimeter developed in China. The results of this method are promising. The internal accuracy of the gravity disturbance's horizontal components for repeated survey lines exceeds 3.5 mGal, and the corresponding resolution is approximately 4.8 km based on 160-s data smoothing and an airplane averaging speed of approximately 216 km/h. After applying the WCF (Wavenumber Correlation Filter), the internal accuracy of the horizontal components exceeds 2 mGal. This can satisfy the requirement of the application in geodesy and solid earth geophysics.

Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Wu, Meiping

2013-11-01

38

Improvement of the mechanical response of an electrical component  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The electrical component under analysis does not fulfil the mechanical performance required by the standard (a minimum force of 400 gf during the extraction of a 3.8 mm diameter pin after the introduction of a 5.1 mm pin). A numerical study using the finite element method was developed to understand the limited response of the component and to study the effect of changing material and geometry. Experimental tests were performed to obtain the elastic-plastic behaviour of the material and frict...

Antunes, F. J. V.; Costa, J. D. M.; Ferreira, J. A. M.

2003-01-01

39

A components paint facility upgrade to improve production efficiency, quality and working conditions at UCW Company  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A design of an improved facilities plan for Components Paint Shop, with appropriate and efficient material flow and handling system. The facility should optimise production efficiency throughout Components Paint Shop.

Masombuka, Willy Sizo

2011-01-01

40

Improved computation method in residual life estimation of structural components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work considers the numerical computation methods and procedures for the fatigue crack growth predicting of cracked notched structural components. Computation method is based on fatigue life prediction using the strain energy density approach. Based on the strain energy density (SED theory, a fatigue crack growth model is developed to predict the lifetime of fatigue crack growth for single or mixed mode cracks. The model is based on an equation expressed in terms of low cycle fatigue parameters. Attention is focused on crack growth analysis of structural components under variable amplitude loads. Crack growth is largely influenced by the effect of the plastic zone at the front of the crack. To obtain efficient computation model plasticity-induced crack closure phenomenon is considered during fatigue crack growth. The use of the strain energy density method is efficient for fatigue crack growth prediction under cyclic loading in damaged structural components. Strain energy density method is easy for engineering applications since it does not require any additional determination of fatigue parameters (those would need to be separately determined for fatigue crack propagation phase, and low cyclic fatigue parameters are used instead. Accurate determination of fatigue crack closure has been a complex task for years. The influence of this phenomenon can be considered by means of experimental and numerical methods. Both of these models are considered. Finite element analysis (FEA has been shown to be a powerful and useful tool1,6 to analyze crack growth and crack closure effects. Computation results are compared with available experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 174001

Maksimovi? Stevan M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

[The demographic doctrines of Plato].  

Science.gov (United States)

Plato has been invoked so often in discussions of population and so many different and contradictory attitudes toward population and demography have been attributed to him that it is necessary to examine his own works and their context in order to understand his true views of the subject. This article briefly examines Plato's demographic thought and its relation to the sociopolitical conditions and intellectual currents of his time and place. The major themes of his demographic work are viewed as outgrowths of the fundamental principles of platonic philosophy and ethics: perfect love, biological and spiritual fertility, procreation as a duty, eugenics, moderation and static equilibrium, the need for demographic legislation, and the justification for and methods of demographic policy. The demographic doctrines espoused in Plato's "Laws" and "The Republic" are then examined. Analysis of Plato's global demographic thought demonstrates how the implementation of perfectly logical means of improving the collective good through measures affecting social organization, legislation, and education resulted in the most totalitarian demographic doctrine ever enunciated. Thus for example, the necessity of harmonizing the ideal of platonic love with the biologic renewal of society led Plato to grant rulers absolute and exclusive power over the family, marriage, sexuality, procreation, and the life and death of infants. PMID:12279467

Vilquin, E

1982-01-01

42

Improved Ligation Specificity with Chemically Modified Ligation Components  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ligases are gaining utility in molecular biology applications, such as nucleotide sequence detection, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection, protein detection and “next generation” sequencing by ligation. With the increased demand for DNA ligases in the field of biotechnology, comes increased demand for ligation fidelity. Described approaches to improved ligation fidelity include ligases from different biological sources, point mutations of key amino acid residues within the liga...

2013-01-01

43

Development of passive electronic components for instrumentation of improved geothermal logging tools and components. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of passive components for electronic circuits for geothermal well-logging tools is discussed; this involves resistors, capacitors, metallization and passivation. The basic technology is the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal interconnections, resistor material, dielectric material and passivating material. The investigation in this project is directed toward tungsten metallization, tungsten-silicon resistors, and capacitors with silicon nitride dielectric and passivation. Since CVD can be done at temperatures in the range 500/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, the resulting components are capable of operating at least at short and medium term temperatures, and possibly at long term temperatures. The devices are deposited on their own substrate, either sapphire or oxidized silicon.

Raymond, L.S.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.J.

1978-10-01

44

Improving tag/seal technologies: the vulnerability assessment component  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, has sponsored the development of numerous tag and seal technologies for high-security/high-valued applications. One important component in this technology development effort has been the continuous integration of vulnerability assessments. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been the lead laboratory for vulnerability assessments of fiber-optic-based tag/seal technologies. This paper presents a brief historical overview and the current status of the DOE high-security tag/seal development program and discusses INEL`s adversarial role and assessment philosophy. Verification testing criteria used to define ``successful`` tampering attempts/attacks are discussed. Finally, the advantages of integrating a vulnerability assessment into the development of commercial security tag/seals are presented.

Jones, J.L.

1996-02-01

45

Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCARâ??s test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of imported oil, that much less air pollution, and an equivalent reduction in the trade deficit, which is expected to lower the inflation rate.

N.B. Elsner; J.C. Bass; S. Ghamaty; D. Krommenhoek; A. Kushch; D. Snowden; S. Marchetti

2005-03-31

46

An improved method for physician-certified verbal autopsy reduces the rate of discrepancy: experiences in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (NHDSS, Burkina Faso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Through application of the verbal autopsy (VA approach, trained fieldworkers collect information about the probable cause of death (COD by using a standardized questionnaire to interview family members who were present at the time of death. The physician-certified VA (PCVA, an independent review of this questionnaire data by up to three physicians trained in VA coding, is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO and is widely used in the INDEPTH Network. Even given its appropriateness in these contexts, a large percentage of causes of death assigned by VAs remains undetermined. As physicians often do not agree upon a final COD classification, there remains substantial room to improve the standard VA method, potentially leading to a reduction in physician discordance in COD coding. Methods We present an extension of the current method of PCVA and compare it to the standard WHO-recommended procedure. We used VA data collected in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (NHDSS between 2009 and 2010 using a locally-adapted version of an INDEPTH standard verbal autopsy questionnaire. Until 2009, physicians in the NHDSS followed the WHO method (Method 1. As an extension of Method 1, starting in 2010, the use of a panel of physicians was added to the coding process in the case where a third physician's final conclusions resulted in an undetermined COD (Method 2. Two independent samples of VA questionnaires were compared for the year 2009 (using Method 1 and the year 2010 (using Method 2. Results The WHO-recommended method used for 2009 yielded a high level of undetermined CODs, where the final coding was "undetermined" in 50.8% of all questionnaires due to disagreement among participating physicians (Method 1. By introducing a panel of physicians in 2010 for cases where the principal physicians disagreed on the cause of death, the revised method significantly reduced the proportion of undetermined CODs to 1.5% (Method 2. Conclusions As the extended method of PCVA significantly improved the accuracy of the VA procedure, we suggest the adoption of this method for those countries where alternatives like computer-based VA coding are not available. Based on the results of our study, further research should be pursued.

Bagagnan Cheik

2011-08-01

47

INVESTIGATIONS TO IMPROVE THE TRANSFERABILITY OF SPECIMEN RESULTS BY REAL COMPONENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the improvement of the lifetime calculation of components made of the titanium alloy Ti-6-4, a closed loop methodology from specimen to the component is presented. Based on forged pre-material specimens fatigue tests are done as a basic research, which are presented as S/N-curves. With the determined material data a lifetime calculation with the program FEMFAT is done on a typically fitting element. Finally the results of the lifetime calculation are compared to real component tests, which are done to evaluate the results of the lifetime calculation. The component tests are performed with constant and variable load. Therewith the transferability of specimen results to real components is shown. Additional fracture analysis by light microscope and scanning electron microscope is carried out to give further information of the influence factor of the lifetime and a further description between fracture behaviour of specimen and components.

Martin Riedler

2010-12-01

48

Methodology for Process Improvement Through Basic Components and Focusing on the Resistance to Change.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a multi-model methodology that implements a smooth and continuous process improvement, depending on the organization's business goals and allowing users to establish their improvement implementation pace. The methodology focuses on basic process components known as ‘best practices’. Besides, it covers following the topics: knowledge management and change management. The methodology description and the results of a case study on project management process are included.

Calvo-manzano Villalon, Jose Antonio; Cuevas Agustin, Gonzalo; Go?mez, Gerzo?n; Mejia, Jezreel; Mun?oz, Mirna; San Feliu Gilabert, Tomas

2010-01-01

49

A Program to Improve the Triangulated Surface Mesh Quality Along Aircraft Component Intersections  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer program has been developed for improving the quality of unstructured triangulated surface meshes in the vicinity of component intersections. The method relies solely on point removal and edge swapping for improving the triangulations. It can be applied to any lifting surface component such as a wing, canard or horizontal tail component intersected with a fuselage, or it can be applied to a pylon that is intersected with a wing, fuselage or nacelle. The lifting surfaces or pylon are assumed to be aligned in the axial direction with closed trailing edges. The method currently maintains salient edges only at leading and trailing edges of the wing or pylon component. This method should work well for any shape of fuselage that is free of salient edges at the intersection. The method has been successfully demonstrated on a total of 125 different test cases that include both blunt and sharp wing leading edges. The code is targeted for use in the automated environment of numerical optimization where geometric perturbations to individual components can be critical to the aerodynamic performance of a vehicle. Histograms of triangle aspect ratios are reported to assess the quality of the triangles attached to the intersection curves before and after application of the program. Large improvements to the quality of the triangulations were obtained for the 125 test cases; the quality was sufficient for use with an automated tetrahedral mesh generation program that is used as part of an aerodynamic shape optimization method.

Cliff, Susan E.

2005-01-01

50

Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol�gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol�gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol�gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol�gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol�gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol�gel component.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2012-01-01

51

Demographic trajectories for supercentenarians  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A fundamental question in aging research concerns the demographic trajectories at the highest ages, especially for supercentenarians (persons aged 110 or more). We wish to demonstrate that the Weon model enables scientists to describe the demographic trajectories for supercentenarians. We evaluate the average survival data from the modern eight countries and the valid and complete data for supercentenarians from the International Database on Longevity (Robine and Vaupel, (20...

Weon, Byung Mook

2004-01-01

52

Improving accuracy of total knee component cementation: description of a simple technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty represents a common orthopedic surgical procedure. Achieving proper alignment of its components with the predrilled patellar and tibial peg holes prior to polymerization of the bone cement can be challenging. Technique After establishing the femoral, patellar and tibial bone cuts, the cancellous bone around the tibial keel, as well as the peg holes for the patella and femoral components are marked with methylene blue using a cotton swab stick. If bone cement is then placed onto the cut and marked bone edges, the methylene blue leaches through the bone cement and clearly outlines the tibial keel and predrilled femoral and patellar peg holes. This allows excellent visualization of the bone preparations for each component, ensuring safe and prompt positioning of TKA components while minimizing intraoperative difficulties with component alignment while the cement hardens. Conclusion The presented technical note helps to improve the accuracy and ease of insertion when the components of total knee arthroplasty are impacted to their final position.

Dayton Michael R

2009-10-01

53

How the gender or morphological specific TKA prosthesis improves the component fit in the Chinese population?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the gender specific or morphological specific total knee prostheses improve the component fit in the distal femur of the Chinese population. The data showed that the perfect fit rate of the femoral component remarkably increased in both the male and female subjects when using the gender specific (Nexgen-LPS GSF, Zimmer) or morphological specific (Advance Stature Knee, Wright Medical Technology) knee prostheses, compared to their standard counterparts. The highest femoral component perfect fit rate was achieved when both the standard and the corresponding gender or morphological specific knee prostheses were available for selection. Additionally, the percentage of the gender or morphological specific prosthesis selection in the females was significantly higher than the males. PMID:23706908

Yue, Bing; Wang, Jun; Wang, You; Yan, Mengning; Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Yiming

2014-01-01

54

Component improvement of free-piston Stirling engine key technology for space power  

Science.gov (United States)

The successful performance of the 25 kW Space Power Demonstrator (SPD) engine during an extensive testing period has provided a baseline of free piston Stirling engine technology from which future space Stirling engines may evolve. Much of the success of the engine was due to the initial careful selection of engine materials, fabrication and joining processes, and inspection procedures. Resolution of the few SPD engine problem areas that did occur has resulted in the technological advancement of certain key free piston Stirling engine components. Derivation of two half-SPD, single piston engines from the axially opposed piston SPD engine, designated as Space Power Research (SPR) engines, has made possible the continued improvement of these engine components. The two SPR engines serve as test bed engines for testing of engine components. Some important fabrication and joining processes are reviewed. Also, some component deficiencies that were discovered during SPD engine testing are described and approaches that were taken to correct these deficiencies are discussed. Potential component design modifications, based upon the SPD and SPR engine testing, are also reported.

Alger, Donald L.

1988-01-01

55

Use of High Magnetic Fields to Improve Material Properties for Hydraulics, Automotive and Truck Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this CRADA, research and development activities were successfully conducted on magnetic processing effects for the purpose of manipulating microstructure and the application specific performance of three alloys provided by Eaton (alloys provided were: carburized steel, plain low carbon steel and medium carbon spring steel). Three specific industrial/commercial application areas were considered where HMFP can be used to provide significant energy savings and improve materials performance include using HMFP to: 1.) Produce higher material strengths enabling higher torque bearing capability for drive shafts and other motor components; 2.) Increase the magnetic response in an iron-based material, thereby improving its magnetic permeability resulting in improved magnetic coupling and power density, and 3.) Improve wear resistance. The very promising results achieved in this endeavor include: 1.) a significant increase in tensile strength and a major reduction in volume percent retained austenite for the carburized alloy, and 2.) a substantial improvement in magnetic perm respect to a no-field processed sample (which also represents a significant improvement over the nominal conventional automotive condition of no heat treatment). The successful completion of these activities has resulted in the current 3-year CRADA No. NFE-09-02522 Prototyping Energy Efficient ThermoMagnetic and Induction Hardening for Heat Treat and Net Shape Forming Applications .

Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Ahmad, Aquil [Eaton Corporation

2010-08-01

56

Independent component regression for seasonal climate prediction: an efficient way to improve multimodel ensembles  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this study is to improve the seasonal climate prediction of multimodel ensembles. The conventional principal component regression has been used to build a statistical relation between observations and multimodel ensembles. It predicts future climate values when there are a large number of variables, which is a typical issue in climate research field. However, principal component analysis which is prerequired to perform principal component regression assumes that information of the data should be retained by the second moment. This condition would be stringent to climate data. In this paper, we present a new prediction method that is efficient to adapt to non-Gaussian and high-dimensional data. The proposed method is based on a combination of independent component analysis and regularized regression approach. The main benefits of the proposed method are as follows. (1) It explains a statistical relationship between multimodel ensembles and observations, when either one is not normally distributed; and (2) it is capable of evaluating the contribution of climate models for prediction by selecting some specific models that are appropriate. The superiority of the proposed method is demonstrated by the prediction of future precipitation in boreal summer (June-July-August; JJA) for 20 years (1983-2002) on both global and regional scales.

Lim, Yaeji; Lee, Jaeyong; Oh, Hee-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk

2014-03-01

57

Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability Conceptual Design Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) components and systems. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration platform. I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the system; treating I&C as an integral part of the system design is innovative and will allow significant improvement in capabilities and performance. As systems become more complex and greater performance is required, traditional I&C design techniques become inadequate and more advanced I&C needs to be applied. New I&C techniques enable optimal and reliable performance and tolerance of noise and uncertainties in the system rather than merely monitoring quasistable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in NPP components after the design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. By incorporating I&C at the beginning of the design phase, the control system can provide superior performance and reliability and enable designs that are otherwise impossible. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the platform to demonstrate the performance and reliability improvements enabled by advanced embedded I&C.

Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Burress, T.; Fugate, D.; Holcomb, D.; Wilgen, J.; Miller, J.; Wilson, D.; Silva, P.; Whitlow, L.; Peretz, F.

2012-09-15

58

An Improved Independent Component Analysis Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional independent component analysis (ICA method based on FastICA algorithm faced two main disadvantages. One is that the order of the independent components (ICs is difficult to be determined and the other is that the FastICA algorithm often leads to local minimum solution, and the suitable source signals are not isolated. To alleviate these problems, an improved ICA algorithm based on artificial immune system (AIS (called AIS-ICA is presented. AIS is an attractive heuristic technique and has many advantages over other heuristic techniques such as it can be easily implemented and has great capability of escaping local optimal solutions The basic idea of the proposed AIS-ICA algorithm is to use AIS to determine the separating matrix of ICA. Simulation results from the artificial signal data illustrate the efficiency of the proposed AIS–ICA approach.

Li-Yuan Chen

2013-02-01

59

Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet  

Science.gov (United States)

This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old residents and citizens by gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, marital status, military status, unemployment, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1968-2006. It explores such demographic characteristics of young people using data from the March Annual…

Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

2006-01-01

60

The Demographic Imperative  

Science.gov (United States)

As the United States moves toward becoming a "minority-majority" country, what more can--and should--college presidents and governing boards do to provide low-income students and students of color with a pipeline to high-quality education? Ongoing discourse about shifting demographics locally and nationally must be built into institutions'…

Jordan, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Planning, demographics and Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the issue of demographics is presented as one of the most important factors in regard to the future development of Slovenia. We are still not fully aware of the consequences of the demographic development in the past, which has caused the current situation. The balance between the active and retired population is disturbed, as the percentage of retired persons is on the increase. This process will continue, because the number of retirements will increase in the future, mainly due to the demographic reasons. In regard to the current age the structure of the population in Slovenia, we can expect a huge and absolute increase in the number of elderly people and an even faster increase in the percentage of elderly people in the entire population. The number of retired persons will indirectly increase due to the longer life expectancy. In a demographic sense, the increase of elderly people means a significantly higher annual number of deaths and therefore a strong negative natural growth. This will be even more evident due to the significant decrease of the number of births in the last 30 years. This problem arises not only from low birth rates, but also due to the fact that the generations of women in their fertility period are less numerous.

Aleksander Jakoš

2009-01-01

62

A Brief Demographic Portrait  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a brief demographic portrait, with particular emphasis on school-related issues, that points to the dire situation of Latino/a education. According to the 2010 Census, the number of Hispanics (the term used in government data) currently was 50,477,594 million, an increase of 43 percent since 2000, making this group the…

Nieto, Sonia

2012-01-01

63

Demographic trends in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present note, we display the main features of recent trends in family-demographic behavior in Sweden. We update previously published indexes of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year in order to cover the developments up to 1999-2000, adding another two and three years of observation to our series.

2001-10-01

64

Improvement of residual stress in reactor components by laser peening method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a laser peening method to prevent stress corrosion cracking (SCC) as a process for preventive maintenance of core components in nuclear reactors. This method, which utilizes the impulsive effect of underwater irradiation by intense laser pulses to improve residual stress on the material surface, requires no preconditioning of the material surface and is suitable for maintenance work in narrow spaces. Through experiments, we confirmed the effect of the laser peening method in improving the residual stress of stainless steel and suppressing SCC. A laser delivery system, remote maintenance equipment, and an on-line monitoring system were developed and the feasibility of the laser peening method was confirmed through full-scale mockup tests simulating maintenance work on the core shroud of a boiling water reactor (BWR). (author)

1998-10-01

65

IMPROVING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR MULTIMODAL IMAGE FUSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to combine multiple images of a scene acquired by different sensors to create a new image with all important information from the input images. Recent studies show that bases trained using Independent Component Analysis (ICA is effective in multisensor fusion and has improved performance over traditional wavelet approaches. In the ICA based fusion, the coefficients of the input images are combined simply by selecting the coefficients with maximum magnitude. But this method resulted in fused images with poor contrast, due to the distortion introduced in constant background areas. The performance of ICA based fusion can be greatly improved by using a region based approach with intelligent decision making in order to choose the significant regions in the source images. Hence, a new region based image fusion algorithm for combining visible and Infrared (IR images using Independent Component Analysis and Support Vector Machines (SVM is proposed. Region based joint segmentation of the source images is carried out in the spatial domain and important features of each region are computed in spatial and transform domain. A Support Vector Machine is trained to select the regions from the source images with significant features and the corresponding ICA coefficients are combined to form the fused ICA representation. The proposed algorithm is applied to different sets of multimodal images to validate the robustness of the algorithm and compared with some standard image fusion methods. The fusion results demonstrate that the proposed scheme performs better than the state-of-the-art image fusion methods and show a significant improvement in Entropy, Petrovic and Piella evaluation metrics.

V. Vaidehi

2013-01-01

66

Black Hole Demographics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this contribution is to review the current status of black hole demographics in light of recent advances in the study of high redshift QSOs (section 2), local AGNs (section 3) and local quiescent galaxies (section 4). I will then outline the prospects for future progress (section 5), and discuss what I believe will be the challenges for the years to come [ABRIDGED].

Ferrarese, Laura

2002-01-01

67

Demographics in demand systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Household composition can be expected to affect the allocation of household expenditure among goods, at the very least because of economies of scale as household size increases and because different people have different needs (adults versus children, for example). Specifying demographic effects correctly in demand analysis is important both in order to estimate correct price and expenditure elasticities and for the purpose of making household welfare comparisons. A common way of including de...

Blow, Laura

2003-01-01

68

Security Dynamics of Demographic Factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a framework for understanding the implications of global demographic trends for international and U.S. national Security. One of its goals is to spark discussion between demographers and national security analysts. The document should...

B. Nichiporuk

2000-01-01

69

Study and program plan for improved heavy duty gas turbine engine ceramic component development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A five-year program plan was generated from the study activities with the objectives of demonstrating a fuel economy of 213 mg/W . h (0.35 lb/hp-hr) brake specific fuel consumption by 1981 through use of ceramic materials, with conformance to current and projected Federal noise and emission standards, and to demonstrate a commercially viable engine. Study results show that increased turbine inlet and regenerator inlet temperatures, through the use of ceramic materials, contribute the greatest amount to achieving fuel economy goals. Further, improved component efficiencies (for the compressor, gasifier turbine, power turbine, and regenerator disks show significant additional gains in fuel economy. Fuel saved in a 500,000-mile engine life, risk levels involved in development, and engine-related life cycle costs for fleets (100 units) of trucks and buses were used as criteria to select work goals for the planned program.

Helms, H.E.

1977-05-01

70

Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability: Conceptual Design Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall project objective is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant components. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration vehicle. The project s focus is not primarily on pump design, but instead is on methods to deeply embed I&C within a pump system. However, because the I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the pump, the I&C design cannot proceed in isolation from the other aspects of the pump. The pump will not function if the characteristics of the I&C are not embedded within the design because the I&C enables performance of the basic function rather than merely monitoring quasi-stable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in nuclear power plant (NPP) components after their design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the embedded I&C pump.

Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Silva, Pamela C [ORNL; Whitlow, Lynsie J [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL

2012-10-01

71

Socio-demographic Psychosocial and Clinical Characteristics of Participants in e-HealthyStrides©: An Interactive ehealth Program to Improve Diabetes Self-Management Skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes self-management (DSM) training helps prevent diabetic complications. eHealth approaches may improve its optimal use. The aims were to determine a) acceptability of e-HealthyStrides© (an interactive, Internet-based, patient-driven, diabetes self-management support and social networking program) among Morehouse Community Physicians’ Network diabetics; b) efficacy for DSM behavior change c) success factors for use of e-HealthyStrides©. Baseline characteristics of pilot study partici...

Pemu, Priscilla E.; Quarshie, Alexander Q.; Josiah-willock, R.; Ojutalayo, Folake O.; Alema-mensah, Ernest; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

2011-01-01

72

Improved CuCrZr/316L transition for plasma facing components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different welding strategies were investigated to improve the tubular transition of CuCrZr to 316L in cooling pipes for actively cooled plasma facing components. Electron beam welding experiments have been carried out on tubular samples using different filler and adapter materials. After non-destructive testing by dye penetrant and He-leak tight testing samples were tensile tested at RT and 400 deg. C to down-select promising candidates. Furthermore samples were taken for a metallographic examination in order to determine the integrity of the welds, the depth of penetration and the hardness profile across the weld. In the scanning electron microscope the weld microstructure and the formation of phases were studied. Good results were obtained by the use of a Ni-filler, an Inconel and explosive welded adapter. The tested samples of these variations fulfilled the strength requirements according to the ITER specification and showed an improved transition compared with the current solution of a pure Ni-adapter. The final down-selection will be based on the results of fatigue and torsion testing.

Tabernig, Bernhard [Plansee SE, Technology Center, Metallwerk Plansee Str., A-6600 Reutte, Tirol (Austria)], E-mail: bernhard.tabernig@plansee.com; Rainer, Florian; Scheiber, Karl-Heinz; Schedler, Bertram [Plansee SE, Technology Center, Metallwerk Plansee Str., A-6600 Reutte, Tirol (Austria)

2007-10-15

73

Demographic aspects of aging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The contemporary world is undergoing demographic transition not only due to a decreased population growth, but also due to change in age-structure. The aging process is most prominent in the developed countries, while it is yet expected to commence in the European developing countries. The aging process is characterized by participation of persons older than 60 or 65 years in the overall population. USA Persons older than 65 make up 13 % of the US population. It is expected that their share will increase to 30% during the next 30 years. Europe European population in the world is systematically declining. By the year 2050, the population aged 65 and over will exhibit an increase of 60%. A nonlinear, ever increasing depopulation is expected to occur in Croatia, while FYR Macedonia has already been classified as a country in an advanced stage of population aging. Serbia During the second half of the 20th century, on average, the Serbian population was younger than the European, but aging was more prominent. Today, Serbia is among ten countries with the oldest population in the world. Vojvodina The worst demographic situation is found in Vojvodina. According to an assessment, its population has been among the world’s oldest for more than 30 years. The latest census shows a shift in the most numerous age group: from 35-39 to 40-45. Conclusion: Population aging is a worldwide reality. Differences among developed, developing and undeveloped countries are diminishing. Our population is among the oldest. Unless the state takes appropriate measures, we are heading towards a demographic catastrophe.

Turkulov Vesna

2007-01-01

74

Improved ultrasonic inspection of austenitic stainless steel components by signal averaging techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel austenitic materials is highly restricted by backscattered ultrasound which is either caused by the coarse grained structure and by the high anisotropy and herewith related steps in acoustic impedance at grain boundaries. The backscattered signal can be of the same amplitude as the signal from the reflector. Today, a lot of research and development work is done worldwide to improve the ultrasonic inspectability of these components. Regarding the test arrangement as chain in the sense of the communication theory, consisting of the test block, the probe, the UT-device and the signal processing unit, our work is connected with the tact link of this chain. In the A-scan the backscattered signal appears as interference structure. The distribution of the amplitudes depends on the probe position upon the surface of the specimen, on the test frequency and on the angle of incidence. Small variations of these parameters cause great changes in the backscattered signal interference structure, while the amplitude from a reflector remains constant. Adding up a certain number of A-scans from different positions, frequencies or angles, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is improved. In this contribution will be reported about the physical background of backscattering, necessary to understand the method, the diffident signal averaging techniques (averaging analog or digital signals, high-frequency or video signals, spatial-, frequency-, directional averaging), the experimental set up (on-line signal averaging unit) and the results obtained at austenitic welds or castings with improvements in SNR up to 20 dB

1980-05-29

75

The demographic threshold  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The number of births in Slovenia has in the last twenty years almost halved, immigration has stopped and the number of older citizens is increasing while the whole population number is actually decreasing. This phenomenon has been termed ageing population, which is incorrect. In fact it means that there are increasingly more elder citizens, because they reach a higher age, but this is not the essential problem. A major inconsistency is in the term ageing population itself, by which we want to emphasise the problem of decreasing birth rates and not as a problem of people deceasing later. The condition when the number of births equals the number of deaths is called the demographic threshold. This problem is extremely pressing in Slovenia because our country is already below the demographic threshold, but not because of ageing. The decreasing number of inhabitants, strong decrease in the number of younger people and also the increasing number of older people, demand new approaches to planning, which cannot be based on imaginary growth, but on quality development. This also applies to cities.

Aleksander Jakoš

2002-01-01

76

Improved predictive model for n-decane kinetics across species, as a component of hydrocarbon mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

n-Decane is considered a major component of various fuels and industrial solvents. These hydrocarbon products are complex mixtures of hundreds of components, including straight-chain alkanes, branched chain alkanes, cycloalkanes, diaromatics, and naphthalenes. Human exposures to the jet fuel, JP-8, or to industrial solvents in vapor, aerosol, and liquid forms all have the potential to produce health effects, including immune suppression and/or neurological deficits. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has previously been developed for n-decane, in which partition coefficients (PC), fitted to 4-h exposure kinetic data, were used in preference to measured values. The greatest discrepancy between fitted and measured values was for fat, where PC values were changed from 250-328 (measured) to 25 (fitted). Such a large change in a critical parameter, without any physiological basis, greatly impedes the model's extrapolative abilities, as well as its applicability for assessing the interactions of n-decane or similar alkanes with other compounds in a mixture model. Due to these limitations, the model was revised. Our approach emphasized the use of experimentally determined PCs because many tissues had not approached steady-state concentrations by the end of the 4-h exposures. Diffusion limitation was used to describe n-decane kinetics for the brain, perirenal fat, skin, and liver. Flow limitation was used to describe the remaining rapidly and slowly perfused tissues. As expected from the high lipophilicity of this semivolatile compound (log K(ow) = 5.25), sensitivity analyses showed that parameters describing fat uptake were next to blood:air partitioning and pulmonary ventilation as critical in determining overall systemic circulation and uptake in other tissues. In our revised model, partitioning into fat took multiple days to reach steady state, which differed considerably from the previous model that assumed steady-state conditions in fat at 4 h post dosing with 1200 ppm. Due to these improvements, and particularly the reconciliation between measured and fitted partition coefficients, especially fat, we have greater confidence in using the proposed model for dose, species, and route of exposure extrapolations and as a harmonized model approach for other hydrocarbon components of mixtures. PMID:18645725

Merrill, E A; Gearhart, J M; Sterner, T R; Robinson, P J

2008-07-01

77

Socio-demographic psychosocial and clinical characteristics of participants in e-HealthyStrides©: an interactive ehealth program to improve diabetes self-management skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes self-management (DSM) training helps prevent diabetic complications. eHealth approaches may improve its optimal use. The aims were to determine a) acceptability of e-HealthyStrides© (an interactive, Internet-based, patient-driven, diabetes self-management support and social networking program) among Morehouse Community Physicians' Network diabetics; b) efficacy for DSM behavior change c) success factors for use of e-HealthyStrides©. Baseline characteristics of pilot study participants are reported. Of those approached, 13.8% agreed to participate. Among participants, 96% were Black, 77% female; age 56±9.2 years; education: 44% college or higher and 15% less than 12th grade; 92.5% with home computers. Over half (51%) failed the Diabetes Knowledge Test. Nearly half (47%) were at goal A1C; 24% at goal blood pressure; 3% at goal LDL cholesterol level. Median (SD) Diabetes Empowerment Scale score = 3.93 (0.72) but managing psychosocial aspects = 3.89 (0.89) scored lower than other domains. There was low overall confidence for DSM behaviors. Assistance with healthy eating was the most frequently requested service. Requestors were more obese with worse A1C than others. Chronic care delivery scored average with high scores for counseling and problem solving but low scores for care coordination and follow up. PMID:22102311

Pemu, Priscilla E; Quarshie, Alexander Q; Josiah-Willock, R; Ojutalayo, Folake O; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ofili, Elizabeth O

2011-01-01

78

Improving the Effectiveness of the Bio-slurry Extension Component of National Biodigester Program in Cambodia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management. Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth. Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g. monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring)

Islam, M. F.

2009-10-15

79

Multi-component diffusion analysis and assessment of GAMMA code and improved RELAP5 code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been considered a critical event for very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without any mitigating features, a LOCA will lead to an air ingress event, which will lead to exothermic chemical reactions of graphite with oxygen, potentially resulting in significant increases of the core temperature. New and safer nuclear reactors (Generation IV) are now in the early planning stages in many countries throughout the world. One of the reactor concepts being seriously considered is the VHTR. To achieve public acceptance, these reactor concepts must show an increased level of inherent safety over current reactor designs (i.e., a system must be designed to eliminate any concerns of large radiological releases outside the site boundary). A computer code developed from this study, gas multi-component mixture analysis (GAMMA) code, was assessed using a two-bulb experiment and in addition the molecular diffusion behavior in the prismatic-core gas-cooled reactor was investigated following the guillotine break of the main pipe between the reactor vessel and the power conversion unit. The RELAP5 code was improved for the VHTR air ingress analysis and was assessed using inverse U-tube and NACOK natural circulation data

2007-05-01

80

Improving MEG source localizations: an automated method for complete artifact removal based on independent component analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major limitation for the acquisition of high-quality magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings is the presence of disturbances of physiological and technical origins: eye movements, cardiac signals, muscular contractions, and environmental noise are serious problems for MEG signal analysis. In the last years, multi-channel MEG systems have undergone rapid technological developments in terms of noise reduction, and many processing methods have been proposed for artifact rejection. Independent component analysis (ICA) has already shown to be an effective and generally applicable technique for concurrently removing artifacts and noise from the MEG recordings. However, no standardized automated system based on ICA has become available so far, because of the intrinsic difficulty in the reliable categorization of the source signals obtained with this technique. In this work, approximate entropy (ApEn), a measure of data regularity, is successfully used for the classification of the signals produced by ICA, allowing for an automated artifact rejection. The proposed method has been tested using MEG data sets collected during somatosensory, auditory and visual stimulation. It was demonstrated to be effective in attenuating both biological artifacts and environmental noise, in order to reconstruct clear signals that can be used for improving brain source localizations. PMID:18155928

Mantini, D; Franciotti, R; Romani, G L; Pizzella, V

2008-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Demographic trends in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

2004-08-01

82

Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

2010-01-01

83

Are Demographic Diversity Effects Spurious?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The substantial literature on the relationship between demographic diversity and team performance yields weak and/or inconsistent results. Using match-level data of all games played in the German soccer league Bundesliga over six seasons, this paper analyzes age, race and tenure diversity of the fielded team under different model specifications to test the robustness of demographic diversity effects. The empirical results reveal that the correlations between demographic diversity and the outcome of the game are confounded by mean values of the demographic attributes and contextual covariates.

Stephan Nüesch

2009-12-01

84

Does metal backing improve fixation of tibial component in unicondylar knee arthroplasty? A randomized radiostereometric analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a prospective, randomized study, patients with medial gonarthrosis stage I to III according to Ahlbäck were allocated to a unicondylar knee arthroplasty (Miller-Galante, Zimmer, Inc., Warsaw, IN) with an all-polyethylene tibial component or metal-backed tibial component of the same design. The purpose of the study was to evaluate if metal backing enhanced tibial component fixation. A total of 45 knees (42 patients; 23 metal-backed components and 22 all-polyethylene components) were examined. We used radiostereometric analysis to measure micromotion of the tibial component over a period of 2 years after surgery. Hospital for Special Surgery score was used for clinical evaluation. We found no statistically significant differences in clinical results or migration of the tibial component over a 2-year follow-up period. These findings do not support better fixation of metal-backed tibial components. Because of these findings, we advocate all-polyethylene tibial components in unicondylar knee arthroplasties because of optimal biomechanical strength at a given height of tibial component, avoiding potential problems of modularity and minimizing the amount of interfaces, at a lower cost. PMID:11222890

Hyldahl, H C; Regnér, L; Carlsson, L; Kärrholm, J; Weidenhielm, L

2001-02-01

85

Improved reliability for analog instrument and control systems. Volume 2. Guidelines for component selection and replacement. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear plant instrument and control module and power supply performance was analyzed to identify reliability and drift improvements that can reduce the incidence of plant trips and reportable drift. The application of electronic reliability prediction analysis, present generation electronic components, and established reliability military grade parts were shown to offer order of magnitude improvements in instrument and control module electronic accuracy and failure rate as reported in Volume 1. Applications information and failure rate prediction methods for analog instrument and control system electronic component selection and replacement are summarized in Volume 2. These volumes provide the final results for EPRI project RP2409-2

1986-01-01

86

Does improved instrumentation result in better component alignment in total knee arthroplasty?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accurate component alignment and joint line reproduction in total knee replacement (TKR) is crucial for successful clinical outcome. Advances in instrumentation and better understanding of the biomechanics can help to achieve better three dimensional alignments of TKR components and joint line restoration. We compared the accuracy of component alignment and joint line restoration with the use of 2 different TKR instrumentation kits (an older Gobot and a newer Xcelerate). Retrospective study o...

2011-01-01

87

Transição demográfica / Demographic transition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem por objetivo principal analisar o papel que a dinâmica demográfica poderá exercer sobre a educação da população brasileira nas próximas décadas, com enfoque nas suas tendências e nas oportunidades que dela decorrem. Para atingir este objetivo, comenta-se brevemente alguns aspectos da [...] transição demográfica e aquilo que alguns estudiosos denominam janela de oportunidades. Em seguida, discute-se a evolução da estrutura etária brasileira, a partir da razão de dependência e suas perspectivas, enfatizando o processo de envelhecimento populacional. Posteriormente, aborda-se a evolução das matrículas e do sistema de educação no Brasil, para então discutir algumas perspectivas de desenvolvimento, tendo em vista a escolaridade. Abstract in english Without ignoring the complexity of the Brazilian educational system and the various elements that interact in it, this article aims at analyzing the role that population dynamics may have on the education of the population in coming decades, focusing on trends and the opportunities that arise from i [...] t. To achieve this goal, we comment briefly some aspects of demographic transition and what some scholars call window of opportunity. Then we discuss the evolution of the Brazilian age structure from the dependency ratio and its perspectives, emphasizing the process of population aging. Later, one evaluates about the evolution of enrollment and the education system in Brazil, and then discuss some prospects for development in view of schooling.

José Irineu Rangel, Rigotti.

88

Basic demographic processes on the Kvarner islands 1991-2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the basic demographic processes on the Kvarner islands in the last twenty years. The census data from this period show a constant population growth on the Kvarner islands and promote them into one of the most vital sub-regions of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County. The results of the analysis show that the mechanical component of the total population change, i.e. immigration, which managed to overcome the negative natural demographic trend, was the cause of this positive demographic trend. As a result, natural population change on the Kvarner islands 1991-2011 belongs to the "regeneration by immigration" type. However, since increased immigration did not influence the reduction of the negative natural demographic trend, it is safe to presume that "fictive" residents dominate the immigration contingent. This hypothesis is supported by the comparison of the census change index 2011/2001 and the type of demographic resources index in 2001.

Ivan Laji?

2013-06-01

89

Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

2010-01-01

90

Improved CuCrZr / 316L Transition for Plasma Facing Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma Facing Components used in all advanced nuclear fusion experiments and in particular for ITER consist of heat sinks made of the precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy. This material has been selected due to the requirements regarding thermal and mechanical properties with and without the presence of neutrons. The divertor parts which are highly heat loaded are actively cooled and are assembled onto weld stainless steel pressure vessels of grade 316L. Therefore these plasma facing parts need a transition in the cooling pipes from CuCrZr to 316L which withstands the internal pressure, the fatigue loads and remains leak tight during operation. As direct fusion welding of CuCrZr with 316L is regarded as critical due to metallurgical issues, the current design uses a transition of Ni - sleeve which is welded onto the CuCrZr and 316L, respectively. However, there is still some concern for the mechanically constraint region of the inlet coolant that this intermediate adapter is the weakest point and could fail due to strongly localised plasticity. The aim of this project is to investigate alternative solutions for the transition of CuCrZr / 316L, to down-select the most promising candidate and finally qualify a new improved tubular transition system. Basic EB welding experiments have been carried out on CuCrZr / 316L tubular samples using different adapter and filler materials. The adapter materials, e.g. Inconel 625 and Monel K500, were chosen due to their high temperature strength and good weldability with respect to Cu - alloys and austenitic steels. In case of the investigated filler metals Ni and Ti the intention was to control the dilution and to produce a fine grained weld zone with no formation of detrimental phases. As a further option the use of an explosively welded CuCrZr/316L adapter was evaluated. The application of such an adapter would simplify the issue to the welding of CuCrZr / CuCrZr and 316L / 316L respectively. In the characterisation programme the samples were first characterised by non destructive testing and metallographic examination. An indication on the mechanical properties was gained by tensile testing of welded samples at RT and 400oC. After the down-selection of the most promising candidate test samples were manufactured for the qualification programme. Besides the general requirements for the application as cooling system the qualification programme considered tensile testing at different temperatures, fatigue and torsion testing as well as inspection regarding leak tightness. (author)

2006-09-11

91

Improvements in High Speed, High Resolution Dynamic Digital Image Correlation for Experimental Evaluation of Composite Drive System Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Composite materials have the potential to reduce the weight of rotating drive system components. However, these components are more complex to design and evaluate than static structural components in part because of limited ability to acquire deformation and failure initiation data during dynamic tests. Digital image correlation (DIC) methods have been developed to provide precise measurements of deformation and failure initiation for material test coupons and for structures under quasi-static loading. Attempts to use the same methods for rotating components (presented at the AHS International 68th Annual Forum in 2012) are limited by high speed camera resolution, image blur, and heating of the structure by high intensity lighting. Several improvements have been made to the system resulting in higher spatial resolution, decreased image noise, and elimination of heating effects. These improvements include the use of a high intensity synchronous microsecond pulsed LED lighting system, different lenses, and changes in camera configuration. With these improvements, deformation measurements can be made during rotating component tests with resolution comparable to that which can be achieved in static tests

Kohlman, Lee W.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Handschuh, Robert Frederick

2013-01-01

92

Hardened multi-functions chip carrier use to improve LSI-VLSI components reliability in an ionizing environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article features a new structure for LSI-VLSI chip encapsulation intended to simplify component utilization in space and military applications. This structure incorporates two basic sections: - a hardened, capacitive lid designed to simultaneously control the chip power supply due to the incorporation of a multilayer ceramic capacitor and to act as a screen against radiation, and - a hardened base promoting the heat transfer function using tungsten inserts intended to reduce radiation. After optimization, this encapsulation method for solid state components based upon the utilization of a local screen permits to obtain the same level of protection as that offered with standard processes and also provides weight and volume savings. Moreover, this method improves the operating conditions of the components because of a more efficient power supply control function and improved heat transfer and finally permits to increase the reliability of the equipment in an ionizing environment

1986-01-01

93

An improved characterisation of long-fibre thermoplastics for numerical simulation of components  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years long-fibre reinforced thermoplastics (LFTs) have gained major importance, especially in the automotive sector. LFTs are increasingly used in structural and semi-structural components. So-called direct processes in which semi-finished products are avoided and parts are produced directly from the raw materials such as glass fibres, polymers and appropriate additives have gained significant market shares. The components are produced in an inline compounding direct process. In thi...

Eckardt, J.; Borth, O.; Busch, M.; Krombholz, A.; Lu?he, P.

2005-01-01

94

Improving accuracy of total knee component cementation: description of a simple technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty represents a common orthopedic surgical procedure. Achieving proper alignment of its components with the predrilled patellar and tibial peg holes prior to polymerization of the bone cement can be challenging. Technique After establishing the femoral, patellar and tibial bone cuts, the cancellous bone around the tibial keel, as well as the peg holes for the patella and femoral components are marked with methylene blue u...

2009-01-01

95

Does improved instrumentation result in better component alignment in total knee arthroplasty?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate component alignment and joint line reproduction in total knee replacement (TKR is crucial for successful clinical outcome. Advances in instrumentation and better understanding of the biomechanics can help to achieve better three dimensional alignments of TKR components and joint line restoration. We compared the accuracy of component alignment and joint line restoration with the use of 2 different TKR instrumentation kits (an older Gobot and a newer Xcelerate. Retrospective study of 150 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKR had their pre and post-operative x-rays reviewed. Seventy-five patients (group A had their TKR using the older instrumentation kit (Gobot and 75 (group B had the newer version (Xcelerate. The positioning of the prosthesis components were assessed using the American Knee society radiographic evaluation method and the joint line position using the Figgie’s method. The results from the two groups were statistically compared. There was a significantly greater elevation of the joint line position in TKRs done with the Gobot instrumentation (mean 4.49 mm vs. 2.71 mm in group B, P=0.03, and significant differences in the mean tibial component angle cTCA (group A 88.6º, group B 90.1º, P=0.04 and the mean Q angle (group A 6.28º valgus, group B 8.45º valgus, P=0.04. Use of the newer Xcelerate instrumentation was associated with better restoration of joint line position, however the femoral component flexion and posterior slope of the tibial component ere found to be above the desired level. Hence the overall differences between the two groups were found to be small.

Ian Learmonth

2011-03-01

96

Present demographic situation of Czechoslovakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current demographic trends in Czechoslovakia are described. Consideration is given to age distribution, fertility, nuptiality, divorce, mortality, and population growth. The data are presented separately for the two constituent republics. PMID:12158142

Rychtarikova, J

1988-01-01

97

Demographic structure and capital accumulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops an overlapping-generations (OLG) model to analyze the consequences of demographic structure changes induced by an exogenous shift in the birth rate.We first show that a finite growth rate of the population that maximizes long-run capital per capita exists. Then, we examine the theoretical properties of this growth rate by showing that: (i) it corresponds to the demographic structure such that the average ages of capital holders and workers are equal; (ii) it is associated ...

D Albis, Hippolyte

2007-01-01

98

In vivo assembly of nanoparticle components to improve targeted cancer imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many small molecular anticancer agents are often ineffective at detecting or treating cancer due to their poor pharmacokinetics. Using nanoparticles as carriers can improve this because their large size reduces clearance and improves retention within tumors, but it also slows their rate of transfer from circulation into the tumor interstitium. Here, we demonstrate an alternative strategy whereby a molecular contrast agent and engineered nanoparticle undergo in vivo molecular assembly within t...

Perrault, Steven D.; Chan, Warren C. W.

2010-01-01

99

Research and development of improved geothermal well logging techniques, tools and components (current projects, goals and status). Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the key needs in the advancement of geothermal energy is availability of adequate subsurface measurements to aid the reservoir engineer in the development and operation of geothermal wells. Some current projects being sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy's Division of Geothermal Energy pertaining to the development of improved well logging techniques, tools and components are described. An attempt is made to show how these projects contribute to improvement of geothermal logging technology in forming key elements of the overall program goals.

Lamers, M.D.

1978-01-01

100

Surface Protection and Improved Performance of Satellite Components as well as Mitigation of Space Environmental Pollution by Plasma Ion Implantation  

Science.gov (United States)

Three plasma processing systems based on PII technique have been used in the improvement of surface properties of different materials important for aerospace and space applications. Metal plasma PII of Al and Mg was used for surface protection of polymers used in space such as Kapton, Mylar and polyethylene. Al alloys were treated with nitrogen PII for improved resistance to corrosion aiming at aerospace applications. A rigid polymer UHMWPE was also treated in a nitrogen PII to produce a protective layer with DLC. Although not very light, SS304 stainless steel components are being used in a imaging camera in space, and some components made of this material showed endurance to vibration tests after nitrogen PII, therefore being qualified for on-board application.

Ueda, M.; Takahashi, W. K.; Marcondes, A. R.; Tan, I. H.; Silva, G.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

How simulation of failure risk can improve structural reliability - application to pressurized components and pipes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Probabilistic methods for failure risk assessment are introduced, with reference to load carrying structures, such as pressure vessels (PV) and components of pipes systems. The definition of the failure risk associated with structural integrity is made in the context of the general approach to structural reliability. Sources of risk are summarily outlined with emphasis on variability and uncertainties (V&U) which might be encountered in the analysis. To highlight the problem, in its practical...

Cioclov, Dimitru Dragos

2013-01-01

102

Improved methods for enrichment of organic ultra trace components for analysis by gas chromatography  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes some new methods for analysis oforganic trace components from air and water by gaschromatography. The work is particularly focused on thedevelopment of new technologies for analyte enrichment, usingsorbent-based concepts. Short lengths of open tubular columnswere examined for their potential use as denuders.Polydimethylsiloxane-based stationary phases as well as anadsorbent-based column were evaluated in an equilibrium mode oftrapping. For the analytes selected, detectio...

2003-01-01

103

Improvement of a Dendritic Cell-Based Therapeutic Cancer Vaccine with Components of Toxoplasma gondii?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of dendritic cells (DCs) as a cellular adjuvant is a promising approach to the immunotherapy of cancer. It has previously been demonstrated that DCs pulsed ex vivo with Toxoplasma gondii antigens trigger a systemic Th1-biased specific immune response and induce protective and specific antitoxoplasma immunity. In the present study, we demonstrate that tumor antigen-pulsed DCs matured in the presence of Toxoplasma gondii components induce a potent antitumor response in a mouse model of ...

2009-01-01

104

Australia's uncertain demographic future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The techniques of probabilistic population forecasting are increasingly being recognised as a profitable means of overcoming many of the limitations of conventional deterministic variant population forecasts. This paper applies these techniques to present the first comprehensive set of probabilistic population forecasts for Australia. We stress the disadvantages of directly inputting net migration into the cohort component model in probabilistic forecasting, and propose a gross migration flows model which distinguishes between permanent and non-permanent immigration and emigration. Our forecasts suggest that there is a two thirds probability of Australia?s population being between 23.0 and 25.8 million by 2026 and between 24.4 and 31.8 million by 2051. Comparisons with the latest official population projections of the Australian Bureau of Statistics are made.

Tom Wilson

2004-09-01

105

Compressive epitactic layers on single-crystal components for improved mechanical durability and strength  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compressive epitactic layers grown on single-crystal substrates are shown to substantially improve mechanical durability. In this study, neodymium-substituted gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) layers are grown on undoped GGG substrates. The layers are found to dramatically improve the abrasion resistance of the substrates, but to have only a slight effect on strength. Abrasion treatments, which cause up to 20 times decrease in the strength of substrates without epitactic layers, do not cause a significant decrease in the strength of substrates with these compressive surface layers. This permits the high strength of specially prepared strong substrates to be retained after abrasion

1987-09-01

106

Development of improved and corrosion-resistant surfaces for fossil power system components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this task is to develop the corrosion-resistant surfaces on a variety of fossil power system components. The Fe-Al alloys ranging in aluminum from 16 to 36 @ % are of interest. The surfaces of Fe-Al alloys can be produced by weld overlay. However, because of their limited room-temperature ductility, the production of weld wire for these compositions is not commercially feasible. The alloying element dilution during weld overlay also makes depositing exact surface composition rather difficult.

Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

1996-06-01

107

Improving PET receptor binding estimates from Logan plots using principal component analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work reports a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach for reducing bias in distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimates from Logan plots in positron emission tomography (PET). Comparison has been made of all existing bias-removal methods with the proposed PCA method, for both single-estimate PET studies and intervention studies where pre- and post-intervention estimates are made. Bias in Logan-based DVR estimates is because of the noise in the PET time-activity curves (TACs) that...

Joshi, Aniket D.; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Koeppe, Robert A.

2008-01-01

108

An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

2009-05-31

109

Fetal auditory responses to external sounds and mother's heart beat: detection improved by Independent Component Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a magnetoencephalographic study of the fetal auditory response to external stimuli and to the sound of the mother's heartbeat. We describe how an ad hoc functional selection procedure allowed us to isolate the sources in the fetal brain responding to sounds only, after the application to the recorded data of a standard Independent Component Analysis algorithm. In our experiment, acoustic stimuli were delivered to twelve healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies at a time between 36 and 40 weeks gestational age, with their fetuses in breech presentation. Ultrasound images allowed determination of the region over the women's abdomen nearest to the fetal head, over which both the acoustic stimulator and the MEG sensors were subsequently placed. In 8 out of the 12 cases, our analysis provided consistent evidence of a fetal response both to the mother's heartbeat and to the external auditory stimulation; both were characterized by a clear prominent component at around 200 ms latency, which is widely accepted as the marker of the fetal response to auditory stimuli. PMID:16784726

Porcaro, Camillo; Zappasodi, Filippo; Barbati, Giulia; Salustri, Carlo; Pizzella, Vittorio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca

2006-07-26

110

Improved synthesis of three methyl-branched pheromone components produced by the female lichen moth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female moths of Lyclene dharma dharma (Arctiidae, Lithosiinae) produce a novel sex pheromone composed of three methyl-branched ketones: 6-methyl-2-octadecanone (I), 14-methyl-2-octadecanone (II), and 6,14-dimethyl-2-octadecanone (III). Their structures were confirmed by syntheses accomplished by a different route for each component. In order to obtain a sufficient amount of the synthetic pheromone, we developed new routes via methyl-branched 1-alkenes: 6-methyl-1-octadecene (1), 14-methyl-1-octadecene (2), and 6,14-dimethyl-1-octadecene (3). Compound 1 was synthesized by coupling between a C(10)-chain bromide and a 3-methyl-branched C(8) unit (A) prepared from 3-methyl-1,5-pentanediol, 2, by coupling between a C(11)-chain bromide and a 3-methyl-branched C(7) unit (B) prepared from 2-hexanone, and 3, by connecting A and B, using propargyl alcohol as a C(3) linchpin. The use of 3-chloro-1-propanol and tert-butyl acetoacetate as the linchpin was also examined to connect the two synthetic blocks in the synthesis of 3. Components I-III were obtained by Wacker oxidation of the corresponding 1-alkenes 1-3 in good yields. PMID:20057134

Taguri, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Rei; Adachi, Yasushi; Mori, Kenji; Ando, Tetsu

2010-01-01

111

Improved Search of Principal Component Analysis Databases for Spectro-polarimetric Inversion  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 24n bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of "compatible" models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 24n as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing.

Casini, R.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Lites, B. W.; López Ariste, A.

2013-08-01

112

Improvement of Mechanical Properties and Life Extension of High Reliability Structural Components by Laser Shock Processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is being consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals and is being developed as a practical process amenable to production engineering. The main acknowledged advantage of the laser shock pro...

2011-01-01

113

A Study on Selected Hot-Metal and Slag Components for Improved Blast Furnace Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this work was to gain an increasedunderstanding of selected blast furnace phenomena which couldbe utilized for an improved blast furnace process control. Thisthesis contributes with both a model study and an experimentalstudy on blast furnace tapping, and results from these findingscan be used to enhance the control of the blast furnace. The work was divided in two parts. The first part dealt witha model study for optimisation of the blast furnace burdencalculation. Duri...

Andersson, Annika

2003-01-01

114

Spontaneous and induced demographic change.  

Science.gov (United States)

When some scholars from abroad analyze the role of family planning policies in developing countries in changes in the fertility rate, they differentiate 2 categories of change: one is "developmental change in the fertility rate" and the other is "induced change in the fertility rate". Professor Tian Xinyuan, of American nationality, quotes this concept in his analysis of changes in China's fertility rate, and believes that changes in China's fertility rate belong to fairly successful "induced change in fertility behavior". The author agrees with this differentiation, and feels that there is a need to incorporate this kind of differentiation in all analysis of the characteristics and mechanism of demographic change in China. Due to the inclusion of a set of intervening social variables, in fact demographic change in all countries has already evolved the 2 fundamental types of demographic change, spontaneous and induced. However, until now, the authors have not seen a systematic discussion of the differences and the relationship between these 2 types of demographic change. This paper attempts to make some theoretical investigations into the above, and firmly believes that this has definite significance for enriching theories of demographic change and guiding China's family planning practices. PMID:12343855

Song, R L

1991-01-01

115

Improvement of mechanical properties and life extension of high reliability structural components by laser shock processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is being consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals and is being developed as a practical process amenable to production engineering. The main acknowledged advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Following a short description of the theoretical/computational and experimental methods developed by the authors for the predictive assessment and experimental implementation of LSP treatments, experimental results on the residual stress profiles and associated surface properties modification successfully reached in typical materials (specifically Al and Ti alloys) under different LSP irradiation conditions are presented. In particular, the analysis of the residual stress profiles obtained under different irradiation parameters and the evaluation of the corresponding induced surface properties as roughness and wear resistance are presented.

Ocaña, J. L.; Morales, M.; Porro, J. A.; Iordachescu, D.; Díaz, M.; Ruiz de Lara, L.; Correa, C.

2011-04-01

116

Salient region detection improved by principle component analysis and boundary information.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salient region detection is useful for several image-processing applications, such as adaptive compression, object recognition, image retrieval, filter design, and image retargeting. A novel method to determine the salient regions of images is proposed in this paper. The L? smoothing filter and principle component analysis (PCA) play important roles in our framework. The L? filter is extremely helpful in characterizing fundamental image constituents, i.e., salient edges, and can simultaneously diminish insignificant details, thus producing more accurate boundary information for background merging and boundary scoring. PCA can reduce computational complexity as well as attenuate noise and translation errors. A local-global contrast is then used to calculate the distinction. Finally, image segmentation is used to achieve full-resolution saliency maps. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art saliency detection methods and shown to yield higher precision-recall rates and F-measures. PMID:23744683

Wu, Po-Hung; Chen, Chien-Chi; Ding, Jian-Jiun; Hsu, Chi-Yu; Huang, Ying-Wun

2013-09-01

117

Proportional hazards models for improving the analysis of light water reactor component failure data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications

1982-01-01

118

Proportional-hazards models for improving the analysis of light-water-reactor-component failure data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications

1981-09-24

119

Studies on selective adsorption of biogas components on pillared clays: approach for biogas improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative adsorptions of four gases (natural gas and landfill gas components), viz., CO2, CH4, C2H6, and N2, were studied on four different pillared clays (PILCs) to develop a selective material. Such material could be useful forthe separation/purification process of waste gases. These materials (PILCs) were prepared from two different natural montmorillonite clays, by pillaring with Al2O3 and ZrO2, separately and were characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption and XRD. The adsorption isotherms for pure component gases were determined for each PILC, up to 10(3) kPa. The isotherms data were explored to calculate the selectivity of PILCs for either gas in any binary mixture. It was observed that the surface area of the clays pillared with Al2O3 was higher than that of the clays pillared with ZrO2. At the highest studied equilibrium pressure, the order of maximum adsorption was found to be CO2 > C2H6 > CH4 > N2 for each material. With the help of adsorption modeling, the selective adsorption from binary mixtures was predicted at different equilibrium pressures and compositions. Among the four PILCs, a ZrO2 PILC was found to be the most suitable material, in terms of separation possibility. To further assess the efficiency of these materials in commercial processes, the adsorption capacity in terms of working capacity was also calculated at two different regeneration pressures, i.e., at 1.0 atm and 1.0 Torr. PMID:19192789

Pires, João; Saini, Vipin K; Pinto, Moisés L

2008-12-01

120

Improvements in the system of reliability provisions for NPP component operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ways for improvement of operational reliability of NPP basic equipment are considered. For recording, storage and systematization of the information on the quality and reliability of NPP equipment the ''Nadezhnost'' automated information system which can operate on-line with any ES computer is developed. The perspective trend in evaluation and control of NPP system reliability is the development of such calculational and experimental methods which take into account all forms of tests and information on reliability of equipment in the course of operation

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Managing demographic risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

In developed nations, the workforce is aging rapidly. That trend has serious implications. Companies could face severe labor shortages in a few years as workers retire, taking critical knowledge with them. Businesses may also see productivity decline among older employees, especially in physically demanding jobs. The authors, partners at Boston Consulting Group, offer managers a systematic way to assess these dual threats--capacity risk and productivity risk--at their companies. It involves studying the age distribution of their employees to see if large percentages fall within high age brackets and then projecting--by location, unit, and job category--how the distribution will change over the next 15 years. Managers must also factor in both the impact of strategic moves on personnel needs and the future supply of workers in the market. When RWE Power analyzed its trends, the company learned that in 2018 almost 80% of its workers would be over 50. What's more, in certain critical areas its labor surplus was about to become a sizable shortfall. For instance, a shortage of specialized engineers would develop in the company just as their ranks in the job market thinned and competition to hire them intensified. Reversing its downsizing course, RWE Power took steps to increase its supply of workers in those key positions. The authors show how companies that face talent gaps, as RWE Power did, can close them through training, transfers, recruitment, retention, productivity improvements, and outsourcing. They also describe measures that companies can take to keep older workers productive, including workplace accommodations, revised compensation structures, performance incentives, and targeted health care management. The key is to identify and address potential problems early. Firms that do so will gain an edge on rivals that are still relentlessly focused on reducing head count. PMID:18314640

Strack, Rainer; Baier, Jens; Fahlander, Anders

2008-02-01

122

Improvement of the wear behaviour of highly-loaded components and tools by multi-combined surface treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel multi-combined surface treatment consisting of the individual treatments of plasma nitriding (PN, physical vapour deposition (PVD and electron beam hardening (EBH. Using graded surface layers produced by such a combined surface treatment, it is possible to withstand the complex load conditions incurred by components and tools. It is shown, that the treatment sequences PN+EBH+PVD and EBH+PN+PVD are suitable for improving material properties. These multi-combined surface treatments lead to a significant improvement in load-supporting capacity. Critical load values of cohesive failure measured by scratch tests are tripled when compared to the individual treatment of PVD, and increased by at least 20% in comparison to the duplex treatments of EBH+PVD or PN+PVD. The metallurgical compatibility of the single treatments is essential for the success of combined treatments. Material-specific limitations are defined, which exclude failure due to crack initiation, the occurrence of retained austenite, and tempering effects. Based on the model wear-test assembly block-on-cylinder, it was proved, that the specific wear rate of multi-combined treated specimens is reduced about 20-50% while wear of counterpart components is decreased as well. The triplex surface heat treatment introduced opens up new prospects for highly-loaded components and tools.

Gundis Grumbt

2014-01-01

123

Relationship Among Yield Components and Selection Criteria for Yield Improvement in Safflower Carthamus tinctorious L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirteen safflower mutants along with parental varieties and Mexican Lines were studied for variability, heritability, genetic advance and coheritability in irrigated and drought stress condition. Genotypic and phenotypic variances were highest for height and number of seed in capitulum. Whereas the maximum genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variability were found in number of capitulum and number of seed in capitulum. Heritability estimates ranged from very low to high. Maximum heritability of 0/94 in irrigated condition was obtained for 100 seed weight and 0/711 in drought condition was obtained for capitulum diameter. In irrigated condition high heritability for capitulum weight, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity and in drought stress condition for number of seed in capitulum, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity with high genetic advances was obtained that these traits could be improved through mass selection. Coheritability estimates indicated that in irrigated condition selection for 100 grain weight, capitulum weight, number of seed in capitulum and in drought stress condition selection for stem diameter, capitulum diameter, 100 seed weight and number of seed in capitulum would improve the yield.

Asadi Ali Akbar

2006-01-01

124

Tourism Market and Demographic Changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensions to meet the needs of senior consumers.

Alexandru Nedelea

2008-10-01

125

Improved grinding quality inspection of large bearing components using Barkhausen noise analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Assuring that the finished surfaces of precision large bearing components are free from grinding injury is important due to the high initial value of these bearings, heavy application loadings and high costs associated with potential reduced service life. Inspecting bearing raceway surfaces for grind burn can be done by nital etching but this method is time consuming, involves using hazardous acids, is non-quantitative and does not provide information about residual stresses. An experimental study was performed to assess scanning Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) to detect various levels of induced grind injury on four steels used in large bearing ring production. Test samples having approximately 0.25 m diameter were fabricated from bearing steels heat treated by case carburizing, induction hardening and through hardening. A series of grinding cycles was designed and subsequently the entire ground surface on each sample was tested by scanning BNA. Selected samples were then evaluated by nital etching or destructive metallurgical tests. BNA results are compared with specific grinding power, nital etch and destructive measurements to show BNA to be an effective technique for identification of grind injury on these steel materials. Similar relative trends in the BNA response are present regardless of alloy or heat treatment.

Kolarits, Francis M.

2014-02-01

126

Improvement of yield components in food legumes using the technique of induced mutations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a study of the effectiveness of gamma rays in the induction of variability in Phaseolus vulgaris, a dose of 30 krad, used either singly or recurrently, was found to increase variability and to change the means of the components of yield. Selection on the basis of seed size and starting with the M2 generation was successful in identifying mutants with increased seed size (with the increase being of the order of 8-15% over the unirradiated original), as well as in identifying a high yielding genotype, which expressed an increase in seed size as well as in the number of pods per plant. The technique was extended to Arachis hypogaea, with two minor modifications, namely five irradiation doses were used (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 krad) and with selection on the basis of the number of pods per plant in the M2 generation. So far (at the M3 generation), two mutants from the 20 krad treatment have been found to show an increase of 32-42% over the unirradiated original in seed size and an increase of 1-18% in the kernel yield per plant. On the basis of bulked population, the four lower irradiation doses in a replicated field trial showed better performance than the unirradiated control in terms of the percentage of survival at harvest, the number of pods per plant and the dry weight of the pods per plot, although the differences were not statistically significant. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

1986-07-01

127

Residual life assessment, technical improvements and backfitting of components and systems from the materials standpoint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety standard which is attained at the time of initial startup by a nucleaar power plant built in accordance with state-of-the-art design and engineering principles must be assured throughout the plant's entire lifetime. Based on operating experience a plant's original design life should be systematically reevaluated in the light of new findings and developments in safety. The results of an analysis of this type can also be useful for the purposes of preventive maintenance or to prolong a plant's planned or licensed service life. Moreover, they form the basis of decisions regarding technical upgrades and backfits and are of value in optimizing plant reliability and availability. A concept exists for components in light water reactors which provides for prompt identification and remedying of damage due to the deterioration in service of materials and their properties (e.g. fatigue, local corrosion mechanisms, erosion corrosion, neutron irradiation). It may be necessary or appropriate to implement technical upgrades or backfits where application of more up-to-date safety standards (e.g. break preclusion methodology) demands compliance with more stringent requirements than those originally used in the design basis, or where systematic damage cannot be ruled out (unstabilized austenitic steels in BWR plants), or where it is possible to make substantial reductions in the radiation exposure of operating or maintenance personnel (substitution of cobalt-containing materials) during the plant's lifetime. (orig.)

1993-10-01

128

Improving prediction selectivity for on-line near-infrared monitoring of components in etchant solution by spectral range optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The components (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, HNO{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}COOH and water) in an etchant solution have been accurately measured in an on-line manner using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy by directly illuminating NIR radiation through a Teflon line. In particular, the spectral features according to the change of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} or HNO{sub 3} concentrations were not mainly from NIR absorption themselves, but from the perturbation (or displacement) of water bands; therefore, the resulting spectral variations were quite similar to each other. Consequently partial least squares (PLS) prediction selectivity among the components should be the most critical issue for continuous on-line compositional monitoring by NIR spectroscopy. To improve selectivity of the calibration model, we have optimized the calibration models by finding selective spectral ranges with the use of moving window PLS. Using the optimized PLS models for each component, the resulting prediction accuracies were substantially improved. Furthermore, on-line prediction selectivity was evaluated by spiking individual pure components step by step and examining the resulting prediction trends. When optimized PLS models were used, each concentration was selectively and sensitively varied at each spike; meanwhile, when whole or non-optimized ranges were used for PLS, the prediction selectivity was greatly degraded. This study verifies that the selection of an optimal spectral range for PLS is the most important factor to make Teflon-based NIR measurements successful for on-line and real-time monitoring of etching solutions.

Namkung, Hankyu; Lee, Youngbok [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hoeil [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hoeil@hanyang.ac.kr

2008-01-07

129

Plasma Performance Improvement with Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in NSTX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lithium as a plasma-facing material has many attractive features, including a reduction in the recycling of hydrogenic species and the potential for withstanding high heat and neutron fluxes in fusion reactors. Recent NSTX experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and recurring benefits of lithium coatings on plasma-facing components (PFC's) to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. They included decreases in the plasma density and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate. Extended periods of MHD quiescence were also achieved, and measurements of the visible emission from the lower divertor showed a reduction in the deuterium, carbon, and oxygen line emission. Other salient results with lithium evaporation included a broadening of the electron temperature profile, and changes in edge density gradients that benefited electron Bernstein wave coupling. There was also a reduction in ELM frequency and amplitude, followed by a period of complete ELM suppression. In general, it was observed that both the best and the average confinement occurred after lithium deposition and that the increase in WMHD occurs mostly through an increase in We. In addition, a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) is being installed on NSTX this year. As the first fully-toroidal liquid metal divertor target, experiments with the LLD can provide insight into the behavior of metallic ITER PFC's should they liquefy during high-power divertor tokamak operations. The NSTX lithium coating and LLD experiments are important near-term steps in demonstrating the potential of liquid lithium as a solution to the first-wall problem for both magnetic and inertial fusion reactors

2008-10-13

130

Plasma Performance Improvement with Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in NSTX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lithium as a plasma-facing material has many attractive features, including a reduction in the recycling of hydrogenic species and the potential for withstanding high heat and neutron fluxes in fusion reactors. Recent NSTX experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and recurring benefits of lithium coatings on plasma-facing components (PFC's) to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. They included decreases in the plasma density and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate. Extended periods of MHD quiescence were also achieved, and measurements of the visible emission from the lower divertor showed a reduction in the deuterium, carbon, and oxygen line emission. Other salient results with lithium evaporation included a broadening of the electron temperature profile, and changes in edge density gradients that benefited electron Bernstein wave coupling. There was also a reduction in ELM frequency and amplitude, followed by a period of complete ELM suppression. In general, it was observed that both the best and the average confinement occurred after lithium deposition and that the increase in WMHD occurs mostly through an increase in We. In addition, a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) is being installed on NSTX this year. As the first fully-toroidal liquid metal divertor target, experiments with the LLD can provide insight into the behavior of metallic ITER PFC's should they liquefy during high-power divertor tokamak operations. The NSTX lithium coating and LLD experiments are important near-term steps in demonstrating the potential of liquid lithium as a solution to the first-wall problem for both magnetic and inertial fusion reactors.

Kaita, R; Kugel, H; Bell, M G; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Ellis, R; Gates, D; Gerhardt, S; Gray, T; Kallman, J; Kaye, S; LeBlanc, B; Majeski, R; Maingi, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, S H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Stotler, D; Timberlake, J; Zakharov, L; Ahn, J; Allain, J P; Wampler, W R

2009-01-08

131

Updating TRIGA related component data for improved safety analysis of TRIGA research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two former Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies (first phase and second phase) performed at the Atominstitut are presented and compared, together with the status of a new launched CRP on ''Update and expand of the IAEA reliability data for research reactor PSA's'' started in 2001. The objective of the TRIGA Vienna PSA's was to analyze the various possible accident sequences leading to radiation exposure of persons. Although the TRIGA Vienna is considered inherent safe due to its negative temperature coefficient, the reactor core contains a notable amount of radioactivity, which could lead, under very inauspicious conditions, to radiation exposure of facility staff and the public, above internationally accepted limits; such conditions could be: accidents during fuel element manipulation, loss of coolant water, and catastrophic external events (e.g. earthquake, sabotage, plane crash). The accident sequences (fault tree) were traced and occurrence probabilities per year were calculated. Finally, the results were classified into three categories. The comparison of the results of both studies was summarized as follows: a) The mean values of the second phase PSA were approximately one order of magnitude higher than the appropriate values obtained from the first phase PSA and b) The corresponding relative width of the uncertainty bands remained about the same or is slightly reduced. On the other hand, having changed only the statistical component failure data in the second phase PSA, this comparison showed, that the obtained results primarily depend on reactor specific failure data. The use of generic data from other sources, as it was the case in the first phase PSA, can significantly distort the real occurrence probabilities. Therefore the continuous extension of the IAEA coordinated research reactor specific database is of great importance in order to obtain results of great validity in research reactor PSA's. Refs. 6, Figs. 4, Tabs. 6 (nevyjel)

2002-01-01

132

Female athlete triad and its components: toward improved screening and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

As female athletic participation has increased, the positive effects of exercise on health have become evident. However, with this growth in sports activity, a set of health problems unique to the female athlete has emerged. The female athlete triad as first described in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine consisted of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis; the definition was updated in 2007 to include a spectrum of dysfunction related to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. For this review, a comprehensive search of databases-MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus, from earliest inclusive dates to January 2013-was conducted by an experienced librarian with input from the authors. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords such as female athlete triad, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, fracture, osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone disease, anorexia, bulimia, disordered eating, low energy availability was used to search for articles on female athlete triad. Articles addressing the prevalence, screening, and management of the female athlete triad were selected for inclusion in the review. This article reviews the current definitions of the triad components, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and recommended screening and management guidelines. The lack of efficacy of current screening of athletes is highlighted. Low energy availablity, from either dietary restriction or increased expenditure, plays a pivotal role in development of the triad. Athletes involved in "lean sports" (those that emphasize weight categories or aesthetics, such as ballet, gymnastics, or endurance running) are at highest risk. Treatment is centered on restoring energy availability to reverse adverse changes in the metabolic milieu. Prevention and early recognition of triad disorders are crucial to ensure timely intervention. Caregivers and physicians of female athletes must remain vigilant in education, recognition, and treatment of athletes at risk. PMID:24001492

Javed, Asma; Tebben, Peter J; Fischer, Philip R; Lteif, Aida N

2013-09-01

133

DEMOGRAPHIC DATA FOR CENSUS 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include ...

134

Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

2013-01-01

135

Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places. PMID:24129115

Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

2013-10-01

136

Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

Mari-Ann Flyvholm

2013-10-01

137

On an efficient modification of singular value decomposition using independent component analysis for improved MRS denoising and quantification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An efficient modification of singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed in this paper aiming at denoising and more importantly at quantifying more accurately the statistically independent spectra of metabolite sources in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Although SVD is known in MRS applications and several efficient algorithms exist for estimating SVD summation terms in which the raw MRS data are analyzed, however, it would be more beneficial for such an analysis if techniques with the ability to estimate statistically independent spectra could be employed. SVD is known to separate signal and noise subspaces but it assumes orthogonal properties for the components comprising signal subspace, which is not always the case, and might impose heavy constraints for the MRS case. A much more relaxing constraint would be to assume statistically independent components. Therefore, a modification of the main methodology incorporating techniques for calculating the assumed statistically independent spectra is proposed by applying SVD on the MRS spectrogram through application of the short time Fourier transform (STFT). This approach is based on combining SVD on STFT spectrogram followed by an iterative application of independent component analysis (ICA). Moreover, it is shown that the proposed methodology combined with a regression analysis would lead to improved quantification of the MRS signals. An experimental study based on synthetic MRS signals has been conducted to evaluate the herein proposed methodologies. The results obtained have been discussed and it is shown to be quite promising

2009-10-01

138

Improved accuracy of component alignment with the implementation of image-free navigation in total knee arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accuracy of implant positioning and reconstruction of the mechanical leg axis are major requirements for achieving good long-term results in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether image-free computer navigation technology has the potential to improve the accuracy of component alignment in TKA cohorts of experienced surgeons immediately and constantly. One hundred patients with primary arthritis of the knee underwent the unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The cohort of 50 TKAs implanted with conventional instrumentation was directly followed by the cohort of the very first 50 computer-assisted TKAs. All surgeries were performed by two senior surgeons. All patients received the Zimmer NexGen total knee prosthesis (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA). There was no variability regarding surgeons or surgical technique, except for the use of the navigation system (StealthStation) Treon plus Medtronic Inc., Minnesota, MI, USA). Accuracy of implant positioning was measured on postoperative long-leg standing radiographs and standard lateral X-rays with regard to the valgus angle and the coronal and sagittal component angles. In addition, preoperative deformities of the mechanical leg axis, tourniquet time, age, and gender were correlated. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software package. Independent t-tests were used, with significance set at P knee surgeons can improve immediately and constantly the accuracy of component orientation using an image-free computer-assisted navigation system in TKA. The computer-assisted technology has shown to be easy to use, safe, and efficient in routine knee replacement surgery. We believe that navigation is a key technology for various current and future surgical alignment topics and minimal-invasive lower limb surgery. PMID:18157493

Rosenberger, Ralf E; Hoser, Christian; Quirbach, Sebastian; Attal, Rene; Hennerbichler, Alfred; Fink, Christian

2008-03-01

139

Introducing clinical governance: history, components and renewed conceptualization for improving the quality and performance of healthcare organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Striving for efficiency and excellence in health care has led organisations and professionals towork together to improve clinical processes. Clinical governance is about collective action, teaming up and sharing knowledge between those involved in organising and administering health care and services. The different stakeholders exert their authority through it with a view to improving the quality of health care and services. It seeks to combine organisational andprofessional aspects through the development and implementation of initiatives on the best clinical and organisational practices. To make a significant impact on the improvement of healthcare quality, Ferlie et al (Milbank Q 2001.79:281 [1] suggest bringing the different levels of health care (individual, team, organisation and system into line.The principles of clinical governance endeavour to produce this synergy by involving professionals in the modernisationof the organisation and by involving the organisation in the implementation and regulation of professional practices with action at different levels of health care.The purpose of this article is to explain where the concept of clinical governance came from, describe its components and suggest theoretical foundations for a clearer insight into the types of change that come with clinical governance and to facilitate its setup.We will start by presenting the components of clinical governance on the basis of the founding Britishmovement and by highlighting the challenges involved. We will then talk about the notion of governance developed by Hatchuel [2] and present the characteristics of an organisation model that can assist the commitment of professionals to quality principles. On the basis of this literature, we will end by proposing a renewed modelling ofclinical governance which, in our opinion, will bring together the organisational and clinical aspects and maximise the potential of everyone’s capacity for action.Prat Organ Soins 2008;39(3:167-73

Denis JL

2008-09-01

140

Improving the Prompt Electromagnetic Energy Component of Jet Energy Resolution with pi0 Fitting in High Granularity Electromagnetic Calorimeters  

CERN Document Server

We investigate improving the hadronic jet energy resolution using mass-constrained fits of pi0 decays using high granularity electromagnetic calorimeters. Single pi0 studies have indicated a large potential for improvement in the energy resolution of pi0's, typically reducing the average energy resolution by a factor of two for 4 GeV pi0's. We apply this method to fully simulated multi-hadronic events with multiple pi0's with widely varying energies using the ILD00 detector model. Several methods for identifying the correct pairings of photons with parent pi0's were explored. The combinatorics become challenging as the number of pi0's increases and we employ the Blossom V implementation of Edmonds' matching algorithm for handling this. For events where both photons of the pi0 are detected, the resulting solutions lead to an improvement in the pi0 component of the event energy resolution for 91.2 GeV Z0 events from 18.0%/sqrt(E) to 13.9%/sqrt(E) using the ILD00 detector and its reconstruction algorithms. This ...

van Doren, Brian

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Wear mechanisms and improvements of wear resistance in cobalt-chromium alloy femoral components in artificial total knee joints  

Science.gov (United States)

Wear is one of the major causes of artificial total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. Wear debris can cause adverse reactions to the surrounding tissue which can ultimately lead to loosening of the prosthesis. The wear behavior of UHMWPE tibial components have been studied extensively, but relatively little attention has been paid to the CoCrMo femoral component. The goal of the present study was to investigate the wear mechanisms of CoCrMo femoral components, to study the effect of CoCrMo alloy surface roughness on the wear of UHMWPE, and to determine the effect of heat treatments on the wear resistance of the CoCrMo implant alloys. The surface roughness of twenty-seven retrieved CoCrMo femoral components was analyzed. A multiple station wear testing machine and a wear fixture attached to an MTS 858 bionix system were built and used for in vitro wear studies of the CoCrMo/UHMWPE bearing couple. Solution and aging treatments were applied to the CoCrMo alloys. A white light interference surface profilometer (WLISP) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to measure the surface roughness and to study wear mechanisms of CoCrMo alloy. An optical microscope was used for alloy microstructure study. X-ray diffraction tests were performed to identify alloy phase transformation after aging. The micro-structure, hardness, and wear resistance of the alloys were studied. Surface roughness was used to quantify alloy wear, and the minimum number of surface roughness measurements required to obtain a reliable and repeatable characterization of surface roughness for a worn alloy surface was determined. The surfaces of the retrieved CoCrMo femoral components appeared to be damaged by metal particles embedded in the UHMWPE tibial component and metal-on-metal wear due to UHMWPE tibial component through-wear. Surface roughness of the femoral components was not correlated with patient age, weight, sex, or length of implantation. In vitro wear tests showed that when the CoCrMo alloy surface roughness was higher than 0.022 mum Ra (surface roughness average), UHMWPE wear increased with increasing CoCrMo alloy surface roughness. Bone and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement abrasive particles created scratches on the alloy via a ploughing mechanism, and resulted in significantly rougher surfaces than controls without particles (P hardness and wear resistance of the as-cast F75 CoCrMo alloy. Aging at 700sp°C caused recrystallization of the forged F799 alloy and improved wear resistance. Thermo-mechanical treatments have the potential to increase the lifetime of artificial joints by increasing the wear resistance of CoCrMo components.

Que, Like

142

Improved silencing suppression and enhanced heterologous protein expression are achieved using an engineered viral helper component proteinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

RNA silencing limits transient expression of heterologous proteins in plants. Co-expression of viral silencing suppressor proteins can increase and prolong protein expression, but highly efficient silencing suppressors may stress plant tissue and be detrimental to protein yields. Little is known whether silencing suppression could be improved without harm to plant tissues. This study reports development of enhanced silencing suppressors by engineering the helper component proteinase (HCpro) of Potato virus A (PVA). Mutations were introduced to a short region of HCpro (positions 330-335 in PVA HCpro), which is hypervariable among potyviruses. Three out of the four HCpro mutants suppressed RNA silencing more efficiently and sustained expression of co-expressed jellyfish green fluorescent protein for a longer time than wild-type HCpro in agroinfiltrated leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Leaf tissues remained healthy-looking without any visible signs of stress. PMID:23933077

Haikonen, T; Rajamäki, M-L; Valkonen, J P T

2013-11-01

143

Application of the Weibull Distribution to the Cost Effectiveness Analysis Spreadsheet Model (CEAMOD) for the Aircraft Engine Component Improvement Program (CIP).  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis explores the application of the Weibull distribution to the Cost Effectiveness Analysis Spreadsheet Model (CEAMOD) for the Aircraft Engine Component Improvement Program (CIP). The current model assumes the exponential distribution for all unsc...

G. R. Cook

1994-01-01

144

Applications [an improved crack growth model for low alloy steel component flaw evaluations in Light Water Reactor environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the Applications subcommittee of the International Cooperative Group on Cyclic Crack Growth (ICCGR) is to demonstrate the successful application of an improved crack growth model to low alloy steel component flaw evaluations in Light Water Reactor environments. Building on the work of the other subcommittees, a well defined predictive model must be shown to be suitable for such applications, consistent with the laboratory data, and consistent with current understanding of the damage mechanisms of corrosion-fatigue crack growth. The established convention for fatigue crack growth data correlation models presumes a relationship between da/dN and ?K, as reported by Paris. The influence of other variables of loading, material environment is determined empirically to define a model such as the one adopted by current ASME XI Appendix A flaw evaluation curves. Research presented to the ICCGR has led the group to consider a fundamentally different relationship for data correlation and applications models, when the time-dependent influence of corrosion on fatigue crack growth is strong. It is expected in those circumstances that the time rate of crack growth can be correlated with the time rate of crack tip straining. A practical derivation of this approach is the so-called time domain presentation of fatigue crack growth data. Effort has been focused on correlating the data to define a model which is also suitable for engineering application to component flaw evaluation. (author)

1989-01-01

145

Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m{sup ?2}, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material.

Vignal, N., E-mail: nicolas.vignal@cea.fr; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

2013-10-15

146

Design improvements and R&D achievements for vacuum vessel and in-vessel components towards ITER construction  

Science.gov (United States)

During the preparation of the procurement specifications of ITER for long lead-time items, several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements are being pursued, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, adding a separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints, and revising the VV support system to gain more structural performance margin. Improvements to the blanket design are also under investigation, an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R&D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and non-destructive tests for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. In FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block, and the divertor components, have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods.

Ioki, K.; Barabaschi, P.; Barabash, V.; Chiocchio, S.; Daenner, W.; Elio, F.; Enoeda, M.; Gervash, A.; Ibbott, C.; Jones, L.; Krylov, V.; Kuroda, T.; Lorenzetto, P.; Martin, E.; Mazul, I.; Merola, M.; Nakahira, M.; Rozov, V.; Strebkov, Yu.; Suzuki, S.; Tanchuk, V.; Tivey, R.; Utin, Yu.; Yamada, M.

2003-04-01

147

Design improvements and R and D achievements for vacuum vessel and in-vessel components towards ITER construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the preparation of the procurement specifications of ITER for long lead-time items, several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements are being pursued, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, adding a separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints, and revising the VV support system to gain more structural performance margin. Improvements to the blanket design are also under investigation, an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet-outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and non-destructive tests for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. In FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block, and the divertor components, have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

2003-04-01

148

Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and in-vessel components towards ITER construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the preparation of the procurement specifications for long lead-time items, several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements are being pursued, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, adding a separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints, and revising the VV support system to gain a more comfortable structural performance margin. Improvements to the blanket design are also under investigation, an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and nondestructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. In FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block, and the divertor components, have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

2003-09-01

149

Participation in a novel treatment component during residential substance use treatment is associated with improved outcome: a pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A person-centered substance use treatment component, the Natural Recovery Program, was developed. The Natural Recovery Program is comprised of small group therapy combined with pursuit of hobbies. Methods This was a pilot study of the program and was not randomized. A retrospective record review of 643 veterans in an inpatient mental health recovery and rehabilitation program was analyzed to determine if participants of Natural Recovery had a different rate of treatment completion than those who elected to participate in the core program alone. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on: participation in the Natural Recovery Program; co-morbid psychiatric disorders; and legal, medical, and psychiatric issues. Results Participation in Natural Recovery was significantly associated with successful treatment completion when analyzed by univariate analysis (p?=?0.01). Other significant variables associated with successful completion included: no co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis, fewer prior suicide attempts, and no homelessness prior to admission. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that participation in Natural Recovery was associated with improved treatment completion, even when other variables were considered (p?=?0.01). Treatment retention was longer for patients who participated in Natural Recovery, even if they did not complete treatment. Conclusions The Natural Recovery Program was associated with improved outcomes, as measured by treatment retention in the first 60 days and by treatment completion. Participants of Natural Recovery with co-morbid psychiatric disorders completed treatment at a higher rate than those with co-morbid psychiatric disorders who participated in the core program. Patients reported high satisfaction with the program. This program may be a valuable adjunct to residential treatment.

2014-01-01

150

Demographic future of Serbia from a different angle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the assessment of the empirical errors in the official population forecasts of Serbia, the paper shows why forecast users might want a change of the current official concept. The article consists of three parts. The first gives a brief chronological overview of the methods and hypotheses in the official population forecasts of Serbia during the last 60 years. The second refers to the quantification of the past forecast errors in projecting total fertility rate, life expectancy at birth and total population aiming at assessment of the empirical variability. The third part shows the probabilistic population forecast of Serbia based on Bayesian hierarchical models of vital components, as implemented in the 2012 revision of United Nations World population prospects. The empirical error served as an evaluation tool of the probabilistic distributions of total population. In spite of the increased availability and quality of input data and developing of advanced projection techniques during the period, there was no obvious improvement noted neither in accuracy nor in the expression of the uncertainty inherent to forecasting in the official population forecasts in Serbia up to date. In general, fertility has been overestimated while improvements in mortality have been underestimated. It has been shown that accuracy largely depends on the stability of demographic processes throughout the projection horizon, which confirms findings from similar studies in other countries. The uncertainty in the demographic trends remains a major challenge for forecasters. A typical judgment that the smallest error will be made if a recently observed trend is assumed to continue has been linked to the low fertility variant in the past Serbian forecasts. The target level of the medium fertility, interpreted as "most likely" outcome, was firmly bound to replacement fertility until recently thus reflecting desirable rather than realistic future. Therefore, the reversal in the trend of the total population of Serbia came as a surprise or much earlier than expected for the forecasters. The probabilistic population forecast of Serbia provides results that users can clearly understand and use along with attached information on error magnitude. Before running the projection model, it was necessary to adjust the 2012 UN estimates for Serbia to suit the current official estimates and recent relevant studies on demographic trends in the country. The comparison of probabilistic hypotheses and results with the current official projection aims to highlight the key benefits of the new approach in terms of reduced subjectivity, improved accuracy and quantified uncertainty. The latter could be particularly relevant for decision makers allowing them to calculate the expected costs involved in wrong decisions. From the perspective of the forecast based on "UN model", the strong optimism of the current official projection appears to be groundless. Besides, the empiric evaluation of the probabilistic distributions of total population suggests that it fully reflects the pattern of observed uncertainty in the past forecasts of Serbian population. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006: Istraživanje demografskih fenomena u funkciji javnih politika u Srbiji

Nikitovi? Vladimir

2013-01-01

151

Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and In-vessel components towards ITER construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints and revised VV support system to gain a more comfortable margin in the structural performance. The blanket design has been updated; an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet-outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and non destructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. With regard to the R and D for the FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block and the divertor components have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

2003-03-01

152

IMPROVED REAL-TIME FACE RECOGNITION BASED ON THREE LEVEL WAVELET DECOMPOSITION-PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of research in the field of real-time face recognition is a study that is being developed in the last decade. Face recognition is used to identify person from an image or video. Recognition rate and computation time of real-time face recognition is one of the big challenges that must be developed. This study proposes a model of face recognition using the method of feature extraction by combining three level wavelet decomposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA and using the method of mahalanobis distance for the classification section (3WPCA-MD. A 3-level wavelet decomposition is used to decompose images by reducing the resolution used for those images. Using wavelet decomposition up to level 3 will produce an image with a very low resolution so as to reduce the value of the resulting computation time to be processed using PCA. Mahalanobis distance method is used to determine the degree of similarity among the features to produce a more optimal face recognition. Based on the results of experiments that have been done, they generated improved face recognition with high face recognition accuracy of up to 96% in average and produced faster computation results of face recognition if compared to ordinary PCA method. The average computation speed value obtained using the method of 3WPCA-MD was 5-7 milli-second (ms for each face recognition process.

Edy Winarno

2014-01-01

153

Improvement of Fatigue Life of Welded Structural Components of a Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engine by Grinding  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The crankshaft housings of large two-stroke diesel engines are welded structures subjected to constant amplitude loading and designed for infinite life at full design load. A new design of the so-called frame box has been introduced in the engine using butt weld joints of thick plates, welded from one side only, with no access to the root side. Various investigations on the fatigue life of the structural components of this new design have been carried out. The present investigation concentrates on the improvement in fatigue life which may be obtained by grinding of the weld toes. The tests performed showed a significant increase in fatigue life due to the grinding, ranging from a factor of approx. 2.8 to infinity, depending on the load level. Although the number of tests was limited, the results indicate a favourable change of slope of the S-N curve, from m=3 for the test series without grinding to m=6 for the test series with grinding. In one of the test series, it was observed that in most cases crack initiation moved from the weld toe to the non-ground surface between the ground areas at the weld toes. Tests were made on steel S 275, on centrally and eccentrically loaded test specimens.

Agerskov, Henning; Bjørnbak-Hansen, Jørgen

2004-01-01

154

Demographic features of old people in Belgrade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of demographic ageing is one of the most apparent features of the demographic development of Serbia. The increase of the percentage of aged population is also present in Belgrade, although Belgrade itself, being the center of immigration and the major urban agglomeration, has a specific population development. This paper analyzes the dynamics and demographic features of the citizens of Belgrade older than 60, in the period between 1981 and 2000. It discusses the changes in gender ...

Devedži? Mirjana

2007-01-01

155

Introduction to new demographic model for humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Gompertz model since 1825 has significantly contributed to interpretation of ageing in biological and social sciences. However, in modern research findings, it is clear that the Gompertz model is not successful to describe the whole demographic trajectories. In this letter, a new demographic model is introduced especially to describe human demographic trajectories, for example, for Sweden (2002). The new model is derived from the Weibull model with an age-dependent shape...

Weon, Byung Mook

2004-01-01

156

The Importance of Demographic Data in Astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

The most effective astronomical workforce will be one that comprises a diverse and inclusive community. The “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” Decadal Survey, with input from its Infrastructure Study Group on Demographics, provided an overview of recent demographic trends. Demographics in astronomy have undergone significant changes over the past two generations in several, but not all, categories. Maintaining records of demographics regarding age, gender, and minority status, as well as trends by discipline and career choices, is vital in planning for the future training and employment of astronomers.

Elmegreen, Debra M.

2014-01-01

157

Development of improved two-phase two-component pipe flow heat transfer correlations from existing correlations and published data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many industrial applications, such as the flow of natural gas and oil in flow lines and wellbores, the knowledge of nonboiling two-phase, two-component (liquid and permanent gas) heat transfer is required. Numerous heat transfer correlations and experimental data for forced convective heat transfer during gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical and horizontal pipes have been published over the past 40 years. These correlations for the two-phase flow convective heat transfer were developed based on limited experimental data and are only applicable to certain flow patterns. Kim et al. identified 38 two-phase flow heat transfer correlations. These correlations were compared against a large set of two-phase flow heat transfer experimental data, for vertical and horizontal tubes and different flow patterns and fluids. Table 1 shows twenty of the 38 heat transfer correlations that were identified and tested by Kim et al. The rest of the two-phase flow heat transfer correlations were not tested since the required information for the correlations was not available through the available experimental studies. The limitations of the twenty correlations presented in Table 1 as proposed by the original authors are tabulated in Table 2. While most of the identified heat transfer correlations were derived empirically based on a small set of experimental data, some of the heat transfer correlations were based on either the liquid acceleration model concept, the pressure drop model concept, the separated flow model concept, or the dimensional analysis concept. In this study, six two-phase nonboiling heat transfer correlations obtained from the recommendations of their previous work were assessed. These correlations were modified using seven extensive sets of two-phase flow experimental data available from the literature, for vertical and horizontal tubes and different flow patterns and fluids. A total of 524 data points from five available experimental studies (which included the seven sets of data) were used for improvement of the six identified correlations. Based on the tabulated and graphical results of the comparisons between the predictions of the modified heat transfer correlations and the available experimental data, appropriate improved correlations for different flow patterns, tube orientations, and liquid-gas combinations were recommended.

Kim, D.; Ghajar, A.J.; Dougherty, R.L.

1999-07-01

158

Demographic studies of extrasolar planets  

Science.gov (United States)

Uncovering the demographics of extrasolar planets is crucial to understanding the processes of their formation and evolution. In this thesis, we present four studies that contribute to this end, three of which relate to NASA's Kepler mission, which has revolutionized the field of exoplanets in the last few years. In the pre-Kepler study, we investigate a sample of exoplanet spin-orbit measurements---measurements of the inclination of a planet's orbit relative to the spin axis of its host star---to determine whether a dominant planet migration channel can be identified, and at what confidence. Applying methods of Bayesian model comparison to distinguish between the predictions of several different migration models, we find that the data strongly favor a two-mode migration scenario combining planet-planet scattering and disk migration over a single-mode Kozai migration scenario. While we test only the predictions of particular Kozai and scattering migration models in this work, these methods may be used to test the predictions of any other spin-orbit misaligning mechanism. We then present two studies addressing astrophysical false positives in Kepler data. The Kepler mission has identified thousands of transiting planet candidates, and only relatively few have yet been dynamically confirmed as bona fide planets, with only a handful more even conceivably amenable to future dynamical confirmation. As a result, the ability to draw detailed conclusions about the diversity of exoplanet systems from Kepler detections relies critically on understanding the probability that any individual candidate might be a false positive. We show that a typical a priori false positive probability for a well-vetted Kepler candidate is only about 5-10%, enabling confidence in demographic studies that treat candidates as true planets. We also present a detailed procedure that can be used to securely and efficiently validate any individual transit candidate using detailed information of the signal's shape as well as follow-up observations, if available. Finally, we calculate an empirical, non-parametric estimate of the shape of the radius distribution of small planets with periods less than 90 days orbiting cool (less than 4000K) dwarf stars in the Kepler catalog. This effort reveals several notable features of the distribution, in particular a maximum in the radius function around 1-1.25 Earth radii and a steep drop-off in the distribution larger than 2 Earth radii. Even more importantly, the methods presented in this work can be applied to a broader subsample of Kepler targets to understand how the radius function of planets changes across different types of host stars.

Morton, Timothy

159

Using demographic data to better interpret pitfall trap catches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of pitfall trapping are often interpreted as abundance in a particular habitat. At the same time, there are numerous cases of almost unrealistically high catches of ground beetles in seemingly unsuitable sites. The correlation of catches by pitfall trapping with the true distribution and abundance of Carabidae needs corroboration. During a full year survey in 2006/07 in the Lake Elton region (Volgograd Area, Russia, 175 species of ground beetles were trapped. Considering the differences in demographic structure of the local populations, and not their abundances, three groups of species were recognized: residents, migrants and sporadic. In residents, the demographic structure of local populations is complete, and their habitats can be considered “residential”. In migrants and sporadic species, the demographic structure of the local populations is incomplete, and their habitats can be considered “transit”. Residents interact both with their prey and with each other in a particular habitat. Sporadic species are hardly important to a carabid community because of their low abundances. The contribution of migrants to the structure of carabid communities is not apparent and requires additional research. Migrants and sporadic species represent a “labile” component in ground beetles communities, as opposed to a “stable” component, represented by residents. The variability of the labile component substantially limits our interpretation of species diversity in carabid communities. Thus, the criteria for determining the most abundant, or dominant species inevitably vary because the abundance of migrants in some cases can be one order of magnitude higher than that of residents. The results of pitfall trapping adequately reflect the state of carabid communities only in zonal habitats, while azonal and disturbed habitats are merely transit ones for many species of ground beetles. A study of the demographic structure of local populations and assessment of the migratory/residential status of particular carabid species are potential ways of increasing the reliability of pitfall trap information.

Mikhail Makarov

2011-05-01

160

Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

Seth Owusu-Agyei

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

2013-01-01

162

Socioeconomic and demographic diversity in the health status of elderly people in a transitional society, Kerala, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kerala State in India is the most advanced in terms of demographic and epidemiological transition and has the highest proportion of elderly population. The study examines the socio-demographic correlates of health status of elderly persons in Kerala in terms of three components: perceived health status, physical mobility and morbidity level. Overall health status was measured by combining the above three components of health status. Data from the 60th National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) on Condition and Health Care of the Aged in Kerala in 2004 was used for the study. Significant socio-demographic differentials in health status were noted. While women report less morbidity, perceived well-being and physical mobility was better for men. This anomaly can be explained by variations in the components of socio-demographic factors. The findings call for urgent health care strategies for elderly persons in different socio-demographic groups in transitional Indian states like Kerala. PMID:18647442

Mini, G K

2009-07-01

163

Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates. Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead on programs that aim to enable choice about childbearing; in concrete terms this means measures such as one-off payments, improving childcare availability, and addressing worklife balance concerns.1 As an issue, low fertility is seen as a particular problem for a number of European and East Asian advanced industrialized countries. Germany and Japan stand out in having experienced especially low fertility over a sustained period of time, while countries with an established and generous welfare state or long traditions of migration appear to buck these trends among members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

2013-01-01

164

The Use of Probabilistic Methods to Evaluate the Systems Impact of Component Design Improvements on Large Turbofan Engines  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic Structural Analysis (PSA) is now commonly used for predicting the distribution of time/cycles to failure of turbine blades and other engine components. These distributions are typically based on fatigue/fracture and creep failure modes of these components. Additionally, reliability analysis is used for taking test data related to particular failure modes and calculating failure rate distributions of electronic and electromechanical components. How can these individual failure time distributions of structural, electronic and electromechanical component failure modes be effectively combined into a top level model for overall system evaluation of component upgrades, changes in maintenance intervals, or line replaceable unit (LRU) redesign? This paper shows an example of how various probabilistic failure predictions for turbine engine components can be evaluated and combined to show their effect on overall engine performance. A generic model of a turbofan engine was modeled using various Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) tools (Quantitative Risk Assessment Software (QRAS) etc.). Hypothetical PSA results for a number of structural components along with mitigation factors that would restrict the failure mode from propagating to a Loss of Mission (LOM) failure were used in the models. The output of this program includes an overall failure distribution for LOM of the system. The rank and contribution to the overall Mission Success (MS) is also given for each failure mode and each subsystem. This application methodology demonstrates the effectiveness of PRA for assessing the performance of large turbine engines. Additionally, the effects of system changes and upgrades, the application of different maintenance intervals, inclusion of new sensor detection of faults and other upgrades were evaluated in determining overall turbine engine reliability.

Packard, Michael H.

2002-01-01

165

The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality) on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees). Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as wel...

Raševi? Mirjana; Penev Goran

2006-01-01

166

Structure of Employment of Population under Conditions of a Demographic Crisis in Ukraine ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article is devoted to theoretical and practical aspects of formation of the structure of employment of population under conditions of a demographic crisis. It specifies definition of the “employment structure” notion, in which its changeability, multilevel structure of components and capacity to adapt to external conditions of functioning are underlined. It studies socio-economic conditions, which are established at the moment, and pays special attention to the demographic crisis in U...

Tsizhma Yuriy I.

2013-01-01

167

[Demographic situation in regions of Siberia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a comparative medico-demographic analysis of the population number and structure, reproduction, mortality, and mean life span at some territories of West and East Siberia in 1990-1995 and predicts these values for up to the year 2005. Main problems of demographic development of Siberian territories are outlined; these processes are to be balanced with the socioeconomic and ecological status of regions. Priority measures are proposed, including development of special programs on reproduction, health promotion, organization of medico-demographic monitoring, etc. PMID:9483970

Babenko, A I

1997-01-01

168

California Travel Trends and Demographics Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the Transportation Trend Analysis and Demographic Projection Study was to analyze past population and travel trends, and project future trends, in order to support the state infrastructure and development planning process. Tasks included: P...

R. Crane A. Valenzuela D. Chatman L. Schweitzer P. J. Wong

2002-01-01

169

Demographics and the Changing National Security Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic factors seldom directly cause conflict between nations. They can, however, exacerbate existing tensions and increase the risk of violent conflict. Long- term fertility trends, urbanization, migration, and changes in the ethnic composition and ...

2000-01-01

170

Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters’ demographic behaviour. Referring these results to statistical data on this issue, that are to be found in the Statistical Annual of Bihor County, we tried to reveal the trends of the evolution of birth-rate and to make the difference between objective statistical data and subjective echoes of 18 year old high school students way of thinking, regarding the potential impact of religion – nowadays studied in the Romanian schools – on the demographic behaviour.

Florica Stefanescu

2009-12-01

171

Prospective Demographic Study of Cosmetic Surgery Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: The authors sought to examine and assess cosmetic surgery patient demographics as well as age in relation to partner, in a prospective manner, analyzing data for any significant correlations. Design: The authors conducted a prospective study utilizing a survey. Setting: The study was conducted in a private, nonacademic dermatological practice. Participants: Three hundred thirty-six patients participated in this study. Results: Demographics of onabotulinumtoxinA/abobotulinumtoxinA ...

Schlessinger, Joel; Schlessinger, Daniel; Schlessinger, Bernard

2010-01-01

172

The demographics of global corporate champions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Working Paper presents a novel dataset documenting the demographics of the world’s 500 largest companies by market capitalisation, as of 30 September 2007. Assigning a birth date to a large company is not a straightforward exercise and involves a measure of judgment, which possibly explains why data on corporate demographics have not been more widely researched in spite of their potential interest to policymakers. However, our methodology, based on the collection of narrative data whic...

Ve?ron, Nicolas

2008-01-01

173

Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography and with its multidisciplinary nature, demography gets closer and closer to the field of "woman issues".

Devedži? Mirjana

2006-01-01

174

Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compa...

2006-01-01

175

Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters’...

Florica Stefanescu

2009-01-01

176

Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workpl...

Louise Hardman Smith; Kirsten Hviid; Karen Bo Frydendall; Mari-Ann Flyvholm

2013-01-01

177

Improving the time frame reduction for reuse of roof rack components in cars using Case-based reasoning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Now a days where technological advancements are growing at a rapid pace, it has become a common norm for all the manufacturing companies to be abreast with these advancements for being competitive in market. This thesis deals with development of one such common norm for one of the products (Roof rack component) for company Thule. The main aim of the thesis is to curtail the products lead time to market and this was achieved by using an artificial intelligence technique i.e., Case-based reason...

Harish Acharya, Maniyoor; Sudsawat, Suppatarachai

2012-01-01

178

Group-contribution+ (GC+) based estimation of properties of pure components: Improved property estimation and uncertainty analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this work is to present revised and improved model parameters for group-contribution+ (GC+) models (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) employed for the estimation of pure component properties, together with covariance matrices to quantify uncertainties in the estimated property values. For this purpose, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis of GC models and CI models using maximum-likelihood estimation theory is developed. For parameter estimation, large data-sets of experimentally measured property values of pure components of various classes (hydrocarbons, oxygenated components, nitrogenated components, poly-functional components, etc.) taken from the CAPEC database are used. In total 18 pure component properties are analyzed, namely normal boiling point, critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume, normal melting point, standard Gibbs energy of formation, standard enthalpy of formation, normal enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization at 298 K, enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, flash point, auto ignition temperature, Hansen solubility parameters, Hildebrand solubility parameter, octanol/water partition coefficient, acentric factor, and liquid molar volume at 298 K. Important issues related to property modeling such as reliability and predictive capability of the property prediction models, and thermodynamic consistency of the predicted properties (such as, relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature) are also analyzed and discussed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only the estimated pure component property values but also the uncertainties (e.g. prediction errors in terms of 95% confidence intervals) in the estimated property values. This feature allows one to evaluate the effects of these uncertainties on product-process design, simulation and optimization calculations, contributing to better-informed and more reliable engineering solutions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent

2012-01-01

179

Use of computed tomography slices 3D-reconstruction as a powerful tool to improve manufacturing processes on aeroengine components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TURBOMECA has been using computed tomography for several years as an inner-health analysis powerful tool for engine components. From 2D slices of the examined part, detailed information about lacks or inclusions could easily be extracted. But, measurements on internal features were quickly required because no other NDT methods were able to do it. CT has thus logically become a powerful 2D dimensional measuring tool. Recently, with new software and the latest computers able to deal with huge files, CT has become a powerful 3D digitization tool and now, TOMO ADOUR can offer a complete solution for reverse engineering of complex parts. Several months ago, TURBOMECA introduced CT into many development, validation and industrialization processes and has demonstrated how to take corrective actions to process deviation on their aeroengine components by: extracting the nonexisting CAD model of a part, generating CAD compatible data to check dimensional conformity and, eventually correct design misfits or manufacturing drifts, highlighting the metallurgical health of first article parts, making the decision of repairing the defining the appropriate method, generating a file (.STL) to build a rapid prototype or a file to pilot tool parts for machining, calculating physical properties such as behavior or flow analysis on a 'real' model. The image also allows a drawing to be made of a part that was originally produced by a supplier or competitor. This paper will be illustrated with a large number of examples

2000-05-23

180

Demographics, energy and our homes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The projected growth in households in the UK is a key factor in future domestic energy consumption, particularly electricity consumption. While every household needs a home and its heating, lighting and appliances, increasing incomes have historically led to significantly higher appliance ownership, higher expectations of levels of energy service and greater usage. In the past this trend was combined with increasing household numbers to drive growth in domestic electricity demand. Official projections for population growth and household composition indicate significant drivers for future growth in energy demand. Curbing this will require policies to reverse the tendency for energy-efficiency improvements to be overwhelmed by growing numbers of households, more widespread appliance ownership and increased service expectations

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Modification of the Douglas Neumann program to improve the efficiency of predicting component interference and high lift characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Douglas Neumann method for low-speed potential flow on arbitrary three-dimensional lifting bodies was modified by substituting the combined source and doublet surface paneling based on Green's identity for the original source panels. Numerical studies show improved accuracy and stability for thin lifting surfaces, permitting reduced panel number for high-lift devices and supercritical airfoil sections. The accuracy of flow in concave corners is improved. A method of airfoil section design for a given pressure distribution, based on Green's identity, was demonstrated. The program uses panels on the body surface with constant source strength and parabolic distribution of doublet strength, and a doublet sheet on the wake. The program is written for the CDC CYBER 175 computer. Results of calculations are presented for isolated bodies, wings, wing-body combinations, and internal flow.

Bristow, D. R.; Grose, G. G.

1978-01-01

182

INTERACTION BETWEEN PROTEINS OF PLANT ORIGIN AND WINE COMPONENTS: MOLECULAR-BASED CHOICE OF PROTEIN FINING AGENTS FOR ORGANOLEPTIC IMPROVEMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gelatine, casein, egg albumin, and, more recently, proteins from plant sources are commonly used in winemaking as fining agents to remove particles responsible for turbidity, to improve stability, and to control browning, over-oxidation, and bitterness during ageing (Spagna et al., 2000; Cosme et al., 2008). The formation of covalent and non-covalent interactions (hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions) between the protein matrix and wine polyphenolics is the basis of the flocculation an...

Granato, Tiziana Mariarita

2010-01-01

183

Evaluation of life-time, technical improvements and backfitting of components and systems in the light of material engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A systematic estimation of the original design lifetime is effected in the light of new safety engineering aspects and developments. The results of such an analysis are used for the purpose of a preventive maintenance and inspection schedule, or for measures to prolong the planned or approved installation lifetime. Moreover, they are a basis for decisions concerning the execution of technical improvements and backfittings, and contribute to an optimization of plant availability. (orig.)

1991-10-10

184

Privacy-Preserving Demographic Filtering Alambic Management System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recommender systems are used as a way to user choices that needs to solve the protection problem in e-commerce. For solving such a problem we need to protect the privacy interests of users by hiding their identity and demographic features such as age, sex, geographical location, wealth, level of education, etc. and sometimes users buying preferences along with behavior. An E-commerce service provider allow commercial interests of users to protect data by recommending not to reveal valuable information that is related to market trends to the third parties. This paper concentrates only on recommender system that depends on demographic filtering which is familiar by making recommendations on feedback of previous users. The proposed system is called LAMBIC which is used to improve the privacy protection depending on semi-trusted third party by attaining limited confidence using such recommender systems. The process is to split the user’s data between the service provider and the third party in such a way that neither of them share the private data and protect it by preserving using demographic filtering.

M. SAI

2012-09-01

185

On the Statistical Dependency of Identity Theft on Demographics  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved understanding of the identity theft problem is widely agreed to be necessary to succeed in counter-theft efforts in legislative, financial and research institutions. In this paper we report on a statistical study about the existence of relationships between identity theft and area demographics in the US. The identity theft data chosen was the number of citizen complaints to the Federal Trade Commission in a large number of US municipalities. The list of demographics used for any such municipality included: estimated population, median resident age, estimated median household income, percentage of citizens with a high school or higher degree, percentage of unemployed residents, percentage of married residents, percentage of foreign born residents, percentage of residents living in poverty, density of law enforcement employees, crime index, and political orientation according to the 2004 presidential election. Our study findings, based on linear regression techniques, include statistically significant relationships between the number of identity theft complaints and a non-trivial subset of these demographics.

di Crescenzo, Giovanni

186

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC UNBALANCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Population and economy are permanently followed by the manifestation of unbalances both in quantity and inquality. For population, the demographic evolution is determined by its natural movement, at world level, which is aresult of natality and mortality, and also by migration, locally. Balance is an ideal status. It would be utopian, though,to consider that a balance could be reached, even for a short period of time. Essentially, the most efficient actions thatcan be done are preventing some demographic unbalances and removing their effects. In order to accomplish this it isimportant to analyze the causes and effects of every phenomenon that affects the demographic unbalance, and toestablish how to diminish it. These issues are very complex as some elements of influence are both causes and effectsof the unbalances. However, people have proved that they are able to respond to these dangers, by continuouslyadapting to the environment. The demographic phenomena are influenced by a multitude of factors, especially thenatural, social, historical, economical ones. Within these factors, the existence of resources and the way to implementthem significantly enrich the demographic evolution, as the population dimension depends on economy.

JEMBOIU GEORGE-NICOLAE

2013-02-01

187

Demographic features of old people in Belgrade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process of demographic ageing is one of the most apparent features of the demographic development of Serbia. The increase of the percentage of aged population is also present in Belgrade, although Belgrade itself, being the center of immigration and the major urban agglomeration, has a specific population development. This paper analyzes the dynamics and demographic features of the citizens of Belgrade older than 60, in the period between 1981 and 2000. It discusses the changes in gender and age distribution of this population group, as well as the processes of ageing and feminization of the elders. It also indicates related differences between the municipalities of Belgrade, as well as between the City of Belgrade, the Settlement of Belgrade and the settlements of Belgrade outside the inner urban zone.

Devedži? Mirjana

2007-01-01

188

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

2010-06-01

189

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer [Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkmenistan)

2010-06-15

190

Independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms for improved spectral deconvolution of overlapped signals in (1) H NMR analysis: application to foods and related products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major challenge facing NMR spectroscopic mixture analysis is the overlapping of signals and the arising impossibility to easily recover the structures for identification of the individual components and to integrate separated signals for quantification. In this paper, various independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms [mutual information least dependent component analysis (MILCA); stochastic non-negative ICA (SNICA); joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices (JADE); and robust, accurate, direct ICA algorithm (RADICAL)] as well as deconvolution methods [simple-to-use-interactive self-modeling mixture analysis (SIMPLISMA) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS)] are applied for simultaneous (1) H NMR spectroscopic determination of organic substances in complex mixtures. Among others, we studied constituents of the following matrices: honey, soft drinks, and liquids used in electronic cigarettes. Good quality spectral resolution of up to eight-component mixtures was achieved (correlation coefficients between resolved and experimental spectra were not less than 0.90). In general, the relative errors in the recovered concentrations were below 12%. SIMPLISMA and MILCA algorithms were found to be preferable for NMR spectra deconvolution and showed similar performance. The proposed method was used for analysis of authentic samples. The resolved ICA concentrations match well with the results of reference gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as the MCR-ALS algorithm used for comparison. ICA deconvolution considerably improves the application range of direct NMR spectroscopy for analysis of complex mixtures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24604756

Monakhova, Yulia B; Tsikin, Alexey M; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Mushtakova, Svetlana P

2014-05-01

191

[The demographic policy on the regional level].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study and assessment of demographic processes in the Republic of Bashkortostan during 1984-2008 was implemented. During the examined period, the decrease of marriage rate, the increase of divorce rate and mortality rate accompanied with the decrease of birth rate. From 2001, the positive trend is noted, especially in the area of marriage rate increase. However, the instability of the divorce rate index continues to persist. The important demographic target is to proceed with the reduction of reproductive losses, primarily at the expense of the decrease of the postneonatal losses and mortinatality. PMID:21375036

Sultanaeva, Z M

2010-01-01

192

On-line monitoring for improving performance of nuclear power plants. Part 2: Process and component condition monitoring and diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA's work in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management is aimed at enhancing the capability of Member States to utilize good engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports activities such as improving nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational licence renewal, and modernization of the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants in Member States. The subject of improving the performance of nuclear power plants by utilizing on-line condition monitoring of instrumentation and control systems in plants was suggested by the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in 2003. It was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2004-2007. This is the second report on the use of on-line monitoring (OLM) in nuclear power plants. The first report, On-Line Monitoring for Improving Performance of Nuclear Power Plants, Part 1: Instrument Channel Monitoring (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-1.1), focused on application of OLM to verify the static (calibration) and dynamic (response time) performance of process instruments in nuclear power plants. This second report extends the application of OLM to equipment and process condition monitoring encompassing an array of technologies, including vibration monitoring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts monitoring, motor current signature analysis and noise diagnostics, as well as vibration analysis of the reactor core and the primary circuit. Furthermore, this report includes the application of modelling technologies for equipment and process condition monitoring. A majority of these technologies depend on existing data from existing sensors and first principles models to estimate equipment and process behaviour using empirical and physical modelling techniques. In doing so, pattern recognition tools such as neural networks, fuzzy classification of data, multivariate state estimation and other means are used. These means are described in this report, and examples of their application and implementation are provided. It should be pointed out that OLM data are routinely collected in nuclear power plants for a variety of purposes, but that these data are not often trended or used for long term predictive maintenance purposes. This report promotes the idea of trending such data and provides guidance on how this trending may be performed to yield a new maintenance tool for nuclear power plants. This report was produced by experts and advisors from numerous IAEA Member States

2008-09-01

193

Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain with Imperfect Quality of Commodity Components in Uncertain State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a mathematical model for four-level defective goods supply chain with imperfect quality of commodity components in an uncertain state to maximize profit of supply chain. It is assumed that the inspection of incoming parts in suppliers is randomly done and incomplete. This lead some of the manufactured products will not be properly manufactured because of defective parts and are considered as defective goods and in most cases, the defective products can be repaired by replacing with the good parts. The defective parts will be collected and then returned to the suppliers for repairing. Out proposed model considers defective parts problem by optimizing the costs of production, maintenance, shipping, reworking on the defective goods and parts, shortage in retailers due to the production of defective goods and cost of capital incurred by the companies. The model can anticipate the active suppliers/manufacturers/distributors and the quantity of parts and goods that must be exchanged between them. Our proposed model is novel and we used MINOS solver and LINGO software to solve the problem. The results ascertained the correctness and fine function of the proposed model.

Salah Alden Ghasimi

2013-07-01

194

Independent component analysis-based artefact reduction: application to the electrocardiogram for improved magnetic resonance imaging triggering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is required during magnetic resonance (MR) examination for monitoring patients under anaesthesia or with heart diseases and for synchronizing image acquisition with heart activity (triggering). Accurate and fast QRS detection is therefore desirable, but this task is complicated by artefacts related to the complex MR environment (high magnetic field, radio-frequency pulses and fast switching magnetic gradients). Specific signal processing has been proposed, whether using specific MR QRS detectors or ECG denoising methods. Most state-of-the-art techniques use a connection to the MR system for achieving their task, which is a major drawback since access to the MR system is often restricted. This paper introduces a new method for on-line ECG signal enhancement, called ICARE, which takes advantage of using multi-lead ECG and does not require any connection to the MR system. It is based on independent component analysis (ICA) and applied in real time. This algorithm yields accurate QRS detection for efficient triggering

2009-12-01

195

Three-component modeling of C-rich AGB star winds IV. Revised interpretation with improved numerical descriptions  

CERN Document Server

Models describing dust-driven winds are important for understanding the physical mechanism and properties of mass loss on the asymptotic giant branch. These models are becoming increasingly realistic with more detailed physics included, but also more computationally demanding. The purpose of this study is to clarify to what extent the applied numerical approach affects resulting physical structures of modelled winds, and to discuss resulting changes. Following the previously developed radiation hydrodynamic model - which includes descriptions for time-dependent dust formation and gas-dust drift - and using its physical assumptions and parameters, numerical improvements are introduced. Impacts of the so-called adaptive grid equation and advection schemes are assessed from models calculated with different numerical setups. Results show that wind models are strongly influenced by numerical imprecision, displaying differences in calculated physical properties of up to one hundred per cent. Using a non-adaptive gr...

Sandin, Christer

2007-01-01

196

Macroergonomic intervention for work design improvement and raw materials waste reduction in a small footwear components company in Rio Grande do Sul-Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a macroergonomic intervention carried out in a small footwear components company located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The company's demand was related to the waste of the expensive raw-material (thermoplastic polyurethane or TPU) used to manufacture the components (high heels pegs). According to the managerial staff, the waste was workers responsibility due to the craft characteristic of the process. A participative method was used to evaluate the problems, propose and implement solutions, as well as evaluate their impact on the workers and the Company. Improvements in the work conditions resulted in increase of workers' satisfaction with the work and in 31.5% waste reduction. PMID:22317629

Cornelli, Renata; Guimarães, Lia Buarque de Macedo

2012-01-01

197

Development and improvement of synthetic imaging methods for non-destructive ultrasonic testing of complex industrial components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this thesis was, initially, to evaluate phased array methods for ultrasonic Non Destructive Testing (NDT) in order to propose optimizations, or to develop new alternative methods. In particular, this works deals with the detection of defects in complex geometries and/or materials parts. The TFM (Total Focusing Method) algorithm provides high resolution images and several representations of a same defect thanks to different reconstruction modes. These properties have been exploited judiciously in order to propose an adaptive imaging method in immersion configuration. We showed that TFM imaging can be used to characterize more precisely the defects. However, this method presents two major drawbacks: the large amount of data to be processed and a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially in noisy materials. We developed solutions to these two problems. To overcome the limitation caused by the large number of signals to be processed, we propose an algorithm that defines the sparse array to activate. As for the low SNR, it can be now improved by use of virtual sources and a new filtering method based on the DORT method (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator). (author)

2013-01-01

198

Current demographical processes in the Penza region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the basic ethnic groups of the Penza region and identifies the demographic processes taking place within each group. The author comes to a conclusion that these processes are determined by the features of the historical development and socioeconomic standing of the ethnic groups.

Pronin Ye.

2013-01-01

199

Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

2011-01-01

200

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Environmental vs Demographic Stochasticity in Population Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Compares the effect on population growth of envinonmental stochasticity (random environmental variations described by stochastic differential equations) with demographic stochasticity (random variations in births and deaths described by branching processes and birth-and-death processes), in the density-independent and the density-dependent cases.

Braumann, C. A.

2010-01-01

202

[Seasonal adjustment of monthly demographic rates].  

Science.gov (United States)

The method used by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics to adjust monthly demographic data to take into account seasonal variations is described. This method, the Census-X11 method, is based on moving averages techniques. (summary in ENG) PMID:12313823

De Beer, J A

1985-06-01

203

Demographic transition: a determinant of urbanization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this discussion are to present a conceptual framework against which the relationship between demographic transition and urbanization can be better understood and to test the hypothesis that the demographic transition would generally lead to urbanization in developing countries. The data were mainly taken from the Statistical Year Books, Working Papers of UN, Demographic Year Books, and the World Data Sheets of Population Reference Bureau. The level of urbanization in the less developed region (27.3%) was significantly lower than that in the developed region (69.2%), but in the triad of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the 3 continental divisions of the developing region, remarkable variations were observed. The pace of urbanization during the 1970-75 period was faster in developing than in the developed countries. In the last 25 years the level of urbanization increased by 74.7% in developing countries; the increase was 29.6% in developed countries. The urban areas in more developed regions are growing at the expense of (declining) rural population. In the developing regions both the urban and rural populations are increasing rapidly as a result of population explosion of midtransitional stage. During the 1950-70 period the growth rate in the more developed regions was 2.25 for the urban populations and 0.44 for the rural populations. The respective rates were 4.50 and 1.56% for the developing regions. Both natural increase and population transfer are equally important in increasing the urban population in developing regions. The variations in the triad of Asia, Africa, and Latin America are small with regard to transfer as percentage of urban growth but very large with regard to transfer as percentage of rural population. A systemic dynamic model is presented to facilitate understanding of the relationship between demographic and economic variables. It provides the empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that demographic transition would lead to higher levels of urbanization in developing regions. As it is an exploratory effort, the possibility of feedback, i.e., the contribution of urbanization to demographic transition is not considered for 3 reasons: the model was constructed in a simplified form; the paucity and unreliability of available data did not allow going beyond the present estimation; and in view of the structural, institutional, value and planned changes in lowly urbanized countries of developing regions, urbanization could not be treated as an important determining factor in demographic transition. PMID:12338541

Sharma, A K

1979-09-01

204

Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this center in Vellore, India were larger, and occurred to younger patients than burns that reported in the NBR. Individualized assessment of care systems are needed when implementing development plans. PMID:19060770

Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

2009-01-01

205

Componente demográfico do sistema de informação da atenção à saúde indígena, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brasil / Composante demographique du systeme d'information a l'attention de la sante indigene, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Bresil / Demographic component of the information system of the attention to indigenous health, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo analisa a consistência do módulo demográfico do Sistema de Informação da Atenção da Saúde Indígena para o Distrito Especial Indígena Xavante (DSEI), Mato Grosso, no período de 1999 a 2004. Os dados foram obtidos através de relatórios disponibilizados pelo SIASIWEB. A base de dados foi in [...] vestigada com vistas a detectar inconsistências, incluindo mais de um registro para um mesmo evento. Para todo o DSEI, a taxa de mortalidade infantil (TMI) no período passou de 89,2 para 83,8 por mil após as correções na base de dados. Ao se analisar por polo-base, as alterações foram ainda mais substanciais. No caso do Polo-base de Água Boa, a redução da TMI foi de 43,3 para 21,3 por mil. As taxas brutas de mortalidade e de natalidade também experimentaram redução após as correções. Esses achados evidenciam problemas significativos na base de dados sobre saúde do povo Xavante, com a geração de indicadores demográficos que se distanciam da situação real da população. Os autores destacam a necessidade de aprimoramento da coleta e análise dos dados demográficos no âmbito do sistema de informação sobre a saúde indígena. Abstract in english This study analyzes the consistence of the demographic module of the System of Information of Attention to Indigenous Health for the Shavante Indian Indigenous Special District (in Portuguese, DSEI), Mato Grosso, from 1999 to 2004. The data were obtained through reports made available by SIASIWEB. T [...] he database was investigated trying to detect inconsistencies, including more than a single registration for the same event. For the whole DSEI, the infant mortality rate (in Portuguese, TMI) in the period went from 89,2 to 83,8 per thousand after the corrections in the database. Analyzing by base headquarters, the alterations were even more substantial. In the case of the Água Boa base headquarters, the reduction of TMI went from 43,3 to 21,3 per thousand. The gross mortality and birth rates also experienced reduction after the corrections. Those discoveries evidence significant problems in the database on the health of the Shavante people, generating demographic indicators that are distant of the real situation of the population. The authors point out the need of enhancement of the collection and analysis of the demographic data in the extent of the system of information about the indigenous health.

Luciene Guimarães de, Souza; Ricardo Ventura, Santos.

206

Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, leading to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian Territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this paper we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few decades ago into the future. A Fortran program has been designed and used for the simulation and analysis of our statistical data. This study of demographic change in Palestine has shown that Palestinians will have in future problems as the strongest age cohorts are the above-60-year olds. We therefore recommend the increase of both the retirement age and female employment.

Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

207

Exoplanet Demographics with WFIRST-AFTA  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of the demographics of exoplanets over a broad range of planet and host-star properties provide fundamental empirical constraints on theories of planet formation and evolution. Because of its unique sensitivity to low-mass, long-period, and free-floating planets, microlensing is an essential complement to our arsenal of planet detection methods. I outline the expected returns of a microlensing survey with WFIRST-AFTA. When combined with the results from complementary surveys such as Kepler, WFIRST-AFTA will yield a nearly complete picture of the demographics of planetary systems throughout the Galaxy, providing fundamental tests of planet formation theories, and informing our understanding of the frequency and potential habitability of low mass planets located in the habitable zones of their host stars.

Gaudi, B. S.; WFIRST-AFTA Science Definition Team

2014-01-01

208

Effects of Demographic Variables on Marital Satisfaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marital satisfaction is an important aspect to study because it is a global evaluation of the state of one’s marriage and a reflection of marital happiness and functioning. This study aimed to ascertain the differences in marital satisfaction based on demographic variables. Subjects for this study were 423 married couples. The instrument used was ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The data were analyzed by inferential statistics using t-test and One-way Analy...

Zainah A. Z.; Nasir R.; Ruzy Suliza Hashim; Noraini Md. Yusof

2012-01-01

209

Demographic and clinical characteristics of parapsoriasis patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background an Aim: parapsoriasis is a rare chronic idiopathic dermatosis which commonly manifests with round or oval scaling and itching erythematosus plaques on trunk and extremities. Considering the size of the lesions, parapsoriasis is divided into two groups: small plaque and large plaque. Study of demographic characteristics of this disease may help to identify the high risk groups who are more susceptible to cutaneous lymphoma with high mortality as well as proper allocation of health s...

2012-01-01

210

The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both per capita savings and per capita consumption increase in the new steady state.A drop in the birth rate, while keeping the death rate constant, reduces per capita savings, but increases per capita c...

Heijdra, B. J.; Ligthart, J. E.

2004-01-01

211

THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The demographic decline can create major dysfunctionalities not only on a social level but also from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. First, an accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, second, the decrease of birthrates, negative...

2013-01-01

212

Socio-demographic factors of geriatric depression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Depression is a common mental health problem in geriatric population and the overall prevalence rate of depression in this age group varies between 10 and 20%. Objective: To study the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in geriatric population. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done on 74 community-based mental health surveys on depression in geriatric population, which were conducted in the continents of Asia, Europe, Aust...

Barua Ankur; Ghosh M; Kar N; Basilio M

2010-01-01

213

Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global) is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global) is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global) is the populat...

2008-01-01

214

Demographics and Functional Outcome of Toe Fractures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Toe fractures are common; however, there are few data on demographics and functional outcome. We studied outcomes in 339 consecutive patients with toe fractures treated between January 2006 and September 2008. Two hundred and sixty-four patients, aged 16 to 75, were mailed an outcome questionnaire, and overall subjective satisfaction with the outcome of treatment was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). Most frequently affected were the first (38%) and fifth (30%) toes, and most (75.6%...

2011-01-01

215

Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

2008-02-01

216

Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects  

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Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

Devedži? Mirjana M.

2004-01-01

217

Exile and demographic population growth in Serbia  

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Full Text Available The data of the 2002 population census on refugee population are analyzed in this paper with a basic aim to determine the significance (contribution of refugee corpus in demographic development of the Republic of Serbia. By analyzing the data, it has been determined that the refugee corpus does not significantly differ from the domicile population in the basic, above all demographic and other qualitative characteristics. The differences which can be noticed with certain (primarily socio-economic characteristics, due to the proportionally small participation of refugee persons in relation to the total (domicile population, could not significantly influence the total demographic, socio-economic and other characteristics of the population of central Serbia and Vojvodina. The most significant contribution of refugee (classifying the refugee corpus in the country's total population is reflected in the mitigation of the depopulation trend, namely population growth, not only both micro-entities, but also lower administrative-territorial entities (districts depending on the enumerated refugee population in them. However, population projections indicate that by the middle of this century (2050 the positive effects of the basically larger number of inhabitants will be lost caused by the inflow of refugee population.

Stevanovi? Radoslav

2005-01-01

218

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials on materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a power feeding system for the primary system. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phase of the clad. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clad. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR. (author)

Suh, Jeong Hun; Kim, J. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Lim, Y. S

1999-08-01

219

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR

2000-01-01

220

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials on materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a power feeding system for the primary system. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phase of the clad. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clad. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR. (author)

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Strongyloides ratti antigenic components recognized by IgE antibodies in immunoblotting as an additional tool for improving the immunodiagnosis in human strongyloidiasis  

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Full Text Available IgE antibody response in human strongyloidiasis was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunoblotting (IB using Strongyloides ratti saline extract as heterologous antigen. A total of 50 serum samples of patients who were shedding S. stercoralis larvae in feces (group I, copropositive, 38 of patients with other intestinal parasites (group II, and 38 of subjects with negative results in three parasitologic assays (group III, copronegative were analyzed. Levels of IgE anti-Strongyloides expressed in ELISA Index (EI were significantly higher in patients of group I (1.32 than in group II (0.51 and group III (0.81, with positivity rates of 54%, 0%, and 10.5%, respectively. Fifteen S. ratti antigenic components were recognized in IB-IgE by sera of group I, with frequency ranging from 8% to 46%. In group II, only two antigenic bands (101, 81 kDa were detected in a frequency of 10% and no reactivity was found in group III. Sera with EI values > 1.5 recognized five from 13 specific antigenic bands (70, 63, 61, 44, 7 kDa. It can be concluded that these five antigenic components recognized by IB-IgE using S. ratti antigen might be employed as an additional tool for improving the immunodiagnosis in human strongyloidiasis.

Rodrigues Rosângela Maria

2004-01-01

222

Strongyloides ratti antigenic components recognized by IgE antibodies in immunoblotting as an additional tool for improving the immunodiagnosis in human strongyloidiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english IgE antibody response in human strongyloidiasis was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting (IB) using Strongyloides ratti saline extract as heterologous antigen. A total of 50 serum samples of patients who were shedding S. stercoralis larvae in feces (group I, copr [...] opositive), 38 of patients with other intestinal parasites (group II), and 38 of subjects with negative results in three parasitologic assays (group III, copronegative) were analyzed. Levels of IgE anti-Strongyloides expressed in ELISA Index (EI) were significantly higher in patients of group I (1.32) than in group II (0.51) and group III (0.81), with positivity rates of 54%, 0%, and 10.5%, respectively. Fifteen S. ratti antigenic components were recognized in IB-IgE by sera of group I, with frequency ranging from 8% to 46%. In group II, only two antigenic bands (101, 81 kDa) were detected in a frequency of 10% and no reactivity was found in group III. Sera with EI values > 1.5 recognized five from 13 specific antigenic bands (70, 63, 61, 44, 7 kDa). It can be concluded that these five antigenic components recognized by IB-IgE using S. ratti antigen might be employed as an additional tool for improving the immunodiagnosis in human strongyloidiasis.

Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria; Sopelete, Mônica Camargo; Silva, Deise Aparecida de Oliveira; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria.

223

An efficient method to improve the clustering performance for high dimensional data by Principal Component Analysis and modified K-means  

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Full Text Available Clustering analysis is one of the main analytical methods in data mining. K-means is the most popular andpartition based clustering algorithm. But it is computationally expensive and the quality of resultingclusters heavily depends on the selection of initial centroid and the dimension of the data. Several methodshave been proposed in the literature for improving performance of the k-means clustering algorithm.Principal Component Analysis (PCA is an important approach to unsupervised dimensionality reductiontechnique. This paper proposed a method to make the algorithm more effective and efficient by using PCAand modified k-means. In this paper, we have used Principal Component Analysis as a first phase to findthe initial centroid for k-means and for dimension reduction and k-means method is modified by usingheuristics approach to reduce the number of distance calculation to assign the data-point to cluster. Bycomparing the results of original and new approach, it was found that the results obtained are moreeffective, easy to understand and above all, the time taken to process the data was substantially reduced.

Tajunisha

2011-03-01

224

Influence of Demographic Factors on Students’ Beliefs in Learning Mathematics  

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Full Text Available Learning mathematics has been recognized by many as important. It does not only develop students’ ability to think in quantitative terms but can also enhance skills such as analytical and problem solving skills. However, to enable us to tell our students how important mathematics is we have to understand students’ beliefs in learning mathematics so as to find ways to improve students’ performance in mathematics. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between business students’ beliefs in learning mathematics and demographic factors. Data were collected from three hundred and seventy six students in three higher learning institutions enrolled in business mathematics class. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the sample and Pearson chi-square test will be used to test students’ beliefs and the relationship between students’ beliefs and demographic factors (gender, institutions, previous mathematics grade, secondary education and major. Our results suggest that students’ beliefs are positive and significant in learning mathematics. Using Pearson chi-square test, generally the results suggest that there are significant differences in means between students’ beliefs based on institutions and mathematics grade. In addition, we find that overall there are no significant differences in means between beliefs based on gender, secondary education and major.

Izah Mohd Tahir

2009-07-01

225

Olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (Zyprexa Zydis) rapidly improve excitement components in the acute phase of first-episode schizophrenic patients: an open-label prospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

An open-label study was performed to investigate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (Zyprexa Zydis) in ameliorating excitement symptoms in the acute phase of schizophrenia. Fifty-three patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for first-episode schizophrenia and treated with olanzapine monotherapy were evaluated with regard to their clinical improvement, behavioural response to medication, and extrapyramidal side effects using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC), Nursing Assessment of Medication Acceptance (NAMA), and Drug-Induced Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS), respectively. Scores of PANSS-EC were significantly reduced after 3 days of olanzapine administration. A reduction in NAMA scores was also observed 7 days after administration of olanzapine. The DIEPSS score was unaffected by olanzapine administration. These results suggest that olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets are effective and well-tolerated for treatment excitement in the acute phase of schizophrenic patients. In addition, it is possible that adherence to medications is improved by using olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets. PMID:19707954

Hori, Hikaru; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Yoshimura, Reiji; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Wani, Kenta; Etoh, Yoshinori; Haraga, Kensuke; Kitahara, Junichi; Nakamura, Jun

2009-01-01

226

IMPROVING SOFTWARE QUALITY IN THE SERVICE PROCESS INDUSTRY USING AGILITY WITH SOFTWARE REUSABLE COMPONENTS AS SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF INDIAN SERVICE PROVIDERS  

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Full Text Available In a software – based business process outsourcing (BPO environment, the quality of services delivered to clients hinges on the quality of software used in processing the service. Software quality attributes have been defined by ISO/IEC standards but different organisations give priorities to specific attributes based on client’s requirements and the prevailing environment. The aim of this study is to identify and demonstrate the particular software development process that guarantees an acceptable level of software quality within a specific domain that would translate to desired quality of services delivered to clients. Therefore, this study through a mixed method approach investigated BPO service providers in India to ascertain what software quality means to their respective organisations, what software quality attributes are given priority and how it could be improved. The findings suggest that software quality is highly dependent on the software development process. The vast majority of successful organisations operated in-house software development through the establishment of software product line as a platform to embed software reusable components within an agile framework. Through this process, there is significant reduction in defect density, thereby improving the software quality. This software quality is also translated to the quality of services delivered to clients

Charles Ikerionwu

2014-07-01

227

Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions. (letter)

2012-03-01

228

Comorbidity and prognostic indices do not improve the 5-year mortality prediction of components of comprehensive geriatric assessment in hospitalized older patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Advancing age is associated with increased vulnerability to chronic health problems. Identifying factors that predict oldest-old status is vital for developing effective clinical interventions and public health strategies. Methods Observational prospective study of patients aged 75 years and older consecutively admitted to an Acute Geriatric Ward of a tertiary hospital. After a comprehensive geriatric assessment all patients were assessed for five comorbidity indices and two prognostic models. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between each score and 5-year mortality. The ability of each score to predict mortality was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results 122 patients were enrolled. All patients were followed up for five years. 90 (74%) of them died during the study period. In the logistic regression analyses, apart from age, cognitive impairment and Barthel Index, three indices were identified as statistically associated with 5-year mortality: the Geriatric Index of Comorbidity and the two prognostic indices. The multivariate model that combined age, sex, cognitive impairment and Barthel showed a good discriminate ability (AUC?=?0.79), and it did not improve substantially after adding individually any of the indices. Conclusions Some prognostic models and the Geriatric Index of Comorbidity are better than other widely used indices such as the Charlson Index in predicting 5-year mortality in hospitalized older patients, however, none of these indices is superior to some components of comprehensive geriatric assessment.

2014-01-01

229

Globally coupled chaotic maps and demographic stochasticity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of noise on a system of globally coupled chaotic maps is considered. Demographic stochasticity is studied since it provides both noise and a natural definition for extinction. A two-step model is presented, where the intrapatch chaotic dynamics is followed by a migration step with global dispersal. The addition of noise to the already chaotic system is shown to dramatically change its behavior. The level of migration in which the system attains maximal sustainability is identified. This determines the optimal way to manipulate a fragmented habitat in order to conserve endangered species. The quasideterministic dynamics that appears in the large N limit of the stochastic system is analyzed. In the clustering phase, the infinite degeneracy of deterministic solutions emerges from the single steady state of the stochastic system via a mechanism that involves an almost defective Markov matrix. PMID:20365819

Kessler, David A; Shnerb, Nadav M

2010-03-01

230

Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity  

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Full Text Available To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global is the population-weighted mean of the life expectancy at birth of all countries, then B(global x e(global always exceeds P(global unless all countries have the same life expectancy at birth.

Joel E. Cohen

2008-05-01

231

Socioeconomic and Demographic Determinants of Mental Health across Canadian Communities  

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Full Text Available Background Many factors contribute to health. This study uses community level data to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and demographic factors as well as physical health on community mental health outcomes. Method Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the impact of determinants on community mental health outcomes for men and women using community level data from up to 113 health regions covering almost the entire population in Canada. Results Study findings indicate that communities with higher proportions of aboriginal people have greater mental illness hospitalization. Minorities have poorer perceived mental health but better objective measures of less mental illness hospitalization and self injury hospitalization. Also, communities with higher proportion of low income persons show poorer results for many objective mental health outcomes. Higher prevalence of lone parents in a community is associated with greater perceived life stress and greater mental illness hospitalizations for men. Poor physical health is also a predictor of poor mental health. Conclusion Improving the living conditions of aboriginal people and other low income people could reduce mental illness hospitalizations in a community, helping minorities the majority of whom are immigrants with their settlements in their host communities could improve perceived mental health and life stress, and helping lone parents who are men with counseling services to better cope with their situations could reduce their perceived life stress and mental illness hospitalization. Also, improving the physical health of individuals across communities could have a positive impact on mental health outcomes across communities.

Jalil Safaei

2012-01-01

232

Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is ?the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms?. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

Asghar Mirfardi

2011-01-01

233

Improvement of yield and its components as well, as oil content and fatty acid composition in safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius, L) through progeny bulk selection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two successive bulk selection cycles (C 1 and C 2) in some safflower back crosses along with the local variety Giza 1 were evaluated during two seasons (1989 and 1990). Concerning seed yield and its components, bulk progenies of [ ( A 2 s k 1 x Giza 1) x A 2 s k 1 ]; [ (Giza 1 x Mut.1) x Mut.1 ]; [ (A 2 s k 1 x Giza 1)x Giza 1 ]; [ (Mut.1 x A 2 s k 1) x Mut.1 ]; and [Giza 1 x Mut.1) x Giza 1 ] showed an increase of 33.3, 16.9, 16.9,10.0 and 9.8 % in seed yield / plant, respectively in C 2 over C 1 cycle. This increase might be due to the obvious improvement in number of capitula / plant which was 54.5, 11.3, 73.8, 31.8, and 18.6 % as well as to large capitula diameter 11.1, 4.8, 8.7, 0.0 and 18.2 % and to better seed weight of 9.8, 15.8, 7.4, 12.0, and 0.0 % for the progenies of these crosses in the same order. For oil content and quality, these bulk progenies showed 7.1, 9.8, 10.3, 6.5, and 6.8 % increase in oleic acid respectively ; 2.4, 2.5, 5.1, 1.4 and 2.0 % increase in linoleic acid in the same order in C 2 over the corresponding C 1 cycle. Except [ (A 2 s k 1 x G.1) x G.1 ], other bulks showed 3.4, 5.2, 4.9, and 0.9 % increase in oil content and 15.4, 8.3, 8.3 and 13.6 % increase in stearic acid in C 2 over its C 1. The correlation between tow selection cycles based on 1990, performance was highly significant for the most studied traits. For yield and its components, genetic advance ranged from 0.4 % for capitula diameter to 10.3 % for plant height. However, for oil] content and quality characters, genetic advance ranged from 0.2 % for oleic acid and stearic acid to 1.6% for oil content.2 tab

1992-01-01

234

Some demographical aspects of the newly nominated towns in Romania  

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Full Text Available Present paper tries to present some demographical aspects of the newest towns declared in the post-socialist period in Romania. First we draw a sketch of the current demographic tendencies and structures, as basis for the evolution of settlements and new towns. In the second part of our paper we describe a few elements of the demographic profile of new towns declared in post-socialist period.

Berekméri Mária

2007-01-01

235

Darwinian and demographic forces affecting human protein coding genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Past demographic changes can produce distortions in patterns of genetic variation that can mimic the appearance of natural selection unless the demographic effects are explicitly removed. Here we fit a detailed model of human demography that incorporates divergence, migration, admixture, and changes in population size to directly sequenced data from 13,400 protein coding genes from 20 European-American and 19 African-American individuals. Based on this demographic model, we use several new an...

Nielsen, Rasmus; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Hellmann, Ines; Torgerson, Dara; Andre?s, Aida M.; Albrechtsen, Anders; Gutenkunst, Ryan; Adams, Mark D.; Cargill, Michele; Boyko, Adam; Indap, Amit; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.

2009-01-01

236

A Study Of Demographic Profile Of Aurangabad District  

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Full Text Available This paper analyses the demographic situation in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra State, whereas, experiencing substantive changes in its demographic profile. The study analyses inter-tahsils variation in population growth, sex-ratio and density of population as well caste and ethnic composition changes. The most striking changes in the demographic scene of Aurangabad is seen in the sphere of higher degree of male female disparity index is visualized because of socio-economic factors.

H.N.Rede

2012-09-01

237

Mining The Relationship Between Demographic Variables And Brand Associations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research aims to mine the relationship between demographic variables and brand associations, and study the relative importance of these variables. The study is conducted on fast-food restaurant brands chains in Jordan. The result ranks and evaluates the demographic variables in relation with the brand associations for the selected sample. Discovering brand associations according to demographic variables reveals many facts and linkages in the context of Jordanian culture...

Dabbes, Ajayeb Abu; Kharbat, Faten

2013-01-01

238

Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) by showing the patterns and...

Seth Owusu-Agyei; Nettey, Obed Ernest A.; Charles Zandoh; Abubakari Sulemana; Robert Adda; Seeba Amenga-Etego; Cheikh Mbacke

2012-01-01

239

Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multitude of environmental problems abound in Tanzania. The problems range from declining land resources, de-vegetation, urban and air pollution, degradation of the marine environment to the destruction of biological diversity. A thorough analysis of these manifestations of environments decline reveal the presence of linkages to economic, political, cultural and demographic constraints which have been at the crux of Tanzania's efforts towards emancipation. We attested that societies are always dialect and integral parts of the global entity. As such the analysis of any societal problem can not be sufficiently tackled by basing on a 'micro level' societal specific factors. We need to expand our horizon and include 'macro level' elements which impinges on the society under study. Imperatively, influences on any environment, social or biophysical, whether positive or negative, emanates either or both from within the specific society and or from without. In our study we set out to provide an insight into the nature and character of man and environment interaction in Arumeru district, Northern Tanzania. We intended to investigate the extent to which changes in the household production patterns as a result of environmental stress and the consequent resource management strategies influence and are hitherto influenced by population growth. The aspects of demographic changes especially patterns of growth and settlement, agrarian production such as land tenure, food and cash crop interventions, non-farm activities and management of the commons were studies. Further, local adaptation to crisis including environmental stress and emerging markets were explored. he theoretical model adopted in analysing the man-land environment relationship in Arumeru district and the ensuing findings, give legitimacy to the position that issues of population growth or decline cannot be separated from questions of economic and social development, or from the environmental concerns related to the management of resources both at global and local levels. We found out empirically that despite the dwindling natural resource base, the people in Arumeru still maintain their demographic dynamism. For them, it is a rational thing to do. The explanation for this phenomenon is not discrete, but spans the whole range of the population-resource continuum. From the demographic transition point of view, the society has not reached the threshold where child labour is valueless. In Arumeru, the children are still valued for their labour as they participate in both agro-pastoral related income generating activities. Further, children are still old age insurers. Thus, the age long traditions which favour the persistence of high fertility regimes are still in force. Having children is still a pleasure which costs nothing and hence the family size is rarely determined by the household's income. The interplay of proximate determinants of fertility is found to have an effect on the population increase in the district. People enter into marriage unions at very young ages, while the breastfeeding duration has drastically decreased in recent years. Furthermore, postpartum abstinence is no longer observed and incidences of pathological infertility have been tremendously reduced, thanks to modern medicine. All these factors support high fertility regimes. The argument that rapid population growth always leads to environmental decline and thus forces rural economies into diminishing returns, over-utilisation of resource and pauperisation is rejected. Despite the population increase and dwindling resource base in Arumeru, food security, rural incomes and standard of living have consistently improved throughout the century. The situation in the study area somehow accommodate the Boserupian model, where population growth triggers agricultural intensification, but in this case, the forces which triggers change did not emanate from within, but were externally generated. Institutional arrangements and the markets played a significant role in the intensification of the farming practic

1999-01-01

240

THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES  

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Full Text Available The demographic decline can create major dysfunctionalities not only on a social level but also from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. First, an accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, second, the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economic increase. The social-economic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All these impose a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

LIVIU RADU

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Demographic and clinical characteristics of parapsoriasis patients  

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Full Text Available Background an Aim: parapsoriasis is a rare chronic idiopathic dermatosis which commonly manifests with round or oval scaling and itching erythematosus plaques on trunk and extremities. Considering the size of the lesions, parapsoriasis is divided into two groups: small plaque and large plaque. Study of demographic characteristics of this disease may help to identify the high risk groups who are more susceptible to cutaneous lymphoma with high mortality as well as proper allocation of health service resources.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, affected parapsoriasis patients whom were referred to Razi Hospital in Tehran between April 2003 to March 2009 were studied. Three hundred and twenty patients were investigated for variables: age, sex, place of residence, location of the lesions and clinical subgroups according to the histopathology reports.Results: 53.4% of patients were female. The disease was most commonly observed in age group of 20 to 50 years and the mean age of the patients was 43.3 years. Eighty-five percent of the patients were inhabitant of Tehran province. 88.1% of patients had large plaque lesions and 11.9% had small plaque lesions. The most common sites of lesions were on the trunk (53.4% followed by the extremities (38.7%.Conclusion: Based on these findings, it was determined that parapsoriasis most commonly affects middle-aged women. Involvement of trunks and extremities were most commonly observed. Large plaque type was the most common type. 

Nafiseh Esmaeili

2012-12-01

242

Family practice in Ontario: How physician demographics affect practice patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the demographics of practising physicians change, especially as the number of women doctors in an area increases, it is important that those planning for the provision of medical care in the future understand the relationships between the demographics and changes in practice patterns.

Norton, Peter G.; Dunn, Earl V.; Bed, Liane Soberman

1994-01-01

243

Christian Schools and Demographic Change: Two Case Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores how two Christian school systems have responded to neighborhood demographic change. Researchers conducted interviews, attended meetings, and reviewed documents to explore two case studies--one of a school struggling to redefine its identity, purpose, and vision in response to demographic change, and another school that has…

Huyser, Mackenzi; Boerman-Cornell, Bill; DeBoer, Kendra

2011-01-01

244

Rising thyroid cancer incidence in the United States by demographic and tumor characteristics, 1980–2005  

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Thyroid cancer incidence has been rising in the United States, and this trend has often been attributed to heightened medical surveillance and use of improved diagnostics. Thyroid cancer incidence varies by sex and race/ethnicity, and these factors also influence access to and utilization of healthcare. We therefore examined thyroid cancer incidence rates by demographic and tumor characteristics, based on 48,403 thyroid cancer patients diagnosed during 1980–2005 from the Surveillance, Epide...

Enewold, Lindsey; Zhu, Kangmin; Ron, Elaine; Marrogi, Aizen J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Peoples, George E.; Devesa, Susan S.

2009-01-01

245

The Impact of Job Satisfaction and Some Demographic Variables on Employee Turnover Intentions  

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Due to competition for scarce skills, the attraction and retention of teachers in rural schools is probably the biggest challenge in the education sector today. It is imperative for the education department to have knowledge of the impact of job satisfaction and some demographic variables on employee turnover intentions to improve the attraction and retention of teachers especially those with scarce skills. Self administered questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 300 teachers. A strat...

Trust Kabungaidze; Nomakholwa Mahlatshana; Hlanganipai Ngirande

2013-01-01

246

The Effects of the Demographic Transition on Economic Growth : Implications for Japan  

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Demographic transition implies severe challenges for high income nations, for instance Japan, as the population decreases due to declines in birth rates as well as the higher rate of elderly population. More women are entering the labor market which affects birth rates. In addition, technological progress has improved health care and standard of living, bringing up life expectancies. However, the elderly population is increasing, elevating the dependency ratio which dampens the economic growt...

2011-01-01

247

The declines in infant mortality and fertility: Evidence from British cities in demographic transition  

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At the beginning of the twentieth century Britain was roughly halfway through a 60-year demographic transition with declining infant mortality and birth rates. Cities exhibited great and strongly correlated diversity in these rates. We demonstrate cross-section correlations with, for instance, women's employment, population density, literacy and improved water supply and sanitation, that have been linked to the transition. When we analyse data from the late 1850s and the early 1900s, the chan...

Newell, Andrew T.; Gazeley, Ian

2012-01-01

248

Demographic features of subjects with congenital glaucoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Congenital glaucoma is a potentially blinding ocular disease of the childhood. Identification of the possible associated risk factors and may be helpful for prevention or early detection of this public health problem. Aims: To demonstrate the demographic features of congenital glaucoma subjects. Setting and Design: The charts of congenital glaucoma patients referred to Tamcelik Glaucoma Center were retrospectively reviewed through the dates of 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods: Analyzed data included diagnosis, age at first presentation, symptoms at first presentation, laterality of the disease, sex, presence of consanguinity, family history of congenital glaucoma, maturity of the fetus at delivery, and maternal age at conception. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 by IBM (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compare the mean of continuous variables with Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ?2 test was used to test differences in proportions of categorical variables. Results: The data of 600 eyes of 311 patients were analyzed. The distribution of primary and secondary congenital glaucoma among the patients were 63.3% (n = 197) and 36.7% (n = 114), respectively. Of the 311 patients, 57.2% (n = 178) were male and 42.8% (n = 133) were female. The overall frequency of bilateral disease was 92.3% (n = 287). Overall rate of consanguinity and positive family history was 45.3% (n = 141) and 21.2% (n = 66), respectively. Conclusions: Bilateral disease in this study was more common than previously reported studies. Positive family history was more frequent in primary congenital glaucoma although not statistically significant.

Tamcelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Bolukbasi, Selim; Capar, Olgu; Ozkok, Ahmet

2014-01-01

249

Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors  

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Full Text Available ObjectiveBecause of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.Materials & MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16.ResultsOf the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32?C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever.ConclusionMost of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.

Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

2012-10-01

250

Demographics and functional outcome of toe fractures.  

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Toe fractures are common; however, there are few data on demographics and functional outcome. We studied outcomes in 339 consecutive patients with toe fractures treated between January 2006 and September 2008. Two hundred and sixty-four patients, aged 16 to 75, were mailed an outcome questionnaire, and overall subjective satisfaction with the outcome of treatment was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). Most frequently affected were the first (38%) and fifth (30%) toes, and most (75.6%) of the fractures were caused by stubbing or crush injury. More than 95% of the fractures were displaced less than 2 mm, and all of the fractures were treated conservatively. The questionnaire was returned by 141 (53%) patients with a median follow-up of 27 months. Respondents were female in 57.4% of cases and had a median age of 45 years. The median AOFAS score was 100 (P(25), P(75) = 93,100) points; the median VAS was 10 (P(25), P(75) = 8, 10) points. Univariate regression analysis revealed no statistically significant associations between outcome and the particular toe or phalanx involved, number of fractured toes, fracture type and location, articular involvement, gender, age, body mass index, smoking habits, and the presence of diabetes mellitus. Satisfaction VAS was dependent on age (P = .047) and gender (P = .049) in the multivariate analysis. The AOFAS midfoot score was not influenced by any of the covariates. This is the first epidemiological investigation using 2 outcome-scoring systems to determine function and satisfaction following treatment of toe fractures. PMID:21440463

Van Vliet-Koppert, Sabine T; Cakir, Hamit; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; De Vries, Mark R; Van Der Elst, Maarten; Schepers, Tim

2011-01-01

251

Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Trial of an Exercise Programme to Improve Wellbeing Outcomes in Women with Depression: Findings from the Qualitative Component  

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This paper reports the qualitative component from a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (PRCT), the quantitative component is reported in Callaghan, Khalil, Morres and Carter (2011). Exercise may be effective in treating depression, but trials testing its effect in depressed women are rare. Our previous research found that standard exercise programmes, prescribed by General Practitioners and based on national guidelines of intensity levels thought to produce health benefits, are not suitabl...

Elizabeth Khalil; Patrick Callaghan; Tim Carter; Ioannis Morres

2012-01-01

252

A socio-demographic study of aging in the Portuguese population: the EPEPP study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase in life expectancy (LE) observed in Western societies, has resulted in a steep rise of older population. This stresses the importance of the research on aging, to better adequate health and social care organization and improve the quality of life (QoL). The aim of the EPEPP-1 (abbreviated from the Portuguese name: Estudo do Perfil de Envelhecimento da População Portuguesa) study was to characterize the socio-demographic components of the elderly Portuguese population in order to disclose factors that could play a role in the aging process and in the elderly QoL. This observational descriptive study, was performed in 2672 individuals older than 54 years taking into account gender and the residence area (rural vs. urban). A questionnaire about social network (marital status, living alone, the hours spent alone, confidents), and social status (education, occupation) was applied. Social network score revealed significant age and gender trends, women and older people performing worst, but with no difference according to residence area. Almost a third was unmarried and spent eight or more hours per day alone, and a fifth lived alone. Social status revealed that being older female and resident in a rural area quoted worst in the prevalence of illiteracy and undifferentiated occupation. The authors concluded that social isolation, illiteracy and undifferentiated occupation are prevalent in Portuguese older population. Identification of further determinants of isolation, adjustment of procedures to be included in social networks and development of actions directed to education are important fields of intervention influencing the elderly QoL. PMID:20510469

Mota-Pinto, Anabela; Rodrigues, Vítor; Botelho, Amália; Veríssimo, Manuel Teixeira; Morais, António; Alves, Catarina; Rosa, Manuel Santos; de Oliveira, Catarina Resende

2011-01-01

253

Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

2007-04-01

254

Population demographics of two local South Carolina mourning dove populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count index had a significant (P 2,300 doves and examined >6,000 individuals during harvest bag checks. An age-specific band recovery model with time- and area-specific recovery rates, and constant survival rates, was chosen for estimation via Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), likelihood ratio, and goodness-of-fit criteria. After-hatching-year (AHY) annual survival rate was 0.359 (SE = 0.056), and hatching-year (HY) annual survival rate was 0.118 (SE = 0.042). Average estimated recruitment per adult female into the prehunting season population was 3.40 (SE = 1.25) and 2.32 (SE = 0.46) for the 2 study areas. Our movement data support earlier hypotheses of nonmigratory breeding and harvested populations in South Carolina. Low survival rates and estimated population growth rate in the study areas may be representative only of small-scale areas that are heavily managed for dove hunting. Source-sink theory was used to develop a model of region-wide populations that is composed of source areas with positive growth rates and sink areas of declining growth. We suggest management of mourning doves in the Southeast might benefit from improved understanding of local population dynamics, as opposed to regional-scale population demographics.

McGowan, Jr. , D. P.; Otis, D. L.

1998-01-01

255

Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology  

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Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

Dejan Mar?i?

2007-01-01

256

Demographics of Giant Planets--Insights from Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The demographics of giant planets arise from a combination of the physical properties and evolution of protoplanetary disks, the planet formation process itself, and the dynamical evolution of planets post-formation. In this talk, I will review each of these contributions to giant planet demographics with an emphasis on how future discoveries can be used to separate and constrain their effects. I will particularly discuss how giant planet demographics will constrain the mechanism by which giant planets form, an old theoretical problem on the cusp of an observational breakthrough.

Murray-Clay, Ruth

2014-06-01

257

The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart  

CERN Document Server

The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

Wilder, Stanley

2013-01-01

258

Closing the Energy Efficiency Gap: A study linking demographics with barriers to adopting energy efficiency measures in the home  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a study which linked demographic variables with barriers affecting the adoption of domestic energy efficiency measures in large UK cities. The aim was to better understand the ‘Energy Efficiency Gap’ and improve the effectiveness of future energy efficiency initiatives. The data for this study was collected from 198 general population interviews (1.5–10 min) carried out across multiple locations in Manchester and Cardiff. The demographic variables were statistically linked to the identified barriers using a modified chi-square test of association (first order Rao–Scott corrected to compensate for multiple response data), and the effect size was estimated with an odds-ratio test. The results revealed that strong associations exist between demographics and barriers, specifically for the following variables: sex; marital status; education level; type of dwelling; number of occupants in household; residence (rent/own); and location (Manchester/Cardiff). The results and recommendations were aimed at city policy makers, local councils, and members of the construction/retrofit industry who are all working to improve the energy efficiency of the domestic built environment. -- Highlights: ? 7 demographic variables linked to 8 barriers to adopting energy efficiency measures. ? A modified chi-square test for association was used (first order Rao–Scott corrected). ? Results revealed strong associations between most of the demographics and barriers. ? Data was collected from 198 interviews in the UK cities of Manchester and Cardiff. ? Specific recommendations are presented for regional policy makers and industry.

2012-11-01

259

Levels and trends of demographic indices in southern rural Mozambique: evidence from demographic surveillance in Manhiça district  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mozambique most of demographic data are obtained using census or sample survey including indirect estimations. A method of collecting longitudinal demographic data was introduced in southern Mozambique since 1996 (DSS -Demographic Surveillance System in Manhiça district, Maputo province, but the extent to which it yields demographic measures that are typical of southern rural Mozambique has not been evaluated yet. Methods Data from the DSS were used to estimate the levels and trends of fertility, mortality and migration in Manhiça, between 1998 and 2005. The estimates from Manhiça were compared with estimates from Maputo province using the 1997 National census and 1997 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. The DHS data were used to estimate levels and trends of adult mortality using the siblings' histories and the orphanhood methods. Results The populations in Manhiça and in Maputo province are young (44% Conclusion The population under demographic surveillance in Manhiça district presents characteristics that are typical of southern rural Mozambique, with predominance of young people and reduction of adult males. Labour migration and excess adult male mortality are the major factors for the reduction of adult males. Mortality is high and only infant mortality has started to stabilise while adult mortality has increased, and as consequence, life expectancy has decreased. The Manhiça DSS is an adequate tool to report demographic measures for southern rural Mozambique.

Thompson Ricardo

2006-11-01

260

Demographic profile of the girl child in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a statistical profile of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of female children in India during 1951-91. The population 0-14 years old increased during 1951-81. In 1991, there were 52-55 million children 0-4 years old. 40% of all women were 0-14 years old, 19% of the total population in 1991. Boys outnumbered girls at all childhood ages. Males gained more in mortality improvements than girls did over time. The decline in the 1991 sex ratio is attributed to female amniocentesis and differences in undercounts. Infant mortality was high and fluctuated prior to 1941. Rates thereafter declined below 200. Infant mortality improved considerably after the 1950s. The 1988 infant mortality rate (IMR) was 95 for males and 93 for females per 1000 live births. A higher female IMR during 1972-87 is attributed to low female status, sex bias in health care, and higher female rates of common childhood diseases. Boys are breast fed longer. Child marriage below the age of 14 years declined over time. In 1981, 93% of girls 0-14 years old were unmarried. The singulate mean age of marriage increased from 15.59 years in 1951 to 18.32 years in 1981. Literacy rates increased for both males and females during 1961-81 and increased rapidly during 1981-91. The gap between male educational levels and female educational levels was narrowing. School attendance was 62.07% among 10-14 year old boys and 37.47% among 10-14 year old girls. Kerala state was the only state where girls have very high attendance rates. School attendance among 10-14 year old children was positively correlated with higher budget allocations and the average cost per student. School attendance was negatively correlated with illiteracy among household members. In rural areas, girl's attendance was related to access to primary school facilities and roads. PMID:12158014

Unisa, S

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Assessing patterns of fish demographics and habitat in stream networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

262

Demographic Trends Affecting State Educational Planning: A Florida Example  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports work that studied past and future demographic trends and their impact on education in Florida, and presents a model for studying variables affecting enrollment. Numerous tables and graphs are included. (Author/IRT)

Chang, Martha J.

1977-01-01

263

Developing Arizona Turnaround Leaders to Build High-Capacity Schools in the Midst of Accountability Pressures and Changing Demographics  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's accountability policies and changing demographics have created conditions in which leaders must rapidly build school capacity and improve outcomes in culturally diverse schools. This article presents findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of an Arizona Turnaround Leadership Development Project. The project drew on studies of…

Ylimaki, Rose M.; Brunderman, Lynnette; Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Dugan, Thad

2014-01-01

264

Tempo effects and their relevance in demographic analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demographic period indicators like the total fertility rate or life expectancy are well known since more than a century and until recently there were only minor discussions about their usefulness. This changed with a series of publications by Bongaarts and Feeney (BF) in which they claimed that these indicators are inappropriate for describing current demographic conditions when the average age at childbearing respective death is changing. Therefore, BF proposed alternative tempo-adjusted ind...

Marc, Luy

2010-01-01

265

Thinking about post-transitional demographic regimes: A reflection  

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BACKGROUND For the last 70 years the concept of the demographic transition has provided a basis for understanding and predicting population trends in the developing world. However, a majority of the developing world's population will soon be post-transitional - what will happen then? This paper attempts to outline where answers to this question might be found. It suggests that a valuable way to organise the study of these issues is the concept of the demographic regime. OBJECTIVE The aim of t...

Chris Wilson

2013-01-01

266

Analysis of the demographic potential in function of tourism  

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Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features. In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc.) for the tourism economy. We know that the ...

Gjorgievski, Mijalce

2011-01-01

267

[Some unique characteristics of the demographic situation in Russia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors briefly describe the demographic situation in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, using data from the 1989 census and current demographic research. Changes in the birth rate and population growth are examined, and migration flows in the various regions of the republic are compared. Factors affecting low birth rates are analyzed, and trends in marriage, divorce, mortality, and life expectancy are explored. PMID:12178735

Brui, B; Mikhailov, E

1991-01-01

268

Demographics of cattle movements in the United Kingdom  

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Abstract Background The United Kingdom (UK) government has been recording the births, deaths, and movements of cattle for the last decade. Despite reservations about the accuracy of these data, they represent a large and valuable body of information about the demographics of the UK cattle herd and its contact structure. In this article, a range of demographic data about UK cattle, and particularly their movements, are presented, as well as yearly trends in the patterns of mov...

Vernon Matthew C

2011-01-01

269

The Circumstances and Effects of Demographic Crisis in Poland  

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The purpose of this article is to answer the ?uestion: what caused the demographic crises in Poland after 1989? Poland used to be a country with one of the highest TFR (Total Fertility Rate) in the Communist Block. During the last twenty years its TFR dropped until Poland became a country with the lowest TFR in Europe. This demographic process is responsible for an increasingly aging society, which means there is an increasing proportion of old people (60+). This process undermines the balan...

2010-01-01

270

Pediatric Cutaneous Mastocytosis: Demographic, Clinical and Histopathological Findings  

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Objective: Mastocytosis is a disease characterized by abnormal growth and accumulation of mast cells in one or more organ systems. The skin is the most commonly affected organ. It is aimed to present demographic, clinical and histopathological findings of pediatric patients with cutaneous mastocytosis and a review of the literature in this study. Methods: Demographic, clinical and histopathological data of 14 pediatric patients with cutaneous mastocytosis were retrospectively analyzed. Result...

2008-01-01

271

Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations  

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The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personali...

Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsan, Borbala; Miklosi, Adam

2009-01-01

272

Controversies of demographic development in the P?inja county  

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P?inja county is an administrative region bordering Bulgaria, Macedonia and Kosovo, and is featured by a number of demographic peculiarities and extremes. In Central Serbia, this county is certainly the region with the most heterogeneous ethnic distribution; this fact determines differences in fertility transition and the speed of demographic ageing. Almost 90% ethnic Albanians from Serbia inhabit the P?inja county, and so do 40% of ethnic Bulgarians. In addition, this county is featured by...

Devedži? Mirjana

2010-01-01

273

Demographics of Investigators Involved in OSSA-Funded Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The birth of the U.S. civil space program and the subsequent, dramatic growth in the ranks of the space science research population occurred in the 1950s and 1960s'. The large, post- Sputnik/ Apollo buildup in space program manpower is now approximately one career-lifetime in the past. It is therefore natural to anticipate that a large fraction of the space program engineers, scientists, and managers who pioneered the early exploration of space are approaching retirement. Such a "retirement wave" bodes both a loss of manpower and, more fundamentally, a loss of experience from the civil-space manpower base. Such losses could play a critical role constraining in NASA's ability to expand or maintain its technical capabilities. If this indeed applies to the NASA space science research population, then the potential for problems is exacerbated by the anticipated growth in flight rates, data volume, and data-set diversity which will accompany the planned expansion in the OSSA science effort during the 1990s and 2000s. The purpose of this study was to describe the OSSA PI/Co-I population and to determine the degree to which the OSSA space science investigator population faces a retirement wave, and to estimate the future population of PIs in the 1990-2010 era. To conduct such a study, we investigated the present demographics of the PI and Co-1 population contained in the NASA/OSSA Announcement of Opportunity (AO) mailing list. PIs represent the "leadership" class of the OSSA scientific researcher population, and Co-Is represent one important, oncoming component of the "replacement" generation. Using the PI population data, we then make projection estimates of the future PI population from 1991 through 2010, under various NASA growth/PI demand scenarios.

Stern, S. Alan; Konkel, Ronald; Habegger, Jay; Byerly, Radford, Jr.

1991-01-01

274

Improving the Accuracy of Density Functional Theory (DFT) Calculation for Homolysis Bond Dissociation Energies of Y-NO Bond: Generalized Regression Neural Network Based on Grey Relational Analysis and Principal Component Analysis  

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We propose a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) approach based on grey relational analysis (GRA) and principal component analysis (PCA) (GP-GRNN) to improve the accuracy of density functional theory (DFT) calculation for homolysis bond dissociation energies (BDE) of Y-NO bond. As a demonstration, this combined quantum chemistry calculation with the GP-GRNN approach has been applied to evaluate the homolysis BDE of 92 Y-NO organic molecules. The results show that the full-descriptor ...

Hong Zhi Li; Wei Tao; Ting Gao; Hui Li; Ying Hua Lu; Zhong Min Su

2011-01-01

275

Structure of Employment of Population under Conditions of a Demographic Crisis in Ukraine ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???????  

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Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and practical aspects of formation of the structure of employment of population under conditions of a demographic crisis. It specifies definition of the “employment structure” notion, in which its changeability, multilevel structure of components and capacity to adapt to external conditions of functioning are underlined. It studies socio-economic conditions, which are established at the moment, and pays special attention to the demographic crisis in Ukraine and its specific features. It justifies goals of the society on the issues of the employment policy and marks features of violation of the structural balancing of employment. It justifies the policy of employment of population under conditions of the demographic crisis and offers practical recommendations on its regulation. It generalises types and forms of employment of population. It justifies a necessity of additional allocation of such features of employment structure classification as territorial belonging, types of economic activity, level of differentiation of income, which would facilitate a justified selection of methods of employment regulation.?????? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????. ???????? ??????????? ??????? «????????? ?????????», ? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????, ???????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????????????. ??????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ?? ????????????. ?????????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?? ?????????????. ???????? ???? ? ????? ????????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????????? ??????????????, ???? ????????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????.

Tsizhma Yuriy I.

2013-05-01

276

A study on socio-demographic correlates of maternal health care utilization in a rural area of West Bengal, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Improving health of the mother is a global concern. However there is a wide regional variation in maternal health care utilization. The present study was planned to explore the prevailing condition at local level. Objectives: To estimate the proportion of women who had utilized maternal health care services and to explore relevant socio-demographic, behavioral and biological co-variates. Methods: It was a community based cross-sectional study using cluster sampling technique. The respondents were interviewed with a pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Most of the respondents were below 25 years, primary educated, primi-para house wives. 80% had early pregnancy registration, 88% had four or more antenatal checkups and 93.6% women had institutional delivery. Most women went to government institutes for their ante-natal checkups and delivery. Majority of the utilization variables were significantly associated with age, education and household wealth index of the respondents. Conclusions: utilization of all the components of maternal health care was lower among younger age, lower education and poorer household wealth index.

Mousumi Datta

2012-07-01

277

IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tungsten carbide monolithic preform was produced by Advanced Ceramics. MTU conducted various sintering tests on the preform to determine conditions for removing the organic binder and improving the mechanical properties. The originally selected parameters for sintering did not perform as anticipated and further testing is underway.

Xiaodi Huang; Richard Gertsch

2001-07-27

278

Influence of migrational components of the Srem district on demographic growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The areas of Srem, and other parts of Vojvodina, are characterized by the constant movement of the population. Most causes of migration are economic, social, ethnic or political reasons. Migration could be voluntarily or forced, mass or individual, occasional or planned. The stated causes of migration occurring in Srem since 1961 to 1991 were mainly routed to the cities for economic reasons. The cities have absorbed the largest number of migrants provided by the rural hinterland. More intensi...

2010-01-01

279

Estimating components of variance in demographic parameters of Tawny Owls, Strix aluco  

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Full Text Available Survival rates of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco were estimated using recapture and recovery data from approximately 20,000 nestling and adult owls ringed between 1980 and 1999 in southern Finland. Survival rates averaged 33% in the first year of life, 64% in the second, and 73% in subsequent years, but varied dramatically among years. Approximately 50% of annual variation in survival could be explained by stage of the vole cycle and severity of winter weather. Capture probabilities, an index of breeding propensity, varied dramatically among years, and could almost entirely be explained by the vole cycle, superimposed on a long-term increase in capture effort. Matrix models based on mean values in each year of the vole cycle, predict that in 2 out of 3 years, the population would decline by 13%-15% per year, offset by a large increase in the 3rd year. Numbers of nesting pairs are predicted to be low in one of three years, with no long-term trend, consistent with observed estimates of active nests.

Saurola, P.

2004-01-01

280

How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?  

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Full Text Available In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation, t-test, Anova and Tukey analysis. As a result of this research; it has been seen that, there is no statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees work at hotel establishments considering their gender and marital status. Besides, it has been understood that, there is a statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees considering their ages, education levels, incomes, and length of time in tourism sector.

Derya KARA

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Measuring Trust Component in Patient-Physician Relationship in Dermatology  

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Full Text Available Background and Design: Patient’s trust is an essential component of the patient-physician relationship. The aim of this study was to measure the level of trust of the patients in physicians, to determine factors affecting trust level and to propose some suggestions in order to improve trust component in patient-physician relationship. Material and Method: Three hundred five patients participated in the survey. A questionnaire was prepared to evaluate the level of patients’ trust in physician and satisfaction to the dermatology department and patients’ socio-demographic variables. Analyses of data obtained from questionnaires were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Science, version 15.0. Results: Patients have an average of 3.72±0.54 trust level (out of 5 in their physicians. This reveals the patients have a trust slightly above the medium level for their physicians. There are no statistically significant relationships between the trust level and other socio-demographic variables such as age, sex and income. Patients’ satisfaction level towards the dermatology department was 4.17±0.65. There was a positive and statistical significantly correlation between trust and satisfaction. Patients choose more cheerful and well-informed physicians. Trust had been determined as an important factor in the patient-physician relationship. Patients trust well-informed, sympathetic and honest physicians. Nevertheless, disrespectfulness and lack of information had been determined as the most distrusted physician behaviors.Conclusion: Although there are many studies to evaluate this subject in the literature as far as we determine this is the first study in dermatology practice in Turkey. Because there are many chronic diseases in dermatology to provide concordance of patients’ treatment and continuity to same physicians or medical clinics may be obtained by building the patient’s trust. In this sense, trust component in patient-physician relationship in dermatology must not be neglected. Also must be avoided for the distrusted attitudes and behaviors.

Sad?k Y?lmaz

2009-09-01

282

The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. Objective: To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Design: Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. Results: The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Conclusion: Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care.

Vreni Jean-Richard

2014-02-01

283

Hyperbolic Components  

CERN Multimedia

Consider polynomial maps $f:\\C\\to\\C$ of degree $d\\ge 2$, or more generally polynomial maps from a finite union of copies of $\\C$ to itself. In the space of suitably normalized maps of this type, the hyperbolic maps form an open set called the hyperbolic locus. The various connected components of this hyperbolic locus are called hyperbolic components, and those hyperbolic components with compact closure (or equivalently those contained in the "connectedness locus") are called bounded hyperbolic components. It is shown that each bounded hyperbolic component is a topological cell containing a unique post-critically finite map called its center point. For each degree $d$, the bounded hyperbolic components can be separated into finitely many distinct types, each of which is characterized by a suitable reduced mapping scheme $\\bar S_f$. Any two components with the same reduced mapping scheme are canonically biholomorphic to each other. There are similar statementsfor real polynomial maps, for polynomial maps with m...

Milnor, John

2012-01-01

284

Nuclear components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main features of the EPR concerning the fabrication of the reactor are: -) the size of the components, -) the modification of the design compared with classical PWR, and -) an intensive use of forging (in particular the cold and hot legs of the primary circuit are forged). This series of slides overviews the fabrication of the components for the EPR by highlighting the differences with the previous generation of reactors. 4 types of components are reviewed: the reactor vessel and internals, steam generators, primary circuit pipes, and primary coolant pumps. (A.C.)

2009-03-11

285

Towards Method Component Contextualization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Method Engineering (ME) is a discipline which aims to bring effective solutions to the construction, improvement and modification of the methods used to develop Information Systems (IS). Situational Method Engineering (SME) promotes the idea of retrieving, adapting and tailoring components, rather than complete methodologies, to the specific context. Existing SME approaches use the notion of context for characterizing situations of IS development projects and for guiding the method components...

Kornyshova, Elena; Deneckere, Rebecca; Claudepierre, Bruno

2011-01-01

286

China’s Savings and Current Account Balance: A Demographic Transition Perspective  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we build an overlapping generation model to analyze how China’s family planning policy affects the demographic structure and the dependency ratios. We also employ the Cointegration Test and Granger Causality Test to examine the relationship between Chinese population dependency ratios and the national savings rate, as well as the relationship between relative productivity differences and the national current account balance. We find that the family planning policy can be sustainable with respect to these metrics. The current account balance reflects the transfer of savings over time and space. We posit that the demographic structure determines the savings transfer over time, while the relative productivity difference determines the savings transfer across the space. This transfer does not change the total welfare calculated on a national or generational basis. Consequently, focusing on improving the consumption rate to boost the economy without consideration of demographic structure transition warrants further serious discussion. Similarly, too much attention to short-term current account surplus or deficit is not productive.

Chao Zhu

2011-11-01

287

Thinking about post-transitional demographic regimes: A reflection  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND For the last 70 years the concept of the demographic transition has provided a basis for understanding and predicting population trends in the developing world. However, a majority of the developing world's population will soon be post-transitional - what will happen then? This paper attempts to outline where answers to this question might be found. It suggests that a valuable way to organise the study of these issues is the concept of the demographic regime. OBJECTIVE The aim of the paper is to encourage discussion on the nature of post-transitional demographic regimes around the world, especially in the developing world. The style of the reflection is that of a speculative essay - a Denkstuck or ballon d'essai. METHODS In addition to a discussion of the concept of a demographic regime, the paper looks at three possible sources of information on the determinants of post-transitional regimes in the developing world: 1 the nature of the transition itself, 2 lessons drawn from pre-transitional regimes, and 3 demographic trends in Europe and other developed countries, some which have been post-transitional for several decades. CONCLUSIONS The paper concludes with a set of suggestions for future research on the topic.

Chris Wilson

2013-06-01

288

Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions  

CERN Document Server

A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

2014-01-01

289

Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

Abdoul Hossain Madani

2010-01-01

290

Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey  

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Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

Sinan NARDALI

2011-06-01

291

Successful workforce planning : aligning recruitment strategies with changing demographics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation described how demographic trends are changing the energy industry. Duke Energy acquired Westcoast Energy in March 2002 and must attract and retain a skilled workforce to maintain its newly acquired and very large infrastructure. Duke Energy has committed $1.88 million over 3 years to northern opportunities through partnerships with educators, community organizations, government agencies and industry. This paper emphasizes the need for a new focus on workforce planning to ensure that staffing needs are met. It described how to use demographics to identify recruitment needs within a company, and what to look for in data. It also described how to make sure that a recruitment strategy is tailored to various demographic groups. Energy companies are attracting young workers through apprenticeship programs, training and development programs, and other incentives. figs.

Bodnar, B. [Duke Energy Gas Transmission, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2004-07-01

292

Use of the CT component of PET-CT to improve PET-MR registration: demonstration in soft-tissue sarcoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated improvements to PET-MR image registration offered by PET-CT scanning. Ten subjects with suspected soft-tissue sarcomas were scanned with an in-line PET-CT and a clinical MR scanner. PET to CT, CT to MR and PET to MR image registrations were performed using a rigid-body external marker technique and rigid and non-rigid voxel-similarity algorithms. PET-MR registration was also performed using transformations derived from the registration of CT to MR. The external marker technique gave fiducial registration errors of 2.1 mm, 5.1 mm and 5.3 mm for PET-CT, PET-MR and CT-MR registration. Target registration errors were 3.9 mm, 9.0 mm and 9.3 mm, respectively. Voxel-based algorithms were evaluated by measuring the distance between corresponding fiducials after registration. Registration errors of 6.4 mm, 14.5 mm and 9.5 mm, respectively, for PET-CT, PET-MR and CT-MR were observed for rigid-body registration while non-rigid registration gave errors of 6.8 mm, 16.3 mm and 7.6 mm for the same modality combinations. The application of rigid and non-rigid CT to MR transformations to accompanying PET data gives significantly reduced PET-MR errors of 10.0 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. Visual comparison by two independent observers confirmed the improvement over direct PET-MR registration. We conclude that PET-MR registration can be more accurately and reliably achieved using the hybrid technique described than through direct rigid-body registration of PET to MR

2007-12-07

293

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spirituality. At the end, discussion and conclusion of the study is given.

Huma Ali

2011-10-01

294

Plague mortality and demographic depression in later medieval England.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both direct and indirect evidence implies that England experienced a lengthy period of stagnant or declining population during the later fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Black Death of 1348-1349 had brought about profound changes in England's agrarian economy, and this subsequent demographic depression is most commonly interpreted by historians as the result of plague mortality, recurring in severe outbreaks after the disease's introduction into the country. This paper reviews the evidence and assumptions behind this interpretation, in light of recent research by historical demographers and epidemiologists into bubonic plague epidemics and general mortality crises during the post-medieval period. PMID:7027638

Poos, L R

1981-01-01

295

Plague mortality and demographic depression in later medieval England.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both direct and indirect evidence implies that England experienced a lengthy period of stagnant or declining population during the later fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Black Death of 1348-1349 had brought about profound changes in England's agrarian economy, and this subsequent demographic depression is most commonly interpreted by historians as the result of plague mortality, recurring in severe outbreaks after the disease's introduction into the country. This paper reviews the evidence and assumptions behind this interpretation, in light of recent research by historical demographers and epidemiologists into bubonic plague epidemics and general mortality crises during the post-medieval period.

Poos, L. R.

1981-01-01

296

Student Satisfaction and Service Quality: Any Differences in Demographic Factors?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previously, very less research done to test demographic factors that contribute towards satisfaction and service quality. This study attempts to examine the differences of selected demographic factors (gender, races and semester of studies on the students’ satisfaction and service quality. Furthermore, this study is also to examine any relationship between age and students’ satisfaction and service quality. This study was conducted using a set of questionnaire to 200 Bachelor Degree students from two private higher education institutions. The study will provide results from empirical test of these differences and relationships. The empirical results of this study can provide any differences, which related to students’ satisfaction on service quality.

Azleen Ilias Ilias

2009-02-01

297

Student Satisfaction and Service Quality: Any Differences in Demographic Factors?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previously, very less research done to test demographic factors that contribute towards satisfaction and service quality. This study attempts to examine the differences of selected demographic factors (gender, races and semester of studies) on the students’ satisfaction and service qualit...

Azleen Ilias Ilias; Hishamuddin Fitri Abu Hasan; Rahida Abd Rahman

2009-01-01

298

Combining gene expression, demographic and clinical data in modeling disease: a case study of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a retrospective statistical study on the newly-released data set by the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium on gene expression in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This data set contains gene expression data as well as limited demographic and clinical data for each subject. Previous studies using statistical classification or machine learning algorithms have focused on gene expression data only. The present paper investigates if such techniques can benefit from including demographic and clinical data. Results We compare six classification algorithms: support vector machines (SVMs, nearest shrunken centroids, decision trees, ensemble of voters, naïve Bayes, and nearest neighbor. SVMs outperform the other algorithms. Using expression data only, they yield an area under the ROC curve of 0.92 for bipolar disorder versus control, and 0.91 for schizophrenia versus control. By including demographic and clinical data, classification performance improves to 0.97 and 0.94 respectively. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that SVMs can distinguish bipolar disorder and schizophrenia from normal control at a very high rate. Moreover, it shows that classification performance improves by including demographic and clinical data. We also found that some variables in this data set, such as alcohol and drug use, are strongly associated to the diseases. These variables may affect gene expression and make it more difficult to identify genes that are directly associated to the diseases. Stratification can correct for such variables, but we show that this reduces the power of the statistical methods.

Dobrin Seth

2008-11-01

299

Declining Fertility in Eritrea Since the Mid-1990s: A Demographic Response to Military Conflict  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Between the mid-1990s and the early part of the new century, the total fertility rate in Eritrea declined by twenty one percent. Even more striking than the magnitude of this decline within a short period is that it occurred in the absence of any improvements in contraceptive use and without any evident reduction in desired family size. In this study, fertility decline and its underlying factors are examined using data from two waves of the Eritrea Demographic and Health Surveys. The central ...

Gebremariam Woldemicael

2010-01-01

300

Examples of the evolution of materials for nuclear applications: metallurgical improvement of 16MND5 steel and new technologies for manufacturing heavy components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Creusot-Loire Industrie has been constantly improving and adjusting the quality of its products (heavy forgings, castings or plates) based on knowledge of their in-service behaviour. The development of steel manufacturing techniques has been oriented to increasing the quality of steel, in particular by reducing drastically the impurity content (S,P), by better control of the basic range of chemical composition, and by decreasing the gas content (N,H,O). Changes in ingot shapes have been made to optimize the quality of the steel with respect to segregation (development of hollow and LSD ingots to reduce the effect of irradiation embrittlement at the inner surface and sub-surface area). The effects of these developments on the toughness of nuclear materials are illustrated by two examples: 16MND5 steel used for pressurized water reactors; ASTM A350LF5 steel used for cask bodies for the transport of irradiated fuel elements. Modifications in hot working (mainly forging) procedures have enabled the development of products with shape adapted to easier construction and/or best quality and/or reduction in the number of welds, thus decreasing the construction and in-service inspection costs. New forging products to be used in nuclear pressurized water reactor power plants are presented. ((orig.))

Bocquet, P. (Creusot-Loire Industrie, Research Center, Le Creusot (France)); Cheviet, A. (Creusot-Loire Industrie, Rive de Gier (France)); Dumont, R. (Creusot-Loire Industrie, Research Center, Le Creusot (France))

1994-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Índices de seleção no aprimoramento simultâneo dos componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro Selection index for simultaneously improving fruit production components of assai palm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a estratégia seletiva mais adequada para o incremento simultâneo de componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea. Implantou-se um experimento com 25 progênies de meio-irmãos, no Município de Santa Izabel, PA, tendo-se utilizado o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcela de cinco plantas. Os índices de seleção de Smith & Hazel, Williams, e Mulamba & Mock foram aplicados em três estratégias seletivas. Foram utilizados, como pesos econômicos, os coeficientes de variação genéticos, a herdabilidade, a razão entre a correlação genética do caráter selecionado com a produção de frutos, e a somatória de todos os caracteres que compõem o índice e a produção de frutos. Aponderação pela razão das correlações permitiu que os índices de seleção discriminassem as melhores progênies nas diferentes estratégias de seleção avaliadas. A seleção simultânea por meio do índice de Mulamba & Mock, quanto ao número de meses em frutificação, ao número de cachos colhidos, à produção de frutos e ao número de ráquilas no cacho, estima ganhos de forma mais robusta.The objective of this work was to determine the most appropriate strategy to simultaneously increase fruit production components of assai palm (Euterpe oleracea. An experiment with 25 half-sib progenies was carried out in the county of Santa Isabel, PA, Brazil, using a randomized complete block design with four replicates and five plants per plot. The Smith & Hazel, Williams, and Mulamba & Mock's selection indexes were applied in three selective strategies. The coefficients of genetic variation, heritability, the ratio between the genetic correlation of the trait under selection and fruit yield, and the sum of all genetic correlations between the traits that comprise the index and fruit yield were used as economic weights. Weighting of the correlation ratio allowed the selection indexes to discriminate the best progenies in the different selection strategies evaluated. Simultaneous selection by the Mulamba & Mock index, as to the number of fruiting months, number of bunches harvested, fruit yield, and number of rachilles per bunch, robustly estimates genetic gains.

Davi Henrique Lima Teixeira

2012-02-01

302

Animal Cruelty Motivations: Assessing Demographic and Situational Influences  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have examined childhood and adolescent animal cruelty motives. Using a sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the impact of demographic attributes and situational factors relating specifically to a range of animal cruelty motivations. Almost half of the…

Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

2005-01-01

303

Predicting Audience Demographics of Web Sites Using Local Cues  

Science.gov (United States)

The size and dynamism of the Web poses challenges for all its stakeholders, which include producers/consumers of content, and advertisers who want to place advertisements next to relevant content. A critical piece of information for the stakeholders is the demographics of the consumers who are likely to visit a given web site. However, predicting…

Kim, Iljoo

2011-01-01

304

Selected Demographics, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Diversity of Preservice Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, preservice teachers' demographic variables such as race, innercity program experiences, religious affiliation, and cross-cultural friendships are examined to see if they influence the preservice teachers' beliefs on issues of diversity. The data are from a Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and a Professional Beliefs About…

Dedeoglu, Hakan; Lamme, Linda L.

2011-01-01

305

Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets  

Science.gov (United States)

This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

2010-01-01

306

Do Online Learning Patterns Exhibit Regional and Demographic Differences?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper used a multi-level latent class model to evaluate whether online learning patterns exhibit regional differences and demographics. This study discovered that the Internet learning pattern consists of five segments, and the region of Taiwan is divided into two segments and further found that both the user and the regional segments are…

Hsieh, Tsui-Chuan; Yang, Chyan

2012-01-01

307

Tempo Effects and their Relevance in Demographic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographic period indicators like the total fertility rate or life expectancy are well known since more than a century and until recently there were only minor discussions about their usefulness. This changed with a series of publications by Bongaarts and Feeney (BF in which they claimed that these indicators are inappropriate for describing current demographic conditions when the average age at childbearing respective death is changing. Therefore, BF proposed alternative tempo-adjusted indicators for such situations which can be very useful for demographic analysis. The still existing scepticism against the BF approach and the general rejection of mortality tempo adjustment in particular have their origin in a set of misunderstandings and misinterpretations of tempo-adjusted indicators. This paper systematically describes the basic idea of tempo effects, how they can distort the commonly used conventional period indicators and how the proposed methods approximate the idea of tempo adjustment, illustrated with empirical data for West Germany. We also summarize the critiques against tempo adjustment and try to put the tempo approach in the right perspective. Finally, the paper strives for providing a better understanding when tempo-adjusted measures should be used as alternative or in addition to the commonly used conventional demographic indicators.

Marc Luy

2010-01-01

308

Fall 1979 Student Demographic Characteristics. Research Report 80-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of the 2,087 students who applied and registered at Essex County College (ECC) for the Fall 1978 semester was conducted to determine student motivation, goals, needs, and demographic characteristics. The 84-item survey instrument elicited information related to: college choice; sources of information about ECC; prior ECC attendance;…

Karlen, Janice M.

309

Developing an Information System for Graduate Student Demographic Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer program designed to assist a psychology department in recordkeeping and providing information to the American Psychological Association is presented. Descriptive information about the computer program is also included. The program employs the Statistical Analysis System to access a database of demographic data for students entering the…

Midkiff, Karen R.

310

Component Separations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-...

Heller, Lior; Mcnichols, Colton H.; Ramirez, Oscar M.

2012-01-01

311

Component separations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

2012-02-01

312

The Relationship between Background Demographics and Motivational Orientation for Learning of Adult Education Students and Their Career Choices and Educational Aspirations  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated what components of background demographics and motivation orientation in learning impact career selection and educational aspirations for adult students participating in a post-secondary institution in West Virginia, one of the Washington, DC, metropolitan areas. The research boundaries set for the area of learning…

Bostwick, Dana T.

2010-01-01

313

A Socio- Demographic Profile of Infant Deaths in A Tribal Block of South Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With progressive reduction in infant mortality rate (IMR and advent of technology, socio – demographic determinants assume more importance (than biological, more so in remote and inaccessible areas, which incidentally also record high IMR. Study was carried out in a tribal block of South Gujarat to generate socio- demographic profile for 48 infant deaths reported during one year. Data was collected through house to house survey on a designed questionnaire. Amongst 48 death cases, literacy rates amongst mothers and fathers were 64.6 and 75% respectively. Occupation wise 81.3% fathers and 52.1% mothers were farm laborer. Joint families were in 81.3% cases and 85.4% belonged to lower social class. Teenage pregnancy was found in 56.3% cases. Age of 25% mothers’ at birth was below 20 years. First birth order was found in 47.9% cases. Birth spacing was less than 2 years in 60.4% cases. It is concluded that improving literacy, increasing age at pregnancy, increasing birth spacing (> 2 years along with overall socioeconomic improvement of community can help in attaining the further reduction in infant mortality.

Amul Patel, Pradeep Kumar, Naresh Godara, Vikas K Desai

2011-01-01

314

Prevalence, Health and Demographic Characteristics of Emergency Department Patients with Diabetes  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of diabetes in Southern California emergency department (ED patients and describe the self-reported general health, demographic and social characteristics of these patients with diabetes. Methods: Between April 2008 and August 2008, non-critical patients at two Southern California EDs completed a 57-question survey about their chronic medical conditions, general health, social and demographic characteristics. Results: 11.3% of the 1,303 patients surveyed had diabetes. Patients with diabetes were similar to ED patients without diabetes with respect to gender, ethnicity and race. However, patients with diabetes were older (51 vs. 41, less likely to have a high school education (64.0% vs. 84.7%, less likely to speak English (44.9% vs. 55.4%, and less likely to be uninsured (33.3% vs. 49.5%. Additionally, patients with diabetes had markedly lower self-reported physical health scores (37.1 vs. 45.8 and mental component score and mental health scores (42.0 vs. 47.4 compared with ED patients without diabetes. Conclusion: In this study of two Southern California EDs, 11.3% of surveyed patients had diabetes. These patients were often poorly educated, possessed limited English language skills and poor physical health. ED personnel and diabetes educators should be mindful of these findings when designing interventions for ED patients with diabetes. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:419-422.

Menchine, Michael D

2010-12-01

315

Demographic trends of the Romanian population in Vojvodina  

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Full Text Available The paper represents a continuation of the research discussed in the papers 1999, 2001 and 2003 at the scientific conferences "Banat - Historical and Cultural Past" (Novi Sad, Resita. It also represents a part of the research in the project "The Danube-Moravian Corridor as the Main Axis of the Regional Development and Integration of Serbia within South-East Europe". The research so far presented the historical- geographic determinants of the Romanian population in the territory of Serbia and Montenegro, as well as specific demographic characteristics according to the censuses from 1991 and 2002. This paper presents more detailed demographic characteristics of the Romanian population in Vojvodina, according to the census of the population households and apartments from 2002.

Bjeljac Željko

2006-01-01

316

Demographic Vulnerability of Rural Settlements in the Some? Plateau  

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Full Text Available The different geographical characteristics allowed the differentiation of multiple subunits in the Some? Plateau. From the 219 identified rural settlements, 16% are commune centers and the remaining 84% are related villages. In the assessment of the demographic vulnerability of rural settlements, there are several criteria of which the number of inhabitants is one of the most important. Certainly, determining the appropriate interval of each vulnerability degree has a subjective character depending on the characteristics of the settlements. In the Some? Plateau, four degrees of demographic vulnerability were differenced according to the number of inhabitants: low (over 1000 inhabitants, medium (501-1000 inhabitants, high (between 101 and 500 inhabitants and extreme (below 100 inhabitants. A common feature in all geographic subdivisions is that the share of settlements with high vulnerability is the largest.

?TEFAN BILA?CO

2011-01-01

317

Demographic Diversity and Convergence in Europe, 1918-1990  

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Full Text Available The study investigates how Hungarian demographic development from the end of World War I to 1990 related to the changes that took place in Western Europe, and in which areas and in what periods can divergence or convergence be observed. The issues examined included fertility, mortality and nuptiality movements. Based on the analyses three main periods in 20th century Hungarian demographic development can be distinguished: from the beginning to the middle of the century, Hungary converged to the societies of Western Europe; approximately from the middle of the century to the mid-60s, the diminution of differences between Hungary and Western Europe halted on the whole, but the gap still did not begin to widen; in the third period, which lasted from the mid-60s to 1990, Hungary took a course diverging from Western Europe.

2002-01-01

318

Demographics Associated with Autistic Spectrum Diagnosis in England  

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Full Text Available There is a growing body of work elucidating the demographics surrounding autistic spectrum disorders. This study sought to develop the local evidence base, enhance the awareness of educationalists in north Manchester and test the hypothesis that young people from all cultural groups are able to access the mental health service. The Social Communication Assessment and Intervention Team in the North Manchester Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service received 89 referrals of children with suspected autism between April 2010 and June 2011. Information was available about 69 cases. Some cases are still in the process of assessment while 20 children and young adults have received a diagnoses of autistic spectrum disorders; 4 African Caribbean, 11 White British, 3 Pakistani, 1 dual heritage and 1 did not complete the form. Further demographics and implications for training are discussed.

Mischa N.C. Mockett

2012-05-01

319

ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF EUROPEAN UNION CAUSED BY THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to offer a realistic perspective upon the imminent situation of demographic ageing issue in European Union. The forecasts are not reasons to major concern for the society but rather to become more responsible and not to neglect a problem that could affect our future. The demographic overview of Europe for 2011 – 2060 shows low birth rates, an increase in life expectancy and migration flows having an impact on population. As a result, the parent generation will no longer completely be replaced by the next generation of children and the narrowed active population will have to sustain a large number of persons far advanced in the age. Economic consequences of this social trend, such as increased expenditures on pensions, extended health care costs and the employment problems, are also discussed in order to define the best policy option available.

Iulia-Alexandra Perc?

2011-09-01

320

Robust ecological pattern formation induced by demographic noise.  

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We demonstrate that demographic noise can induce persistent spatial pattern formation and temporal oscillations in the Levin-Segel predator-prey model for plankton-herbivore population dynamics. Although the model exhibits a Turing instability in mean-field theory, demographic noise greatly enlarges the region of parameter space where pattern formation occurs. To distinguish between patterns generated by fluctuations and those present at the mean-field level in real ecosystems, we calculate the power spectrum in the noise-driven case and predict the presence of fat tails not present in the mean-field case. These results may account for the prevalence of large-scale ecological patterns, beyond that expected from traditional nonstochastic approaches. PMID:19905053

Butler, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCES ON MENTAL HEALTH OF COLLEGE STUDENTS  

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Full Text Available Students mental health is a public issues, public health policy makes at the international level, are very well concerned about this issue become of the increasing rate of suicide, among students their amenity, depression and involvement in high risk behavior .The aim of the study was to understand the influences of demographic variables on mental health of college students. The mental health scale (MHS constructed and standardized by Kamlesh Sharma (2002 was used to measure the mental health. 500 samples were taken based on Purposive sampling method .Statistical method such as t- test, and correlation analysis was used in the present study to test the hypothesis and interpret the data. The findings of the study were there is an influence of demographic variables on mental health of college students

G. RAMANATHAN

2013-03-01

322

Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acceleration of demographic transition in East Asia is a process of great potential import for the world. The most rapid and large scale transformation of demographic pattern in world history is being accomplished in this region. Demographic processes in other countries and regions have been viewed in the light of past events. Demographic transition has been accepted as a desirable goal, but its realization was believed subject to certain constraints. These include the need to attain high rates of economic growth in order to stimulate the transition and the longer period of time required to accomplish the transition. It was assumed that at least 2 generations would be subject to gradually diminishing rates of increase and slow cultural modification before transition entered its last phase. This interpretation of the preconditions and specific character of demographic transition has been subject to increasing challenge, and recent events in East Asia accentuate such doubts. Most new views begin with the premises that contemporary pretransition societies are not European in culture and the 1970s are not the 1880s. East Asia also differs culturally from other developing areas, including South and Southeast Asia. The most significant regional features are cultural. Demographic transition in the region began after World War 2 and somewhat differently in each East Asian country. The process began first in Japan. The 3rd phase was accomplished rapidly but not as a specific consequence of the modernization process. The end of World War 2 and the spurt in births accompanying military demobilization contributed to a population surge. The cultural factors of practicality, homogeneity, social discipline, and nearly universial literacy were decisive here. Abortion was legalized in 1948 and other forms of birth control were made readily available. Between 1947 and 1957 the birthrate was halved to 17/1000. In Taiwan and South Korea public concern about high rates of population increase was initially expressed in the early 1960s. The government of Taiwan designed a 10-year plan of action to reduce the rate of increase from 2.9% to 1.9% by 1975, a goal that was reached on schedule. The South Korean experience was similar. The birthrate decreased from 2.9% to about 2.0% between 1960-70. Demographic conditions in North Korea are known only poorly. Decreased growth rates in all of these countries would not be of major significance if the demographic situation within China remained unchanged, but marked alterations in birthrate have occurred in China. These reductions in average family size were realized in essentially similar ways. The basic mechanisms were delayed marriage, increased use of contraceptive devices, abortion, and sterilization. More fundamental to the success of family planning programs than mere access to the techniques have been the ability of different countries to provide incentives for birth limitation. A vital element in the success of family planning programs in East Asia has been a marked drop in mortality. Overall, a rising level of prosperity appears less essential than does provision of basic subsistence and a broadened range of occupational options for both sexes and all classes. PMID:12338953

Anderson, T D

1980-01-01

323

A study on relevance of demographic factors in investment decisions  

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Full Text Available This study attempts to find out the significance of demographic factors of population such as gender, age, education, occupation, income, savings and family size over several elements of investment decisions like priorities based on characteristics of investments, period of investment, reach of information source, frequency of investment and analytical abilities. The study was made by conducting a survey in Nagapattinam district of Tamilnadu, South India and the statistical inferences were deduced using computer software tools. The study reveals that the demographic factors have a significant influence over some of the investment decision elements and insignificant in others elements too. The study also discloses a general view of investors perception over various investment avenues.

M. Ramesh

2012-05-01

324

Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits--short turnover times--are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L

2014-05-01

325

TAXPAYERS KNOWLEDGE: A DESCRIPTIVE EVIDENCE ON DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN MALAYSIA  

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The objective of this paper is to determine the demographic factors in influence the behavior of taxpayers. Levene's test shows that there is no significant mean different between male and female, no significant mean different between government and private servants tax knowledge score. Furthermore, there is no significant different between Chinese and Indian score, the different is only 0.10%. As the analysis goes further, Levene' test shows that there is a significant mean different between...

Mohd Rizal Palil

2005-01-01

326

Explaining Family Change and Variation: Challenges for Family Demographers  

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Twenty years ago, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) issued a request for proposals that resulted in the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), a unique survey valuable to a wide range of family scholars. This paper describes the efforts of an interdisciplinary group of family demographers to build on the progress enabled by the NSFH and many other theoretical and methodological innovations. Our work, also supported by NICHD, will develop plans fo...

2005-01-01

327

Demographic characteristics of general practitioners attending educational meetings.  

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There are many factors which influence general practitioners' behaviour with regard to attendance at education meetings. The demographic characteristics of general practitioners in the west of Scotland attending educational meetings were studied over a two year period. A total of 1672 doctors had attended sufficient sessions to claim their postgraduate education allowance and of these 1551 (93%) responded to the questionnaire. Overall attendance at meetings did not vary between age groups, bu...

Murray, T. S.; Dyker, G. S.; Kelly, M. H.; Gilmour, W. H.; Campbell, L. M.

1993-01-01

328

Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying  

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The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary re...

2010-01-01

329

Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize  

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The food/feed quality of a variety of genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab Bt-toxin was tested over the life-cycle of Daphnia magna, an arthropod commonly used as model organism in ecotoxicological studies. Demographic responses were compared between animals fed GM or unmodified (UM) near isogenic maize, with and without the addition of predator smell. Age-specific data on survival and birth rates were integrated and analysed using life tables and Leslie matrices. Survival, fecun...

Bøhn, Thomas; Traavik, Terje; Primicerio, Raul

2010-01-01

330

Socioeconomic and Demographic Determinants of Mental Health across Canadian Communities  

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Background Many factors contribute to health. This study uses community level data to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and demographic factors as well as physical health on community mental health outcomes. Method Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the impact of determinants on community mental health outcomes for men and women using community level data from up to 113 health regions covering almost the entire population in Canada. Results Study findings indicate that commu...

2012-01-01

331

The re-identification risk of Canadians from longitudinal demographics  

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Abstract Background The public is less willing to allow their personal health information to be disclosed for research purposes if they do not trust researchers and how researchers manage their data. However, the public is more comfortable with their data being used for research if the risk of re-identification is low. There are few studies on the risk of re-identification of Canadians from their basic demographics, and no studies on their risk from their longitudinal data. O...

El Emam Khaled; Buckeridge David; Tamblyn Robyn; Neisa Angelica; Jonker Elizabeth; Verma Aman

2011-01-01

332

Demographic Characteristics of Our Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  

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Aim: Carpal tunnel (CTS) is the most common trap neuropathy but, still fully understood the cause of this and effective factors. In this study was aimed to the evaluation demographic features of the cases with CTS admitted to our electroneuromyography (ENMG) laboratory. Material and Methods: In the study, 119 patients with CTS to evaluate our ENMG laboratory were received. All patients age, sex, dominant and affected hand, duration of education, marital status, height, weight, additional dise...

Ebru Umay; Sevgi Polat; Ece Ünlü; Özlem Çelik; Aytül Çakç?

2011-01-01

333

The demographic problems of the Baltic cities: general trends  

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Full Text Available This article discusses the trends of demographic development of the Baltic Sea region's cities. It analyses the factors affecting the urban population dynamics in the second half of the 20th — the beginning of the 21st centuries. The authors emphasise the dependence of the Baltic cities on the socioeconomic development level throughout the region as well as intraregional disparities. The article analyses the conclusions drawn in the "Urban audit.2007" report.

Kosov Yu. V.

2010-01-01

334

Demographics Associated with Autistic Spectrum Diagnosis in England  

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There is a growing body of work elucidating the demographics surrounding autistic spectrum disorders. This study sought to develop the local evidence base, enhance the awareness of educationalists in north Manchester and test the hypothesis that young people from all cultural groups are able to access the mental health service. The Social Communication Assessment and Intervention Team in the North Manchester Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service received 89 referrals of children with sus...

Mockett, Mischa N. C.; Lydia Kinton; Theodosiou, Louise J.

2012-01-01

335

The demographic transformation of post-socialist countries  

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The formerly socialist countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have experienced a remarkable demographic transformation in the past twenty years. On many dimensions of fertility and family formation, much of the region now looks like Western Europe-below-replacement fertility rates, rising age at first marriage and first birth, and high and increasing out-of-wedlock birthrates, characterize many countries formerly distinguished by replacement-level fertility and early, near-un...

2010-01-01

336

Russian Federation: From the first to second demographic transition  

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The demographic transition in Russia was accelerated by several social cataclysms during the "Soviet type" modernization. Frequent changes in the timing of births and marriages engendered a mass "abortion culture". Contraceptive devices of poor quality were produced on a limited scale. The Soviet regime promulgated pronatalism and considered contraception to contradict this ideology. There have been two waves of government policy interventions. In the 1930s and 1940s restrictive and propagand...

Sergei Zakharov

2008-01-01

337

Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands  

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This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing and research in the USA. People with a domination value orientation believe wildlife should be managed for human benefit and are more likely to prioritize human well-being over wildlife in t...

2011-01-01

338

The Verification of Virtual Community Member's Socio-Demographic Profile  

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This article considers the current problem of investigation and development of method of web-members'socio-demographic characteristics' profile validation based on analysis of socio-demographiccharacteristics. The topicality of the paper is determined by the necessity to identify the web-communitymember by means of computer-linguistic analysis of their information track (all information about web-community members, which posted on the Internet). The formal model of basic socio-demographicchar...

2013-01-01

339

Gnathic osteosarcomas: A 10-year multi-center demographic study  

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Background: Osteosarcomas (OS) of the jaws are uncommon lesions representing 6-8% of skeletal OS. We assessed the characteristics, demographics, prevalence clinical and histopathological findings and distribution of gnathic OS relative to non-gnathic OS in four major treatment centers. Materials and Methods: This study assessed 13 gnathic OS patients of 98 OS patients from four major referral centers during 1996-2007. The age distribution, gender, involved site, clinic...

2009-01-01

340

Effective population size and population subdivision in demographically structured populations.  

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A fast-timescale approximation is applied to the coalescent process in a single population, which is demographically structured by sex and/or age. This provides a general expression for the probability that a pair of alleles sampled from the population coalesce in the previous time interval. The effective population size is defined as the reciprocal of twice the product of generation time and the coalescence probability. Biologically explicit formulas for effective population size with discre...

Laporte, Vale?rie; Charlesworth, Brian

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Demographic change and urban transportation systems: A view from India  

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This research paper deals with the specific question of demographic developments in India, which are in many parts reciprocal developments for example compared to Germany. In India the trend of bigger urban areas (urbanization) is a large challenge for transport systems. A contribution of a general development in India, particularly the pollution and economic development, are the objectives of the following paper. Furthermore this paper illustrates future urban transport systems under the spe...

Sain, Sumit; Keuschen, Thomas; Klumpp, Matthias

2012-01-01

342

The economic and demographic transition, mortality, and comparative development  

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We propose a unified growth theory to investigate the mechanics generating the economic and demographic transition, and the role of mortality differences for comparative development. The framework can replicate the quantitative patterns in historical time series data and in contemporaneous cross-country panel data, including the bi-modal distribution of the endogenous variables across countries. The results suggest that differences in extrinsic mortality might explain a substantial part of th...

Cervellati, Matteo; Sunde, Uwe

2013-01-01

343

The Economic and Demographic Transition, Mortality, and Comparative Development  

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We propose a unified growth theory to investigate the mechanics generating the economic and demographic transition, and the role of mortality differences for comparative development. The framework can replicate the quantitative patterns in historical time series data and in contemporaneous cross-country panel data, including the bi-modal distribution of the endogenous variables across countries. The results suggest that differences in extrinsic mortality might explain a substantial part of th...

Sunde, Uwe; Cervellati, Matteo

2013-01-01

344

Demographically Extended & State Specific Optimal Commodity Taxes for India  

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This paper attempts to provide conclusive evidence of regional variations in demand be¬haviour in India using the Restricted Non Linear Preference System. Also the importance of household composition is brought out clearly via its influence on optimal commodity taxes for India. This is done by recognizing each of the chosen 16 Indian states separately and esti¬mating tax rates for them, while incorporating demographic variables. The results show con¬siderable variations in not only the est...

Seth, A. K.; Bhathnage, Ankur

2006-01-01

345

Changes in growth of pristine boreal North American forests from 1950 to 2005 driven by landscape demographics and species traits  

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Full Text Available In spite of the many factors that are occurring and known for positively affecting the growth of forests, some boreal forests across North America have recently felt the adverse impacts of environmental changes. Knowledge of causes for productivity declines in North American boreal forests remains limited and this is owed to the large spatial and temporal scales involved, and the many plant processes affected. Here, the response of pristine eastern boreal North American (PEBNA forests to ongoing climatic changes is examined using in situ data, community ecology statistics, and species-specific model simulations of carbon exchanges forced by contemporary climatic data. To examine trends in forest growth, we used a recently acquired collection of tree-ring width data from 252 sample plots distributed in PEBNA forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P. and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.. Results of linear trend analysis on the tree growth data highlight a dominating forest growth decline in overmature forests (age > 120 yr from 1950 to 2005. In contrast, improving growth conditions are seen in jack pine and mature (70–120 yr black spruce stands. Multivariate analysis of climate and growth relationships suggests that responses of PEBNA forests to climate are dependent on demographic and species traits via their mediation of temperature and water stress constraints. In support of this hypothesis, the simulation experiment suggests that in old-growth black spruce stands the benefit to growth brought on by a longer growing season may have been low in comparison with the increasing moisture stress and respiration losses caused by warmer summer temperatures. Predicted increases in wildfire frequency in PEBNA forests will likely enhance the positive response of landscape-level forest growth to climate change by shifting the forest distribution to younger age classes while also enhancing the jack pine component.

M. P. Girardin

2012-01-01

346

Changes in growth of pristine boreal North American forests from 1950 to 2005 driven by landscape demographics and species traits  

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Full Text Available In spite of the many factors that are occurring and known for positively affecting the growth of forests, some boreal forests across North America have recently felt the adverse impacts of environmental changes. Knowledge of causes for productivity declines in North American boreal forests remains limited, and this is owed to the large spatial and temporal scales involved, and the many plant processes affected. Here, the response of pristine eastern boreal North American (PEBNA forests to ongoing climatic changes is examined using in situ data, community ecology statistics, and species-specific model simulations of carbon exchanges forced by contemporary climatic data. To examine trends in forest growth, we used a recently acquired collection of tree-ring width data from 252 sample plots distributed in PEBNA forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P. and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.. Results of linear trend analysis on the tree growth data highlight a dominating forest growth decline in overmature forests (age > 120 years from 1950 to 2005. In contrast, improving growth conditions are seen in jack pine and mature (70–120 years black spruce stands. Multivariate analysis of climate and growth relationships suggests that responses of PEBNA forests to climate are dependent on demographic and species traits via their mediation of temperature and water stress constraints. In support of this hypothesis, the simulation experiment suggests that in old-growth black spruce stands the benefit to growth brought on by a longer growing season may have been low in comparison with the increasing moisture stress and respiration losses caused by warmer summer temperatures. Predicted increases in wildfire frequency in PEBNA forests will likely enhance the positive response of landscape-level forest growth to climate change by shifting the forest distribution to younger age classes while also enhancing the jack pine component.

M. P. Girardin

2012-07-01

347

Fertility in the Age of Demographic Maturity: An Essay  

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Full Text Available As humanity is moving into a new age of its demographic evolution, I call it demographic maturity, the emerging demographic configurations – generational sub-replacement fertility, advanced aging and potential population implosion – call for new ways of thinking about population and new policy approaches. While we live longer and healthier, we also reproduce less and less. We are stuck in a culture of low fertility. The strong motivations for foregoing motherhood are financial: a two-salary wage is better than one even for the higher middle class. No less important is the woman’s financial independence in a societal environment where marriage as an institution is under considerable stress. Motherhood is to be rewarded adequately for its highly important social role and it has to be sufficient to reassure potential mothers of their financial concerns. What is required is a more balanced resource allocation between production and reproduction. The old welfare type hand-outs like child bonuses do not work. Societies, particularly the rich, ought to realize that to raise fertility, even to generational replacement level, not only is a much greater financial effort called for but some of the tenants of the liberal economy need to be put into question to make room for social concerns such a renewal of generations, if they want to survive as national entities. This essay advocates a stationary population as the best response to challenges such as ecological health, national identity and cohesion, and possibly world peace.

Anatole Romaniuk

2010-01-01

348

Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

Leposavi? Ljubica

2006-01-01

349

Demographic and Attitudinal Factors Influencing Doctoral Student Satisfaction  

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Full Text Available Higher education administrators face challenges in providing a welcoming environment for doctoral students in higher education institutions, as they must identify factors influencing students’ satisfaction in order to provide a supportive environment, reduce attrition rates, and promote persistence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of doctoral student satisfaction from demographics and attitudes concerning the campus environment. Participants were 132 (33 male, 99 female doctoral students from two private nonprofit universities in the New York metropolitan area of the United States who completed either a web-based or paper/pencil survey in which demographics and opinions regarding student satisfaction were sought. Regression analysis on participant attitudes found that university services, advisor, and students were all significant predictor variables. Other demographic predictor variables included years in graduate school, race, and ethnicity. Of particular importance, as doctoral students progress in their program by year, dissatisfaction increases. This could be due to the increasing pressures of successfully completing the dissertation, the progress of which can be heavily influenced by advisor-student relationship. Overall findings may assist education administrators and institutional planners in making campus environments welcoming to students thereby increasing both student satisfaction and retention.

Sabina Nwenyi

2013-12-01

350

The Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CRHSP-AIIMS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), also known as the Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project (CRHSP) Ballabgarh, is located in north India and was established in 1961 to develop a model for rural health-care practice in India. In addition to demographic surveillance and community-based research, CRHSP Ballabgarh provides preventive, health-promotion, and curative services to its surrounding population. The population served by CRHSP Ballabgarh in 2011 was about 90,000. The system collects data for the entire population through fortnightly visits by health workers (HWs). The system's data base is updated once every month and further updated with missing data and special morbidity surveillance data during the annual census. Since 1961, CRHSP Ballabgarh has collected demographic data, reproductive data, and health data about mothers and their children. More recently, the project began collecting data on diseases such as tuberculosis, and because of changes in life style it recently began collecting data about non-communicable diseases (NCD) and risk factors for NCDs. Nonetheless, an adverse sex ratio, with more boys than girls, and a stagnant neonatal mortality rate, remain major challenges in the population served by CRHSP Ballabgarh. The project shares data with different agencies for health-management purposes, which can be made available to bona fide researchers on receipt of a proposal (enquiries should be directed to: crhsp.ballabgarh@gmail.com); collaboration requests are welcome. PMID:23620380

Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Gupta, Sanjeev; Goswami, Kiran; Krishnan, Anand; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Chandrakant S

2013-06-01

351

Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25 students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

Paul Rohe Milton

2011-06-01

352

Levels and Atypical Evolutions of the Romanian Demographic Processes  

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Full Text Available Within the XXth century, especially in the second half thereof, the approach views of the relation between the population and economy (both of them regarded in dynamics have multiplied themselves, the points of view as regards this subject becoming not only much more diverse but also opposite. All these views are characterised by the population transformation in endogenous factor (in internal, intrinsic side of the economic development (of the economic growth, factor that, at its turn, is determined by the economic processes. The double position of the population in the demo-economical relations system - as main production factor and as virtual recipient of produced goods - is a strong argument in the favour of the demographic factor as endogenous factor of growth and economic development. The correlations between the two variables are diverse and very difficultly to be quantified. It is known that the effect of the demographic impact upon the economic factor is felt after many years from the date of the demo-economic phenomenon occurring. So, within the last decades, the research intended to identify certain essential, durable relations between the population evolution and the economic growth became more intensive. On this line there are presented atypical evolutions and levels of demographic processes in Romania.

Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

2007-01-01

353

Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption  

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Full Text Available This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that most of the sampled NHIS patrons and non patrons were literate, engaged in meaningful employment, mostly married with average income, and were still in their active ages, and demonstrated meaningful exposure to insurance health information, which enable them to be or not to be active participants of the scheme. From the regression analysis, it was evident that all the variables except religion influenced insurance consumption positively whereas religion affects health insurance consumption negatively. Based on this, we recommended among other things, a re-alignment of health insurance marketing strategies with consumers socio-economic and demographic characteristics, as a measure to boost patronage.Key words: Socio-Economic; Demographic; Health insurance; Consumption

Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

2012-10-01

354

Demographic Regulators in Small-Scale World-Systems  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of world-systems theory’s iteration model of early human societies. The polities modeled are composed of sedentary foragers and/or simple horticulturalists that rely upon basic subsistence technologies and display low levels of internal differentiation. World-systems theory’s iteration model integrates several processes of demographic regulation: environmental constraints, migration, intra-polity conflict, and inter-polity warfare. Computer simulation of this model reveals that different degrees of resource richness, land area, and initial population size have important effects on the average population levels and the behavior of interacting polities. A well-known ecological phenomenon, “the paradox of enrichment,” emerges when polities interact through warfare. Variations in the size and resources of local and regional areas, along with climatic variation, provide explanations of patterns of warfare in such systems. Finally, to make the iteration model compatible with other existing simulations of early human societal demographic regulation, we demonstrate that the ability of polities to regulate fertility has large consequences for both population sizes and inter-polity relations. A simulation of the world-systems iteration model would provide insights about how world-system dynamics produce selection pressures for the emergence of technological development, interpolity trade, and within-polity hierarchy, but these are subsequent steps. Our initial simulation holds technology and social organization constant in order to examine the demographic consequences of resource use and competition among polities for resources.

Jesse B. Fletcher

2011-01-01

355

The mechanical components market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evolution of CANDU power station design is described and installed nuclear power in Canada to 2000 is forecast. The predicted value of various mechanical components is depicted. Improvements are being made in reliability and speed of repair, which reduce man-rem expenditure in concert with radiation field reduction. Actual reactor operating performance is very good; a significant portion of power plant downtime is associated with steam turbine and generator unreliability. Heavy water upkeep has been reduced by improved equipment layout, live loading of valve stem packing, improved flange seals, and improved leak detection techniques. Steam generator tube reliability is 1000 times better than that of light water reactors. Pump seal reliability has progressed to the point that current station design eliminates pump redundancy. Fuel bundle defect rates are now less than 0.03%. (E.C.B.)

1976-05-14

356

Graphite components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reflector of the AVR reactor consists of needle coke graphite ARS/AMT made by the firm of Sigri GmbH. Although its orientation anisotropy is greater than those of materials developed in the last few years, the reflector graphite shows comparatively good dimensional stability in the conditions prevailing in the AVR reactor, as shown by tests on irradiation samples. It was also found that the strength increased. No damage was found during inspections in 1984 of the upper side and ceiling reflector. After a 20 year operating period, the graphite components of the AVR reactor should be in an excellent state. This will be possible to prove when samples are taken from the graphite reflector and examined in the context of a dismantling program. (orig.)

1989-01-01

357

Nutrient Database Improvement Project: The influence of USDA Quality and Yield Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef chuck.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Additionally, the impact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Quality and Yield Grade may have on such factors was investigated. Ultimately, these data will be used in the USDA - Nutrient Data Laboratory's (NDL) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). To represent the current United States beef supply, seventy-two carcasses were selected from six regions of the country based on USDA Yield Grade, USDA Quality Grade, gender, and genetic type. Whole beef chuck primals from selected carcasses were shipped to three university laboratories for subsequent retail cut fabrication, raw and cooked cut dissection, and proximate analyses. The incorporation of these data into the SR will improve dietary education, product labeling, and other applications both domestically and abroad, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate and relevant beef nutrient data. PMID:24769877

West, S E; Harris, K B; Haneklaus, A N; Savell, J W; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C; Pool, J K; Luna, A M; Engle, T E; Schutz, J S; Woerner, D R; Arcibeque, S L; Belk, K E; Douglass, L; Leheska, J M; McNeill, S; Howe, J C; Holden, J M; Duvall, M; Patterson, K

2014-08-01

358

Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

1997-10-20

359

Statistical Analysis of the Influence of Demographic Processes for Economic Development in Ukraine ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the state of the demographic situation in Ukraine, analyzed demographic processes affecting the economic development of the country, selected areas of research in modern economic demography.? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ???????, ???????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????.

Aksionova Iryna Victorivna

2012-06-01

360

Statistical Analysis of the Influence of Demographic Processes for Economic Development in Ukraine ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article considers the state of the demographic situation in Ukraine, analyzed demographic processes affecting the economic development of the country, selected areas of research in modern economic demography.? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ???????, ???????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????...

Aksionova Iryna Victorivna

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Demographic change and regional labour markets: the case of Eastern Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demographic change will be one of the most challenging issues for industrialized economies in the decades to come. In this paper, we focus on the impact of demographic change on labour markets. By setting up a stylized model of a regional labour market, we are able to analyze the interaction of labour demand and supply during demographic transitions. The simulation results for eastern Germany, a forerunner in the demographic process, show that the population decline will not help to reduce th...

Henschel, Beate; Pohl, Carsten; Thum, Marcel

2008-01-01

362

Predictive Validity of Demographically-Adjusted Normative Standards for the HIV Dementia Scale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the current study was to develop and validate demographically-adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). Given the association between demographic variables and the HDS summary score, demographically-adjusted normative standards may enhance the classification accuracy of the HDS. Demographically-adjusted normative standards were derived from a sample of 182 seronegative healthy participants and were subsequently applied to a sample of 135 HIV-1 seropositive indi...

2008-01-01

363

Demographic and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa, Turkey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The design and development of school health programmes will require information at demographic characteristics of schoolchildren and the major health burdens of the school-age group, the opportunities for intervention and the appropriateness of the available infrastructure. This study aims to analyse demographic and parasitic infections status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa province of south-eastern Turkey. Method Three primary schools were randomly selected in the shantytown, apartment and rural districts. A total of 1820 schoolchildren between 7–14 years age were took part to the survey of whom 1120 (61.5% were boys and 700 (38.4% were girls. A child form (including child's name, sex, age, school grade and parasitic infections and school survey form (including condition of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soaps on the basins and presence of garbage piles around to the schools were used for demographic, parasitic and sanitary surveys. Stool samples were examined by cellophane thick smear technique for the eggs of intestinal helminths. Results The demographic survey showed that number of schoolchildren was gradually decreased as their age's increase in shantytown school. The sex ratio was proportional until the second grade, after which the number of females gradually decreased in children in shantytown and rural schools while, in apartment area, schoolchildren was proportionally distributed between age groups and gender even the high-grade students. The prevalence of helminthic infections was %77.1 of the schoolchildren in shantytown, 53.2% in apartment district and 53.1% of rural area. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species and followed by Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species in three schools. Sanitation survey indicated that the tap water was limited in shantytown school, toilet's sanitation was poor, available no soaps on lavatories and garbage piles were accumulated around the schools in shantytown and rural area, while, the school in apartment area was well sanitised. Conclusions These results indicated that burden of parasitic infections and poor sanitation conditions constituted public health importance among to the shantytown schoolchildren. School health programmes including deworming and sanitation activities through the health education and improvement of sanitation conditions in the schools have a potential to better health and education for schoolchildren. These programmes also offer the potential to reach significant numbers of population in the shantytown schools with high level of absenteeism.

Seyrek Adnan

2003-09-01

364

Climate change underlies global demographic, genetic, and cultural transitions in pre-Columbian southern Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ?840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ?640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (?1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole. PMID:24979787

Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Tomasto Cagigao, Elsa; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus

2014-07-01

365

The Predictive Role of Happiness, Optimism and Demographical Status in Engagement in Health-related Behaviors  

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Full Text Available Introduction: With regard to the importance of life style for health promotion, this research aimed to investigate the predictive role of happiness, optimism and demographical status in engagement in health-related Behaviors for high school students in Semnan. Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive design, 217 (104 boys and 113 girls high school students in Semnan were selected through a two-stage cluster sampling and completed the Demographical Information Questionnaire, The Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI, Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R and The Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHP. Data analysis was performed through correlation and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS.Results: Results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status, and engagement in health-related behaviors (P0/05.Conclusion: Happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status are important for engagement in health-related behaviors by high school students. The principal implication of this research is set an agenda of intervention for improvement of these factors as an important foundation to engagement in health-related behaviors and health promotion of high school students.

Isaac Rahimian Boogar

2013-01-01

366

Demographic and health indicators in Gulf Cooperation Council nations with an emphasis on Qatar  

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Full Text Available Qatar is a rapidly developing wealthy state that is part of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a group of six countries that share relatively similar economic and cultural profiles. We aimed to capture key health indicators and demographic data from Qatar and GCC countries by examining 1980-2010 data from the World Bank Databank and WHO report. The results highlighted a unique demographic profile in Qatar, which has the lowest age dependency ratio, highest male to female ratio, and second highest migrant population in the world. In comparison to other GCC countries, Qatar had the highest life expectancy and the lowest communicable disease and-all cause mortality rates.The GCC countries generally had a low percentage of their population over age 65, a high percentage of migrants, a very low crude death rate and very high overweight and obesity prevalence. Examination of data trends showed a decline in birth rate and fertility rate with significant improvement in under-five and maternal mortality rates over the last three decades

Hekmat Alrouh

2013-03-01

367

The Influence of Demographic Profiles on Emotional Intelligence: A Study on Polytechnic Lecturers in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to identify, understand, experience and express human emotions in a healthy productive way. The benefits of demonstrating high frequency of emotional intelligence in the workplace is vast especially in service based professions like teaching. Therefore this study aimed to explore the level of EI among lectures from a polytechnic in Malaysia and in the same time explore the influence of demographic profiles towards those levels. Demographic profiles such as gender, age group, occupational grade, working experience in the current job and prior working experience in the industry are selected. The Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Concise version was distributed to all the academic departments and the total number of respondents were n=162. Findings show that the overall level of EI is average. The findings proved that the levels of emotional intelligence among the lecturers improved with age, teaching experience, grade and education where else gender and prior working were not contributing factors© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

Jeya Amantha Kumar

2012-04-01

368

Improving the Accuracy of Density Functional Theory (DFT Calculation for Homolysis Bond Dissociation Energies of Y-NO Bond: Generalized Regression Neural Network Based on Grey Relational Analysis and Principal Component Analysis  

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Full Text Available We propose a generalized regression neural network (GRNN approach based on grey relational analysis (GRA and principal component analysis (PCA (GP-GRNN to improve the accuracy of density functional theory (DFT calculation for homolysis bond dissociation energies (BDE of Y-NO bond. As a demonstration, this combined quantum chemistry calculation with the GP-GRNN approach has been applied to evaluate the homolysis BDE of 92 Y-NO organic molecules. The results show that the full-descriptor GRNN without GRA and PCA (F-GRNN and with GRA (G-GRNN approaches reduce the root-mean-square (RMS of the calculated homolysis BDE of 92 organic molecules from 5.31 to 0.49 and 0.39 kcal mol?1 for the B3LYP/6-31G (d calculation. Then the newly developed GP-GRNN approach further reduces the RMS to 0.31 kcal mol?1. Thus, the GP-GRNN correction on top of B3LYP/6-31G (d can improve the accuracy of calculating the homolysis BDE in quantum chemistry and can predict homolysis BDE which cannot be obtained experimentally.

Zhong Min Su

2011-04-01

369

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had significant effect on physical violence; specifically, hitting and psychological violence; specifically, denying choices and cessation of intermarital intercourse. Also, the level of education had significant effect on the physical (e.g., throwing objects) and psychological (e.g., Cessation of marital intercourse and denying choices). Finally, present results indicated that the level of income, by itself, did not have any effects on experiencing any types of violence by men but its effect was visible and significant in the presence of the other two factors, the age and the level of education. The results in the present study are, in fact, only of their kinds in that the characteristics of abused men by their wives are assessed in male victims of domestic violence and can contribute to further understanding of the types of men susceptible to victimization by their wives. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that other demographic variables such as the number of children, the type of housing (ownership of the house or renting) and so on, were also determined in this study, but given their lack of any significant effects on the occurrence of violence of any kind against men, were not mentioned in the study.

Pournaghash-Tehrani, Said; Feizabadi, Zahra

370

Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

1991-05-03

371

The demographic cequence of the Chernobyl' NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1990 the total population evacuated due to the ChNPP accident was questionared. The analysis of the data obtained became the initial base for the demographic characteristics of this population. In 1991 about 40.000 people were planned to move. The estimation of the age of the moved, their marital status makes it possible to prognose their social child-bearing and economic value for the places where they were moved. In 1991 it was supposed that not only the moved population might have given birth to regenerations the necessary rate but also their mortality might play a significant role in the increase of the death rate

1992-05-15

372

Blood pressure demographics: nature or nurture ... ... genes or environment?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Hypertension is a growing worldwide problem associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the rates of prevalence of hypertension are higher in some populations than others. Although ethnic and genetic factors have been implied in the past to explain this, the environmental influence and psychosocial factors may play a more important role than is widely accepted. Examining the non-genetic influences in future hypertension research may be necessary in order to clearly define the local blood pressure demographics and the global hypertensive disease burden.

Lip Gregory YH

2005-01-01

373

Analysis of epidemic models with demographics in metapopulation networks  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, two susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic models are presented and analyzed by reaction-diffusion processes with demographics in metapopulation networks. Firstly, an SIS model with constant-inputting is discussed. The model has a disease-free equilibrium, which is locally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number is less than unity, otherwise it is unstable. It has an endemic equilibrium, which is globally asymptotically stable. Secondly, in another SIS model, the birth rate is the form of Logistic. Similarly, the stability of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is also proved. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the analytical results.

Wang, Jianrong; Liu, Maoxing; Li, Youwen

2013-04-01

374

An integrated genetic-demographic model to unravel the origin of genetic structure in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary enlightened management of species with complex life cycles often requires the development of mathematical models integrating demographic and genetic data. The genetic structure of the endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) has been thoroughly analyzed in several studies in the past years. However, the interpretation of the key demographic and biologic processes that determine the observed spatio-temporal genetic structure has been very challenging owing to the complex life cycle of this catadromous species. Here, we present the first integrated demographic-genetic model applied to the European eel that explicitly accounts for different levels of larval and adult mixing during oceanic migrations and allows us to explore alternative hypotheses on genetic differentiation. Our analyses show that (i) very low levels of mixing occurring during larval dispersal or adult migration are sufficient to erase entirely any genetic differences among sub-populations; (ii) small-scale temporal differentiation in recruitment can arise if the spawning stock is subdivided in distinct reproductive groups; and (iii) the geographic differentiation component might be overestimated if a limited number of temporal recruits are analyzed. Our study can inspire the scientific debate on the interpretation of genetic structure in other species characterized by complex life cycle and long-range migrations.

Andrello, Marco; Bevacqua, Daniele; Maes, Gregory E; De Leo, Giulio A

2011-01-01

375

An Analysis of Competencies and Moderating Influence of Demographic Profiles – Evidence From Exporting Organizations  

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Full Text Available The increasing numbers of organizations involved in exporting intensifies the competition level. Therefore, to manage the competition effectively, organizations need the necessary competencies. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between competencies and export performance. The competencies tested are in the area of personal traits, management, production and marketing. The results showed that except for personal traits, all the competencies have an influence on export performance. Demographic characteristics (key decision makers’ demographics and organizational demographics are also tested to identify whether they have moderating effects on the relationship between competencies and export performance. These include key decision makers’ demographics (age, education, overseas exposure and employment experience and organizational demographics (age, size of organization and export experience. The result showed age and education (key decision maker’s demographics have an effect in the relationship between competencies and export performance. However, all the organizational demographics tested have a moderating effect.

R.N. Anantharaman

2008-12-01

376

Demographic Properties of the First 200 Radiotherapy Patients in the Southeast Anatolia  

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Full Text Available Cancer rates are increasing globally in the 21st century and this situation is more pronounced in developing countries. One of the main treatment modality of cancer is radiotherapy and underdeveloped countries are especially problematic in terms of radiotherapy facilities. Radiotherapy has a long-standing history in Turkey but there are inadequacies because of the developmental inequalities between regions in the country. We wanted to evaluate the patient profile of our radiotherapy center as it is the only center in Southeast Anatolia. Clinical and demographic properties of the patients has been investigated and interpreted with comparing the data with literature. Lung cancer in males and breast cancer in females constitude the largest group of patients but urological malignancies were seldom. In conclusion less than expected cancer patients are admitted to our center and general pattern of care in cancer patients must be improved in Southeast part of our country.

Bilgehan Karaday?

2006-01-01

377

The Impact of Demographic and Academic Characteristics on Academic Performance  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore students’ demographic and academic characteristics that are associatedwith students’ academic performance during their undergraduate studies. Demographic and academiccharacteristic such as age, gender, nationality, high school major and high school GPA were studied as potentialdeterminants of academic performance. A sample of 700 students from the College of Business Studies at thePublic Authority for Applied Education was examined. Descriptive statistics, T-test and multiple regressionswere used. The results of the study reveal that students’ age, gender, high school major and high school GPA aresignificantly related to students’ academic performance. Our research has some implications. The findings revealthat student’s age, gender, high school major and high school GPA are significantly related to business students’academic performance. Interestingly, the findings highlight the positive and significant influence of sciencebackground on the academic performance of business students. This study contributes to the literature of theundergraduates business students academic performance. The findings of this study may be useful for educationsector, educators, college’s management and future researchers.

Nout M. Alhajraf

2014-03-01

378

Demographic stability metrics for conservation prioritization of isolated populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems of geographically isolated habitat patches house species that occur naturally as small, disjunct populations. Many of these species are of conservation concern, particularly under the interacting influences of isolation and rapid global change. One potential conservation strategy is to prioritize the populations most likely to persist through change and act as sources for future recolonization of less stable localities. We propose an approach to classify long-term population stability (and, presumably, future persistence potential) with composite demographic metrics derived from standard population-genetic data. Stability metrics can be related to simple habitat measures for a straightforward method of classifying localities to inform conservation management. We tested these ideas in a system of isolated desert headwater streams with mitochondrial sequence data from 16 populations of a flightless aquatic insect. Populations exhibited a wide range of stability scores, which were significantly predicted by dry-season aquatic habitat size. This preliminary test suggests strong potential for our proposed method of classifying isolated populations according to persistence potential. The approach is complementary to existing methods for prioritizing local habitats according to diversity patterns and should be tested further in other systems and with additional loci to inform composite demographic stability scores. PMID:19774708

Finn, Debra S; Bogan, Michael T; Lytle, David A

2009-10-01

379

Islamic Credit Card: Are Demographic Factors a Good Indicator?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates on the relationship between demographic factors and the usage of Islamic credit card as well as Conventional credit card demonstrates their interdependencies. The debatable issues as been addressed by many authorities not only in terms of the numbers of credit card flooding the nation’s economy, but the amount of transactions that end up with payment default and the numbers of credit card fraud as been recorded which threatened the economy should be seriously focused. Nevertheless the advances and changing habits in purchasing activities significantly contributed the diffusion of credit card as becoming more important and relevant in maintaining the purchasing activities. The study was conducted involving 305 respondents as a sample of study. While 26 items were used for addressing the research questions. Section A of the questionnaire seeks for information concerning the demographic profile of the respondents whilst section B and C that used Likert scale aimed to investigate information related to income and usage of credit card. The results of the study offer certain important managerial implications for the policy makers, finance institutions and the authorities bodies that take controls the credit card activities.

Norudin Mansor

2009-11-01

380

Demographic increase in the context of divorce and extramarital partnership  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basic goal of this paper is to point to the scope and significance of the share of divorce and extramarital partnership in the issues related to demographic increase. The paper consists of three parts. The first part discusses the relevant demographic data which - through the increase of the divorce rates and the rates of children born extramaritally, as well as through the specification of general indicators within these categories of population (age, marriage length, education, job - indirectly point to the reduction and impoverishment of the reproductive potentials in this subpopulation. The second part of the paper presents contemporary theoretical-research argumentation which tends to explain the dynamics of the functioning of the pattern of family and heterosexual partnership (postulates of evolution psychology, psychology of sex roles, psychology of reproductive behaviour and sociology of family. The third part presents the concluding remarks and the standpoints of the author herself about the need to construct a new thinking area and discourse which would follow the created changes and processes, as well as to preserve in them the idea of longstanding co-operative relations in which man and woman, in new life conditions and realities, contribute to the benefit of the descendents.

Polovina Nada

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th) percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60), averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings. PMID:24376581

de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U S; Pushpakumara, T V; Weerakoon, Devaka K; Wittemyer, George

2013-01-01

382

Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS, and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results of exploratory factor analyses revealed a new five-factor structure, with four factors remarkably similar to those derived from a pan-cultural solution of 40 cultural groups (Leung & Bond, 2004. A distinctive factor named “Interpersonal Relations” replaced the “Social Complexity” factor found in previous research, and represented beliefs about the impact of interpersonal relations on life events and how to maintain good relations with others. Canonical correlation revealed that people of older age, lower education, and lower income endorsed stronger beliefs in “Social Cynicism” and “Religiosity”. After controlling for the effects of age, education, and income, females reported stronger endorsement of the “Religiosity”, “Interpersonal Relations”, and “Fate Control” dimensions than males; widowed participants scored significantly higher than married, divorced and unmarried groups on both “Religiosity” and “Fate Control”. By reflecting on the characteristics of Romanian society, we discussed these findings in terms of the life experience and social status of different social groups. Based on this analysis, questions were proposed for future research.

Guan, Yanjun

2010-12-01

383

Russian Federation: From the first to second demographic transition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demographic transition in Russia was accelerated by several social cataclysms during the "Soviet type" modernization. Frequent changes in the timing of births and marriages engendered a mass "abortion culture". Contraceptive devices of poor quality were produced on a limited scale. The Soviet regime promulgated pronatalism and considered contraception to contradict this ideology. There have been two waves of government policy interventions. In the 1930s and 1940s restrictive and propaganda measures prevailed. These failed to yield serious effects. In the 1980s, policies aimed at lessening the tension between full-time employment and maternal roles. These generated shifts in birth timing, namely shorter birth intervals and earlier second and third births, however increase in completed cohort fertility was minimal. A third wave started in 2007. Preoccupied with continuous depopulation, authorities intend to boost births by substantially increasing benefits. The mid-1990s was a turning point in the change of fertility and nuptiality models. The 1970s birth cohorts marry and become parents later. They delay first and second births and increasingly begin partnerships with cohabitation. Contraception is replacing abortion. New attitudes and perceptions about family, partnership, childbearing, and family planning are emerging. A major transformation typical for developed countries, the Second Demographic Transition, is underway. Nevertheless, many neo-traditional features of fertility and nuptiality remain. These distinguish Russia from most European countries and will persist in the near future. Completed fertility, however, hardly differs from the average European level.

Sergei Zakharov

2008-07-01

384

Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

Lu, Wei [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2014-01-01

385

Demographic and Economic Dependency Ratios – Present and Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present research article, we outline the distinction between the demographic dependency ratio and the economic dependency ratio and present its evolution in Romania within the European Union, but not restrictive to the EU27. The evolution of demographic dependency ratio changed dramatically in Romania in the last 15 years comparing to the UE27. On the other hand, the evolution of economic dependency ratios is much more relevant because it also reflects the problems the economy is facing and should be brought to the fore in the political debates and to decision makers. In the paper we present the factors that are leading to the increase of the economic dependency ratio and we conclude with the solutions which a state has to adopt in order to prevent excessive public debt and structural gaps due to long term rise in economic dependency ratio. Moreover, policy-makers must face up the painful inter-temporal transfer choices that have to be done. Our concern about Eastern-European Countries is strengthened by the global results reached by OECD through Minilink Model Study, IMF Study of G7 and QUEST II Model that suggest the fall of the living standards over the next 50 years due to economic dependency ratio. For Romania we considered two main solution to this problem: increasing birth rate (long term solution and lowering the unemployment rate through investment and a high rate of EU funds absorption (medium term solution.

Mihail Titu

2012-10-01

386

Demographic analysis from summaries of an age-structured population  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic analyses of age-structured populations typically rely on life history data for individuals, or when individual animals are not identified, on information about the numbers of individuals in each age class through time. While it is usually difficult to determine the age class of a randomly encountered individual, it is often the case that the individual can be readily and reliably assigned to one of a set of age classes. For example, it is often possible to distinguish first-year from older birds. In such cases, the population age structure can be regarded as a latent variable governed by a process prior, and the data as summaries of this latent structure. In this article, we consider the problem of uncovering the latent structure and estimating process parameters from summaries of age class information. We present a demographic analysis for the critically endangered migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana), based only on counts of first-year birds and of older birds. We estimate age and year-specific survival rates. We address the controversial issue of whether management action on the breeding grounds has influenced recruitment, relating recruitment rates to the number of seventh-year and older birds, and examining the pattern of variation through time in this rate.

Link, W.A.; Royle, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.

2003-01-01

387

Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH):A cross-sectional study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender and 3) examine whether socio-demographic disparity in ...

Mbawalla, Hawa S.; Masalu, Joyce R.; A?strøm, Anne Nordrehaug

2010-01-01

388

TRENDS OF THE RURAL LABOUR MARKET AND AGRICULTURAL HUMAN POTENTIAL EVOLUTION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC PHENOMENA IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation was to study the correlative aspects in the evolution of demographic phenomena, labour market in the rural space and human potential from agriculture in the Republic of Moldova. As methodological tools there were used the economic analysis, synthesis, generalization, concretization and reasoning. As a result of our research there have been highlighted correlative trends of the demographic phenomena and basic indicators of the labour market in the rural areas. Also, it was analyzed the human potential from agriculture, underlying the same trends in its evolution, as in the evolution of the labour market in the rural space. The main conclusion of the investigation consists in the need to develop more effective mechanisms to solve the demographic problems especially in the rural areas of the Republic of Moldova, thus being also created prerequisites to improve the negative phenomena manifested in the evolution of human potential from agriculture.

Veronica PRISACARU

2013-01-01

389

Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [{sup 11}C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([{sup 11}C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [{sup 11}C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

Razifar, Pasha [Molecular Imaging and CT Research, GE Healthcare, WI 53188, Waukesha (United States); Engler, Henry [Department of Medical Science, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Blomquist, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Ringheim, Anna; Estrada, Sergio [Uppsala Imanet AB, GE Healthcare, Box 967, SE-751 09, Uppsala (Sweden); Laangstroem, Bengt [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergstroem, Mats [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-06-07

390

Typology of adults diagnosed with mental disorders based on socio-demographics and clinical and service use characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorder is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Its cost and negative impact on productivity are substantial. Consequently, improving mental health-care system efficiency - especially service utilisation - is a priority. Few studies have explored the use of services by specific subgroups of persons with mental disorder; a better understanding of these individuals is key to improving service planning. This study develops a typology of individuals, diagnosed with mental disorder in a 12-month period, based on their individual characteristics and use of services within a Canadian urban catchment area of 258,000 persons served by a psychiatric hospital. Methods From among the 2,443 people who took part in the survey, 406 (17% experienced at least one episode of mental disorder (as per the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI in the 12 months pre-interview. These individuals were selected for cluster analysis. Results Analysis yielded four user clusters: people who experienced mainly anxiety disorder; depressive disorder; alcohol and/or drug disorder; and multiple mental and dependence disorder. Two clusters were more closely associated with females and anxiety or depressive disorders. In the two other clusters, males were over-represented compared with the sample as a whole, namely, substance abuses with or without concomitant mental disorder. Clusters with the greatest number of mental disorders per subject used a greater number of mental health-care services. Conversely, clusters associated exclusively with dependence disorders used few services. Conclusion The study found considerable heterogeneity among socio-demographic characteristics, number of disorders, and number of health-care services used by individuals with mental or dependence disorders. Cluster analysis revealed important differences in service use with regard to gender and age. It reinforces the relevance of developing targeted programs for subgroups of individuals with mental and/or dependence disorders. Strategies aimed at changing low service users' attitude (youths and males or instituting specialised programs for that particular clientele should be promoted. Finally, as concomitant disorders are frequent among individuals with mental disorder, psychological services and/or addiction programs must be prioritised as components of integrated services when planning treatment.

Perreault Michel

2011-04-01

391

Advanced Power Electronics Components  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

Schwarze, Gene E.

2004-01-01

392

Evaluating the demographic buffering hypothesis with vital rates estimated for Weddell seals from 30years of mark-recapture data  

Science.gov (United States)

1.Life-history theory predicts that those vital rates that make larger contributions to population growth rate ought to be more strongly buffered against environmental variability than are those that are less important. Despite the importance of the theory for predicting demographic responses to changes in the environment, it is not yet known how pervasive demographic buffering is in animal populations because the validity of most existing studies has been called into question because of methodological deficiencies. 2.We tested for demographic buffering in the southern-most breeding mammal population in the world using data collected from 5558 known-age female Weddell seals over 30years. We first estimated all vital rates simultaneously with mark-recapture analysis and then estimated process variance and covariance in those rates using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We next calculated the population growth rate's sensitivity to changes in each of the vital rates and tested for evidence of demographic buffering by comparing properly scaled values of sensitivity and process variance in vital rates. 3.We found evidence of positive process covariance between vital rates, which indicates that all vital rates are affected in the same direction by changes in annual environment. Despite the positive correlations, we found strong evidence that demographic buffering occurred through reductions in variation in the vital rates to which population growth rate was most sensitive. Process variation in vital rates was inversely related to sensitivity measures such that variation was greatest in breeding probabilities, intermediate for survival rates of young animals and lowest for survival rates of older animals. 4.Our work contributes to a small but growing set of studies that have used rigorous methods on long-term, detailed data to investigate demographic responses to environmental variation. The information from these studies improves our understanding of life-history evolution in stochastic environments and provides useful information for predicting population responses to future environmental change. Our results for an Antarctic apex predator also provide useful baselines from a marine ecosystem when its top- and middle-trophic levels were not substantially impacted by human activity. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology ?? 2011 British Ecological Society.

Rotella, J. J.; Link, W. A.; Chambert, T.; Stauffer, G. E.; Garrott, R. A.

2012-01-01

393

Valor nutritivo de los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala / Nutritive value of the forage components of an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En una vaquería de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas, con el objetivo de determinar algunos indicadores del valor nutritivo en los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas (Cynodon nlemfuensis y Panicum maximum) y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham en condiciones comerciales, [...] se selecciona­ron las especies más representativas de la composición florística y se evaluaron por la degradación in situ de la materia seca y la técnica de producción de gas in vitro en función del momento de muestreo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar la degradación de la materia seca de P. maximum cv. Likoni y L. leucocephala a las 48 y 72 horas (P Abstract in english In a dairy unit of the Genetic Enterprise of Matanzas, with the objective of determining some indicators of the nutritive value in the forage components of an association of improved grasses (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Panicum maximum) and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham under commercial condition [...] s, the most representative species of the floristic composition were selected and evaluated by the in situ degradation of dry matter and the in vitro gas production technique regarding the sampling moment. Significant differences were found when comparing the dry matter degradation of P. maximum cv. Likoni and L. leucocephala after 48 and 72 hours (P

Tania, Sánchez; E.R, Ørskov; L, Lamela; R, Pedraza; O, López.

394

The demographic and academic profile of Irish dental school faculty members.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

AIM: This paper reviews the demographic, academic and professional profile of Irish dental school faculty members. Faculty duties are explored. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Custom-designed questionnaires were distributed to faculty members for self-completion, adopting a \\'mixed-method\\' approach with quantitative and qualitative components. Response rate was 64.60%. RESULTS: Demographic profile reveals a male-dominated regime (64%). Males also occupy a disproportionate number of senior academic positions. The age profile mirrors international trends with 75% of staff over 40 and c.33% over 50, including 78% of professorial staff (p < 0.001). Dental school faculties are comprised of highly educated professionals with the following qualifications: 89% BDS, 43% FDS, 39% Masters, 16% Doctorates. Most (77%) have 10+ years of clinical experience, while 47% have over 20 years\\' experience. Clinical experience varied by age, rank (p < 0.001) and gender (p < 0.05). A review of contractual agreements and duties confirms the major role of part-time clinical staff in dental education, comprising the largest single group (48%) delivering the bulk of the clinical teaching. However, 54% of part-time clinical staff have less than five years teaching experience. This study also explores staff views of various faculty roles. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides a benchmark profile of Irish dental school faculty members. It reflects on the heavily skewed age groups of our current dental educators and the impending retirement of many senior academics. Educational organisations need to explore ways to make a career in dental education financially and sociologically attractive and provide adequate support for existing faculty to ensure their development during these challenging times.

O'Sullivan, Eleanor M

2010-04-23

395

Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition. PMID:23819872

Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M

2014-01-01

396

The Hanford Site New Production Reactor (NPR) economic and demographic baseline forecasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this is to present baseline employment and population forecasts for Benton, Franklin, and Yakima Counties. These forecasts will be used in the socioeconomic analysis portion of the New Production Reactor Environmental Impact Statement. Aggregate population figures for the three counties in the study area were developed for high- and low-growth scenarios for the study period 1990 through 2040. Age-sex distributions for the three counties during the study period are also presented. The high and low scenarios were developed using high and low employment projections for the Hanford site. Hanford site employment figures were used as input for the HARC-REMI Economic and Demographic (HED) model to produced baseline employment forecasts for the three counties. These results, in turn, provided input to an integrated three-county demographic model. This model, a fairly standard cohort-component model, formalizes the relationship between employment and migration by using migration to equilibrate differences in labor supply and demand. In the resulting population estimates, age-sex distributions for 1981 show the relatively large work force age groups in Benton County while Yakima County reflects higher proportions of the population in the retirement ages. The 2040 forecasts for all three counties reflect the age effects of relatively constant and low fertility increased longevity, as well as the cumulative effects of the migration assumptions in the model. By 2040 the baby boom population will be 75 years and older, contributing to the higher proportion of population in the upper end age group. The low scenario age composition effects are similar. 13 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Cluett, C.; Clark, D.C. (Battelle Human Affairs Research Cen