WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

Brian C. O' Neill

2006-08-09

2

Improving Component Interoperability Information  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apart from introducing various benefits, the emergingsoftware component technology raises a serious problem:How can developers as well as users manage interoperabilityissues and versions of a huge amount of componentsdeveloped worldwide by independent providers? The currentgeneral way to describe interoperability information is toprovide the component's interface definition and someadditional informal documentation. This level of informationis obviously not detailed enough to manage interoperabilityissues on a reasonable level. Unfortunately, componentdescriptions enhanced with semantic information arerestricted to specific types of components. At the moment ageneral established technique for the complete description ofsemantic interoperability of components does not exist.This paper outlines two contributions to an improvedcomponent interoperability management. The ideas originatefrom the GIPSY project that focuses on cooperative softwareengineering. The general more ...

Tobias Murer; Daniel Scherer

3

Pay for performance improves quality across demographic groups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality and the effect of pay for performance among minority patient groups, during a pay-for-performance program in 22 primary care practice sites. METHODS: Data were collected on 26 standardized measures of care for 2 measurement cycles. Proportions of recommended care received across 5 composite quality domains were analyzed by demographic group. Regression models including significant covariates were constructed. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were derived to assess the effect of pay of performance within demographic groups. RESULTS: Improvements were observed from 2007 to 2009 for all patients in each of 5 composite quality domains of diabetes, coronary artery disease, heart failure, screening and prevention, and all care. With the exception of heart failure care for Hispanic/Latino and Spanish language-preferring patients, improvement was observed in all domains for African American/black race, Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, and Spanish language-preferred groups. Following adjustment for covariates, pay for performance was associated with significant improvement in all-patient diabetes care (adjusted OR = 1.15; [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.22), screening and prevention (adjusted OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.41-1.69), and all care (adjusted OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.20-1.35). Significant improvements were also observed within the minority demographic groups noted earlier. CONCLUSIONS: Pay-for-performance programs structured as additional incentive monies for providers improved care for all patients and among minority groups, in whom disparities have historically been observed.

Bhalla R; Schechter CB; Strelnick AH; Deb N; Meissner P; Currie BP

2013-07-01

4

Decomposing demographic change into direct vs. compositional components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present and prove a formula for decomposing change in a population average into two components. One component captures the effect of direct change in the characteristic of interest, and the other captures the effect of compositional change. The decomposition is applied to time derivatives of averages over age and over subpopulations. Examples include decomposition of the change over time in the average age at childbearing and in the general fertility rate for China, Denmark and Mexico. A decomposition of the change over time in the crude death rate in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands is also presented. Other examples concern global life expectancy and the growth rate of the population of the world.

Vaupel James W.; Canudas Romo Vladimir

2002-01-01

5

Clean Diesel Component Improvement Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research conducted in this program significantly increased the knowledge and understanding in the fields of plasma physics and chemistry in diesel exhaust, the performance and characteristics of multifunctional catalysts in diesel exhaust, and the complexities of controlling a combination of such systems to remove NOx. Initially this program was designed to use an in-line plasma system (know as a plasma assisted catalyst system or PAC) to convert NO {yields} NO{sub 2}, a more catalytically active form of nitrogen oxides, and to crack hydrocarbons (diesel fuel in particular) into active species. The NO{sub 2} and the cracked hydrocarbons were then flowed over an in-line ceramic NOx catalyst that removed NO{sub 2} from the diesel exhaust. Even though the PAC system performed well technically and was able to remove over 95% of NOx from diesel exhaust the plasma component proved not to be practical or commercially feasible. The lack of practical and commercial viability was due to high unit costs and lack of robustness. The plasma system and its function was replaced in the NOx removal process by a cracking reforming catalyst that converted diesel fuel to a highly active reductant for NOx over a downstream ceramic NOx catalyst. This system was designated the ceramic catalyst system (CCS). It was also determined that NO conversion to NO{sub 2} was not required to achieve high levels of NOx reduction over ceramic NOx catalyst if that catalyst was properly formulated and the cracking reforming produced a reductant optimized for that NOx catalyst formulation. This system has demonstrated 92% NOx reduction in a diesel exhaust slipstream and 65% NOx reduction from the full exhaust of a 165 hp diesel engine using the FTP cycle. Although this system needs additional development to be commercial, it is simple, cost effective (does not use precious metals), sulfur tolerant, operates at high space velocities, does not require a second fluid be supplied as a reductant, has low parasitic loss of 2-3% and achieves high levels of NOx reduction. This project benefits the public by providing a simple low-cost technology to remove NOx pollutants from the exhaust of almost any combustion source. The reduction of NOx emissions emitted into the troposphere provides well documented improvement in health for the majority of United States citizens. The emissions reduction produced by this technology helps remove the environmental constraints to economic growth.

None

2005-06-30

6

Improving the Components of Speaking Proficiency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the main concerns of language learners is how to improve their speaking proficiency in general and different components of speaking proficiency such as fluency, accuracy, accent, vocabulary, comprehension, and communication in particular. Accordingly, the present research attempts to investig...

Taher Bahrani; Rahmatollah Soltani

7

When celibacy matters: incorporating non-breeders improves demographic parameter estimates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans). In this species, the breeding cycle lasts almost a year and birds that succeed a given year tend to skip the next breeding occasion while birds that fail tend to breed again the following year. Most non-breeders remain unobservable at sea, but still a substantial number of observable non-breeders (ONB) was identified on breeding sites. Using multi-state capture-mark-recapture analyses, we used several measures to compare the performance of demographic estimates between models incorporating or ignoring ONB: bias (difference in mean), precision (difference is standard deviation) and accuracy (both differences in mean and standard deviation). Our results highlight that ignoring ONB leads to bias and loss of accuracy on breeding probability and survival estimates. These effects are even stronger when studied in an age-dependent framework. Biases on breeding probabilities and survival increased with age leading to overestimation of survival at old age and thus actuarial senescence and underestimation of reproductive senescence. We believe our study sheds new light on the difficulties of estimating demographic parameters in species/taxa where a significant part of the population does not breed every year. Taking into account ONB appeared important to improve demographic parameter estimates, models of population dynamics and evolutionary conclusions regarding senescence within and across taxa.

Pardo D; Weimerskirch H; Barbraud C

2013-01-01

8

Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-08-01

9

The Demographic Component in the Development of a Metropolis. Case-Study: Ia?i  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several peculiarities make Ia?i an outstanding city: it is a first-rank city in the national settlement system and the capital of the historical province of Moldova, numbers over 300,000 inhabitants and holds the 2nd position in the national urban hierarchy by demographic size, and a national growth pole since 2008 (Government Decision 998/2008). In view of the above, Ia?i has a significant demographic potential, also discharging complex functions and polarizing a large influence area, being one of the pillars of urban development in Romania. The aim of this paper is to outline the urban development strategy in the light of demographic structures and evolution. The demography today in the peri-urban space shows two characteristic features, namely the urban–rural migration, on the one hand, and the dominant agricultural functionality, on the other hand, as mirrored by the structure of employment. The development–related factors are the positive natural demographic balance, low level of population ageing and supply of a large workforce, a potential well-balanced local labour market. Concluding, the provision of Ia?i integrated urban and peri-urban strategy are pointed out.

CLAUDIA POPESCU

2011-01-01

10

Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models.Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites.In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and their limitations on epidemiological analyses. We review sources of detailed, contemporary, freely available and relevant spatial demographic data focusing on low income regions where such data are often sparse and highlight the value of incorporating these through a set of examples of their application in disease studies. Moreover, the importance of acknowledging, measuring, and accounting for uncertainty in spatial demographic datasets is outlined. Finally, a strategy for building an open-access database of spatial demographic data that is tailored to epidemiological applications is put forward.

Tatem AJ; Adamo S; Bharti N; Burgert CR; Castro M; Dorelien A; Fink G; Linard C; John M; Montana L; Montgomery MR; Nelson A; Noor AM; Pindolia D; Yetman G; Balk D

2012-01-01

11

Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and their limitations on epidemiological analyses. We review sources of detailed, contemporary, freely available and relevant spatial demographic data focusing on low income regions where such data are often sparse and highlight the value of incorporating these through a set of examples of their application in disease studies. Moreover, the importance of acknowledging, measuring, and accounting for uncertainty in spatial demographic datasets is outlined. Finally, a strategy for building an open-access database of spatial demographic data that is tailored to epidemiological applications is put forward.

Tatem Andrew J; Adamo Susana; Bharti Nita; Burgert Clara R; Castro Marcia; Dorelien Audrey; Fink Gunter; Linard Catherine; John Mendelsohn; Montana Livia; Montgomery Mark R; Nelson Andrew; Noor Abdisalan M; Pindolia Deepa; Yetman Greg; Balk Deborah

2012-01-01

12

Improving the Components of Speaking Proficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main concerns of language learners is how to improve their speaking proficiency in general and different components of speaking proficiency such as fluency, accuracy, accent, vocabulary, comprehension, and communication in particular. Accordingly, the present research attempts to investigate the effect of listening to different TV programs on improving different components of speaking proficiency. To achieve this purpose, a sample speaking test was given to twenty language learners as a pre-test. During the study, the participants had exposure to different programs from TV. After a period of three months, a post-test was administered. Then, the scores of each component in the pre-test were compared with that of the post-test. The result showed that the use of vocabulary as a component of speaking proficiency improves more. On the contrary, accuracy improves less than the other components. Key words: Speaking proficiency; Improve; Vocabulary; Accuracy Résumé: L'une des préoccupations principales des apprenants de langue est de savoir comment améliorer l'expression orale en général et maîtriser de différents composants de la compétence de l’expression orale comme la fluidité, la précision, l'accent, le vocabulaire, la compréhension et la communication en particulier. En conséquence, la présente recherche tente d'étudier l'effet d'écouter des émissions de différents programmes à la télé sur l'amélioration de la maîtrise de différents éléments de l'expression orale. Pour atteindre ce but, un test de langue a été donnée à vingt apprenants de langue comme un pré-test. Au cours de l'étude, les participants ont été exposés à de différents programmes de la télévision. Après une période de trois mois, un post-test a été donné. Ensuite, les scores de chaque composant dans le pré-test ont été comparés avec ceux du post-test. Le résultat a montré que l’un des éléments de compétence orale, l'utilisation du vocabulaire, s'améliore le plus. Au contraire, la précision s'améliore moins que les autres composants. Mots-clés: Compétence de l’expression orale; Améliorer; Vocabulaire; Précision

Taher Bahrani; Rahmatollah Soltani

2011-01-01

13

SOCIAL/DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND VITAL EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CLINICAL IMPROVEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH DEPRESSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: depression is the most frequent disabling mental disorder: the present study strives to analyze the social/demographic factors and vital events associated to depression in patients in 14 hospitals in the State of Antioquia. Methods: a study of cases and controls in a population of 204 patients in hospitals of first level of attention was designed. The sample was selected by convenience. The patients diagnosed with depression were evaluated within three months of having started treatment and were classified: no improvement (case) and with clinical improvement (control). Results: there was an association found between no improvement of the depressive symptoms after three months of starting anti-depressive treatment and the social/ demographic background, financial problems and vital events. Conclusion: the main factors associated with depression that were found are: not having an affiliation regime to the social security and health system; financial problems, death of a son/daughter and psychological and physical domestic violence, which point to the need to explore these variables.

BERBESI FERNANDEZ, Dedsy Yajaira; SEGURA CARDONA, Ángela María

2009-01-01

14

Improvement of Component Integration Testing Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Component-based technology can increase reuse and productivity, but high-quality component-based systems are often difficult to implement. Component developers do not know the systems where the components will be used, while software engineers must develop new systems with limited knowledge on available components. We propose a new testing technique that generates, at the time of component development, integration test cases from the specification of the behavior expected from other components of the system. The technique presented in this paper supports both the component developer, who can early test the integration of the components with the system, and the software engineers, who can test concrete components at deployment time, simply re-using existing test cases.The technique presented in this paper supports both the component developer, who can early test the integration of the components with the system, and the software engineers, who can test components at deployment time. We used questionnaires to validate the proposed solution.

Khulood Salem Albeladi; M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

2013-01-01

15

Improved components for advanced alkaline water electrolysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The industrial realization of an advanced electrolysis cell for alkaline water electrolysis is gradually achieved and semitechnical cell units were constructed. The cells work with ceramic diaphragms and galvanically-deposited Raney nickel electrodes. The working temperature is 100-120/sup 0/C and total pressure between 1 and 5 bar. The average energy consumption at 0.4 A cm/sup -2/ and 100/sup 0/C is 3.8 kWh m/sup -3/ hydrogen. The influence of cell components on total cell performance data is discussed. The variation of manufacturing parameters on the quality of single components (electrodes and diaphragm) is considered. Corrosion problems at operating conditions and their elimination by using proper construction techniques were investigated.

Divisek, J.; Malinowski, P.; Mergel, J.; Schmitz, H.

1988-01-01

16

Improving tension decrease in components separation technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tension at the aponeurotic edges after the undermining of the anterior rectus sheath associated with the classic components separation in cadavers. METHODS: Twenty fresh adult cadavers were placed supine and an incision in the anterior rectus sheath was done, thus exposing the posterior sheath. The two levels to be studied were marked 3 cm above and 2 cm below the umbilicus. An analogical dynamometer was used to measure the traction values, consecutively during four stages as follows: initial stage, no aponeurotic undermining; Stage 1, separation of the anterior rectus sheaths; Stage 2, after Stage 1 the external oblique aponeurosis were incised along the semilunaris and the external oblique muscles were undermined; Stage 3, after Stage 2 rectus muscles were completely separated from their posterior sheaths. Statistical analysis was done by Friedman's analysis of variance (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There was a progressive and significant decrease in tension along the stages (Friedman's analysis of variance, p < 0.001). Traction indexes were higher in the initial stage and became gradually lower along the other stages. CONCLUSION: The undermining of the anterior rectus sheaths helps to decrease tension during the components separation technique. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, experimental study.

Barbosa MV; Ayaviri NA; Nahas FX; Juliano Y; Ferreira LM

2013-05-01

17

Genetic and demographic responses of mercury-exposed mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations: temporal stability and reproductive components of fitness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two previous mesocosm studies showed changes in glucosephosphate isomerase-2 (Gpi-2) allele frequencies in mosquitofish populations exposed to mercury for 111 d or two years. A previous selection component analysis of single-generation populations exposed for 111 d to 18 microg/L Hg suggested that female sexual selection and fecundity selection could contribute to changes in Gpi-2 allele frequencies. The present multigeneration study was conducted to determine the stability of Gpi-2 allele frequencies over four years of mercury exposure, measure the reproductive fitness of Gpi-2 genotypes inhabiting control and mercury-contaminated mesocosms to determine a mechanism explaining changes in Gpi-2 allele frequencies, investigate differences in the demographic characteristics of mercury-exposed and control populations, and investigate the water quality of the mesocosms to determine if variables other than mercury show concordant patterns among mesocosms. Differences in Gpi-2 allele frequencies between control and mercury-exposed populations were stable over four years (approximately eight generations) of mercury exposure. Mercury-exposed female mosquitofish had a lower probability of being gravid than control females (p = 0.001). Mercury-exposed females also had lower fecundity (total number of eggs and embryos) than control females (p = 0.036). Unlike the results of the more intense mercury exposures in the single generation study, no strong evidence was found that Gpi-2 genotype influenced fecundity or the probability of being gravid in both control and mercury-exposed females. The quantification of fitness components is difficult but has the potential to enhance our understanding of how toxicants alter allele frequencies in exposed populations.

Tatara CP; Mulvey M; Newman MC

2002-10-01

18

Identification of components to optimize improvement in system reliability  

Science.gov (United States)

The fields of reliability analysis and risk assessment have grown dramatically since the 1970's. There are now bodies of literature and standard practices which cover quantitative aspects of system analysis such as failure rate and repair models, fault and event tree generation, minimal cut sets, classical and Bayesian analysis of reliability, component and system testing techniques, and decomposition methods. In spite of the growth in the sophistication of reliability models, however, little has been done to integrate optimization models within a reliability analysis framework. That is, often reliability models focus on characterization of system structure in terms of topology and failure/availability characteristics of components. A number of approaches have been proposed to help identify the components of a system that have the largest influence on overall system reliability. While this may help rank order the components, it does not necessarily help a system design team identify which components they should improve to optimize overall reliability (it may be cheaper and more effective to focus on improving two or three components of smaller importance than one component of larger importance). In this paper, we present an optimization model that identifies the components to be improved to maximize the increase in system MTBF, subject to a fixed budget constraint. A dual formulation of the model is to minimize cost, subject to achieving a certain level of system reliability.

Painton, L.; Campbell, J.

19

Improved approach for obtaining rotational components of seismic motion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rotational component of seismic strong-motion is attracting attention since it is becoming evident that it may contribute considerably to the overall response of structures to earthquake motions. This paper presents an improved method for calculating the time histories of torsional and rocking components of ground motion corresponding to a set of three recorded orthogonal translational components. The mathematical model is based on a detailed representation of soil impedance and contributions of body waves. The dependence of the angle of wave incidence on the frequency of wave is properly given in the calculation of rotational components with consideration of critical incident angles. Numerical results of the torsion and rocking obtained from a set of three recorded translational components are also presented.

Li Hongnan E-mail: hnli@dlut.edu.cn; Sun Liye; Wang Suyan

2004-08-01

20

Improved approach for obtaining rotational components of seismic motion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rotational component of seismic strong-motion is attracting attention since it is becoming evident that it may contribute considerably to the overall response of structures to earthquake motions. This paper presents an improved method for calculating the time histories of torsional and rocking components of ground motion corresponding to a set of three recorded orthogonal translational components. The mathematical model is based on a detailed representation of soil impedance and contributions of body waves. The dependence of the angle of wave incidence on the frequency of wave is properly given in the calculation of rotational components with consideration of critical incident angles. Numerical results of the torsion and rocking obtained from a set of three recorded translational components are also presented.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Improving the accuracy of demographic and molecular clock model comparison while accommodating phylogenetic uncertainty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent developments in marginal likelihood estimation for model selection in the field of Bayesian phylogenetics and molecular evolution have emphasized the poor performance of the harmonic mean estimator (HME). Although these studies have shown the merits of new approaches applied to standard normally distributed examples and small real-world data sets, not much is currently known concerning the performance and computational issues of these methods when fitting complex evolutionary and population genetic models to empirical real-world data sets. Further, these approaches have not yet seen widespread application in the field due to the lack of implementations of these computationally demanding techniques in commonly used phylogenetic packages. We here investigate the performance of some of these new marginal likelihood estimators, specifically, path sampling (PS) and stepping-stone (SS) sampling for comparing models of demographic change and relaxed molecular clocks, using synthetic data and real-world examples for which unexpected inferences were made using the HME. Given the drastically increased computational demands of PS and SS sampling, we also investigate a posterior simulation-based analogue of Akaike's information criterion (AIC) through Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), a model comparison approach that shares with the HME the appealing feature of having a low computational overhead over the original MCMC analysis. We confirm that the HME systematically overestimates the marginal likelihood and fails to yield reliable model classification and show that the AICM performs better and may be a useful initial evaluation of model choice but that it is also, to a lesser degree, unreliable. We show that PS and SS sampling substantially outperform these estimators and adjust the conclusions made concerning previous analyses for the three real-world data sets that we reanalyzed. The methods used in this article are now available in BEAST, a powerful user-friendly software package to perform Bayesian evolutionary analyses.

Baele G; Lemey P; Bedford T; Rambaut A; Suchard MA; Alekseyenko AV

2012-09-01

22

IMHEX fuel cell repeat component manufacturing continuous improvement accomplishments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

M-C Power is taking a power generation technology that has been proven in the laboratory and is making it a commercially competitive product. There are many areas in which this technology required scale up and refinement to reach the market entry goals for the IMHEX{reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. One of the primary areas that needed to be addressed was the manufacturing of the fuel cell stack. Up to this point, the fuel cell stack and associated components were virtually hand made for each system to be tested. M-C Power has now continuously manufactured the repeat components for three 250 kW stacks. M-C Power`s manufacturing strategy integrated both evolutionary and revolutionary improvements into its comprehensive commercialization effort. M-C Power`s objectives were to analyze and continuously improve stack component manufacturing and assembly techniques consistent with established specifications and commercial scale production requirements. Evolutionary improvements are those which naturally occur as the production rates are increased and experience is gained. Examples of evolutionary (learning curve) improvements included reducing scrap rates and decreasing raw material costs by buying in large quantities. Revolutionary improvements result in significant design and process changes to meet cost and performance requirements of the market entry system. Revolutionary changes often involve identifying new methods and developing designs to accommodate the new process. Based upon our accomplishments, M-C Power was able to reduce the cost of continuously manufactured fuel cell repeat components from the first to third 250 kW stack by 63%. This paper documents the continuous improvement accomplishments realized by M-C Power during IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell repeat component manufacturing.

Jakaitis, L.A.; Petraglia, V.J.; Bryson, E.S. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

23

Microinjection molding of microsystem components: new aspects in improving performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Microinjection molding (µIM) is considered to be one of the most flexible, reliable and cost effective manufacturing routes to form plastic micro-components for microsystems. The molding machine, mold tool fabrication, material selection and process controlling in this specific field have been greatly developed over the past decades. This review aims to present the new trends towards improving micro-component performance by reviewing the latest developments in this area and by considering potential directions. The key concerns in product and mold designing, essential factors in simulation, and micro-morphology and resultant properties are evaluated and discussed. In addition, the applications, variant processes and outlook for µIM are presented. Throughout this review, decisive considerations in seeking improved performance for microsystem components are highlighted.

Yang, Can; Yin, Xiao-Hong; Cheng, Guang-Ming

2013-09-01

24

Could non-grade based selection improve medical student socio-demographic diversity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Students with lower socioeconomic backgrounds have been found to be underrepresented in medical education. There is little evidence as to whether the type of student admission strategy used could make a difference to diversity of medical students. The aim of this paper was to examine if selection strategy made a difference to the diversity of admitted medical students. Method: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The population was 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 at one medical school. Of these, 454 was admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected with a non-grade-based or ’non-cognitive’ admission program. The two admission groups were compared on seven social indices (doctor parent, ethnic origin, father’s education, mother’s education, parenthood, parents live together, parent on benefit). Result: Selection strategy made no difference to the social diversity of admitted medical students. The non-cognitive admission program studied was nota useful initiative for improving medical student diversity nor did it further disadvantaged educationally vulnerable population groups in these cohorts. Discussion: The social heritage and general intelligence of potential applicants from underrepresented groups may be far more influential on diversity in medical school than the choice of medical school selection strategy.

O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

2013-01-01

25

Improved Ligation Specificity with Chemically Modified Ligation Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Ligases are gaining utility in molecular biology applications, such as nucleotide sequence detection, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection, protein detection and “next generation” sequencing by ligation. With the increased demand for DNA ligases in the field of biotechnology, comes increased demand for ligation fidelity. Described approaches to improved ligation fidelity include ligases from different biological sources, point mutations of key amino acid residues within the ligase, modified reaction conditions and addition of crowding reagents, such as PEG. Although most approaches to improved ligation fidelity have focused on the ligase itself, further improvements are needed and may be attainable by a different approach. Herein a strategy to improve the discrimination between matched and mismatched targets is described which employs chemical modification to the nucleic acid components of the reaction, such as the donor probe, the acceptor probe and the ATP cofactor. The results demonstrate that chemically modified components increase the stringency of DNA ligase-mediated nucleic acid detection, providing a unique approach for SNP genotyping.

Paul, Natasha; Zon, Gerald; Hogrefe, Richard; Lebedev, Alexandre; Shore, Sabrina

2013-01-01

26

A comparative method for improving the reliability of brittle components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculating the absolute reliability built in a product is often an extremely difficult task because of the complexity of the physical processes and physical mechanisms underlying the failure modes, the complex influence of the environment and the operational loads, the variability associated with reliability-critical design parameters and the non-robustness of the prediction models. Predicting the probability of failure of loaded components with complex shape for example is associated with uncertainty related to: the type of existing flaws initiating fracture, the size distributions of the flaws, the locations and the orientations of the flaws and the microstructure and its local properties. Capturing these types of uncertainty, necessary for a correct prediction of the reliability of components is a formidable task which does not need to be addressed if a comparative reliability method is employed, especially if the focus is on reliability improvement. The new comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws proposed here is based on an assumed failure criterion, an equation linking the probability that a flaw will be critical with the probability of failure associated with the component and a finite element solution for the distribution of the principal stresses in the loaded component. The probability that a flaw will be critical is determined directly, after a finite number of steps equal to the number of finite elements into which the component is divided. An advantage of the proposed comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws is that it does not rely on a Monte Carlo simulation and does not depend on knowledge of the size distribution of the flaws and the material properties. This essentially eliminates uncertainty associated with the material properties and the population of flaws. On the basis of a theoretical analysis we also show that, contrary to the common belief, in general, for non-interacting flaws randomly located in a stressed volume, the distribution of the minimum failure stress is not necessarily described by a Weibull distribution. For the simple case of a single group of flaws all of which become critical beyond a particular threshold value for example, the Weibull distribution fails to predict correctly the probability of failure. If in a particular load range, no new critical flaws are created by increasing the applied stress, the Weibull distribution also fails to predict correctly the probability of failure of the component. In these cases however, the probability of failure is correctly predicted by the suggested alternative equation. The suggested equation is the correct mathematical formulation of the weakest-link concept related to random flaws in a stressed volume. The equation does not require any assumption concerning the physical nature of the flaws and the physical mechanism of failure and can be applied in any situation of locally initiated failure by non-interacting entities

2009-01-01

27

Improved methods of creep-fatigue life assessment of components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The improvement of life assessment methods contributes to a reduction of efforts at design and an effective long term operation of high temperature components, reduces technical risk and increases high economical advantages. Creep-fatigue at multi-stage loading, covering cold start, warm start and hot start cycles in typical loading sequences e.g. for medium loaded power plants, was investigated here. At hold times creep and stress relaxation, respectively, lead to an acceleration of crack initiation. Creep fatigue life time can be calculated by a modified damage accumulation rule, which considers the fatigue fraction rule for fatigue damage and the life fraction rule for creep damage. Mean stress effects, internal stress and interaction effects of creep and fatigue are considered. Along with the generation of advanced creep data, fatigue data and creep fatigue data as well scatter band analyses are necessary in order to generate design curves and lower bound properties inclusive. Besides, in order to improve lifing methods the enhancement of modelling activities for deformation and life time are important. For verification purposes, complex experiments at variable creep conditions as well as at creep fatigue interaction under multi-stage loading are of interest. Generally, the development of methods to transfer uniaxial material properties to multiaxial loading situations is a current challenge. For specific design purposes, a constitutive material model is introduced which is implemented as an user subroutine for Finite Element applications due to start-up and shut-down phases of components. Identification of material parameters have been performed by Neural Networks. (orig.)

Scholz, Alfred; Berger, Christina [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IfW), Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-07-01

28

Photothermal Quotient Specifications to Improve Wheat Cultivar Yield Component Models  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research has demonstrated the importance and statistical significance of the photothermal quotient (PTQ) to predict and explain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields. The objective of this study is to respecify PTQ to enhance the explanatory power of statistical models used to explain grains per square meter (GM-2), and increase understanding of weather's impact on yields. The primary objective is to identify and quantify potential gains from including separate components of solar radiation (Solar) and temperature (Temp) in place of PTQ (Solar/Temp) to improve wheat yield model explanatory ability. The study also determines the optimal time interval that defines PTQ by varying the number of days before and after 50% anthesis. Using wheat test plot data from Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico's Yaqui Valley, a multivariate regression-based stochastic model of wheat yields was used to estimate the impact of altering PTQ definition and specification. Results support previous research: the maximum F-test value of 66.02 and adjusted R2 value of 0.446 were obtained for 31 d before to 1 d after 50% anthesis. Interpretation and analysis were also enhanced by disaggregating PTQ into separate variables Solar and Temp. A 1 MJ m-2 d-1 increase in Solar increased GM-2 by 1.25%, whereas a 1°C increase in Temp decreased GM-2 by 2.8%. This difference in yield responsiveness to weather components results in greater statistical significance, explanatory power, and interpretation of GM-2 models. Future research that builds on these results will better explain, predict, and forecast crop yields.

Nalley LawtonLanier; Barkley AndrewP; Sayre Ken

2009-05-01

29

Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure crisis that U.S. industry is ill prepared to handle which could further challenge U.S. competitiveness.

Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

2012-03-26

30

Improvement of the mechanical response of an electrical component  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The electrical component under analysis does not fulfil the mechanical performance required by the standard (a minimum force of 400 gf during the extraction of a 3.8 mm diameter pin after the introduction of a 5.1 mm pin). A numerical study using the finite element method was developed to understand...

Antunes, F. J. V.; Costa, J. D. M.; Ferreira, J. A. M.

31

Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs

2002-01-01

32

Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs.

Ware, J.; Ferl, J.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; DeAngelis, G.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.J.

2002-05-08

33

Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. Objective: To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. Design: This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. Results and Conclusions: This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.

Jill R. Williams; Enid J. Schatz; Benjamin D. Clark; Mark A. Collinson; Samuel J. Clark; Jane Menken; Kathleen Kahn; Stephen M. Tollman

2010-01-01

34

Demographic Transition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The differences in the wealth of nations have been in existence historically. The extent of inequalities has been very large and even today they do exist and hence the phenomenon is disturbing. It is an undisputed fact that population of a country does have some effect on the economic growth of a country but the extent to which the population size and composition affects the economy has been a subject of debate and research. On one extreme, there is a pessimistic view, originally propagated by Malthus that population growth tends to depress income growth, as growing population is a drain on the national resources. On the other extreme is an optimistic view that population growth creates opportunities for development by optimum productive exploitation of the available resources that results in capital accumulation and income growth. Recent empirical evidence, however, sets aside both the pessimistic as well as the optimistic views on the effect of population growth on per capita income, which is a good indicator for measuring economic wellbeing of nations. The view called as 'Population Neutralism' had started emerging since 1980s. However, it took about two decades to expel the belief that population growth was the sole important indicator of demographic change. From the beginning of 21st century, people have pointed out that population age structure is perhaps more important a factor than the total population.

Andrew Jackson Jr.

2010-01-01

35

Improving tag/seal technologies: the vulnerability assessment component  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, has sponsored the development of numerous tag and seal technologies for high-security/high-valued applications. One important component in this technology development effort has been the continuous integration of vulnerability assessments. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been the lead laboratory for vulnerability assessments of fiber-optic-based tag/seal technologies. This paper presents a brief historical overview and the current status of the DOE high-security tag/seal development program and discusses INEL`s adversarial role and assessment philosophy. Verification testing criteria used to define ``successful`` tampering attempts/attacks are discussed. Finally, the advantages of integrating a vulnerability assessment into the development of commercial security tag/seals are presented.

Jones, J.L.

1996-02-01

36

Recent improvements of the accelerator components at the Unilac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Experience with coupling devices of various designs for the Wideroee, Alvarez and single-gap cavity structures are reported. Dome windows suffer from pin holes in the ceramic if not properly coated. Large domes tend to implode. Coaxial feed throughs, if used in an unbakable design, develop copper deposits on the vacuum side. Improvements of the reliability of rf power lines by the suppression of transients and a redesigned ceramic support for the center conductor are described. For the single-gap cavities, with their inherently high frequency detuning under rf power, a capacitive tuner was conceived to replace the usual magnetic tuning slugs

1979-09-14

37

Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCARâ??s test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of imported oil, that much less air pollution, and an equivalent reduction in the trade deficit, which is expected to lower the inflation rate.

N.B. Elsner; J.C. Bass; S. Ghamaty; D. Krommenhoek; A. Kushch; D. Snowden; S. Marchetti

2005-03-31

38

A Components Paint Facility upgrade to improve production efficiency, quality and working conditions at UCW Company  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A design of an improved facilities plan for Components Paint Shop, with appropriate and efficient material flow and handling system. The facility should optimise production efficiency throughout Components Paint Shop. , Thesis (BEng. (Industrial and Systems Engineering))--University of Pretoria, 2011.

Masombuka, W.S.

39

77 FR 77092 - Certain Devices for Improving Uniformity Used in a Backlight Module and Components Thereof and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Investigation No. 337-TA-805] Certain Devices for Improving Uniformity Used in a Backlight Module and Components Thereof...the United States after importation of certain devices for improving uniformity used in a backlight module and components...

2012-12-31

40

Understanding the components of quality improvement collaboratives: a systematic literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: In response to national efforts to improve quality of care, policymakers and health care leaders have increasingly turned to quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) as an efficient approach to improving provider practices and patient outcomes through the dissemination of evidence-based practices. This article presents findings from a systematic review of the literature on QICs, focusing on the identification of common components of QICs in health care and exploring, when possible, relations between QIC components and outcomes at the patient or provider level. METHODS: A systematic search of five major health care databases generated 294 unique articles, twenty-four of which met our criteria for inclusion in our final analysis. These articles pertained to either randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies with comparison groups, and they reported the findings from twenty different studies of QICs in health care. We coded the articles to identify the components reported for each collaborative. FINDINGS: We found fourteen crosscutting components as common ingredients in health care QICs (e.g., in-person learning sessions, phone meetings, data reporting, leadership involvement, and training in QI methods). The collaboratives reported included, on average, six to seven of these components. The most common were in-person learning sessions, plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles, multidisciplinary QI teams, and data collection for QI. The outcomes data from these studies indicate the greatest impact of QICs at the provider level; patient-level findings were less robust. CONCLUSIONS: Reporting on specific components of the collaborative was imprecise across articles, rendering it impossible to identify active QIC ingredients linked to improved care. Although QICs appear to have some promise in improving the process of care, there is great need for further controlled research examining the core components of these collaboratives related to patient- and provider-level outcomes.

Nadeem E; Olin SS; Hill LC; Hoagwood KE; Horwitz SM

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Magnetoencephalogram blind source separation and component selection procedure to improve the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to improve the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients applying a blind source separation (BSS) and component selection procedure to their magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings. MEGs from 18 AD patients and 18 control subjects were decomposed with the algorithm for multiple unknown signals extraction. MEG channels and components were characterized by their mean frequency, spectral entropy, approximate entropy, and Lempel-Ziv complexity. Using Student's t-test, the components which accounted for the most significant differences between groups were selected. Then, these relevant components were used to partially reconstruct the MEG channels. By means of a linear discriminant analysis, we found that the BSS-preprocessed MEGs classified the subjects with an accuracy of 80.6%, whereas 72.2% accuracy was obtained without the BSS and component selection procedure. PMID:18003241

Escudero, Javier; Hornero, Roberto; Abásolo, Daniel; Fernández, Alberto; Poza, Jesús

2007-01-01

42

Magnetoencephalogram blind source separation and component selection procedure to improve the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to improve the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients applying a blind source separation (BSS) and component selection procedure to their magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings. MEGs from 18 AD patients and 18 control subjects were decomposed with the algorithm for multiple unknown signals extraction. MEG channels and components were characterized by their mean frequency, spectral entropy, approximate entropy, and Lempel-Ziv complexity. Using Student's t-test, the components which accounted for the most significant differences between groups were selected. Then, these relevant components were used to partially reconstruct the MEG channels. By means of a linear discriminant analysis, we found that the BSS-preprocessed MEGs classified the subjects with an accuracy of 80.6%, whereas 72.2% accuracy was obtained without the BSS and component selection procedure.

Escudero J; Hornero R; Abásolo D; Fernández A; Poza J

2007-01-01

43

Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2012-01-01

44

Empirical Study of an Improved Component Based Software Development Model using Expert Opinion Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IT industry in the present market situation faces high demand for performance and burgeoning user expectations; with the pressure manifesting itself in three forms – Development Cost, Time-to-market and Product Quality. Researchers have proposed several techniques to effectively deal with these conflicting scenarios and draw optimized output. One of the relevant techniques in this context is Component Based Software Development (CBSD) with a targeted and discriminative approach influencing all phases of development. Although, CBSD proposes a multi-faceted approach in complex scenarios, its prime focus lies in “write once and reuse multiple times” methodology with either no or minor modifications. The model has been markedly successful in large enterprise applications with companies deriving benefits from shorter development time, increased productivity and better quality product. This research paper focuses and discusses Empirical Study of an Improved Component Based Software Development (ICBD) Model using Expert Opinion Technique which covers both component based software development as well as Component development phases. ICBD Model tries to overcome some of the issues in the contemporary CBD Models. A case study was conducted to investigate and evaluate our model by experienced professionals working in the IT industry. Results have shown that our improved model registers significant improvement over previous models suggested by other researchers.

Asif Irshad Khan; Md. Mottahir Alam; Noor-ul-Qayyum; Usman Ali Khan

2013-01-01

45

Improving accuracy of total knee component cementation: description of a simple technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty represents a common orthopedic surgical procedure. Achieving proper alignment of its components with the predrilled patellar and tibial peg holes prior to polymerization of the bone cement can be challenging. Technique After establishing the femoral, patellar and tibial bone cuts, the cancellous bone around the tibial keel, as well as the peg holes for the patella and femoral components are marked with methylene blue using a cotton swab stick. If bone cement is then placed onto the cut and marked bone edges, the methylene blue leaches through the bone cement and clearly outlines the tibial keel and predrilled femoral and patellar peg holes. This allows excellent visualization of the bone preparations for each component, ensuring safe and prompt positioning of TKA components while minimizing intraoperative difficulties with component alignment while the cement hardens. Conclusion The presented technical note helps to improve the accuracy and ease of insertion when the components of total knee arthroplasty are impacted to their final position.

Lutes William B; Flierl Michael A; Dayton Michael R; Morgan Steven J

2009-01-01

46

Use of High Magnetic Fields to Improve Material Properties for Hydraulics, Automotive and Truck Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this CRADA, research and development activities were successfully conducted on magnetic processing effects for the purpose of manipulating microstructure and the application specific performance of three alloys provided by Eaton (alloys provided were: carburized steel, plain low carbon steel and medium carbon spring steel). Three specific industrial/commercial application areas were considered where HMFP can be used to provide significant energy savings and improve materials performance include using HMFP to: 1.) Produce higher material strengths enabling higher torque bearing capability for drive shafts and other motor components; 2.) Increase the magnetic response in an iron-based material, thereby improving its magnetic permeability resulting in improved magnetic coupling and power density, and 3.) Improve wear resistance. The very promising results achieved in this endeavor include: 1.) a significant increase in tensile strength and a major reduction in volume percent retained austenite for the carburized alloy, and 2.) a substantial improvement in magnetic perm respect to a no-field processed sample (which also represents a significant improvement over the nominal conventional automotive condition of no heat treatment). The successful completion of these activities has resulted in the current 3-year CRADA No. NFE-09-02522 Prototyping Energy Efficient ThermoMagnetic and Induction Hardening for Heat Treat and Net Shape Forming Applications .

Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Ahmad, Aquil [Eaton Corporation

2010-08-01

47

Improving pharmaceutical aerosol delivery during noninvasive ventilation: effects of streamlined components.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aerosol delivery efficiency during noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is known to be low (~10%) and is associated with poor outcomes of aerosol therapy. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the benefit of redesigning ventilation circuit components using a streamlining approach to improve aerosol delivery during nasal high flow therapy in adults with a conventional-sized aerosol from a mesh nebulizer. The ventilation circuit consisted of a humidifier, mesh nebulizer, mixing T-connector (with 90° angle), 10 mm tubing, and nasal cannula interface. In vitro experiments and computational fluid dynamics analyses were used to evaluate depositional losses in a system of existing components and a newly proposed streamlined T-connector and cannula at flow rates of 30 and 45 LPM. Streamlined designs reduced deposition in the T-connector by a factor of 4. In the nasal cannula, the streamlined designs reduced depositional losses by factors of 1.25-2.0. With the streamlined designs, the highest emitted dose achieved was >40% for a conventional-sized aerosol at 30 LPM. Streamlined geometries offer an effective method to significantly improve the delivery of aerosols through components of NIV systems. This increase in delivery efficiency is important for new inhaled medications with narrow therapeutic windows, increased costs, or long delivery times.

Longest PW; Golshahi L; Hindle M

2013-06-01

48

Proposal of an improved design of IFMIF Test Cell components for enhanced handling and reliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An adequate design of components to be manipulated by remote handling is a key factor in the success of any activated facility, having a decisive impact on availability, prompt and safe maintenance, occupational exposures and flexibility of the facility. Such components should satisfy at least the basic remote handling requirements of simplicity, accessibility, modularity, standardization and assembling adequacy. Highly activated components in the IFMIF facility are found in the Test Cell, a pit closed by stepped shielding plugs. The Test Cell confines the Test Modules which contain the samples and experiments. The present reference design of the IFMIF Test Cell shows some drawbacks, in particular the jamming tendency of the shielding plugs, slow and complex access to the Backplate, a low lifetime component, and difficult positioning of the Test Modules. This paper summarises several modifications aiming at improving, under such remote handling requirements, the present reference design of the Test Cell shielding plugs and aspects of the geometrical structure of the Test Cell. A functional modularization of the present shielding plugs has been carried out and positioning guides for the Test Modules have been devised.

2009-01-01

49

The use of patient-specific instrumentation improves the accuracy of acetabular component placement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preoperative assessment of acetabular pathology, planning of bone preparation, and implant placement using current imaging, templating, and surgical techniques are imprecise, frequently resulting in component malposition. This study compared the accuracy of 2 surgical approaches: (1) standard preoperative imaging and instrumentation and (2) a novel 3-dimensional computed tomography scan-based preoperative planning software linked to patient- and implant-specific instrumentation (PSI) for placing acetabular components. The PSI group resulted in a significant improvement (P < .05) in the average deviation of implant position (actual vs planned) for version, inclination, and total offset. Fewer clinically relevant screw perforations were observed in the PSI group. This study shows proof of concept and justifies a clinical trial comparing PSI technology with standard surgical techniques.

Buller L; Smith T; Bryan J; Klika A; Barsoum W; Iannotti JP

2013-04-01

50

An Improved Independent Component Analysis Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional independent component analysis (ICA) method based on FastICA algorithm faced two main disadvantages. One is that the order of the independent components (ICs) is difficult to be determined and the other is that the FastICA algorithm often leads to local minimum solution, and the suitable source signals are not isolated. To alleviate these problems, an improved ICA algorithm based on artificial immune system (AIS) (called AIS-ICA) is presented. AIS is an attractive heuristic technique and has many advantages over other heuristic techniques such as it can be easily implemented and has great capability of escaping local optimal solutions The basic idea of the proposed AIS-ICA algorithm is to use AIS to determine the separating matrix of ICA. Simulation results from the artificial signal data illustrate the efficiency of the proposed AIS–ICA approach.

Li-Yuan Chen; Chi-Jie Lu

2013-01-01

51

Improving the voltage quality of an inverter via by-passing the harmonic current components  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, a control strategy is proposed to improve the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage of an inverter. The physical interpretation of the control strategy is to connect shunt resonant filters at harmonic frequencies to the output so that the harmonic current components are by-passed and do not flow through the inverter. As a result, the voltage THD can be maintained low even when a nonlinear load is connected. Experimental results are provided to verify the analysis and design.

Zhong, Qing-Chang; Blaabjerg, Frede

2012-01-01

52

An improved transmutation method for quantitative determination of the components in multicomponent overlapping chromatograms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An improved method is proposed for the quantitative determination of multicomponent overlapping chromatograms based on a known transmutation method. To overcome the main limitation of the transmutation method caused by the oscillation generated in the transmutation process, two techniques--wavelet transform smoothing and the cubic spline interpolation for reducing data points--were adopted, and a new criterion was also developed. By using the proposed algorithm, the oscillation can be suppressed effectively, and quantitative determination of the components in both the simulated and experimental overlapping chromatograms is successfully obtained.

Shao X; Yu Z; Ma C

2004-06-01

53

An improved transmutation method for quantitative determination of the components in multicomponent overlapping chromatograms.  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved method is proposed for the quantitative determination of multicomponent overlapping chromatograms based on a known transmutation method. To overcome the main limitation of the transmutation method caused by the oscillation generated in the transmutation process, two techniques--wavelet transform smoothing and the cubic spline interpolation for reducing data points--were adopted, and a new criterion was also developed. By using the proposed algorithm, the oscillation can be suppressed effectively, and quantitative determination of the components in both the simulated and experimental overlapping chromatograms is successfully obtained. PMID:15164155

Shao, Xueguang; Yu, Zhengliang; Ma, Chaoxiong

2004-05-26

54

Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss.

Benoit JB; Phillips SA; Croxall TJ; Christensen BS; Yoder JA; Denlinger DL

2009-05-01

55

Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss. PMID:19496429

Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L

2009-05-01

56

Improved retention of the EMS activation component (EMSAC) in adult CPR education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was undertaken to determine whether using a model-telephone to simulate the emergency medical services activation component (EMSAC) during adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training practice would lead to better retention of this component during end-of-class assessment. In a prospective randomized manner, 233 medical professionals and lay-persons taking American Heart Association (AHA) CPR classes were evaluated for EMSAC retention during CPR skills performance at the end of class. During the assessment correct versus incorrect activation of EMS was noted. Subject response by age, exposure to previous CPR training, and medical professional or lay-person status was examined. Differences in results among instructors also were examined. Overall, those in the group using the model-telephone remembered to activate EMS correctly more frequently than those in the group not using the phone (69 vs 52%, P = 0.009). The < 30 age group was unaffected by the use of the phone (P = 0.85). The group between 30 and 50 years of age did significantly better with the use of the phone (P = 0.007), as did those 50 years of age and older (P = 0.03). Previous CPR training did not affect the response (P = 0.18). We conclude that use of the model-telephone improved EMSAC retention significantly overall except in the < 30 year-old age group. We recommend using the model-telephone in future adult CPR classes.

Bilger MC; Giesen BC; Wollan PC; White RD

1997-11-01

57

Improved CuCrZr/316L transition for plasma facing components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Different welding strategies were investigated to improve the tubular transition of CuCrZr to 316L in cooling pipes for actively cooled plasma facing components. Electron beam welding experiments have been carried out on tubular samples using different filler and adapter materials. After non-destructive testing by dye penetrant and He-leak tight testing samples were tensile tested at RT and 400 deg. C to down-select promising candidates. Furthermore samples were taken for a metallographic examination in order to determine the integrity of the welds, the depth of penetration and the hardness profile across the weld. In the scanning electron microscope the weld microstructure and the formation of phases were studied. Good results were obtained by the use of a Ni-filler, an Inconel and explosive welded adapter. The tested samples of these variations fulfilled the strength requirements according to the ITER specification and showed an improved transition compared with the current solution of a pure Ni-adapter. The final down-selection will be based on the results of fatigue and torsion testing

2007-01-01

58

Improving PET receptor binding estimates from Logan plots using principal component analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach for reducing bias in distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimates from Logan plots in positron emission tomography (PET). Comparison has been made of all existing bias-removal methods with the proposed PCA method, for both single-estimate PET studies and intervention studies where pre- and post-intervention estimates are made. Bias in Logan-based DVR estimates is because of the noise in the PET time-activity curves (TACs) that propagates as correlated errors in dependent and independent variables of the Logan equation. Intervention studies show this same bias but also higher variance in DVR estimates. In this work, noise in the TACs was reduced by fitting the curves to a low-dimension PCA-based linear model, leading to reduced bias and variance in DVR. For validating the approach, TACs with realistic noise were simulated for a 11C-labeled tracer with carfentanil (CFN)-like kinetics for both single-measurement and intervention studies. Principal component analysis and existing methods were applied to the simulated data and their performance was compared by statistical analysis. The results indicated that existing methods either removed only part of the bias or reduced bias at the expense of precision. The proposed method removed ?90% of the bias while also improving precision in both single- and dual-measurement simulations. After validation of the proposed method in simulations, PCA, along with the existing methods, was applied to human [11C]CFN data acquired for both single estimation of DVR and dual-estimation intervention studies. Similar results were observed in human scans as were seen in the simulation studies.

Joshi, Aniket D; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Koeppe, Robert A

2010-01-01

59

Planning, demographics and Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the issue of demographics is presented as one of the most important factors in regard to the future development of Slovenia. We are still not fully aware of the consequences of the demographic development in the past, which has caused the current situation. The balance between the active and retired population is disturbed, as the percentage of retired persons is on the increase. This process will continue, because the number of retirements will increase in the future, mainly due to the demographic reasons. In regard to the current age the structure of the population in Slovenia, we can expect a huge and absolute increase in the number of elderly people and an even faster increase in the percentage of elderly people in the entire population. The number of retired persons will indirectly increase due to the longer life expectancy. In a demographic sense, the increase of elderly people means a significantly higher annual number of deaths and therefore a strong negative natural growth. This will be even more evident due to the significant decrease of the number of births in the last 30 years. This problem arises not only from low birth rates, but also due to the fact that the generations of women in their fertility period are less numerous.

Aleksander Jakoš

2009-01-01

60

Demographics and debt service.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"The discussion on the effects of the ongoing demographic transition on government behaviour has never mentioned its likely effect on an expenditure item (apparently non age specific) such as the debt service. This paper attempts to show that such effects could be non-negligible in countries (such as most European countries) where social security wealth arises from mandatory participation in pension schemes."

Rossi N

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Demographics and social security.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"This paper considers the welfare implications of the interactions between demographic changes and social security in an overlapping generations model in which retirement decisions are endogenous. Both a pay-as-you-go system and an actuarially-fair system are examined." The geographical focus is on the United States.

Hu SC

1993-01-01

62

DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic and Health Surveys are nationally representative household surveys with large sample sizes of between 5,000 and 30,000 households, typically. DHS surveys provide data for a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators in the areas of population, health, a...

63

PPAR? activation improves the molecular and functional components of I to remodeling by angiotensin II.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with diabetes exhibit significantly altered renin-angiotensin system (RAS) control. Recently, it has been determined that hyperglycemic conditions induce an increase in angiotensin II (AT II) expression; specifically by cardiomyocytes. Altered RAS has been shown to be associated with an increase in oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction leading to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The transient outward potassium current (Ito) in cardiac myocytes is mainly mediated by members of the Kv subfamily of voltage gated potassium channels and has been shown to be altered in cellular localization and expression during the development of cardiac hypertrophy. However it is not clear as to how AT II affects the pore forming complex at the cell membrane and thus directly affects the Ito current. In the current study, we explored the protective effect of PPAR? ligands on cardiomyocyte Ito by preventing NADPH Oxidase activation and the ensuing ROS formation. Furthermore, short term PPAR? activation in diabetic leptin deficient db/db mice displayed improvements in the membrane association of the molecular components of Ito as well as prolonged QT interval. These findings demonstrate that PPAR? agonists have the potential to attenuate cardiomyocyte dysfunction associated with diabetes.

Nanayakkara G; Viswaprakash N; Zhong J; Kariharan T; Quindry J; Amin R

2013-01-01

64

Studies on the improvement of the components of essential oil of genus Mentha by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

M. arvensis L. var. piperascens M sub(AL). (2 n = 96, R sup(a)Rsup(a)SS JJ AA, main component menthol) as the material the elucidation of biosynthetic mechanisms of essential oil was attempted. As the result it has been demonstrated that the biosynthesis is completed between 84 - 86 days after placing individual cells in the culture medium, especially on 85 days. Such an elucidation serves as the criteria of the biosynthetic pathway elucidation and it is the first accomplishment in the world. Next, the irradiation with ?-rays of 55R/min, total dose 19.5 KR gives a marked effect, and by this method a new plant (rose mint) having aroma similar to rose oil has been established, and this new plant has been designated as ''rose mint.'' This new improved plant can yield about 1 Kg of essential oil from 30 Kg of plant, and in comparing to 1 Kg of essential oil obtained from about 106 rose flowers by the conventional method, the yield is enormously greater and its wide application can be expected in the future. This newly developed breeding method can be also applied to other plants where the extraction of the plant compositions is desired, and at present this method is applied to the Perilla by which a new plant having sweet taste has been successfully established. (author)

1980-01-01

65

Demographic consequences of defeating aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion of this study is that population changes are surprisingly slow in their response to a dramatic life extension. For example, we applied the cohort-component method of population projections to 2005 Swedish population for several scenarios of life extension and a fertility schedule observed in 2005. Even for very long 100-year projection horizon, with the most radical life extension scenario (assuming no aging at all after age 60), the total population increases by 22% only (from 9.1 to 11.0 million). Moreover, if some members of society reject to use new anti-aging technologies for some religious or any other reasons (inconvenience, non-compliance, fear of side effects, costs, etc.), then the total population size may even decrease over time. Thus, even in the case of the most radical life extension scenario, population growth could be relatively slow and may not necessarily lead to overpopulation. Therefore, the real concerns should be placed not on the threat of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation), but rather on such potential obstacles to a success of biomedical war on aging, as scientific, organizational, and financial limitations. PMID:20426616

Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

66

Demographic consequences of defeating aging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion of this study is that population changes are surprisingly slow in their response to a dramatic life extension. For example, we applied the cohort-component method of population projections to 2005 Swedish population for several scenarios of life extension and a fertility schedule observed in 2005. Even for very long 100-year projection horizon, with the most radical life extension scenario (assuming no aging at all after age 60), the total population increases by 22% only (from 9.1 to 11.0 million). Moreover, if some members of society reject to use new anti-aging technologies for some religious or any other reasons (inconvenience, non-compliance, fear of side effects, costs, etc.), then the total population size may even decrease over time. Thus, even in the case of the most radical life extension scenario, population growth could be relatively slow and may not necessarily lead to overpopulation. Therefore, the real concerns should be placed not on the threat of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation), but rather on such potential obstacles to a success of biomedical war on aging, as scientific, organizational, and financial limitations.

Gavrilov LA; Gavrilova NS

2010-04-01

67

Demographics of Transition Objects  

CERN Multimedia

The unusual properties of transition objects (young stars with an optically thin inner disc surrounded by an optically thick outer disc) suggest that significant disc evolution has occured in these systems. We explore the nature of these systems by examining their demographics, specifically their stellar accretion rates (Mdot) and disc masses (Mdisc) compared to those of accreting T Tauri stars of comparable age. We find that transition objects in Taurus occupy a restricted region of the Mdot vs. Mdisc plane. Compared to non-transition single stars in Taurus, they have stellar accretion rates that are typically ~10 times lower at the same disc mass and median disc masses ~4 times larger. These properties are anticipated by several proposed planet formation theories and suggest that the formation of Jovian mass planets may play a significant role in explaining the origin of at least some transition objects. Considering transition objects as a distinct demographic group among accreting T Tauri stars leads to a ...

Najita, Joan R; Muzerolle, James

2007-01-01

68

Improved reliability for analog instrument and control systems. Volume 2. Guidelines for component selection and replacement. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear plant instrument and control module and power supply performance was analyzed to identify reliability and drift improvements that can reduce the incidence of plant trips and reportable drift. The application of electronic reliability prediction analysis, present generation electronic components, and established reliability military grade parts were shown to offer order of magnitude improvements in instrument and control module electronic accuracy and failure rate as reported in Volume 1. Applications information and failure rate prediction methods for analog instrument and control system electronic component selection and replacement are summarized in Volume 2. These volumes provide the final results for EPRI project RP2409-2

1986-01-01

69

Dual component cracking catalyst with vanadium passivation and improved sulfur tolerance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a dual component catalyst composition for the catalytic cracking of metal-containing hydrocarbonaceous feedstock. It comprises: a first component comprising an active cracking catalyst; and a second component, as a separate and distinct entity. The second component comprises: a calcium and magnesium containing material selected from the group consisting of dolomite, substantially amorphous calcium magnesium silicate, calcium magnesium oxide, calcium magnesium acetate, calcium magnesium carbonate, and calcium magnesium subcarbonate; a magnesium containing material comprising a hydrous magnesium silicate, and a binder selected from the group consisting of kaolin, bentonite, montmorillonite, saponite, hectorite, alumina, silica, titania, zirconia, silica-alumina, and combinations thereof.

Kennedy, J.V.; Jossens, L.W.

1991-01-29

70

Demographic aspects of aging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The contemporary world is undergoing demographic transition not only due to a decreased population growth, but also due to change in age-structure. The aging process is most prominent in the developed countries, while it is yet expected to commence in the European developing countries. The aging process is characterized by participation of persons older than 60 or 65 years in the overall population. USA Persons older than 65 make up 13 % of the US population. It is expected that their share will increase to 30% during the next 30 years. Europe European population in the world is systematically declining. By the year 2050, the population aged 65 and over will exhibit an increase of 60%. A nonlinear, ever increasing depopulation is expected to occur in Croatia, while FYR Macedonia has already been classified as a country in an advanced stage of population aging. Serbia During the second half of the 20th century, on average, the Serbian population was younger than the European, but aging was more prominent. Today, Serbia is among ten countries with the oldest population in the world. Vojvodina The worst demographic situation is found in Vojvodina. According to an assessment, its population has been among the world’s oldest for more than 30 years. The latest census shows a shift in the most numerous age group: from 35-39 to 40-45. Conclusion: Population aging is a worldwide reality. Differences among developed, developing and undeveloped countries are diminishing. Our population is among the oldest. Unless the state takes appropriate measures, we are heading towards a demographic catastrophe.

Turkulov Vesna; Madle-Samardžija Nadežda; Ni?iforovi?-Šurkovi? Olja; Gavran?i? ?edomir

2007-01-01

71

Improved CuCrZr / 316L Transition for Plasma Facing Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma Facing Components used in all advanced nuclear fusion experiments and in particular for ITER consist of heat sinks made of the precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy. This material has been selected due to the requirements regarding thermal and mechanical properties with and without the presence of neutrons. The divertor parts which are highly heat loaded are actively cooled and are assembled onto weld stainless steel pressure vessels of grade 316L. Therefore these plasma facing parts need a transition in the cooling pipes from CuCrZr to 316L which withstands the internal pressure, the fatigue loads and remains leak tight during operation. As direct fusion welding of CuCrZr with 316L is regarded as critical due to metallurgical issues, the current design uses a transition of Ni - sleeve which is welded onto the CuCrZr and 316L, respectively. However, there is still some concern for the mechanically constraint region of the inlet coolant that this intermediate adapter is the weakest point and could fail due to strongly localised plasticity. The aim of this project is to investigate alternative solutions for the transition of CuCrZr / 316L, to down-select the most promising candidate and finally qualify a new improved tubular transition system. Basic EB welding experiments have been carried out on CuCrZr / 316L tubular samples using different adapter and filler materials. The adapter materials, e.g. Inconel 625 and Monel K500, were chosen due to their high temperature strength and good weldability with respect to Cu - alloys and austenitic steels. In case of the investigated filler metals Ni and Ti the intention was to control the dilution and to produce a fine grained weld zone with no formation of detrimental phases. As a further option the use of an explosively welded CuCrZr/316L adapter was evaluated. The application of such an adapter would simplify the issue to the welding of CuCrZr / CuCrZr and 316L / 316L respectively. In the characterisation programme the samples were first characterised by non destructive testing and metallographic examination. An indication on the mechanical properties was gained by tensile testing of welded samples at RT and 400oC. After the down-selection of the most promising candidate test samples were manufactured for the qualification programme. Besides the general requirements for the application as cooling system the qualification programme considered tensile testing at different temperatures, fatigue and torsion testing as well as inspection regarding leak tightness. (author)

2006-01-01

72

Hardened multi-functions chip carrier use to improve LSI-VLSI components reliability in an ionizing environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article features a new structure for LSI-VLSI chip encapsulation intended to simplify component utilization in space and military applications. This structure incorporates two basic sections: - a hardened, capacitive lid designed to simultaneously control the chip power supply due to the incorporation of a multilayer ceramic capacitor and to act as a screen against radiation, and - a hardened base promoting the heat transfer function using tungsten inserts intended to reduce radiation. After optimization, this encapsulation method for solid state components based upon the utilization of a local screen permits to obtain the same level of protection as that offered with standard processes and also provides weight and volume savings. Moreover, this method improves the operating conditions of the components because of a more efficient power supply control function and improved heat transfer and finally permits to increase the reliability of the equipment in an ionizing environment

1986-01-01

73

The Improved Methods of Critical Component Classification for the SSCs of New NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Functional Importance Determination (FID) process classifies the components of a plant into four groups: Critical A, Critical B, Minor and No Impact. The output of FID can be used as the decision-making tool for maintenance work priority and the input data for preventive maintenance implementation. FID applied to new Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) can be accomplished by utilizing the function analysis results and safety significance determination results of Maintenance Rule (MR) program. Using Shin-Kori NPP as an example, this paper proposes the advanced critical component classification methods for FID utilizing MR scoping results

Lee, Sang Dae; Yeom, Dong Un; Hyun, Jin Woo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-10-15

74

The Improved Methods of Critical Component Classification for the SSCs of New NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Functional Importance Determination (FID) process classifies the components of a plant into four groups: Critical A, Critical B, Minor and No Impact. The output of FID can be used as the decision-making tool for maintenance work priority and the input data for preventive maintenance implementation. FID applied to new Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) can be accomplished by utilizing the function analysis results and safety significance determination results of Maintenance Rule (MR) program. Using Shin-Kori NPP as an example, this paper proposes the advanced critical component classification methods for FID utilizing MR scoping results

2010-01-01

75

Component and procedural improvements for the T-62T-40-7 gas turbine in the LCAC fleet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sundstrand Power Systems T-62T-40-7 Gas Turbine Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) was adapted from an aircraft-borne APU to a marine application on the US Navy`s Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC). Although the LCAC APU experienced less operating time than its aircraft version, the environmental conditions that exist cause unusual wear and component failures. Component and procedural improvements have been developed to extend the reliability of the T-62T-40-7 on board the LCAC.

Ehrhardt, J.P. [Naval Sea System Command, Washington, DC (United States). Amphibious Warfare Program; Spring, S.K. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Carderock Div.

1996-04-01

76

Combined principal component preprocessing and n-tuple neural networks for improved classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a combined principal component analysis/neural network scheme for classification. The data used to illustrate the method consist of spectral fluorescence recordings from seven different production facilities, and the task is to relate an unknown sample to one of these seven factories. The data are first preprocessed by performing an individual principal component analysis on each of the seven groups of data. The components found are then used for classifying the data, but instead of making a single multiclass classifier, we follow the ideas of turning a multiclass problem into a number of two-class problems. For each possible pair of classes we further apply a transformation to the calculated principal components in order to increase the separation between the classes. Finally we apply the so-called n-tuple neural network to the transformed data in order to give the classification system non-linear capabilities, and all derived two-class models are combined to facilitate multiclass classification. Validation results show that the combined scheme is superior to the individual methods. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

HØskuldsson, Agnar; Linneberg, Christian

2000-01-01

77

Implications of Demographic Change for the Design of Retirement Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influences that demographic changes may have on the design of private pension plans in the twenty-first century are examined. Major demographic factors to be considered include the aging of the population, declining mortality rate, potential for an even lower mortality rate, improved health for all ages and especially for older workers, and…

Biggs, John H.

1994-01-01

78

Política pública y componentes sociodemográficos de la microempresa en el nuevo siglo: el caso de Colombia y México/ Public policy and socio-demographic components of the microenterprise in the new century: the case of Colombia and Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En América Latina dos países se han caracterizado por recibir importantes apoyos internacionales para el fomento y la consolidación de la microempresa: Colombia y México. Con dichos apoyos, ambos países han buscado fomentar el surgimiento e incremento de las microempresas como pilar fundamental del fomento al empleo y el desarrollo social. En este sentido, el presente artículo -que es parte de una investigación cualitativa más amplia sobre la microempresa en Amér (more) ica Latina- tiene como objetivo analizar el desarrollo de la microempresa en ambos países y las características sociodemográficas de su fuerza laboral. Para tal fin, en esta investigación se hace un breve recuento histórico de la forma y las condiciones en que surge y evoluciona la política pública hacia la microempresa en ambos países, asimismo, se comparan algunas características sociodemográficas de la microempresa en cada país. Abstract in english In Latin America two countries have been characterized by receiving important international funds to foster and consolidate microenterprises: Colombia and Mexico. With said supports, both countries have sought to foment employment and social development. In this sense, the present article, which is part of a broader qualitative research on microenterprises in Latin America, has as an objective to analyze the development of microenterprises in both countries and the socio- (more) demographic characteristics of their labor force. For such end, in this research we make a brief historic account of the way and the conditions wherein public policies for the microenterprises appear and evolve in both countries; likewise, some of the socio-demographic characteristics of microenterprises in each country are analyzed.

Neira-Orjuela, Fernando

2011-09-01

79

Are Demographic Diversity Effects Spurious?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The substantial literature on the relationship between demographic diversity and team performance yields weak and/or inconsistent results. Using match-level data of all games played in the German soccer league Bundesliga over six seasons, this paper analyzes age, race and tenure diversity of the fielded team under different model specifications to test the robustness of demographic diversity effects. The empirical results reveal that the correlations between demographic diversity and the outcome of the game are confounded by mean values of the demographic attributes and contextual covariates.

Stephan Nüesch

2009-01-01

80

Flow induced vibrations: modelling to improve the evaluation of the component life duration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many components of nuclear power plants, are submitted to flow induced vibrations, which can lead to severe damages due to wear or fatigue. A new methodology developed at EDF since ten years is presented here. This methodology aims to determine the characteristics of the flow induced forces, then to take these forces into account to predict the dynamics of the fluid-structure coupled system. It is based upon both, a set of softwares which enable the determination of the different fluid forces, and experimental set-ups. (authors)

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Development of improved and corrosion-resistant surfaces for fossil power system components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this task is to develop the corrosion-resistant surfaces on a variety of fossil power system components. The Fe-Al alloys ranging in aluminum from 16 to 36 @ % are of interest. The surfaces of Fe-Al alloys can be produced by weld overlay. However, because of their limited room-temperature ductility, the production of weld wire for these compositions is not commercially feasible. The alloying element dilution during weld overlay also makes depositing exact surface composition rather difficult.

Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

1996-06-01

82

Improved synthesis of three methyl-branched pheromone components produced by the female lichen moth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female moths of Lyclene dharma dharma (Arctiidae, Lithosiinae) produce a novel sex pheromone composed of three methyl-branched ketones: 6-methyl-2-octadecanone (I), 14-methyl-2-octadecanone (II), and 6,14-dimethyl-2-octadecanone (III). Their structures were confirmed by syntheses accomplished by a different route for each component. In order to obtain a sufficient amount of the synthetic pheromone, we developed new routes via methyl-branched 1-alkenes: 6-methyl-1-octadecene (1), 14-methyl-1-octadecene (2), and 6,14-dimethyl-1-octadecene (3). Compound 1 was synthesized by coupling between a C(10)-chain bromide and a 3-methyl-branched C(8) unit (A) prepared from 3-methyl-1,5-pentanediol, 2, by coupling between a C(11)-chain bromide and a 3-methyl-branched C(7) unit (B) prepared from 2-hexanone, and 3, by connecting A and B, using propargyl alcohol as a C(3) linchpin. The use of 3-chloro-1-propanol and tert-butyl acetoacetate as the linchpin was also examined to connect the two synthetic blocks in the synthesis of 3. Components I-III were obtained by Wacker oxidation of the corresponding 1-alkenes 1-3 in good yields. PMID:20057134

Taguri, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Rei; Adachi, Yasushi; Mori, Kenji; Ando, Tetsu

2010-01-07

83

Improved synthesis of three methyl-branched pheromone components produced by the female lichen moth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female moths of Lyclene dharma dharma (Arctiidae, Lithosiinae) produce a novel sex pheromone composed of three methyl-branched ketones: 6-methyl-2-octadecanone (I), 14-methyl-2-octadecanone (II), and 6,14-dimethyl-2-octadecanone (III). Their structures were confirmed by syntheses accomplished by a different route for each component. In order to obtain a sufficient amount of the synthetic pheromone, we developed new routes via methyl-branched 1-alkenes: 6-methyl-1-octadecene (1), 14-methyl-1-octadecene (2), and 6,14-dimethyl-1-octadecene (3). Compound 1 was synthesized by coupling between a C(10)-chain bromide and a 3-methyl-branched C(8) unit (A) prepared from 3-methyl-1,5-pentanediol, 2, by coupling between a C(11)-chain bromide and a 3-methyl-branched C(7) unit (B) prepared from 2-hexanone, and 3, by connecting A and B, using propargyl alcohol as a C(3) linchpin. The use of 3-chloro-1-propanol and tert-butyl acetoacetate as the linchpin was also examined to connect the two synthetic blocks in the synthesis of 3. Components I-III were obtained by Wacker oxidation of the corresponding 1-alkenes 1-3 in good yields.

Taguri T; Yamakawa R; Adachi Y; Mori K; Ando T

2010-01-01

84

IMPROVED SEARCH OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATABASES FOR SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC INVERSION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 2{sup 4n} bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of ''compatible'' models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 2{sup 4n} as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing.

Casini, R.; Lites, B. W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Ramos, A. Asensio [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, c/Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ariste, A. Lopez [THEMIS, CNRS UPS 853, c/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

2013-08-20

85

New Design of Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System to Improve the Performance and Reliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System(ESF-CCS) is to control the engineered safety features of NPP like SOVs, MOVs, pumps, and dampers etc, for the purpose of mitigating the effects of DBA(Design Basis Accident) or abnormal operation. ESF-CCS is designed to be composed of fault tolerant GCs(Group Controller), LCs(Loop Controller), ETIP(ESF-CCS Test and Interface Processor), COM(Cabinet Operator Module), and so on. For the increase of safety, reliability and availability compared to an existing system, in the first place, GCs in each division are designed to be fully independent triple configuration so that it can make possible to be tested one by one for GCs during normal operation. Secondly, the design change is made for the safety related plant component control part to be included in LCs, and to be developed according to the safety critical system development procedures. And lastly, the test and diagnosis capabilities of ETIP and COM are reinforced. ESF-CCS consists of four independent divisions(A, B, C, and D) in APR1400, but one division as the prototype is being designed and will be tested in this stage

2006-01-01

86

Ether components to improve diesel fuel quality: options for R-D and D  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cetane number data from the literature and diesel engine emissions were analyzed for several mono- and poly-ether families, using a multi-component fuel model to calculate the percentage range for safe blending of oxygenates in diesel fuel. The result of the analysis was a classification into four safety categories, i.e. gasoline-like ethers, diesel-like ethers, flammable ethers at any blending percentages, and ethers that can be safely blended up to a maximum limit. The implications of making and using ethers from natural gas are analyzed, and a menu of business options is offered for discussion. The impact of ethers on complementary activities, such as blending ethers versus changing refinery processes, or options for making or buying ether components, or use of ethers as diluents for pipe lining oil sands products are reviewed. An analysis of requirements that future fuel and engine standards and after-treatment may impose and the applications they suggest are summarized. A preliminary assessment is made of global warming of ethers and Fischer-Tropsch diesel for Canada. Future work at Battelle and Advanced Engine Technology Ltd, and co-funded by Natural Resources Canada to determine the safety, storage and ignition quality of ethers is also discussed. 46 refs., 2 tabs.

Pigeon, R. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Energy technology Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kaliaguine, S.; Xu, G. [Laval Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Bardon, M. [thermotech Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada); Picard, I. [Gaz Metropolitain, Natural Gas Technology Centre, Boucherville, PQ (Canada)

1999-08-01

87

Component selection, accelerated testing, and improved modeling of AMTEC systems for space power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The likely selection of a remote condensed design for initial flight test and probably use with a radioisotope heat source in AMTEC powered planet probes requires the device to be constructed to tolerate operating T > 1,150 K, as well as exposure to Na(g), and Na(liq) on the high pressure side. The temperatures involved make the characterization of high strength and chemical resistance to Na containing Na2O critical. Selection among materials which can be worked should not be driven by ease of fabricability, as high temperature stability is the critical issue. This paper will provide an assessment of some of the materials and components required for high performance AMTEC devices for space applications. Basic models for AMTEC cell operation include a fundamental electrode performance model and an electrode life model which have been compared to experimental performance results. Recent work indicates that several AMTEC electrode have the potential for high performance and long life. Other AMTEC components still present problems, although some issues have little experimental or fundamental basis. The status of these problems will be discussed in this paper, with the goal of focusing attention on critical problems, and correcting some mis-impressions about other issues

1993-01-01

88

Salient region detection improved by principle component analysis and boundary information.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salient region detection is useful for several image-processing applications, such as adaptive compression, object recognition, image retrieval, filter design, and image retargeting. A novel method to determine the salient regions of images is proposed in this paper. The L? smoothing filter and principle component analysis (PCA) play important roles in our framework. The L? filter is extremely helpful in characterizing fundamental image constituents, i.e., salient edges, and can simultaneously diminish insignificant details, thus producing more accurate boundary information for background merging and boundary scoring. PCA can reduce computational complexity as well as attenuate noise and translation errors. A local-global contrast is then used to calculate the distinction. Finally, image segmentation is used to achieve full-resolution saliency maps. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art saliency detection methods and shown to yield higher precision-recall rates and F-measures.

Wu PH; Chen CC; Ding JJ; Hsu CY; Huang YW

2013-09-01

89

Salient region detection improved by principle component analysis and boundary information.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salient region detection is useful for several image-processing applications, such as adaptive compression, object recognition, image retrieval, filter design, and image retargeting. A novel method to determine the salient regions of images is proposed in this paper. The L? smoothing filter and principle component analysis (PCA) play important roles in our framework. The L? filter is extremely helpful in characterizing fundamental image constituents, i.e., salient edges, and can simultaneously diminish insignificant details, thus producing more accurate boundary information for background merging and boundary scoring. PCA can reduce computational complexity as well as attenuate noise and translation errors. A local-global contrast is then used to calculate the distinction. Finally, image segmentation is used to achieve full-resolution saliency maps. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art saliency detection methods and shown to yield higher precision-recall rates and F-measures. PMID:23744683

Wu, Po-Hung; Chen, Chien-Chi; Ding, Jian-Jiun; Hsu, Chi-Yu; Huang, Ying-Wun

2013-06-04

90

Detection of allergen walnut component in food by an improved real-time PCR method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A real-time PCR method aimed at the gene sequence of the walnut vicilin-like seed storage protein was established for the detection of the allergen walnut in food. The primers and probe were designed based on published methods. The method provided positive results for walnut and negative results for other tested agricultural plant materials including pecan. The intrinsic detection limit of the method was 0.00125 ng of walnut DNA, and the practical detection limit was 0.001% (wt/wt) walnut content in wheat; both of these values are lower than that of previously published methods. Therefore, this real-time PCR method is sufficiently specific and sensitive for the detection of walnut component in food.

Wang H; Yuan F; Wu Y; Yang H; Xu B; Liu Z; Chen Y

2009-11-01

91

Improved molding of DAP (diallyl phthalate) electrical components in aluminum housings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diallyl phthalate (DAP) resin-based compounds with fiberglass reinforcements were used for the transfer molding of electrical components in aluminum housings. The gate size for this molding is less than 1 mm, and the end products, which are very small parts, must conform to stringent dimensional tolerances (typically {plus minus}0.05 mm). Parts must also exhibit physical properties that exceed the requirements specified by Mil-M-14G without compromising excellent electrical characteristics. In the past, processing had proceeded with only minor difficulties, but an alloy change instituted for the electrode material caused molding yields to plummet from 80 to 25%. Subsequent evaluations and process modifications not only remedied the impact of the alloy change but also increased yields to 96%. 9 figs., 1 tab.

Kaye, C.J.

1990-01-01

92

Improving the environmental quality component of the County Health Rankings model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between environmental quality measures and health outcomes by using the County Health Rankings data, and tested whether a revised environmental quality measure for 1 state could improve the models. METHODS: We conducted state-by-state, county-level linear regression analyses to determine how often the model's 4 health determinants (social and economic factors, health behaviors, clinical care, and physical environment) were associated with mortality and morbidity outcomes. We then developed a revised measure of environmental quality for West Virginia, and tested whether the revised measure was superior to the original measure. RESULTS: Measures of social and economic conditions, and health behaviors, were related to health outcomes in 58% to 88% of state models; measures of environmental quality were related to outcomes in 0% to 8% of models. In West Virginia, the original measure of environmental quality was unrelated to any of the 8 health outcome measures, but the revised measure was significantly related to all 8. CONCLUSIONS: The County Health Rankings model underestimates the impact of the physical environment on public health outcomes. Suggestions for other data sources that may contribute to improved measurement of the physical environment are provided.

Hendryx M; Ahern MM; Zullig KJ

2013-04-01

93

Relationship Among Yield Components and Selection Criteria for Yield Improvement in Safflower Carthamus tinctorious L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirteen safflower mutants along with parental varieties and Mexican Lines were studied for variability, heritability, genetic advance and coheritability in irrigated and drought stress condition. Genotypic and phenotypic variances were highest for height and number of seed in capitulum. Whereas the maximum genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variability were found in number of capitulum and number of seed in capitulum. Heritability estimates ranged from very low to high. Maximum heritability of 0/94 in irrigated condition was obtained for 100 seed weight and 0/711 in drought condition was obtained for capitulum diameter. In irrigated condition high heritability for capitulum weight, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity and in drought stress condition for number of seed in capitulum, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity with high genetic advances was obtained that these traits could be improved through mass selection. Coheritability estimates indicated that in irrigated condition selection for 100 grain weight, capitulum weight, number of seed in capitulum and in drought stress condition selection for stem diameter, capitulum diameter, 100 seed weight and number of seed in capitulum would improve the yield.

Asadi Ali Akbar; Mozaffari Kamran

2006-01-01

94

Improvement of yield components in food legumes using the technique of induced mutations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a study of the effectiveness of gamma rays in the induction of variability in Phaseolus vulgaris, a dose of 30 krad, used either singly or recurrently, was found to increase variability and to change the means of the components of yield. Selection on the basis of seed size and starting with the M2 generation was successful in identifying mutants with increased seed size (with the increase being of the order of 8-15% over the unirradiated original), as well as in identifying a high yielding genotype, which expressed an increase in seed size as well as in the number of pods per plant. The technique was extended to Arachis hypogaea, with two minor modifications, namely five irradiation doses were used (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 krad) and with selection on the basis of the number of pods per plant in the M2 generation. So far (at the M3 generation), two mutants from the 20 krad treatment have been found to show an increase of 32-42% over the unirradiated original in seed size and an increase of 1-18% in the kernel yield per plant. On the basis of bulked population, the four lower irradiation doses in a replicated field trial showed better performance than the unirradiated control in terms of the percentage of survival at harvest, the number of pods per plant and the dry weight of the pods per plot, although the differences were not statistically significant. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

1988-01-01

95

Considerations to improve the recovery of the thermic component of the compressed air for compressor stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper refers to energetic and ecological aspects in the operation of volumetric piston compressors used in compressor stations at mines. The applied analysis method is based on the generalization of the pinch technology and the use of Carnot temperature, taking also into account the thermodynamics concepts in finite time. As a result of this analysis, a series of solutions for recovery and valorification of the thermal component in the compressed air energy on the following circuits are proposed: (1) low pressure stage of the intermediate cooler compressor; (2) high pressure stage of the final cooler. Simultaneously, the effects of recovery on the humidity of compressed air, forced in the transport and distribution network are followed, paying attention to the aspects concerning the environmental pollution. This paper is justified by the big energy losses reported at coal mines compressor stations, where the installed power afferent to the compressors is of the order of thousands of kW and the delivered compressed air flows reach 1,000--1,500 m{sup 3}{sub N}/min. The proposed recovery and valorification solutions are comparatively analyzed, advantages and disadvantages being pointed out. The proposed recovery solutions include: classic heat exchangers, heat exchangers with plates, heat exchangers with thermal tubes, and absorption heat pumps.

Irimie, I.I.; Irimie, S.; Tulbure, I. [Univ. of Petrosani (Romania)

1996-12-31

96

Improvement of the detectability of near surface cracks in cladded components by combined NDT-methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience in the use of eddy current testing as a selected compliment to a sensitive ultrasonic test confirm the physically justified expectation that the total efficiency of the non-destructive test can be increased for detection of flaws near the surface and near the plating by the fact that this approach very reliably guarantees that a component is free of cracks in the area monitored by both of these methods. Using the eddy current test to check ligaments under practical conditions makes it possible to use an ultrasonic test with SEL 70 technique adjusted for high sensitivity for the reliable detection of cracks. The SEL technique lacks precision as far as the depth and depth extension is concerned. Therefore, this technique supplies many indications when adjusted for sensitivity in detecting cracks below plating without countertesting by means of eddy current which would have to be interpreted as cracks if this could not be unambiguously ruled out for each position with the eddy current test. It was possible to show how effective this combination is at many places during our work in summer 1995. Checking the entire plating for potential cracks using the combination of eddy current testing to monitor ligaments, and surface crack testing with an ultrasonic test set with high sensitivity guarantees detection of faults. (orig.).

1996-01-01

97

Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herval mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. In addition, these extracts induced the same effects on the peritoneal macrophages. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression - IL-1{beta}, IL-6, LT and iNOS-were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. (author). 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Chonan (Korea)

1999-04-01

98

Residual life assessment, technical improvements and backfitting of components and systems from the materials standpoint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The safety standard which is attained at the time of initial startup by a nucleaar power plant built in accordance with state-of-the-art design and engineering principles must be assured throughout the plant's entire lifetime. Based on operating experience a plant's original design life should be systematically reevaluated in the light of new findings and developments in safety. The results of an analysis of this type can also be useful for the purposes of preventive maintenance or to prolong a plant's planned or licensed service life. Moreover, they form the basis of decisions regarding technical upgrades and backfits and are of value in optimizing plant reliability and availability. A concept exists for components in light water reactors which provides for prompt identification and remedying of damage due to the deterioration in service of materials and their properties (e.g. fatigue, local corrosion mechanisms, erosion corrosion, neutron irradiation). It may be necessary or appropriate to implement technical upgrades or backfits where application of more up-to-date safety standards (e.g. break preclusion methodology) demands compliance with more stringent requirements than those originally used in the design basis, or where systematic damage cannot be ruled out (unstabilized austenitic steels in BWR plants), or where it is possible to make substantial reductions in the radiation exposure of operating or maintenance personnel (substitution of cobalt-containing materials) during the plant's lifetime. (orig.)

Erve, M. (Siemens AG, Abt. KWU, Erlangen (Germany)); Tenckhoff, E. (Siemens AG, Abt. KWU, Erlangen (Germany))

1993-10-01

99

Residual life assessment, technical improvements and backfitting of components and systems from the materials standpoint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety standard which is attained at the time of initial startup by a nucleaar power plant built in accordance with state-of-the-art design and engineering principles must be assured throughout the plant's entire lifetime. Based on operating experience a plant's original design life should be systematically reevaluated in the light of new findings and developments in safety. The results of an analysis of this type can also be useful for the purposes of preventive maintenance or to prolong a plant's planned or licensed service life. Moreover, they form the basis of decisions regarding technical upgrades and backfits and are of value in optimizing plant reliability and availability. A concept exists for components in light water reactors which provides for prompt identification and remedying of damage due to the deterioration in service of materials and their properties (e.g. fatigue, local corrosion mechanisms, erosion corrosion, neutron irradiation). It may be necessary or appropriate to implement technical upgrades or backfits where application of more up-to-date safety standards (e.g. break preclusion methodology) demands compliance with more stringent requirements than those originally used in the design basis, or where systematic damage cannot be ruled out (unstabilized austenitic steels in BWR plants), or where it is possible to make substantial reductions in the radiation exposure of operating or maintenance personnel (substitution of cobalt-containing materials) during the plant's lifetime. (orig.)

1993-01-01

100

Meat intake in Britain in relation to other dietary components and to demographic and risk factor variables: analyses based on the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 2000/2001.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat intakes have been positively associated with the risk of several major chronic diseases. Understanding population intakes is important when formulating dietary recommendations. The present study investigated the dispersion of intakes of red and processed meat and associations with dietary, socio-demographic and risk factors. METHODS: The present study comprised a secondary analysis of the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000/1, including 7-day dietary records, from 766 male and 958 female respondents aged 19-64 years. Composite dishes were disaggregated into primary ingredients. Self-reported vegetarians (V) were grouped into one stratum and other respondents were stratified into five groups (F1-F5) according to energy-adjusted red plus processed meat (RPM) intake, to give six strata. 7-day RPM intakes were adjusted to estimate 'usual' habitual intakes, using ratios of between-person to total variance in daily intakes. RESULTS: Mean recorded intakes of red, processed, white and total meat were 48, 41, 40 and 129 g day(-1) , respectively, in males and 30, 22, 30 and 82 g day(-1) in females. Estimated habitual intakes of RPM standardised to sex-specific energy intakes across the six strata were: 12 (V), 56, 76, 90, 105 and 137 g day(-1) in males and 5 (V), 34, 46, 55, 65 and 88 g day(-1) in females. Lower RPM consumers tended to be of higher social class and educational level and to have more favourable levels of some risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Mean intakes of red, processed and white meat were of similar magnitude. Habitual intakes of RPM showed wide dispersion with one-quarter of males < 55 g day(-1) and one-quarter of females < 27 g day(-1) . Lowering overall RPM consumption could be achieved by seeking greater reductions among current high consumers.

Aston LM; Smith JN; Powles JW

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Improving prediction selectivity for on-line near-infrared monitoring of components in etchant solution by spectral range optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The components (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, HNO{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}COOH and water) in an etchant solution have been accurately measured in an on-line manner using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy by directly illuminating NIR radiation through a Teflon line. In particular, the spectral features according to the change of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} or HNO{sub 3} concentrations were not mainly from NIR absorption themselves, but from the perturbation (or displacement) of water bands; therefore, the resulting spectral variations were quite similar to each other. Consequently partial least squares (PLS) prediction selectivity among the components should be the most critical issue for continuous on-line compositional monitoring by NIR spectroscopy. To improve selectivity of the calibration model, we have optimized the calibration models by finding selective spectral ranges with the use of moving window PLS. Using the optimized PLS models for each component, the resulting prediction accuracies were substantially improved. Furthermore, on-line prediction selectivity was evaluated by spiking individual pure components step by step and examining the resulting prediction trends. When optimized PLS models were used, each concentration was selectively and sensitively varied at each spike; meanwhile, when whole or non-optimized ranges were used for PLS, the prediction selectivity was greatly degraded. This study verifies that the selection of an optimal spectral range for PLS is the most important factor to make Teflon-based NIR measurements successful for on-line and real-time monitoring of etching solutions.

Namkung, Hankyu; Lee, Youngbok [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hoeil [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hoeil@hanyang.ac.kr

2008-01-07

102

Female athlete triad and its components: toward improved screening and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

As female athletic participation has increased, the positive effects of exercise on health have become evident. However, with this growth in sports activity, a set of health problems unique to the female athlete has emerged. The female athlete triad as first described in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine consisted of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis; the definition was updated in 2007 to include a spectrum of dysfunction related to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. For this review, a comprehensive search of databases-MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus, from earliest inclusive dates to January 2013-was conducted by an experienced librarian with input from the authors. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords such as female athlete triad, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, fracture, osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone disease, anorexia, bulimia, disordered eating, low energy availability was used to search for articles on female athlete triad. Articles addressing the prevalence, screening, and management of the female athlete triad were selected for inclusion in the review. This article reviews the current definitions of the triad components, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and recommended screening and management guidelines. The lack of efficacy of current screening of athletes is highlighted. Low energy availablity, from either dietary restriction or increased expenditure, plays a pivotal role in development of the triad. Athletes involved in "lean sports" (those that emphasize weight categories or aesthetics, such as ballet, gymnastics, or endurance running) are at highest risk. Treatment is centered on restoring energy availability to reverse adverse changes in the metabolic milieu. Prevention and early recognition of triad disorders are crucial to ensure timely intervention. Caregivers and physicians of female athletes must remain vigilant in education, recognition, and treatment of athletes at risk. PMID:24001492

Javed, Asma; Tebben, Peter J; Fischer, Philip R; Lteif, Aida N

2013-09-01

103

Female athlete triad and its components: toward improved screening and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As female athletic participation has increased, the positive effects of exercise on health have become evident. However, with this growth in sports activity, a set of health problems unique to the female athlete has emerged. The female athlete triad as first described in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine consisted of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis; the definition was updated in 2007 to include a spectrum of dysfunction related to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. For this review, a comprehensive search of databases-MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus, from earliest inclusive dates to January 2013-was conducted by an experienced librarian with input from the authors. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords such as female athlete triad, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, fracture, osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone disease, anorexia, bulimia, disordered eating, low energy availability was used to search for articles on female athlete triad. Articles addressing the prevalence, screening, and management of the female athlete triad were selected for inclusion in the review. This article reviews the current definitions of the triad components, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and recommended screening and management guidelines. The lack of efficacy of current screening of athletes is highlighted. Low energy availablity, from either dietary restriction or increased expenditure, plays a pivotal role in development of the triad. Athletes involved in "lean sports" (those that emphasize weight categories or aesthetics, such as ballet, gymnastics, or endurance running) are at highest risk. Treatment is centered on restoring energy availability to reverse adverse changes in the metabolic milieu. Prevention and early recognition of triad disorders are crucial to ensure timely intervention. Caregivers and physicians of female athletes must remain vigilant in education, recognition, and treatment of athletes at risk.

Javed A; Tebben PJ; Fischer PR; Lteif AN

2013-09-01

104

Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

Louise Hardman Smith; Kirsten Hviid; Karen Bo Frydendall; Mari-Ann Flyvholm

2013-01-01

105

Improved K-value correlation for UAE crude oil components at high pressures using PVT laboratory data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, 732 high-pressure K-values obtained from PVT analysis of 17 crude oil and gas samples from a number of petroleum reservoirs in the UAE are used. Material balance techniques are used to extract the K-values of crude oil and gas components from the constant volume depletion and differential liberation tests for the oil and gas samples, respectively. These K-values are then correlated and the resulting correlation compared with published correlations. Comparisons of results show that currently published correlations give poor estimates of K-values for non-hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon components, while the proposed new correlation improved significantly the average absolute deviation for non-hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon components. The average absolute error between experimental and predicted K-values for the new correlation was 20.5% compared with 76.1% for the Whitson and Torp correlation, 84.27% for the Wilson correlation, and 105.8 for the McWilliams correlation. Additionally, the bubble point and dew point pressures are calculated for these 17 samples and compared with experimental values. The average absolute error in the saturation pressures for the new correlation was 6.08% compared with 56.34% for the Wilson correlation, 57.84% for the Whitson and Torp correlation, and 9.28% for the Peng Robinson equation of state with default parameters. 12 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

R.A. Almehaideb; I. Ashour; K.A. El-Fattah [UAE University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, College of Engineering

2003-06-01

106

Estimation of Variance Components for Litter Size in the First and Later Parities in Improved Jezersko-Solcava Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of this study was to estimate variance components for litter size in Improved Jezersko-Solcava sheep. Analysis involved 66,082 records from 12,969 animals, for the number of lambs born in all parities (BA), the first parity (B1), and later parities (B2+). Fixed part of model contained the effects of season and age at lambing within parity. Random part of model contained the effects of herd, permanent effect (for repeatability models), and additive genetic effect. Variance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The average number of lambs born was 1.36 in the first parity, while the average in later parities was 1.59 leading also to about 20% higher variance. Several models were tested in order to accommodate markedly different variability in litter size between the first and later parities: single trait model (for BA, B1, and B2+), two-trait model (for B1 and B2+), and single trait model with heterogeneous residual variance (for BA). Comparison of variance components between models showed largest differences for the residual variance, resulting in parsimonious fit for a single trait model for BA with heterogeneous residual variance. Correlations among breeding values from different models were high and showed remarkable performance of the standard single trait repeatability model for BA.

Dubravko Škorput; Ante Kasap; Gregor Gorjanc

2011-01-01

107

Improved K-values correlation for UAE crude oil components at low pressures using PVT laboratory data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several techniques are available in the literature to estimate the K-values. In this paper, results of PVT analysis for 22 crude oil samples from different reservoirs in UAE are used. Sixty-eight single-stage flash laboratory experiments were conducted for these samples. Material balance techniques were used to extract the K-values of crude oil components. These K-values were then correlated and compared with values obtained from published correlations. Comparisons show that current correlations, while they generally give good results for light hydrocarbons in addition to carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, give widely different results for nitrogen and the heptane-plus pseudo-component. Average absolute deviations in excess of 1000% were observed for nitrogen and in excess of 500% were observed for heptane-plus when current methods were used. The proposed new correlation improves significantly the average absolute deviation for both the heptane-plus fraction and for nitrogen, in addition to improving relatively the average absolute deviation for the C{sub 1}-C{sub 6} hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}S, and CO{sub 2}. the average absolute deviation for all components was reduced to 28.6% in the new correlation compared to 240% for the Standing correlation and 156.8% for the Wilson correlation. As a test for reliability of the new correlation, bubble point pressures were calculated for 10 samples. The average absolute error for the proposed correlation was 5.2% compared with 6.9% for the Standing correlation, 16.1% for the Wilson correlation, and 7.3% for the Peng-Robinson equation of state. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

Almehaideb, R.A.; Abdulkarim, M.A.; Al-Khanbashi, A.S. [UAE University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

2001-01-01

108

Socio-demographic analysis in spatial planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An absolutely essential component of any process developed to achieve social development is the spatial development planning. The population is the generating element of the initial pulse in the system of planning and the reason for being of the whole process. It is the element through which and for which the system works. The analysis of population issues must lead to specific conclusions and the formulation of scenarios with specific demographic forecast methods. Knowing the probable development of population by various characteristics, especially the labor resources and the workforce, is necessary for substantiating economic and social development programs.

Raluca Petre

2014-01-01

109

Improved silencing suppression and enhanced heterologous protein expression are achieved using an engineered viral helper component proteinase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RNA silencing limits transient expression of heterologous proteins in plants. Co-expression of viral silencing suppressor proteins can increase and prolong protein expression, but highly efficient silencing suppressors may stress plant tissue and be detrimental to protein yields. Little is known whether silencing suppression could be improved without harm to plant tissues. This study reports development of enhanced silencing suppressors by engineering the helper component proteinase (HCpro) of Potato virus A (PVA). Mutations were introduced to a short region of HCpro (positions 330-335 in PVA HCpro), which is hypervariable among potyviruses. Three out of the four HCpro mutants suppressed RNA silencing more efficiently and sustained expression of co-expressed jellyfish green fluorescent protein for a longer time than wild-type HCpro in agroinfiltrated leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Leaf tissues remained healthy-looking without any visible signs of stress.

Haikonen T; Rajamäki ML; Valkonen JP

2013-11-01

110

Estimation of Properties of Pure Components Using Improved Group-Contribution+ (GC+) Based Models and Uncertainty Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components are needed to carry out tasks such as process design and computer aided molecular/mixture design among others. The experimental values of properties of many important pure components have not been measured due to many reasons, and hence they must be estimated. Predictive methods such as the group-contribution+ (GC+) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) are generally suitable to estimate the needed property values. For assessing the quality and reliability of the selected property prediction method, an engineer needs to know the uncertainties in the estimated property values obtained from that method. With this information, the engineer can then perform better- informed design calculations by taking into account these uncertainties. Hence, given the importance of reliable estimation of properties and uncertainties in the property estimates in the engineering calculations, this work aims to revise and improve GC+ method based estimation of properties as well as to estimate the confidence intervals of estimated property values. To this end, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis, in general, is developed and used. In total 21 properties of pure components, which include normal boiling point, critical constants, normal melting point among others have been analysed. The statistical analysis of the model performance for these properties is highlighted through several illustrative examples. Important issues related to property modeling such as thermodynamic consistency of the predicted properties (relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature etc.) are analysed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only the estimated property values using the GC+ approach, but also the uncertainties in the estimated property values. This feature allows one to evaluate the effects of these uncertainties on the product-process design calculations thereby contributing to better-informed and reliable engineering solutions.

Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent

111

Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and in-vessel components towards ITER construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During the preparation of the procurement specifications for long lead-time items, several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements are being pursued, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, adding a separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints, and revising the VV support system to gain a more comfortable structural performance margin. Improvements to the blanket design are also under investigation, an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and nondestructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. In FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block, and the divertor components, have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

2003-01-01

112

Counting Heads: Israel's Demographic Imperative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Israel is a country uniquely affected by demography, insofar as the state is bound by an explicitly Jewish nature. This balance has forced Israel to combat external demographic threats from before 1948 up until the present. The implementation of policies including the endorsement of “transfer”—a euphemism for the expulsion of Palestinians in 1948, the razing of Palestinian villages, discriminatory legislation and the creation of facts on the ground—are a logical extension of the Zionist ideology. The construction of the West Bank Barrier (WBB) is the current manifestation of Israeli demographic fears and the Zionist desire to further curb non-Jewish elements.

Kristofer J. Petersen-Overton

2008-01-01

113

Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This stud...

Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

114

Design Improvements of the Capsule Components and the Handling Tools for an Effective Utilization of the Capsule Assembly Machine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various in-pile test programs for the development of new fuels and materials are planned for the HANARO reactor. To meet the demands for the required tests in the HANARO reactor, new capsule assembling technology is required in the HANARO reactor. For this reason, a series of analyses and experiments was performed in 2005. For the assembly workability tests of the capsule components, three different kinds of protection tubes and two different shapes of the locking bolt heads were proposed and tested. It was confirmed that the newly designed protection tube and bolts worked quite well without any problems. Since the new structure is quite similar to that of the currently used capsule, it was assumed that an additional vibration tests and seismic analysis would not be needed. Through the stress analysis of the three proposed structures by using ANSYS code, it showed that the maximum displacement and stress intensity for the tube reducer were 1.57mm and 21MPa, respectively. To improve the workability and handling capability of the bolting and clamping tools of stainless steel 304, Al6061/T6 was selected as one of the candidates and thus new tools were manufactured and tested. The assembly test results showed that the new tools were found to be useful for executing key tasks such as a bolting and a clamping and they were much faster than the old tools made of stainless steel, thereby increasing the workability rate and lowering the manufacturing costs.

Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, Jong Kium; Youm, Ki Un; Yoon, Ki Byung; Choi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Bong Gu

2006-01-15

115

Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and In-vessel components towards ITER construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints and revised VV support system to gain a more comfortable margin in the structural performance. The blanket design has been updated; an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet-outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and non destructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. With regard to the R and D for the FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block and the divertor components have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

2003-01-01

116

Migration transition in Serbia: demographic perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the demographic point of view, the future of Serbia's population is relatively certain at least in the next three to four decades. However, the decreasing and ageing of the population are considered to be very certain processes in the much longer term. Although replacement fertility is an essential condition for long-term survival of any population, it is shown that only an immigration impulse could enable desired effects of the potential fertility recovery in Serbia in the longer perspective. Such a migration transition (from net emigration to net immigration) would inevitably lead to increased socio-cultural diversity and require the development of integration strategies. If successful, policies to stimulate an increase in net migration provide an almost instant result. Apart from old immigration countries from Western Europe, this was the case with new immigration destinations located in Mediteranean and Central Europe, including some former socialist countries. When evaluating the future trend of international migration balance of Serbia, the experiences of the latter countries is used. The population dynamics model created for the purpose of the paper is based upon the probabilistic concept of projecting vital components. The main conclusion is that there is no demographic alternative to the migration transition in Serbia when it comes to sustainability of the social security systems in the coming decades, but the realization of such a scenario is still not clear from today's perspective, given the existing limitations of the socio-economic nature.

Nikitovi? Vladimir

2013-01-01

117

Development of improved two-phase two-component pipe flow heat transfer correlations from existing correlations and published data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many industrial applications, such as the flow of natural gas and oil in flow lines and wellbores, the knowledge of nonboiling two-phase, two-component (liquid and permanent gas) heat transfer is required. Numerous heat transfer correlations and experimental data for forced convective heat transfer during gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical and horizontal pipes have been published over the past 40 years. These correlations for the two-phase flow convective heat transfer were developed based on limited experimental data and are only applicable to certain flow patterns. Kim et al. identified 38 two-phase flow heat transfer correlations. These correlations were compared against a large set of two-phase flow heat transfer experimental data, for vertical and horizontal tubes and different flow patterns and fluids. Table 1 shows twenty of the 38 heat transfer correlations that were identified and tested by Kim et al. The rest of the two-phase flow heat transfer correlations were not tested since the required information for the correlations was not available through the available experimental studies. The limitations of the twenty correlations presented in Table 1 as proposed by the original authors are tabulated in Table 2. While most of the identified heat transfer correlations were derived empirically based on a small set of experimental data, some of the heat transfer correlations were based on either the liquid acceleration model concept, the pressure drop model concept, the separated flow model concept, or the dimensional analysis concept. In this study, six two-phase nonboiling heat transfer correlations obtained from the recommendations of their previous work were assessed. These correlations were modified using seven extensive sets of two-phase flow experimental data available from the literature, for vertical and horizontal tubes and different flow patterns and fluids. A total of 524 data points from five available experimental studies (which included the seven sets of data) were used for improvement of the six identified correlations. Based on the tabulated and graphical results of the comparisons between the predictions of the modified heat transfer correlations and the available experimental data, appropriate improved correlations for different flow patterns, tube orientations, and liquid-gas combinations were recommended.

Kim, D.; Ghajar, A.J.; Dougherty, R.L.

1999-07-01

118

IQ-test-improving quality in testing and evaluation of solar and thermal characteristics of building components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IQ-test is a Thematic Network supported by the European Community under the EESD Programme. The objective of IQ-test is to further the development of common quality procedures at the PASLINK test cell facilities in 12 European countries, for the assessment of the thermal characteristics of building components. This should consolidate the network, integrate the newer test sites and strengthen its common approach of support for new product developments in the field of innovative building components. Round robin tests are underway to assess both the inter-site quality of testing and analytical procedures of the participants. Two components were designed: (1) an opaque, well insulated, homogeneous panel and (2) a window, which is used to replace the central section of the first component. Common test and quality procedures have been implemented at each test site. The data sets generated by each team have been made available for cross-analysis by another team. The results available so far on the first component indicate good agreement between sites. This paper summarises the progress to date. Results are also presented from a training exercise which asked participants to identify the performance characteristics of an unknown component without providing any physical description of the component. (author)

Baker, P. [BRE Scotland, East Kilbride (United Kingdom)

2004-07-01

119

Socio-demographic factors and oral health conditions in the elderly: A population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between oral health conditions and socio-demographic factors in an elderly population from Macaíba/RN (Brazil). A questionnaire was used to characterize the socio-demographic profiles and a clinical examination was performed to assess oral health conditions such as tooth decay, gum disease, use of dental prosthesis, need for dental prosthesis and soft tissue injuries. The technique of random sampling by conglomerates was used, taken from randomly selected census drafts, with a total sample of 441 individuals. The prevalence of edentulism, bleeding and dental calculus was 50.8%, 27.2% and 32%, respectively, excluding all sextants in 59% of the elderly. Data analysis was conducted using the chi-squared test with the level of significance set at 5%. Prior to association tests, the dependant variables were submitted to principal component analysis. Four factors were extracted to represent the oral health conditions of elderly individuals. A statistically significant association was found between the following variables: gender and the presence of a caregiver with gum disease; age, residence area, presence of a caregiver and household density with need for dental prosthesis; and household density with soft tissue injuries. Therefore, precarious oral health conditions were found among the elderly and associations were found between these conditions and the socio-demographic factors, particularly gender, age and residence area. The results obtained demonstrated the need for improved oral health conditions in the elderly. The study of these conditions, allied to socio-demographic factors, is important in terms of both dental care and public policy planning related to these individuals.

de Oliveira TC; da Silva DA; Leite de Freitas YN; da Silva RL; Pegado CP; de Lima KC

2013-11-01

120

Socio-demographic factors and oral health conditions in the elderly: A population-based study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between oral health conditions and socio-demographic factors in an elderly population from Macaíba/RN (Brazil). A questionnaire was used to characterize the socio-demographic profiles and a clinical examination was performed to assess oral health conditions such as tooth decay, gum disease, use of dental prosthesis, need for dental prosthesis and soft tissue injuries. The technique of random sampling by conglomerates was used, taken from randomly selected census drafts, with a total sample of 441 individuals. The prevalence of edentulism, bleeding and dental calculus was 50.8%, 27.2% and 32%, respectively, excluding all sextants in 59% of the elderly. Data analysis was conducted using the chi-squared test with the level of significance set at 5%. Prior to association tests, the dependant variables were submitted to principal component analysis. Four factors were extracted to represent the oral health conditions of elderly individuals. A statistically significant association was found between the following variables: gender and the presence of a caregiver with gum disease; age, residence area, presence of a caregiver and household density with need for dental prosthesis; and household density with soft tissue injuries. Therefore, precarious oral health conditions were found among the elderly and associations were found between these conditions and the socio-demographic factors, particularly gender, age and residence area. The results obtained demonstrated the need for improved oral health conditions in the elderly. The study of these conditions, allied to socio-demographic factors, is important in terms of both dental care and public policy planning related to these individuals. PMID:23773366

de Oliveira, Tamires Carneiro; da Silva, Diviane Alves; Leite de Freitas, Yan Nogueira; da Silva, Romerito Lins; Pegado, Carla Patrícia de Castro; de Lima, Kenio Costa

2013-06-14

 
 
 
 
121

A Novel Image Component Transmission Approach to Improve Image Quality and Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to resource constraints, digital image transmissions are a significant challenge for image sensor based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). In this paper, we propose a novel robust and energy-efficient scheme, called Image Component Transmission (ICT) in WSN by providing various levels of reliability during image transmissions. Different components in the embedded wavelet image bit stream are considered and essential components of the compressed image such as the information for the positions of significant wavelet coefficients are transmitted with higher quality assurance. Relatively less important components such as the information for the values of pixels are transmitted with lower overhead. Simulation results show the proposed scheme achieves higher energy efficiency in WSN, with image transmission quality enhanced considerably by up to 6dB in terms of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR).

Wei Wang; Dongming Peng; Honggang Wang; Hamid Sharif

2007-01-01

122

Social security and demographic shocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the sharing of risks between generations in the framework of an overlapping generations model of social security with shocks to the productivity of labor and capital and demographic shocks. The study focused on stationary long run allocations. The concept of interim optimality was utilized, which amounts to standard Pareto optimality once the state of the world in which the agents are born is known. The set of interim optimal allocations was characterized and the equilibria associated with various institutional forms of social security from the point of view of the optimal criterion were also studied. In addition, the analogs of two traditional welfare theorems of microeconomic theory were obtained. PMID:12295295

Demange, G; Laroque, G

1999-05-01

123

Environmental and demographic correlates of bicycling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The present study examined correlates of bicycle ownership, bicycling frequency, and projected increases in cycling if perceived safety from cars was improved. METHODS: Participants were 1,780 adults aged 20-65 recruited from the Seattle, WA and Baltimore, MD regions (48% female; 25% ethnic/racial minority) and studied 2002-2005. Bicycling outcomes were assessed by survey. Multivariable models were conducted to examine demographic and built environment correlates of bicycling outcomes. RESULTS: About 71% of the sample owned bicycles, but 60% of those did not report cycling. Among bicycle owners, frequency of riding was greater among young, male, white, educated, and lean subgroups. Neighborhood walkability measures within 1km were not consistently related to bicycling. For the whole sample, bicycling at least once per week was projected to increase from 9% to 39% if bicycling was safe from cars. Ethnic-racial minority groups and those in the least safe neighborhoods for bicycling had greater projected increases in cycling if safety from traffic was improved. CONCLUSION: Implementing measures to improve bicyclists' safety from cars would primarily benefit racial-ethnic groups who cycle less but have higher rates of chronic diseases, as well as those who currently feel least safe bicycling.

Sallis JF; Conway TL; Dillon LI; Frank LD; Adams MA; Cain KL; Saelens BE

2013-06-01

124

Curved surfaces require optimized inspection probes; Improved ultrasonic inspection of components with curved surfaces. Gekruemmte Oberflaechen brauchen optimierte Pruefkoepfe; Verbesserte Ultraschallpruefung an Bauteilen mit stark gekruemmter Oberflaeche  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improved ultrasonic inspection of components with curved surfaces. When components with curved surfaces are examined with ultrasonic inspection techniques, simple geometric approximations of the probe focus position are insufficient. The distance between sensitive zone and inspection probe is not necessarily proportional to the curvature of the inspected surface. It is therefore suggested to use inspection probes which are optimized for curved surfaces, and to establish catalogues listing the relation between position and intensity of the sensitive zone and the geometry of the examined surface. (orig.)

Kuehnicke, E. (KAI e.V., Dresden (Germany))

1993-05-01

125

Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

2001-01-01

126

Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Seko, Noriaki; Hasegawa, Shin; Takeda, Hayato; Katakai, Akio; Sugo, Takanobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kawabata, Yukiya [Ebara Reseach Co., Ltd., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Onuma, Kenji [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

2001-11-01

127

IAEA Conference on the improved method for main component control of NPP with the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity of the International Conference-Seminar of IAEA specialists in the pre-operational and operational testing of main components of NPP WWER-440 and -1000 reactors Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 1-5 July, 1996 is described. The main topics of 15 presented reports are the following ones: testing of reactor vessels at NPP; testing of reactor vessel covers; eddy current testing of NPP steam generator tubes and methods of their plugging

1996-01-01

128

IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tungsten carbide monolithic preform was produced by Advanced Ceramics. MTU conducted various sintering tests on the preform to determine conditions for removing the organic binder and improving the mechanical properties. The originally selected parameters for sintering did not perform as anticipated and further testing is underway.

2001-01-01

129

Profiling individual physicians using administrative data from a single insurer: variance components, reliability, and implications for performance improvement efforts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Individual physicians are increasingly being subjected to comparative performance assessments. When single-insurer data are used to profile individual physicians' performance, reliable measurements are uncertain because of small sample sizes. METHODS: Administrative data (2006-2008) from a Dutch insurer are used to examine variation in general practitioners' (GPs) performance on expenses (5 measures), utilization of hospital care (2 measures), and clinical quality for diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (6 measures). Unadjusted and adjusted multilevel models are used to separate total variance in between-GP and within-GP components. The components are used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), reliability, and sample size requirements at common reliability thresholds. RESULTS: Average ICCs varied between 0.07% (hospital admissions) and 8.34% (physiotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients). Risk-adjustment often greatly changed the relative size of variance components and often led to lower ICCs. In addition, ICCs and thus reliability generally decreased over time. Eight measures had reliabilities > 0.70, and 3 of these (all GP-related expenses) > 0.90. Measures related to utilization of hospital care had reliabilities < 0.60 or even 0.50. For 5 measures, the vast majority of GPs had sufficient patients to reach 0.70 reliability. At a reliability of 0.90, however, there were no measures for which all GPs met the sample size requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Reliable measurement of individual physicians' performance using single-purchaser data is challenging. For most measures reliability was insufficient to allow for high-stakes applications or even any application of profiling. Future research should continue to explore methods for enhancing the reliability of individual physicians' profiles.

Eijkenaar F; van Vliet RC

2013-08-01

130

Group-contribution+ (GC+) based estimation of properties of pure components: Improved property estimation and uncertainty analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this work is to present revised and improved model parameters for group-contribution+ (GC+) models (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) employed for the estimation of pure component properties, together with covariance matrices to quantify uncertainties in the estimated property values. For this purpose, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis of GC models and CI models using maximum-likelihood estimation theory is developed. For parameter estimation, large data-sets of experimentally measured property values of pure components of various classes (hydrocarbons, oxygenated components, nitrogenated components, poly-functional components, etc.) taken from the CAPEC database are used. In total 18 pure component properties are analyzed, namely normal boiling point, critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume, normal melting point, standard Gibbs energy of formation, standard enthalpy of formation, normal enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization at 298 K, enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, flash point, auto ignition temperature, Hansen solubility parameters, Hildebrand solubility parameter, octanol/water partition coefficient, acentric factor, and liquid molar volume at 298 K. Important issues related to property modeling such as reliability and predictive capability of the property prediction models, and thermodynamic consistency of the predicted properties (such as, relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature) are also analyzed and discussed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only the estimated pure component property values but also the uncertainties (e.g. prediction errors in terms of 95% confidence intervals) in the estimated property values. This feature allows one to evaluate the effects of these uncertainties on product-process design, simulation and optimization calculations, contributing to better-informed and more reliable engineering solutions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent

2012-01-01

131

Demographics of supermassive black holes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Supermassive black holes are a fundamental component of the universe in general and of galaxies in particular. Almost every massive galaxy harbours a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in its center. Furthermore, there is a close connection between the growth of the SMBH and the evolution of its host ga...

Schulze, Andreas

132

Lifelong Learning and Demographics: A Japanese Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the social dimension of lifelong learning from the perspective of demographics, with particular focus on the issue of the birth of fewer children, which has become one of the most important current social issues in Japanese society. When considering the relationship between lifelong learning and demographics, the issues arising…

Ogawa, Seiko

2005-01-01

133

Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic

Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

2013-01-01

134

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

2010-01-01

135

Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer [Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkmenistan)

2010-06-15

136

Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Trial of an Exercise Programme to Improve Wellbeing Outcomes in Women with Depression: Findings from the Qualitative Component  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the qualitative component from a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (PRCT), the quantitative component is reported in Callaghan, Khalil, Morres and Carter (2011). Exercise may be effective in treating depression, but trials testing its effect in depressed women are rare. Our previous research found that standard exercise programmes, prescribed by General Practitioners and based on national guidelines of intensity levels thought to produce health benefits, are not suitable for this group, as they find them discouraging and lonely, with many dropping out very early on. Exercise that is matched to participants’ preferred intensity improves mental health outcomes and attrition rates. Our aim was to develop such a programme. This study addressed the question: does mentored exercise of preferred intensity lead to better psychological, physiological and social wellbeing outcomes and improved adherence rates when compared with exercise of prescribed intensity in 38 depressed women? Focus groups were conducted with participants from both arms of the study, to explore their experience of the exercise programme and to gather information that might help to explain the quantitative outcomes, a technique recommended by previous researchers conducting pragmatic trials. Women in the experimental programme experienced a statistically significant improvement in their mood, physical health, sense of wellbeing, self-esteem and quality of life. They reported achieving these gains via a positive experience which encouraged continued attendance. In contrast, women who received the “exercise as usual” programme experienced no significant benefits, were less likely to continue attending, and markedly less enthusiastic.

Elizabeth Khalil; Patrick Callaghan; Tim Carter; Ioannis Morres

2012-01-01

137

On-line monitoring for improving performance of nuclear power plants. Part 2: Process and component condition monitoring and diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA's work in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management is aimed at enhancing the capability of Member States to utilize good engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports activities such as improving nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational licence renewal, and modernization of the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants in Member States. The subject of improving the performance of nuclear power plants by utilizing on-line condition monitoring of instrumentation and control systems in plants was suggested by the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in 2003. It was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2004-2007. This is the second report on the use of on-line monitoring (OLM) in nuclear power plants. The first report, On-Line Monitoring for Improving Performance of Nuclear Power Plants, Part 1: Instrument Channel Monitoring (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-1.1), focused on application of OLM to verify the static (calibration) and dynamic (response time) performance of process instruments in nuclear power plants. This second report extends the application of OLM to equipment and process condition monitoring encompassing an array of technologies, including vibration monitoring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts monitoring, motor current signature analysis and noise diagnostics, as well as vibration analysis of the reactor core and the primary circuit. Furthermore, this report includes the application of modelling technologies for equipment and process condition monitoring. A majority of these technologies depend on existing data from existing sensors and first principles models to estimate equipment and process behaviour using empirical and physical modelling techniques. In doing so, pattern recognition tools such as neural networks, fuzzy classification of data, multivariate state estimation and other means are used. These means are described in this report, and examples of their application and implementation are provided. It should be pointed out that OLM data are routinely collected in nuclear power plants for a variety of purposes, but that these data are not often trended or used for long term predictive maintenance purposes. This report promotes the idea of trending such data and provides guidance on how this trending may be performed to yield a new maintenance tool for nuclear power plants. This report was produced by experts and advisors from numerous IAEA Member States

138

Genetic and demographic responses of fragmented Acacia dealbata (Mimosaceae) populations in southeastern Australia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic and demographic studies of fragmented populations of common plant species often reveal negative impacts that are likely to constrain persistence. Examining species that are broadly representative of functional groups within fragmented landscapes is one approach to providing a better understanding of how these processes will influence vegetation persistence. Acacias are a significant component of the Australian flora, with Acacia dealbata being a common and representative species of fragmented landscapes across New South Wales. Previous reproductive assessments of fragmented A. dealbata populations indicated significant constraints for small populations through low reproductive output mediated by fertilisation success. This study examined genetic diversity, mating system, and progeny growth parameters of the seed crops produced by these populations to assess whether further constraints to persistence could be detected. Spatially explicit simulation studies were also conducted to assess the persistence likelihood of fragmented populations. Landscape parameters such as population size and plant density were useful predictors for some of the genetic and demographic responses, but a poor response signal was generally observed. Strong evidence for a self-incompatibility mechanism was observed in A. dealbata and is likely to be the major driver of population persistence. Self-incompatibility in small populations limits mate availability and eliminates inbred progeny early in the reproductive cycle leading to poor reproductive output. The simulation data provides further evidence that mate limitation in smaller populations (<200 plants and 40 S alleles) constrains reproductive output and persistence. These data indicate that introducing new germplasm to smaller populations can dramatically improve their persistence likelihood.

Broadhurst LindaM; Young AndrewG; Forrester Robert

2008-11-01

139

Selection criteria for the improvement of seed yield and its components in advances generations of lentil (lens culinaris medik)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Present study was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during the years 2006 and 2007 with the objectives; to study the inheritance of seed yield and related traits in both hybridized (F6) and mutated (M6) populations of lentil and to determine the best selection criterion for the improvement of seed yield. Different genetic parameters (variances, heritabilities, genetic gains and correlations) were computed to study the inheritance pattern and interrelationships of different traits. High heritability was observed for days to flower (97.40%), plant height (90.80%), pods per plant (86.20%), hundred seed weight (83.50%) and seed yield per plant (91.80%) in F6 and for days to flower (96.9%), days to mature (91.8%), hundred seed weight (89.0%) and seed yield per plant (94.0%) in M6 generation. High heritability coupled with moderate to high genetic advance was noted for plant height (90.8%, 16.29) pods per plant (86.20%, 25.53) hundred seed weight (83.50%, 35.67) and seed yield per plant (91.80%, 35.84) in F6 generation and for days to flower (96.9%, 25.08), hundred seed weight (89.0%, 25.56) and seed yield per plant (94.0%, 37.01) in M6 generation. The traits mentioned were found to be under the control of additive genes. Seed yield had positive and significant correlation with pods per plant in M6 and with seed weight in both generations. It was concluded that seed weight and pods per plant may be used as selection criterion in both hybridized and mutated populations for the improvement of seed yield. (author)

2008-01-01

140

LUBRICANT COMPONENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A lubricant component is an oligomer of a series a-olefins, made by forming a series of a-olefins by oligomerization of ethylene using an ethylene oligomerization catalyst, and then oligomerizing the series of a-olefins using a Lewis acid catalyst. The a-olefin oligomer, which often has a high Viscosity Index, may be used for example in a lubricant as the base oil or a viscosity index modifier. The a-olefin oligomer may also be a component of a lubricant additive, meant to be added to an already formulated lubricant to improve the lubricant's properties.

ITTEL STEVEN DALE

 
 
 
 
141

LUBRICANT COMPONENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A lubricant component is a copolymer of ethylene and a-olefins made by forming a series of a-olefins by oligomerization of ethylene using an oligomerization catalyst, and then copolymerizing the a-olefins and ethylene using a transition metalcontaining polymerization catalyst. The copolymer, which often has a high Viscosity Index, may be used, for example, in a lubricant as the base oil or a viscosity index modifier. The polyolefin may also be a component of a lubricant additive, meant to be added to an already formulated lubricant to improve the lubricant's properties.

CITRON JOEL DAVID

142

Propuesta para el perfeccionamiento del componente investigativo de la carrera de Estomatología Improvement of the Researching Component in Dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye el resultado de la fase final de una investigación, dirigida a elaborar una propuesta basada en acciones que contribuyan a perfeccionar el diseño de la carrera en cuanto a la actividad investigativa a partir del perfeccionamiento de los programas de las asignaturas que tienen posibilidades de dar tratamiento a la actividad científica investigativa y de la capacitación de los profesores, de manera que el egresado pueda dar respuestas a los problemas de salud de Estomatología a través de la investigación científica. Se diseñó una propuesta basadas en tres acciones, donde la 1ra y 2da acción están dirigidas a explicitar y precisar al nivel de objetivos y contenidos lo referido a la actividad investigativa y la 3ra acción dirigida a la capacitación de los profesoresThe present work constitutes the result of the final phase of an investigation, directed to elaborate a proposal based on actions that contribute to perfect the design of the career as for the investigative activity starting from the improvement of the programs of those subjects with possibilities to give treatment to the investigative activity and that contribute to the training of professors, so that the graduate can cope effectively with health problems through scientific investigation. A proposal was designed based on three actions. The 1ra and 2da action are directed to specify investigative activity to the level of objectives and contents. The 3ra action is directed to the training of professors

Lizette Albertí Vázquez; Sarah Gutiérrez Martorell; Gerardo Quintero Pupo; Maheli Más Sarabia

2004-01-01

143

Propuesta para el perfeccionamiento del componente investigativo de la carrera de Estomatología/ Improvement of the Researching Component in Dentistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo constituye el resultado de la fase final de una investigación, dirigida a elaborar una propuesta basada en acciones que contribuyan a perfeccionar el diseño de la carrera en cuanto a la actividad investigativa a partir del perfeccionamiento de los programas de las asignaturas que tienen posibilidades de dar tratamiento a la actividad científica investigativa y de la capacitación de los profesores, de manera que el egresado pueda dar respuestas a lo (more) s problemas de salud de Estomatología a través de la investigación científica. Se diseñó una propuesta basadas en tres acciones, donde la 1ra y 2da acción están dirigidas a explicitar y precisar al nivel de objetivos y contenidos lo referido a la actividad investigativa y la 3ra acción dirigida a la capacitación de los profesores Abstract in english The present work constitutes the result of the final phase of an investigation, directed to elaborate a proposal based on actions that contribute to perfect the design of the career as for the investigative activity starting from the improvement of the programs of those subjects with possibilities to give treatment to the investigative activity and that contribute to the training of professors, so that the graduate can cope effectively with health problems through scienti (more) fic investigation. A proposal was designed based on three actions. The 1ra and 2da action are directed to specify investigative activity to the level of objectives and contents. The 3ra action is directed to the training of professors

Albertí Vázquez, Lizette; Gutiérrez Martorell, Sarah; Quintero Pupo, Gerardo; Más Sarabia, Maheli

2004-08-01

144

Development and improvement of synthetic imaging methods for non-destructive ultrasonic testing of complex industrial components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The goal of this thesis was, initially, to evaluate phased array methods for ultrasonic Non Destructive Testing (NDT) in order to propose optimizations, or to develop new alternative methods. In particular, this works deals with the detection of defects in complex geometries and/or materials parts. The TFM (Total Focusing Method) algorithm provides high resolution images and several representations of a same defect thanks to different reconstruction modes. These properties have been exploited judiciously in order to propose an adaptive imaging method in immersion configuration. We showed that TFM imaging can be used to characterize more precisely the defects. However, this method presents two major drawbacks: the large amount of data to be processed and a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially in noisy materials. We developed solutions to these two problems. To overcome the limitation caused by the large number of signals to be processed, we propose an algorithm that defines the sparse array to activate. As for the low SNR, it can be now improved by use of virtual sources and a new filtering method based on the DORT method (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator). (author)[fr] Le but de cette these est, dans un premier temps, de faire un etat des lieux des methodes multielements de Controle Non-Destructif (CND) par ultrasons pour ensuite proposer des optimisations ou developper de nouvelles methodes alternatives. En particulier, nous nous sommes interesses aux problemes de detection de defauts dans des pieces a geometries et/ou materiaux complexes. L'imagerie synthetique par Focalisation en Tous Points (FTP) fournit des images de haute resolution et permet de representer, de plusieurs manieres, un meme defaut grace aux differents modes de reconstruction. Ces proprietes ont ete judicieusement exploitees pour proposer une methode d'imagerie adaptative pour les configurations en immersion. Nous avons montre que l'imagerie synthetique permet de caracteriser plus finement les defauts. Cependant, elle presente deux inconvenients majeurs: la grande quantite de donnees a traiter et un faible rapport signal-a-bruit (RSB), en particulier pour les materiaux bruites. La suite des travaux consistait donc a proposer une solution a chacun de ces problemes. Pour reduire la quantite de donnees, l'approche des reseaux lacunaires a ete suivie et un algorithme a ete developpe pour definir au mieux ce type de reseaux. Quant au RSB, nous avons reussi a l'ameliorer en developpant une methode de filtrage basee sur la methode DORT (Decomposition de l'Operateur de Retournement Temporel) et le principe des reseaux de sources virtuelles

2013-01-01

145

[The demographic development of Russia: history and theory].  

Science.gov (United States)

The author describes demographic trends in Russia in recent years, discussing the relevance of the demographic transition theory to the Russian experience. The relationship between social, economic, and political events and demographic changes is examined. The author also considers whether Russia's recent demographic experiences will give rise to new demographic theories. PMID:12348345

Klupt, M

1997-01-01

146

The demographic effect of mixed marriages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper gives a formal expression for the demographic effect of mixed marriages, i.e., the effect on the number of children, and thereafter illustrates the long-term effects of these marriages with a simple simulation model.

Finnas F

1989-04-01

147

Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters’ demographic behaviour. Referring these results to statistical data on this issue, that are to be found in the Statistical Annual of Bihor County, we tried to reveal the trends of the evolution of birth-rate and to make the difference between objective statistical data and subjective echoes of 18 year old high school students way of thinking, regarding the potential impact of religion – nowadays studied in the Romanian schools – on the demographic behaviour.

Florica Stefanescu

2009-01-01

148

Face Recognition Performance: Role of Demographic Information.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies the influence of demographics on the performance of face recognition algorithms. The recognition accuracies of six different face recognition algorithms (three commercial, two non-trainable, and one trainable) are computed on a large sc...

A. K. Jain B. F. Klare J. C. Klontz M. J. Burge R. W. Vorder Bruegge

2012-01-01

149

Disease surveillance system evaluation as a model for improved integration and standardization of the laboratory component in the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) curriculum worldwide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Integration of laboratory training into the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) began in 2004 and has advanced the training of laboratory scientists worldwide on the basic principles of epidemiology, disease surveillance, and outbreak investigation. The laboratory component of the FE(L)TP training has traditionally been disease specific, revolving around classroom and bench training on laboratory methods, and field placement in areas where services are needed. There is however a need to improve the integration of epidemiology elements used in surveillance, outbreak investigation, and evaluation activities with specific measurable laboratory activities that could in turn impact the overall disease surveillance and response. A systematic and clear evaluation guideline for the laboratory components of disease surveillance systems alongside the corresponding epidemiological indicators can better identify, address, and mitigate weaknesses that may exist in the entire surveillance system, and also help to integrate and standardize the FE(L)TP curriculum content. The institution of laboratory Quality Management System principles linked to a comprehensive surveillance evaluation scheme will result in improved disease surveillance, response, and overall laboratory capacity over time.

Rush T

2012-11-01

150

Disease surveillance system evaluation as a model for improved integration and standardization of the laboratory component in the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) curriculum worldwide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integration of laboratory training into the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) began in 2004 and has advanced the training of laboratory scientists worldwide on the basic principles of epidemiology, disease surveillance, and outbreak investigation. The laboratory component of the FE(L)TP training has traditionally been disease specific, revolving around classroom and bench training on laboratory methods, and field placement in areas where services are needed. There is however a need to improve the integration of epidemiology elements used in surveillance, outbreak investigation, and evaluation activities with specific measurable laboratory activities that could in turn impact the overall disease surveillance and response. A systematic and clear evaluation guideline for the laboratory components of disease surveillance systems alongside the corresponding epidemiological indicators can better identify, address, and mitigate weaknesses that may exist in the entire surveillance system, and also help to integrate and standardize the FE(L)TP curriculum content. The institution of laboratory Quality Management System principles linked to a comprehensive surveillance evaluation scheme will result in improved disease surveillance, response, and overall laboratory capacity over time. PMID:22971950

Rush, Thomas

2012-09-13

151

Study for improvement of light water reactor technology, (6); New general arrangement, study on general arrangement giving priority to component layout  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Japan Atomic Power Company has performed studies, which are referred to as 'some feasibility studies on LWR technology' in order to help the improvement and up grading of light-water reactor technology. We would like to show the key results of the above studies in this document. As the last issue, this paper describes the study on a new general arrangement of the PWR plant focusing on rationality. Present planning on the general arrangement of the PWR plant is performed on the premise that the geometry of the building is basically a simple square because of the aseismatic requirement. In this study, we planned a general arrangement pursuing rationality of the component arrangement at first, disregarding the prerequisite above. Then we studied the realization of this arrangement from the viewpoint of aseismatic design, considering countermeasures for buildings based on latest technical knowledge, and established the new general arrangement. (author).

Suzuki, Hideaki; Morita, Terumichi; Kato, Asao; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kenji (Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-12-01

152

[Research on the application of principal component analysis and improved BP neural network to the determination of Fe and Ti contents in geological samples].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aiming at forecasting elemental contents in geological samples accurately, a principal component analysis and improved BP (PCA-BP) neural network theory is proposed in the present work. The samples from west Tianshan were measured through X-ray fluorescence measurement method, and the X-Ray fluorescence counts of each element such as Fe, Ti, V, Pb, Zn, etc. were input to the PCA-BP neural network as input variables to forecast Fe and Ti contents in uncertified geological samples quantitatively. The results show that the PCA-BP neural network can give an ideal result, and the relative error between the forecast data and chemical analysis data is less than 3%. This method provides a new and effective approach to forecasting elemental contents in geological samples.

Xu LP; Ge LQ; Gu Y; Liu M; Zhang QX; Li F; Luo B

2013-05-01

153

Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR

2000-01-01

154

An efficient method to improve the clustering performance for high dimensional data by Principal Component Analysis and modified K-means  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clustering analysis is one of the main analytical methods in data mining. K-means is the most popular andpartition based clustering algorithm. But it is computationally expensive and the quality of resultingclusters heavily depends on the selection of initial centroid and the dimension of the data. Several methodshave been proposed in the literature for improving performance of the k-means clustering algorithm.Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is an important approach to unsupervised dimensionality reductiontechnique. This paper proposed a method to make the algorithm more effective and efficient by using PCAand modified k-means. In this paper, we have used Principal Component Analysis as a first phase to findthe initial centroid for k-means and for dimension reduction and k-means method is modified by usingheuristics approach to reduce the number of distance calculation to assign the data-point to cluster. Bycomparing the results of original and new approach, it was found that the results obtained are moreeffective, easy to understand and above all, the time taken to process the data was substantially reduced.

Tajunisha; Saravanan

2011-01-01

155

On the Statistical Dependency of Identity Theft on Demographics  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved understanding of the identity theft problem is widely agreed to be necessary to succeed in counter-theft efforts in legislative, financial and research institutions. In this paper we report on a statistical study about the existence of relationships between identity theft and area demographics in the US. The identity theft data chosen was the number of citizen complaints to the Federal Trade Commission in a large number of US municipalities. The list of demographics used for any such municipality included: estimated population, median resident age, estimated median household income, percentage of citizens with a high school or higher degree, percentage of unemployed residents, percentage of married residents, percentage of foreign born residents, percentage of residents living in poverty, density of law enforcement employees, crime index, and political orientation according to the 2004 presidential election. Our study findings, based on linear regression techniques, include statistically significant relationships between the number of identity theft complaints and a non-trivial subset of these demographics.

di Crescenzo, Giovanni

156

Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

Adriana Veronica Litra

2006-01-01

157

Demographic characteristics and the public bundle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"This paper explores the relationship between the demographic characteristics of a community and the quantities of goods and services provided by its government, what we label the ¿public bundle'. We consider three models of public spending.... To evaluate these models of spending, we examine how county and state spending in the United States is affected by the age and racial composition, and the total size of a jurisdiction. We find that the estimated effects of demographic characteristics in the state equations are strikingly different from the estimated effects in the county equations. One possible explanation for these differences is that a jurisdiction's spending is affected differently by its own demographic characteristics and by the characteristics of the surrounding area. We conclude that community preference is important in explaining local spending, but that its determination is more complex than simple theory suggests."

Cutler DM; Elmendorf DW; Zeckhauser RJ

1993-01-01

158

[Demographic and economic development in contemporary Mexico  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper briefly reviews the main features of the recent Mexican experience in demographic and economic development matters. It assesses the development pattern that prevailed between 1940 and 1970 and the ways and policies that were instrumental in accommodating the rapid population growth of the period. The author considers that by 1970 the relatively acceptable demo-economic system in place since 1940 entered a period of emerging tensions, and examines the responses to those difficulties, among them the change in population policy. It closes with a brief review of the tasks ahead considering future demographic and economic tendencies in Mexico.

Alba F

1989-03-01

159

Demographics, political power and economic growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"Growth theory may be used to predict the response of saving, capital formation, and output growth to large demographic shifts. Such large shifts would also be expected to alter the demand for government services and the desired levels of taxation in the population. This paper extends the overlapping-generations model of economic growth to predict the evolution of government tax and spending policy through the course of a major demographic shift. Simulations suggest that this approach may yield valuable insights into the evolution of policy in the United States and other industrialized economies."

Holtz-eakin D

1993-01-01

160

A multi-component universal intervention to improve diet and physical activity among adults with intellectual disabilities in community residences: A cluster randomised controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

People with ID have an increased risk for unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and weight disturbances. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel and complex intervention to improve diet and physical activity, targeting both caregivers and residents, in community residences for people with ID. A three component intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory was developed, including: (1) appointment of a health ambassador in each community residence attending network meetings, (2) a study circle for caregivers, and (3) a health course for the residents. The intervention lasted for 12-16 months and allowed for some local tailoring. A cluster randomised controlled trial, randomised at residence level, was conducted to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Thirty community residences for people with mild or moderate ID in Stockholm County, Sweden, were included. A total of 130 participants, 74 women and 56 men aged 20-66 years, entered, and 129 participants completed the study. The primary outcome was physical activity, measured by pedometry. Secondary outcomes were BMI, waist circumference, dietary quality measured by digital photography, satisfaction with life assessed with a scale, and work routines assessed with a questionnaire. Outcomes were related to intervention fidelity. A positive intervention effect was found on physical activity, with an average increase of 1608 steps/day among participants in the intervention group (P=0.045). The effect size was 0.29 (Cohen's d). The type of residence was found to be an effect moderator. A positive intervention effect was found as well on work routines, with an average increase of 7.1 percentage points on a self-assessment scale among residences in the intervention group (P=0.016). No significant effects were found on BMI, waist circumference, dietary quality, or satisfaction with life. In conclusion, this innovative intervention was effective in improving physical activity and work routines. It is likely that even greater effects could be achieved by improvements in implementation strategies, leading to higher fidelity.

Bergström H; Hagströmer M; Hagberg J; Elinder LS

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this center in Vellore, India were larger, and occurred to younger patients than burns that reported in the NBR. Individualized assessment of care systems are needed when implementing development plans. PMID:19060770

Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

162

Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this center in Vellore, India were larger, and occurred to younger patients than burns that reported in the NBR. Individualized assessment of care systems are needed when implementing development plans.

Light TD; Latenser BA; Heinle JA; Stolpen MS; Quinn KA; Ravindran V; Chacko J

2009-01-01

163

Demographic event history analysis: a selective review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a selective review of the literature concerning demographic event history analysis. "We have attempted to emphasize work that we consider to be particularly important or innovative, to note some of the difficulties that may arise with the use of event history analysis, and to point to several substantive areas where research is still poorly developed." PMID:12340570

Hobcraft, J; Murphy, M

1986-01-01

164

Demographic event history analysis: a selective review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a selective review of the literature concerning demographic event history analysis. "We have attempted to emphasize work that we consider to be particularly important or innovative, to note some of the difficulties that may arise with the use of event history analysis, and to point to several substantive areas where research is still poorly developed."

Hobcraft J; Murphy M

1986-01-01

165

Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global) is the sum of all country population...

Joel E. Cohen

166

Changing demographics and shrinking engineering enrollments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that changing U.S. population demographics, poor academic preparation, and a decreasing interest in engineering among college student indicate possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. If we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S., the engineering talent pool must be enlarged to include women and minority men.

Vetter, B.M. (Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology (US))

1992-03-01

167

Complexity and demographic stability in population models.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article is concerned with relating the stability of a population, as defined by the rate of decay of fluctuations induced by demographic stochasticity, with its heterogeneity in age-specific birth and death rates. We invoke the theory of large deviations to establish a fluctuation theorem: The demographic stability of a population is positively correlated with evolutionary entropy, a measure of the variability in the age of reproducing individuals in the population. This theorem is exploited to predict certain correlations between ecological constraints and evolutionary trends in demographic stability, namely, (i) bounded growth constraints--a uni-directional increase in stability, (ii) unbounded growth constraints (large population size)--a uni-directional decrease in stability, (iii) unbounded growth constraints (small population size)--random, non-directional change in stability. These principles relating ecological constraints with trends in demographic stability are shown to be far reaching generalizations of the tenets derived from classical studies of stability in an evolutionary context. These results thus provide a new conceptual framework for explaining patterns of variation in population numbers observed in natural populations.

Demetrius L; Gundlach VM; Ochs G

2004-05-01

168

Componente demográfico do sistema de informação da atenção à saúde indígena, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brasil/ Demographic component of the information system of the attention to indigenous health, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brazil/ Composante demographique du systeme d'information a l'attention de la sante indigene, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Bresil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo analisa a consistência do módulo demográfico do Sistema de Informação da Atenção da Saúde Indígena para o Distrito Especial Indígena Xavante (DSEI), Mato Grosso, no período de 1999 a 2004. Os dados foram obtidos através de relatórios disponibilizados pelo SIASIWEB. A base de dados foi investigada com vistas a detectar inconsistências, incluindo mais de um registro para um mesmo evento. Para todo o DSEI, a taxa de mortalidade infantil (TMI) no per (more) íodo passou de 89,2 para 83,8 por mil após as correções na base de dados. Ao se analisar por polo-base, as alterações foram ainda mais substanciais. No caso do Polo-base de Água Boa, a redução da TMI foi de 43,3 para 21,3 por mil. As taxas brutas de mortalidade e de natalidade também experimentaram redução após as correções. Esses achados evidenciam problemas significativos na base de dados sobre saúde do povo Xavante, com a geração de indicadores demográficos que se distanciam da situação real da população. Os autores destacam a necessidade de aprimoramento da coleta e análise dos dados demográficos no âmbito do sistema de informação sobre a saúde indígena. Abstract in english This study analyzes the consistence of the demographic module of the System of Information of Attention to Indigenous Health for the Shavante Indian Indigenous Special District (in Portuguese, DSEI), Mato Grosso, from 1999 to 2004. The data were obtained through reports made available by SIASIWEB. The database was investigated trying to detect inconsistencies, including more than a single registration for the same event. For the whole DSEI, the infant mortality rate (in P (more) ortuguese, TMI) in the period went from 89,2 to 83,8 per thousand after the corrections in the database. Analyzing by base headquarters, the alterations were even more substantial. In the case of the Água Boa base headquarters, the reduction of TMI went from 43,3 to 21,3 per thousand. The gross mortality and birth rates also experienced reduction after the corrections. Those discoveries evidence significant problems in the database on the health of the Shavante people, generating demographic indicators that are distant of the real situation of the population. The authors point out the need of enhancement of the collection and analysis of the demographic data in the extent of the system of information about the indigenous health.

Souza, Luciene Guimarães de; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

2009-01-01

169

Use of catchment liming for the improvement of drainage water quality from smelter-impacted lands near Coniston, Ontario: part two - changes in terrestrial and wetland components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sudbury has a legacy of acidic metal-contaminated land, wetlands, lakes and streams, but in the last 20 years land reclamation programs have been carried out which have been successful in establishing grass and tree cover. There seems to be an associated benefit to the water quality of lakes and an improvement in stream quality following application of limestone. There was a need to test the application of catchment liming in smelter-damaged land, and aerial liming may treat large areas as has been conducted by INCO Ltd. in the Sudbury area. A test was carried out to determine the potential benefits on drainage water quality from the limed catchment, and to investigate changes in the terrestrial component. Because the catchment contained a number of headwater wetlands the wetlands were tested as a passive treatment system for the drainage water. Because of the ineffectiveness of coarse limestone in the short term, a modification of standard aerial methods and the use of pelletized limestone at a smaller application rate than for the coarse material was instituted. It was possible that the fine material would soon disappear from the system and be ineffective after a short period. The pH remained high in the case of the wetlands for over three years and there was no sign of a permanent increase. For land treated with pelletized material there was an adequate vegetation performance over several years, and treating headwater wetlands appears to improve stream water quality. Treating wetlands and ignoring the surrounding land is probably only a partial solution as metal run-off and erosion may eventually overwhelm the wetlands' ability to neutralize the system and act as treatment systems for acidity and metals. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Beckett, P.J.; Salmi, J.; Jones, R.; Wainio, S. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1999-07-01

170

The demographic transition influences variance in fitness and selection on height and BMI in rural Gambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent human history is marked by demographic transitions characterized by declines in mortality and fertility. By influencing the variance in those fitness components, demographic transitions can affect selection on other traits. Parallel to changes in selection triggered by demography per se, relationships between fitness and anthropometric traits are also expected to change due to modification of the environment. Here we explore for the first time these two main evolutionary consequences of demographic transitions using a unique data set containing survival, fertility, and anthropometric data for thousands of women in rural Gambia from 1956-2010. We show how the demographic transition influenced directional selection on height and body mass index (BMI). We observed a change in selection for both traits mediated by variation in fertility: selection initially favored short females with high BMI values but shifted across the demographic transition to favor tall females with low BMI values. We demonstrate that these differences resulted both from changes in fitness variance that shape the strength of selection and from shifts in selective pressures triggered by environmental changes. These results suggest that demographic and environmental trends encountered by current human populations worldwide are likely to modify, but not stop, natural selection in humans. PMID:23623548

Courtiol, Alexandre; Rickard, Ian J; Lummaa, Virpi; Prentice, Andrew M; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stearns, Stephen C

2013-04-25

171

[Demographic behavior of linguistic groups in Montreal  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The author examines trends in fertility, internal migration, and mortality among the principal linguistic groups in Montreal, Canada. "Certain non-negligible disparities exist in demographic behaviour of linguistic groups on the Montreal and Jesus Islands. On the other hand, in the rest of the metropolitan Montreal area, linguistic disparities in demographic behaviour are noticeably smaller: the three groups have the same fertility level and the same propensity to migrate; only differentials in mortality can be observed. The natural growth rate of francophones on the Island of Montreal was (in 1985-1987) slightly inferior to that of the other two groups, but in the metropolitan region it was superior. On the whole however, taking into account internal migration, the group of francophones of the Islands of Montreal and Jesus had the highest growth rate and the anglophone group the lowest rate (in fact negative)." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

Termote M

1992-01-01

172

Demographic predictors of infant car seat use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Demographic family data obtained from mothers exposed to an inpatient postpartum child restraint device (CRD) education program were correlated with the results of direct observations of how the infant was restrained at a two-week posthospital physical examination visit. Those correctly restraining their infants in an approved CRD were found to be from a higher socioeconomic group than those who did not use CRDs or used them incorrectly. Additionally, the group correctly using the CRD demonstrated a heightened interest in other aspects of preventive medicine and stated that they had a family dentist. This demographic profile enables prediction of which family is most likely to respond to traditional education programs and may be a first step in designing new or alternate approaches for reaching parents not influenced by currently employed instructional methods.

Hletko PJ; Hletko JD; Shelness AM; Robin SS

1983-11-01

173

Running injuries - changing trends and demographics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Running injuries are common. Recently the demographic has changed, in that most runners in road races are older and injuries now include those more common in master runners. In particular, Achilles/calf injuries, iliotibial band injury, meniscus injury, and muscle injuries to the hamstrings and quadriceps represent higher percentages of the overall injury mix in recent epidemiologic studies compared with earlier ones. Evidence suggests that running mileage and previous injury are important predictors of running injury. Evidence-based research now helps guide the treatment of iliotibial band, patellofemoral syndrome, and Achilles tendinopathy. The use of topical nitroglycerin in tendinopathy and orthotics for the treatment of patellofemoral syndrome has moderate to strong evidence. Thus, more current knowledge about the changing demographics of runners and the application of research to guide treatment and, eventually, prevent running injury offers hope that clinicians can help reduce the high morbidity associated with long-distance running.

Fields KB

2011-09-01

174

The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey  

CERN Multimedia

In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

Price, C Aaron

2012-01-01

175

Demographic changes in towns in Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with population growth and changes in towns in Slovenia, whose characteristics are small towns. The latest population indicators show a decline in growth, which doesn’t necessarily represent stagnation but development in a new direction. In view of the present demographic trends, growth of larger towns in Slovenia will have to be qualitative and under no circumstances an account of smaller towns.

Aleksander Jakoš

1993-01-01

176

Intelligent system to study demographic evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

Rodrigues, M. De Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

1999-02-01

177

Improvement of yield and its components as well, as oil content and fatty acid composition in safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius, L) through progeny bulk selection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two successive bulk selection cycles (C 1 and C 2) in some safflower back crosses along with the local variety Giza 1 were evaluated during two seasons (1989 and 1990). Concerning seed yield and its components, bulk progenies of [ ( A 2 s k 1 x Giza 1) x A 2 s k 1 ]; [ (Giza 1 x Mut.1) x Mut.1 ]; [ (A 2 s k 1 x Giza 1)x Giza 1 ]; [ (Mut.1 x A 2 s k 1) x Mut.1 ]; and [Giza 1 x Mut.1) x Giza 1 ] showed an increase of 33.3, 16.9, 16.9,10.0 and 9.8 % in seed yield / plant, respectively in C 2 over C 1 cycle. This increase might be due to the obvious improvement in number of capitula / plant which was 54.5, 11.3, 73.8, 31.8, and 18.6 % as well as to large capitula diameter 11.1, 4.8, 8.7, 0.0 and 18.2 % and to better seed weight of 9.8, 15.8, 7.4, 12.0, and 0.0 % for the progenies of these crosses in the same order. For oil content and quality, these bulk progenies showed 7.1, 9.8, 10.3, 6.5, and 6.8 % increase in oleic acid respectively ; 2.4, 2.5, 5.1, 1.4 and 2.0 % increase in linoleic acid in the same order in C 2 over the corresponding C 1 cycle. Except [ (A 2 s k 1 x G.1) x G.1 ], other bulks showed 3.4, 5.2, 4.9, and 0.9 % increase in oil content and 15.4, 8.3, 8.3 and 13.6 % increase in stearic acid in C 2 over its C 1. The correlation between tow selection cycles based on 1990, performance was highly significant for the most studied traits. For yield and its components, genetic advance ranged from 0.4 % for capitula diameter to 10.3 % for plant height. However, for oil] content and quality characters, genetic advance ranged from 0.2 % for oleic acid and stearic acid to 1.6% for oil content.2 tab.

1992-01-01

178

Demographic growth and development of spa places in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of population growth and components of demographic growth in five most important spa settlements in Serbia: Vrnjacka banja, Niska banj, Banja Koviljaca. As indices of demographic development, we have analyzed: natural and mechanical movement of population, age and sex, activity and sex, households and apartments in spa places. The finding is that demographic development of spa places in Serbia has been politically influenced. Due to dismantling state territory of former Yugoslavia, the choice of domestic tourist destination for Serbian population became smaller. Because of that, spas became more important tourist destination which fostered demographic growth of those places. The data analysis demonstrated that during the last six decades, population in all spa places increased with higher insensitive compare with the rest of Serbia. This is the result of high inmigration, particularly in the last decade, when the share of this movement was over 90%. The pacing of population ageing in spa places, did not follow ageing of total population in Serbia. Average age in Serbia between 1961-2002. increased for 31.8%, while in spas population ageing was more intensify with 36.4% increase. The number of household showed constant increase from census to census, as well as in Serbia as in each of spa places with no exception. Average size of household in spas in 1948. was smaller than the average in Serbia for almost one member. By the year 2002. the average sizes of households in spas and in Serbia was almost equalized. Spa places suffered sortage of apartments in 1948. By the year 2002. the evidence showed considerable surplus which as the biggest in Vrnjacka Banja spa. The amount of surplus was 15%, which is higher than the average in Serbia. The purpose of this surplus is rent and accommodation of spa visitors. Overall results point out that despite of population decrease of Serbia, spa places enjoy more and more permanent residents. Among the reasons economic stability of spa places (in the areas of services and medical care) should be emphasized, which triggered inmigration increase, outmigration decrease, and slower rate of ageing (despite of small rate of natural increase).

?ur?ev Branislav S.; Koši? Kristina T.; Dragin Aleksandra S.

2007-01-01

179

The application of economic-demographic models to development planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Population Division's evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of economic-demographic models shows that procedures for considering the short and long-term implications of population growth can be significantly improved. The Division's research projects demonstrate that models can help planners to achieve an efficient allocation of scarce resources, set clear-cut national objectives and provide a national sense of political and social purpose. There are many advantages in applying economic-demographic models to development planning in order to integrate population factors within the development process, yet care must be taken in adopting and/or applying a certain model at the national level. Aside from the question of adopting a model, the question of the applicability and application of models is emphasized. The choice of model structure is discussed in terms of 4 major issues: 1) the choice of a central core; 2) the trade-off between simplicity and complexity and the appropriate degree of endogeneity; 3) the choice of a demand or supply orientation; and 4) the criteria for selecting a particular model for use. A representative selection of economic demographic models is presented. Included are the TEMPO (designed to illustrate the benefits of reduced fertility) and Long-Range Planning Models (LAPM--designed to illustrate the implications of policy assumptions for economic development, particularly in regard to health and education), both developed by the US government. Also described are the BACHUE and the UN Fund for Populations Activities (UNFPA)/ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) models. It is argued that these latter models offer the greatest promise as tools for planning in the ESCAP Region, at the present time. As the BACHUE model is primarily concerned with employment and the distribution of income and the UNFPA/FAO model with agriculture, incorporating both into the planning process could be desirable. PMID:12340524

1985-01-01

180

The Roepke Lecture in Economic Geography: urban restructuring from a demographic perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

"The central argument of this paper is that recent research has overemphasized the notions of urban restructuring and undervalued the role of spatial demographics in understanding urban and [regional] spatial patterns. The paper examines the notions embedded in urban restructuring and suggests that a focus on several elements of demographic processes is an equally important component of understanding urban and [regional] spatial structure. A specific discussion of the Los Angeles region indicates that there is a high level of complexity in social-spatial change. Social-spatial change is not simply explained by reference to an unspecified urban restructuring." PMID:12268704

Clark, W A

1987-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

The Roepke Lecture in Economic Geography: urban restructuring from a demographic perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"The central argument of this paper is that recent research has overemphasized the notions of urban restructuring and undervalued the role of spatial demographics in understanding urban and [regional] spatial patterns. The paper examines the notions embedded in urban restructuring and suggests that a focus on several elements of demographic processes is an equally important component of understanding urban and [regional] spatial structure. A specific discussion of the Los Angeles region indicates that there is a high level of complexity in social-spatial change. Social-spatial change is not simply explained by reference to an unspecified urban restructuring."

Clark WA

1987-04-01

182

The effects of demographics on determinants of perceived health-care service quality. The case of users and observers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Notes that previous research suggests the components of perceived service quality are industry specific, and that calls have been made for academics to integrate their theory into practice. Investigates the effects of demographic factors on users and observers of perceived hospital quality. Reports results suggesting perceived quality is industry specific, users and observers differ in their perceptions of hospital quality and demographic factors do make a difference in perceived hospital quality.

Butler D; Oswald SL; Turner DE

1996-01-01

183

Analysing the development of road safety using demographic data.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to show that time series analyses of road safety and risk can be improved by using demographic data. We demonstrate that the distance travelled by drivers or riders of a certain age reflects the fluctuations over the years of the number of people of that age within the population. We further demonstrate that the change over time of per capita distance travelled, i.e. distance travelled per person, is often less subject to stochastic fluctuations, and therefore more smooth than the total distance travelled for drivers of that age. This smoothness is used to obtain forecasts of distance travelled, or to average out year-to-year fluctuations of data of distance travelled. Analysis of such data stratified by age group, gender or both reveals that, for most travel modes, per capita distance travelled is to a large extent constant or slowly changing over time. The consequences for the evaluation of risk, i.e. casualties per distance travelled, with and without the use of population data, are explored. Dutch data are used to illustrate the model concept. It is shown that the analyses and forecasts of distance travelled could gain substantially by incorporating demographic data, as compared to an analysis with data of distance travelled alone. The paper further shows that, for an analysis of risk and therefore for traffic safety forecasts in the absence of any data of distance travelled, stratified analysis of mortality, i.e. casualties per inhabitant, may be a reasonable alternative. PMID:23164646

Stipdonk, Henk; Bijleveld, Frits; van Norden, Yvette; Commandeur, Jacques

2012-11-16

184

The demographics of e-mail for emergency medicine research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Escalating costs of research combined with increasing use of e-mail by emergency physicians (EP), justifies studying whether electronic surveying (ES) is a valid methodology for research. Our primary study object is to delineate the demographics of EP with e-mail. Secondary objectives are to ascertain ES response rates and to identify response bias between "individual" versus "bulk" e-mailings. The 1999 American College of Emergency Physicians Membership Guide identified a pool of e-mail addresses. Of the 1,752 EP surveyed, 1,386 (79%) had valid e-mail addresses and 574 responded. A response rate of 41% questions the validity of ES for research. Demographic data of EP regarding mean age (38.2 years); gender (82.4% men); title (86.8% MD); practice (87% ED); practice location (49.6% urban); training (56% EM residency); research participation (65.5%); screening e-mail (7%); is representative of EP overall. Finally, comparison of individual versus bulk e-mail to survey participants showed a 13.6% (5.5-21.7; 95% CI) improvement in overall response.

Alves DW; Szucs PA

2001-05-01

185

Influence of Demographic Factors on Students’ Beliefs in Learning Mathematics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning mathematics has been recognized by many as important. It does not only develop students’ ability to think in quantitative terms but can also enhance skills such as analytical and problem solving skills. However, to enable us to tell our students how important mathematics is we have to understand students’ beliefs in learning mathematics so as to find ways to improve students’ performance in mathematics. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between business students’ beliefs in learning mathematics and demographic factors. Data were collected from three hundred and seventy six students in three higher learning institutions enrolled in business mathematics class. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the sample and Pearson chi-square test will be used to test students’ beliefs and the relationship between students’ beliefs and demographic factors (gender, institutions, previous mathematics grade, secondary education and major). Our results suggest that students’ beliefs are positive and significant in learning mathematics. Using Pearson chi-square test, generally the results suggest that there are significant differences in means between students’ beliefs based on institutions and mathematics grade. In addition, we find that overall there are no significant differences in means between beliefs based on gender, secondary education and major.

Izah Mohd Tahir; Nor Mazlina Abu Bakar

2009-01-01

186

Analysing the development of road safety using demographic data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this paper is to show that time series analyses of road safety and risk can be improved by using demographic data. We demonstrate that the distance travelled by drivers or riders of a certain age reflects the fluctuations over the years of the number of people of that age within the population. We further demonstrate that the change over time of per capita distance travelled, i.e. distance travelled per person, is often less subject to stochastic fluctuations, and therefore more smooth than the total distance travelled for drivers of that age. This smoothness is used to obtain forecasts of distance travelled, or to average out year-to-year fluctuations of data of distance travelled. Analysis of such data stratified by age group, gender or both reveals that, for most travel modes, per capita distance travelled is to a large extent constant or slowly changing over time. The consequences for the evaluation of risk, i.e. casualties per distance travelled, with and without the use of population data, are explored. Dutch data are used to illustrate the model concept. It is shown that the analyses and forecasts of distance travelled could gain substantially by incorporating demographic data, as compared to an analysis with data of distance travelled alone. The paper further shows that, for an analysis of risk and therefore for traffic safety forecasts in the absence of any data of distance travelled, stratified analysis of mortality, i.e. casualties per inhabitant, may be a reasonable alternative.

Stipdonk H; Bijleveld F; van Norden Y; Commandeur J

2012-11-01

187

Epidemiology of adult congenital heart disease: demographic variations worldwide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The population of adults with a congenital heart defect (CHD) is increasing, due to improved survival after cardiac surgery. To accommodate the specialised care for these patients, a profound interest in the epidemiology of CHD is required. The exact size of the current population of adults with CHD is unknown, but the best available evidence suggests that currently overall prevalence of CHD in the adult population is about 3000 per million. Regional differences in CHD prevalence have been described, due to both variations in incidence and in mortality. Knowledge of demographic variations of CHD may lead to new aetiological insights and may be useful for preventive therapies. Socioeconomic status, education, urbanisation, climatological factors, ethnicity and patient-related factors, such as comorbidity, lifestyle and healthcare-seeking behaviour, may play a role in CHD incidence and mortality. The higher risk of several major cardiac outcomes in males with CHD might well explain at least partly the increased mortality rate in men. Regional differences in quality of life among CHD patients have been reported and although methodological differences may play a role, sociocultural differences warrant further attention. Socioeconomic outcomes in CHD patients, such as lower education, more unemployment and less relationships, might have a different impact on quality of life in different cultures. To gain more insight into demographic differences around the world large international multicentre studies on the epidemiology of CHD are needed.

Mulder BJ

2012-12-01

188

Demographic change, international migration, and public education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"This paper studies the impact of demographic change and international migration on economic development and the education sector. We employ a simple simulation model for tracing the impact of international migration on the educational and economic system, under alternative assumptions on the education background and adaptation costs of migrants. An application to the case of the Netherlands shows that international migration of whatever (realistic) level will not be able to prevent strong population aging during the period 2010-2035. Given the current below-average educational and productive profile of the immigrant population in the Netherlands, increased migration will only make matters worse."

Ritzen JM; Van Imhoff E

1993-01-01

189

Critical pulse power components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Critical components for pulsed power conditioning systems will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on those components requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems, especially when operation at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time are necessary. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. In particular, opening switches are essentially nonexistent for most applications. Insulaton in all systems and components requires development and improvement. Efforts under way in technology base development of pulse power components will be discussed.

Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

1981-01-01

190

Socio-demographic factors of geriatric depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Depression is a common mental health problem in geriatric population and the overall prevalence rate of depression in this age group varies between 10 and 20%. Objective: To study the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in geriatric population. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done on 74 community-based mental health surveys on depression in geriatric population, which were conducted in the continents of Asia, Europe, Australia, North America, and South America. All the studies were conducted between 1955 and 2005. The researchers had included only community-based cross-sectional surveys and some prospective studies that had not excluded depression on baseline. These studies were conducted on homogenous community of geriatric population in the world, who were selected by simple random sampling technique. A qualitative analysis was conducted to study the socio-demographic factors of depression. Results and Conclusion: The two non-modifiable risk factors found to be significantly associated with depression in geriatric population were "older age group" and "female gender". However, the potentially modifiable risk factors for depression in the geriatric population were identified as low socioeconomic status, loss of spouse, living alone, chronic co-morbidities, cognitive impairment, bereavement and restricted activities of daily living (ADL).

Barua Ankur; Ghosh M; Kar N; Basilio M

2010-01-01

191

Profile: Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), located in the rural centre of Burkina Faso, was established in 2009 by the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro with the aim of providing a core framework for clinical trials and also to support the Burkina Faso health authorities in generating epidemiological data that can contribute to the setup and assessment of health interventions. In the baseline of initial census, 54 781 individuals were recorded of whom 56.1% are female. After the initial census, vital events such as pregnancies, births, migrations and deaths have been monitored, and data on individuals and household characteristics are updated during regular 4-monthly household visits. The available data are categorized into demographic, cultural, socio-economic and health information, and are used for monitoring and evaluation of population development issues. As a young site, our objective has been to strengthen our skills and knowledge and share new scientific experiences with INDEPTH and HDSS sites in Burkina Faso. In addition, all data produced by the Nanoro HDSS will be made publicly available through the INDEPTH data sharing system. PMID:23045201

Derra, Karim; Rouamba, Eli; Kazienga, Adama; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Tahita, Marc C; Sorgho, Hermann; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou

2012-10-01

192

Profile: Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), located in the rural centre of Burkina Faso, was established in 2009 by the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro with the aim of providing a core framework for clinical trials and also to support the Burkina Faso health authorities in generating epidemiological data that can contribute to the setup and assessment of health interventions. In the baseline of initial census, 54 781 individuals were recorded of whom 56.1% are female. After the initial census, vital events such as pregnancies, births, migrations and deaths have been monitored, and data on individuals and household characteristics are updated during regular 4-monthly household visits. The available data are categorized into demographic, cultural, socio-economic and health information, and are used for monitoring and evaluation of population development issues. As a young site, our objective has been to strengthen our skills and knowledge and share new scientific experiences with INDEPTH and HDSS sites in Burkina Faso. In addition, all data produced by the Nanoro HDSS will be made publicly available through the INDEPTH data sharing system.

Derra K; Rouamba E; Kazienga A; Ouedraogo S; Tahita MC; Sorgho H; Valea I; Tinto H

2012-10-01

193

[Freedom in contraception: opinion of a demographer].  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite his belief, in common with that of most French demographers, that the French population is in danger of declining, this author favors legalized contraception in France. The Law of 1920 forbade contraceptive devices and propaganda. The author blamed many demographers for confusing demography with doctrine. He agreed, with a Catholic writer, that birth limitation is not necessarily synonymous with birth control i.e., use of contraceptives. Currently in France, people prefer coitus interruptus and spermicides, which they consider hygienic, but they dislike condoms and rarely use diaphragms, since it is illegal for physicians to prescribe them. The author's reasons for believing that legalizing contraception would have little impact on French population growth include: single people would use better methods, but then increase their sexual activity; young married couples are not motivated to use a secure method until they complete their families; diaphragms require premeditation and the spermidices are expensive, so they will probably not replace the Ogino rhythm method. People will probably continue to use coitus interruptus which is quute effective. Definite advantages of liberalized contraception will be reduced numbers of abortions, illegitimate births, adolescent pregnancies and forced marriages. He concludes that the principle advantage would be reversal of a hypocritical policy toward contraception. PMID:12334341

Vincent, P

1957-04-01

194

Demographic Characteristics of Men with Sexual Dysfunction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractObjectives:This research was conducted to obtain a comprehensive picture of demographic character- ristics and sexual behavioral pattern of men at a psychiatric clinic in Tehran. Method:In this descriptive-cross sectional study,300 men who consulted the clinic between the 20th of April,2001 and the 20th of Jan,2002 composed the subjects of the study.Data were collected via a demographic questionnaire and analyzed through descriptive statistics. Findings:76.2% of subjects suffered from erectile dysfunction and 35.6% had difficulties related to premature ejaculation. 44.6% of the subjects reported a history of psychiatric disorders and tak- ing neuroleptic and anti-depressants medications.The onset of sexual disorders for 23.7% of the subjects was less than one year ago it was between one to two years ago for 15% and more than three years ago for 53.3%. Results:erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation more than other sexual disorders were the reasons for consultation at the psychiatrists’ office and sexual dysfunction clinics. 

F. Mehrabi; M. Ehssanmanesh; E. Karimi Keisomi

2003-01-01

195

Demographic characteristics in preeclamptic women in Macedonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia contribute to the death of a pregnant woman every three minutes. AIM: To determine the demographic risk factors and values of blood pressure to predict preeclampsia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Demographic and clinical features of 300 normotensive pregnant women aged 28 ± 5 years and 100 preeclamptic women aged 28 ± 6 years, were assessed. Women with multiple pregnancies were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Women with less educational attainment had a higher risk of mild and severe preeclampsia. Weight gain during pregnancy in control and pre eclamptic women were 14 ± 3 and 20 ± 5 kg, respectively (p < 0.01). Women with severe preeclampsia had high significantly shorter gestations then the other two patient groups (p < 0.01). Compared to normotensive women, at 6 to 12 weeks of gestation, pre eclamptic women had higher systolic (102 ± 7 and 113 ± 9 mmHg respectively), diastolic (64 ± 5 and 74 ± 10 mmHg respectively) and mean arterial pressure (77 ± 5 and 87 ± 8.01 mmHg respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Women with basic education or illiterate have a higher risk of developing preeclampsia. During the first or second trimester of pregnancy, mean arterial pressure is the best predictor for preeclampsia.

Jasovic-Siveska E; Jasovic V

2011-06-01

196

Demographic response by a small epiphytic orchid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Biotic changes are an inevitable consequence of climate change. Epiphytes may be more susceptible to changes in climate variation, but data regarding responses to climate variability under field conditions are limited. We evaluated whether the abundance of demographic stages in the epiphytic orchid Lepanthes rupestris at the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico was associated with short-term changes in climate variation over an 8-yr period. METHODS: We used cross-correlation analyses to evaluate associations between the abundance of seedlings, juveniles, adults, and fruits per subpopulation, population growth, colonization and extinction rates in L. rupestris with variables related to precipitation and temperature, with and without lag- responses. KEY RESULTS: We detected significant negative correlations between the average number of seedlings and the number of dry days, between the average number of fruits and minimum average temperature with a 6-mo response lag, and between the average number of adults and the maximum temperature with a 1-yr response lag. Neither population growth rate nor probability of colonization and extinction were directly related to climatic variation between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between climatic variables and demographic stages could have negative implications for this orchid within the context of expected drying trends in the Caribbean. Results argue for the establishment of long-term monitoring studies of orchid populations, because only long-term studies would provide the appropriate temporal scale to detect and predict climate change effects and adaptive management of orchid populations.

Olaya-Arenas P; Meléndez-Ackerman EJ; Pérez ME; Tremblay R

2011-12-01

197

Demographic response by a small epiphytic orchid  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

• Premise of the study: Biotic changes are an inevitable consequence of climate change. Epiphytes may be more susceptible to changes in climate variation, but data regarding responses to climate variability under field conditions are limited. We evaluated whether the abundance of demographic stages in the epiphytic orchid Lepanthes rupestris at the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico was associated with short-term changes in climate variation over an 8-yr period. • METHODS: We used cross-correlation analyses to evaluate associations between the abundance of seedlings, juveniles, adults, and fruits per subpopulation, population growth, colonization and extinction rates in L. rupestris with variables related to precipitation and temperature, with and without lag- responses. • Key results: We detected significant negative correlations between the average number of seedlings and the number of dry days, between the average number of fruits and minimum average temperature with a 6-mo response lag, and between the average number of adults and the maximum temperature with a 1-yr response lag. Neither population growth rate nor probability of colonization and extinction were directly related to climatic variation between 2000 and 2007. • CONCLUSIONS: Associations between climatic variables and demographic stages could have negative implications for this orchid within the context of expected drying trends in the Caribbean. Results argue for the establishment of long-term monitoring studies of orchid populations, because only long-term studies would provide the appropriate temporal scale to detect and predict climate change effects and adaptive management of orchid populations.

Olaya-Arenas P; Meléndez-Ackerman EJ; Pérez ME; Tremblay R

2011-12-01

198

Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC) method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable accuracy, demographic parameters from three simulated data sets that vary in the magnitude of a founder event and a skew in the effective population size of the X chromosome relative to the autosomes. The behavior of the Markov chain is also examined and shown to convergence to its stationary distribution, while also showing high levels of parameter mixing. The analysis of three pairwise comparisons of sub-Saharan African human populations with non-African human populations do not provide unequivocal support for a strong non-African founder event from these nuclear data. The estimates do however suggest a skew in the ratio of X chromosome to autosome effective population size that is greater than one. However in all three cases, the 95% highest posterior density interval for this ratio does include three-fourths, the value expected under an equal breeding sex ratio. Conclusion The implementation of composite and approximate likelihood methods in a framework that includes MCMCMC demographic parameter estimation shows great promise for being flexible and computationally efficient enough to scale up to the level of whole-genome polymorphism and divergence analysis. Further work must be done to characterize the effects of the assumption of linkage equilibrium among genomic regions that is crucial to the validity of applying the composite likelihood method.

Garrigan Daniel

2009-01-01

199

Determination of the effectiveness of components of the herbal medicine Toki-Shakuyaku-San and fractions of Angelica acutiloba in improving the scopolamine-induced impairment of rat's spatial cognition in eight-armed radial maze test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The improving effects of various components of Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TSS) and fractions isolated from Angelica acutiloba Radix (Toki) on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment were investigated in eight-armed radial maze. The scopolamine-induced memory impairment was characterized by prominent increase of error choices in addition to decreased correct choices. Toki, Cnidium officinale Rhizoma (Senkyu), Poria cocos Hoelen (Bukuryo), Alisma orientale Rhizoma (Takusha), and Atractylodes lancea Rhizoma (Sojutsu) increased the correct choices, while only the Toki, Sojutsu, and Takusha decreased the error choices. No effect was produced by Paeonia lactiflora Radix (Shakuyaku). Investigation of effects of fractions isolated from Toki revealed that its activity mainly resided in the butanol layer and its contents of N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide and amines. Moreover, the alkaloid, internal and external solutions (containing poly-, di-, and monosaccharides) obtained by dialysis with Visking cellophane tubing also improved the memory. However, no improving properties were detected for methanol and hexanol layers, L-(-)-tryptophan, L-arginine, L-(-)-lysine, and choline chloride. The results showed that the TSS components could improve the reference and working memory impaired by scopolamine. The improving effect of TSS is produced greatly by the Toki component, the activity of which was greatly produced by the fraction extracted by butanol.

Hatip-Al-Khatib I; Egashira N; Mishima K; Iwasaki K; Iwasaki K; Kurauchi K; Inui K; Ikeda T; Fujiwara M

2004-09-01

200

Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%). Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument). The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession. Conclusion The Finnish chiropractic profession is relatively young. Consequently, many of the practitioners have a university-degree, which reflects recent developments in undergraduate chiropractic education. Their practice profile and the manner in which they practice appear to be fairly traditional.

Malmqvist Stefan; Leboeuf-Yde Charlotte

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations  

CERN Multimedia

Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-01

202

Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans.

Andretta JR; Worrell FC; Mello ZR; Dixson DD; Baik SH

2013-04-01

203

Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is ?the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms?. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes) and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000). Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation) and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables) and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

Asghar Mirfardi

2011-01-01

204

Signals of demographic expansion in Drosophila virilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern of genetic variation within and among populations of a species is strongly affected by its phylogeographic history. Analyses based on putatively neutral markers provide data from which past events, such as population expansions and colonizations, can be inferred. Drosophila virilis is a cosmopolitan species belonging to the virilis group, where divergence times between different phylads go back to the early Miocene. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequence variation among 35 Drosophila virilis strains covering the species' range in order to detect demographic events that could be used to understand the present characteristics of the species, as well as its differences from other members of the group. Results Drosophila virilis showed very low nucleotide diversity with haplotypes distributed in a star-like network, consistent with a recent world-wide exponential expansion possibly associated either with domestication or post-glacial colonization. All analyses point towards a rapid population expansion. Coalescence models support this interpretation. The central haplotype in the network, which could be interpreted as ancestral, is widely distributed and gives no information about the geographical origin of the population expansion. The species showed no geographic structure in the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes, in contrast to results of a recent microsatellite-based analysis. Conclusion The lack of geographic structure and the star-like topology depicted by the D. virilis haplotypes indicate a pattern of global demographic expansion, probably related to human movements, although this interpretation cannot be distinguished from a selective sweep in the mitochondrial DNA until nuclear sequence data become available. The particular behavioural traits of this species, including weak species-discrimination and intraspecific mate choice exercised by the females, can be understood from this perspective.

Mirol Patricia M; Routtu Jarkko; Hoikkala Anneli; Butlin Roger K

2008-01-01

205

Socioeconomic and Demographic Determinants of Mental Health across Canadian Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Many factors contribute to health. This study uses community level data to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and demographic factors as well as physical health on community mental health outcomes. Method Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the impact of determinants on community mental health outcomes for men and women using community level data from up to 113 health regions covering almost the entire population in Canada. Results Study findings indicate that communities with higher proportions of aboriginal people have greater mental illness hospitalization. Minorities have poorer perceived mental health but better objective measures of less mental illness hospitalization and self injury hospitalization. Also, communities with higher proportion of low income persons show poorer results for many objective mental health outcomes. Higher prevalence of lone parents in a community is associated with greater perceived life stress and greater mental illness hospitalizations for men. Poor physical health is also a predictor of poor mental health. Conclusion Improving the living conditions of aboriginal people and other low income people could reduce mental illness hospitalizations in a community, helping minorities the majority of whom are immigrants with their settlements in their host communities could improve perceived mental health and life stress, and helping lone parents who are men with counseling services to better cope with their situations could reduce their perceived life stress and mental illness hospitalization. Also, improving the physical health of individuals across communities could have a positive impact on mental health outcomes across communities.

Jalil Safaei

2012-01-01

206

Removing an intersubject variance component in a general linear model improves multiway factoring of event-related spectral perturbations in group EEG studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linear statistical models are used very effectively to assess task-related differences in EEG power spectral analyses. Mixed models, in particular, accommodate more than one variance component in a multisubject study, where many trials of each condition of interest are measured on each subject. Generally, intra- and intersubject variances are both important to determine correct standard errors for inference on functions of model parameters, but it is often assumed that intersubject variance is the most important consideration in a group study. In this article, we show that, under common assumptions, estimates of some functions of model parameters, including estimates of task-related differences, are properly tested relative to the intrasubject variance component only. A substantial gain in statistical power can arise from the proper separation of variance components when there is more than one source of variability. We first develop this result analytically, then show how it benefits a multiway factoring of spectral, spatial, and temporal components from EEG data acquired in a group of healthy subjects performing a well-studied response inhibition task. PMID:22102426

Spence, Jeffrey S; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Ferree, Thomas C

2011-11-18

207

Removing an intersubject variance component in a general linear model improves multiway factoring of event-related spectral perturbations in group EEG studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Linear statistical models are used very effectively to assess task-related differences in EEG power spectral analyses. Mixed models, in particular, accommodate more than one variance component in a multisubject study, where many trials of each condition of interest are measured on each subject. Generally, intra- and intersubject variances are both important to determine correct standard errors for inference on functions of model parameters, but it is often assumed that intersubject variance is the most important consideration in a group study. In this article, we show that, under common assumptions, estimates of some functions of model parameters, including estimates of task-related differences, are properly tested relative to the intrasubject variance component only. A substantial gain in statistical power can arise from the proper separation of variance components when there is more than one source of variability. We first develop this result analytically, then show how it benefits a multiway factoring of spectral, spatial, and temporal components from EEG data acquired in a group of healthy subjects performing a well-studied response inhibition task.

Spence JS; Brier MR; Hart J Jr; Ferree TC

2013-03-01

208

Improvement of chemical analysis of antibiotics. XV. Isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for the analysis and preparative separation of the components of bacitracin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) systems were established for analytical and preparative separation of the components of the antibiotic preparation bacitracin (BC). The best analytical results were obtained using a C18 modified silica gel column (Capcell Pak C18) with a solvent system of 0.04 M disodium hydrogenphosphate buffer and methanol (4:6), pH 9-10. The calibration graphs showed good linear relationships between 50 and 1000 ng for BC-A and between 65 and 1000 ng for BC-F. With respect to the preparative HPLC, a Capcell Pak C18 column with methanol-0.05 M aqueous sodium sulphate solution (6:4) as a mobile phase gave satisfactory results. The isolation of BC-A and -F was readily achieved without decomposition of the components by using the present preparative HPLC followed by desalting on a prepacked C18 cartridge.

Oka H; Ikai Y; Kawamura N; Yamada M; Harada K; Yamazaki Y; Suzuki M

1989-01-01

209

Under-5 Mortality in Tanzania: A Demographic Scenario  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The government of the United Republic of Tanzania has initiated the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness program to improve the health and wellbeing of children.Methods: Tanzania’s under-five mortality rate is still 1.7 times higher than the world average and, in order to achieve its Millennium Development Goal 4 target, its annual reduction rate is quite low at 2.2. The main aim of the study is to examine under-five mortality combined with the Data from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2008 data was used. Odds ratios for infant and under-five mortality were estimated using logistic regression; crude and adjusting models were adopted.Results: Mortality cases (18.3%) have been reported to children born with an interval of <24 months. Mothers with no education reported 14.6%, primary education mothers reported 11.1% and higher education reported only 5.3% (P<0.001). Therefore, maternal education plays is a major role on fertility and infant and under-five mortality behavior.Conclusion: Maternal education also influences a mother’s behavior in her usage of available health services to improve the health of the children. Further in-depth analysis is immensely needed in this situation.

A Sathiya Susuman; F Hamisi

2012-01-01

210

Under-5 mortality in Tanzania: a demographic scenario.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The government of the United Republic of Tanzania has initiated the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness program to improve the health and wellbeing of children. METHODS: Tanzania's under-five mortality rate is still 1.7 times higher than the world average and, in order to achieve its Millennium Development Goal 4 target, its annual reduction rate is quite low at 2.2. The main aim of the study is to examine under-five mortality combined with the Data from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2008 data was used. Odds ratios for infant and under-five mortality were estimated using logistic regression; crude and adjusting models were adopted. RESULTS: Mortality cases (18.3%) have been reported to children born with an interval of <24 months. Mothers with no education reported 14.6%, primary education mothers reported 11.1% and higher education reported only 5.3% (P<0.001). Therefore, maternal education plays is a major role on fertility and infant and under-five mortality behavior. CONCLUSION: Maternal education also influences a mother's behavior in her usage of available health services to improve the health of the children. Further in-depth analysis is immensely needed in this situation.

Sathiya Susuman A; Hamisi HF

2012-01-01

211

Risk society and the second demographic transition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EnglishProminent "risk society" theorists such as Giddens and Beck have identifiedrisk as a fundamental organizing principle of contemporary society. Importantly, a major cause of riskawareness and anxiety in modern society is individualism . . a concept Lesthaeghe linked to changes infamily formation. In this regard, of the types of risk discussed in the sociological literature,"interpersonal risks" associated with cohabitation, marriage, and parenting are of obvious salience.This paper explores how the modern "risk society" thesis, and the concept of interpersonal risk couldmaterially contribute to understanding the second demographic transition.FrenchDes theorists connu tells que Giddens et Beck qui promeuvent "la société de risqué" ont identifié le risqué comme un principe fundamental de l'organisation de la société contemporaine. De l'importance est que l'individualisme, … un concept que Lesthaeghe a relié aux changements dans la formation de la famille, est une cause majeuire de la reconnaissance du risqué et de l'anxiété dans la société moderne. En ce qui concerne le risqué, de tous les genres de risqué discutés dans la literature sociologique, les risques "interpersonnels" associés à la cohabitation, le marriage et l'élevement des enfants sont plus communs. Ce papier examine la possibilité que l'idée d'une "société de risqué" moderne, et le concept du risqué interpersonnel pourraient contribuer à la comprehension de la deuxiéme transition démographique.

Hall, David R.

2002-01-01

212

Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographic studies in plants appearsimple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastictags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperatelatitudes have a pronounced seasonal life–cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots oncea year often during or shortly after flowering. Life–states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of ademographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as 0VFVVF000.A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it wasseen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities ofsurvival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting.Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, i.e., when plants may stay belowground forone or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as 0VF00F000 may then occur where the meaningof zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methodsin wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equatedto a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and inKéry et al. (submitted), we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival andshould not be used.In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capturerecapture(CR) models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state–transitions and thefraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrialorchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kéry et al., submitted) and Cypripedium reginae (Kéry & Gregg, submitted) inWest Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a total of 620 markedramets over 10 years, and for Cypripedium, two populations with 98 and 258 marked ramets over 11years. We chose the ramet (= single stem or shoot) as the demographic unit of our study since therewas no way distinguishing among genets (genet = genetical individual, i.e., the "individual" that animalecologists are mostly concerned with). This will introduce some non–independence into the data, whichcan nevertheless be dealt with easily by correcting variances for overdispersion. Using ramets insteadof genets has the further advantage that individuals can be assigned to a state such as flowering orvegetative in an unambiguous manner. This is not possible when genets are the demographic units. Inall three populations, auxiliary data was available to show that detection probability of aboveground plantswas m 0.995.We fitted multistate models in program MARK by specifying three states (D, V, F), even though thedormant state D does not occur in the encounter histories. Detection probability is fixed at 1 for thevegetative (V) and the flowering state (F) and at zero for the dormant state (D). Rates of survival and ofstate transitions as well as slopes of covariate relationships can be estimated and LRT or the AICmachinery be used to select among models. To estimate the fraction of the population in the unobservabledormant state, the encounter histories are collapsed to 0 (plant not observed aboveground) and 1 (plantobserved aboveground). The Cormack–Jolly–Seber model without constraints on detection probability isused to estimate detection probability, the complement of which is the estimated fraction of the populationin the dormant state.Parameter identifiability is an important issue in multi state models. We used the Catchpole–Morgan–Freeman approach to determine which parameters are estimable in principle in our multi state models.Most of 15 tested models were indeed estimable with the notable exception of the most general model,which has fully interactive state- and time-dependent survival and state transition rates. This model wouldbecome identifiab

Kéry, M.; Gregg, K. B.

2004-01-01

213

Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multitude of environmental problems abound in Tanzania. The problems range from declining land resources, de-vegetation, urban and air pollution, degradation of the marine environment to the destruction of biological diversity. A thorough analysis of these manifestations of environments decline reveal the presence of linkages to economic, political, cultural and demographic constraints which have been at the crux of Tanzania's efforts towards emancipation. We attested that societies are always dialect and integral parts of the global entity. As such the analysis of any societal problem can not be sufficiently tackled by basing on a 'micro level' societal specific factors. We need to expand our horizon and include 'macro level' elements which impinges on the society under study. Imperatively, influences on any environment, social or biophysical, whether positive or negative, emanates either or both from within the specific society and or from without. In our study we set out to provide an insight into the nature and character of man and environment interaction in Arumeru district, Northern Tanzania. We intended to investigate the extent to which changes in the household production patterns as a result of environmental stress and the consequent resource management strategies influence and are hitherto influenced by population growth. The aspects of demographic changes especially patterns of growth and settlement, agrarian production such as land tenure, food and cash crop interventions, non-farm activities and management of the commons were studies. Further, local adaptation to crisis including environmental stress and emerging markets were explored. he theoretical model adopted in analysing the man-land environment relationship in Arumeru district and the ensuing findings, give legitimacy to the position that issues of population growth or decline cannot be separated from questions of economic and social development, or from the environmental concerns related to the management of resources both at global and local levels. We found out empirically that despite the dwindling natural resource base, the people in Arumeru still maintain their demographic dynamism. For them, it is a rational thing to do. The explanation for this phenomenon is not discrete, but spans the whole range of the population-resource continuum. From the demographic transition point of view, the society has not reached the threshold where child labour is valueless. In Arumeru, the children are still valued for their labour as they participate in both agro-pastoral related income generating activities. Further, children are still old age insurers. Thus, the age long traditions which favour the persistence of high fertility regimes are still in force. Having children is still a pleasure which costs nothing and hence the family size is rarely determined by the household's income. The interplay of proximate determinants of fertility is found to have an effect on the population increase in the district. People enter into marriage unions at very young ages, while the breastfeeding duration has drastically decreased in recent years. Furthermore, postpartum abstinence is no longer observed and incidences of pathological infertility have been tremendously reduced, thanks to modern medicine. All these factors support high fertility regimes. The argument that rapid population growth always leads to environmental decline and thus forces rural economies into diminishing returns, over-utilisation of resource and pauperisation is rejected. Despite the population increase and dwindling resource base in Arumeru, food security, rural incomes and standard of living have consistently improved throughout the century. The situation in the study area somehow accommodate the Boserupian model, where population growth triggers agricultural intensification, but in this case, the forces which triggers change did not emanate from within, but were externally generated. Institutional arrangements and the markets played a significant role in the intensification of the farming practic

1999-01-01

214

IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tungsten carbide monolithic preform was produced by Advanced Ceramics. MTU conducted various sintering tests on the preform to determine conditions for removing the organic binder and improving the mechanical properties. The originally selected parameters for sintering did not perform as anticipated and further testing is underway.

Xiaodi Huang; Richard Gertsch

2001-07-27

215

Nuclear components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The main features of the EPR concerning the fabrication of the reactor are: -) the size of the components, -) the modification of the design compared with classical PWR, and -) an intensive use of forging (in particular the cold and hot legs of the primary circuit are forged). This series of slides overviews the fabrication of the components for the EPR by highlighting the differences with the previous generation of reactors. 4 types of components are reviewed: the reactor vessel and internals, steam generators, primary circuit pipes, and primary coolant pumps. (A.C.)

2009-01-01

216

Improved estimation of parametric images of cerebral glucose metabolic rate from dynamic FDG-PET using volume-wise principle component analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Parametric images can represent both spatial distribution and quantification of the biological and physiological parameters of tracer kinetics. The linear least square (LLS) method is a well-estimated linear regression method for generating parametric images by fitting compartment models with good computational efficiency. However, bias exists in LLS-based parameter estimates, owing to the noise present in tissue time activity curves (TTACs) that propagates as correlated error in the LLS linearized equations. To address this problem, a volume-wise principal component analysis (PCA) based method is proposed. In this method, firstly dynamic PET data are properly pre-transformed to standardize noise variance as PCA is a data driven technique and can not itself separate signals from noise. Secondly, the volume-wise PCA is applied on PET data. The signals can be mostly represented by the first few principle components (PC) and the noise is left in the subsequent PCs. Then the noise-reduced data are obtained using the first few PCs by applying 'inverse PCA'. It should also be transformed back according to the pre-transformation method used in the first step to maintain the scale of the original data set. Finally, the obtained new data set is used to generate parametric images using the linear least squares (LLS) estimation method. Compared with other noise-removal method, the proposed method can achieve high statistical reliability in the generated parametric images. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated both with computer simulation and with clinical dynamic FDG PET study.

Dai, Xiaoqian; Tian, Jie; Chen, Zhe

2010-03-01

217

Improving diabetes care: multi-component cardiovascular disease risk reduction strategies for people with diabetes in South Asia--the CARRS multi-center translation trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with diabetes in South Asia. The CARRS Translation Trial tests the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of a clinic-based multi-component CVD risk reduction intervention among people with diabetes in India and Pakistan. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1146 adults with diabetes recruited from 10 urban clinic sites, to receive usual care by physicians or to receive an integrated multi-component CVD risk reduction intervention. The intervention involves electronic health record management, decision-support prompts to the healthcare team, and the support of a care coordinator to actively facilitate patient and provider adherence to evidence-based guidelines. The primary outcome is a composite of multiple CVD risk factor control (blood glucose and either blood pressure or cholesterol, or all three). Other outcomes include control of the individual CVD risk factors, process and patient-centered measures, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability/feasibility. CONCLUSION: The CARRS Translation Trial tests a low-cost diabetes care delivery model in urban South Asia to achieve comprehensive cardio-metabolic disease case-management of high-risk patients (clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01212328).

Shah S; Singh K; Ali MK; Mohan V; Kadir MM; Unnikrishnan AG; Sahay RK; Varthakavi P; Dharmalingam M; Viswanathan V; Masood Q; Bantwal G; Khadgawat R; Desai A; Sethi BK; Shivashankar R; Ajay VS; Reddy KS; Narayan KM; Prabhakaran D; Tandon N

2012-11-01

218

Higher Education and the New Demographics: Questions for Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines policy and practical questions at both the international and national levels regarding recent unprecedented institutional evolution and dramatic demographic changes in higher education. For example, explores what role U.S. higher education will play in the global market, and how it will act to meet challenges of new demographics in the…

Swail, Watson Scott

2002-01-01

219

Poverty, demographic characteristics and public policy in CIS countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"The demographic characteristics of different regions in the former Soviet Union influence the nature of poverty in the newly successor independent states.... Despite a common policy inheritance, major adjustments are needed in the major social protection instruments to reflect differences in demographics along with a changing resource base."

Ahmad SE

1993-01-01

220

Component Lifing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Failure mechanisms which can occur in an aircraft engine component in service are categorized into low life failures, macroscopically nonlocalized damage accumulation, and macroscopically localized damage accumulation. The methods used to avoid these fail...

A. C. Pickard

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Track2-major components reliability and material issues corrosion counter-measures. Inconel overlay weld with improvement of ultrasonic flaw detection using magnetic stirring welding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Type 304 stainless steel and alloy 182 butt weld joints have sensibility of stress corrosion cracking in high temperature and high pressure water with oxygen dissolution. Some preventive maintenance techniques are improved and applied to actual plants to prevent stress corrosion cracking. One method is overlay welding on the outer surface of pipe joints, that can change the tension residual stress on the inner surface into the compression stress during overlay welding process with water cooling in pipe inside. It is well known that ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in the Inconel welds which have dendrites because they make ultrasonic transmissibility decrease. Also, welding for low alloy steels of reactor vessel nozzles is usually performed with pre- and post- weld heat treatments. But in this method, either treatment is quite difficult for water cooling in pipe inside during overlay welding. We discussed the application of magnetic stirring welding to reduce the growth of dendrites and to improve ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were performed for determination of optimal welding condition range. PT and macro observation after welding were carried out, resulted in the optimal operation conditions. Overlay welding tests were performed, and UT and hardness test of heat affected zone were carried out. Ultrasonic beam transmission of overlay welds is clearly improved and higher detect-ability is promised by application of magnetic stirring welding. Hardness of low alloy steel's heat affected zone after the fourth layer is less than 350 HV. (author)

Takashi, HIrano; Kenji, Hirano; Masayuki, Watando; Takahiro, Arakawa; Minoru, Maeda [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd (Japan)

2001-07-01

222

A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 ?m particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 ?g mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them.

De Zan MM; Teglia CM; Robles JC; Goicoechea HC

2011-07-01

223

Ceramic component for electrodes  

Science.gov (United States)

A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes consists of HfO.sub.2 and sufficient Tb.sub.4 O.sub.7 to stabilize at least 60 volume percent of the HfO.sub.2 into the cubic structure. The ceramic component may also contain a small amount of PrO.sub.2, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 or a mixture of both to improve stability and electronic conductivity of the electrode. The component is highly resistant to corrosion by molten potassium seed and molten coal slag in the MHD fluid and exhibits both ionic and electronic conductivity.

Marchant, David D. (Richland, WA)

1979-01-01

224

A socio-demographic study of aging in the Portuguese population: the EPEPP study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase in life expectancy (LE) observed in Western societies, has resulted in a steep rise of older population. This stresses the importance of the research on aging, to better adequate health and social care organization and improve the quality of life (QoL). The aim of the EPEPP-1 (abbreviated from the Portuguese name: Estudo do Perfil de Envelhecimento da População Portuguesa) study was to characterize the socio-demographic components of the elderly Portuguese population in order to disclose factors that could play a role in the aging process and in the elderly QoL. This observational descriptive study, was performed in 2672 individuals older than 54 years taking into account gender and the residence area (rural vs. urban). A questionnaire about social network (marital status, living alone, the hours spent alone, confidents), and social status (education, occupation) was applied. Social network score revealed significant age and gender trends, women and older people performing worst, but with no difference according to residence area. Almost a third was unmarried and spent eight or more hours per day alone, and a fifth lived alone. Social status revealed that being older female and resident in a rural area quoted worst in the prevalence of illiteracy and undifferentiated occupation. The authors concluded that social isolation, illiteracy and undifferentiated occupation are prevalent in Portuguese older population. Identification of further determinants of isolation, adjustment of procedures to be included in social networks and development of actions directed to education are important fields of intervention influencing the elderly QoL. PMID:20510469

Mota-Pinto, Anabela; Rodrigues, Vítor; Botelho, Amália; Veríssimo, Manuel Teixeira; Morais, António; Alves, Catarina; Rosa, Manuel Santos; de Oliveira, Catarina Resende

2010-05-26

225

A socio-demographic study of aging in the Portuguese population: the EPEPP study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increase in life expectancy (LE) observed in Western societies, has resulted in a steep rise of older population. This stresses the importance of the research on aging, to better adequate health and social care organization and improve the quality of life (QoL). The aim of the EPEPP-1 (abbreviated from the Portuguese name: Estudo do Perfil de Envelhecimento da População Portuguesa) study was to characterize the socio-demographic components of the elderly Portuguese population in order to disclose factors that could play a role in the aging process and in the elderly QoL. This observational descriptive study, was performed in 2672 individuals older than 54 years taking into account gender and the residence area (rural vs. urban). A questionnaire about social network (marital status, living alone, the hours spent alone, confidents), and social status (education, occupation) was applied. Social network score revealed significant age and gender trends, women and older people performing worst, but with no difference according to residence area. Almost a third was unmarried and spent eight or more hours per day alone, and a fifth lived alone. Social status revealed that being older female and resident in a rural area quoted worst in the prevalence of illiteracy and undifferentiated occupation. The authors concluded that social isolation, illiteracy and undifferentiated occupation are prevalent in Portuguese older population. Identification of further determinants of isolation, adjustment of procedures to be included in social networks and development of actions directed to education are important fields of intervention influencing the elderly QoL.

Mota-Pinto A; Rodrigues V; Botelho A; Veríssimo MT; Morais A; Alves C; Rosa MS; de Oliveira CR

2011-05-01

226

Review on the demographic and social impact of methadone-medication therapy on Malaysian patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is an observational cross-sectional study aimed to examine the possible demographic and social characteristics of patients enrolled at the Methadone Maintenance Therapy Adherence Clinic (MMTAC) in Malaysia. Medical records from year 2009 - 2011 were Reviewed. Demographic, social characteristics and laboratory examinations such as age, gender, race, clinic attendances and urine analysis were recorded. Subjects were selected by means of convenient sampling but based on the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were analyzed by either Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test Mann-Whitney U-test, with the limit of significance was set at p < 0.05. Demographically, this study found that the ratio of Malays, Chinese and Indian enrolled to the MMTAC program is similar to the distribution of races in Malaysia. Their starting age for drug use was between 14-35 years and the age to enrolment between 30-58 years. Socially, many are unemployed, lowly educated and married. Most are drug users with a high percentage of HCV accompanied with impaired liver function. Retention rate was 87% but illicit drug use was at 57.50%. However, percentage of employment increased significantly after therapy. The study managed to identify several demographical and social distributions of patients attending the MMTAC. Although attendance rate was high, many were on illicit drug use. Nevertheless, employment rate improved significantly. PMID:23811468

Manan, Mohamed Mansor; Ali, Salmiah Mohd; Khan, Muhammad Anwar Nawab; Jafarian, Sara; Hameed, Mohammed Abdul

2013-07-01

227

Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

2007-01-01

228

Demographic and geographical characteristics of pediatric trauma in Scotland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Trauma systems reduce mortality and improve functional outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyse the demographic and geospatial characteristics of pediatric trauma patients in Scotland, and determine the level of destination healthcare facility which injured children are taken to, to determine the need for, and general feasibility, of developing a pediatric trauma system for Scotland. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of incidents involving children aged 1-14 attended to by the Scottish Ambulance Service between 1 November 2008 and 31 October 2010. A subgroup with physiological derangement was defined. Incident location postcode was used to determine incident location by health board region, rurality and social deprivation. Destination healthcare facility was classified into one of six categories. RESULTS: Of 10,759 incidents, 72.3% occurred in urban areas and 5.8% in remote areas. Incident location was associated with socioeconomic deprivation. Of the patients, 11.6% were taken to a pediatric hospital with pediatric intensive care facilities, 21.8% to a pediatric hospital without pediatric intensive care service, and 50.2% to an adult large general hospital without pediatric surgical service. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of incidents involving children with injuries occurred in urban areas. Half were taken to a hospital without pediatric surgical service. There was no difference between children with normal and deranged physiology.

Wohlgemut JM; Morrison JJ; Apodaca AN; Egan G; Sponseller PD; Driver CP; Jansen JO

2013-07-01

229

Demographic characterization and social patterns of the Neotropical pampas deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most endangered subspecies of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus uruguayensis is an endemic cervidae of the Uruguayan temperate grasslands. The aim of our study was to assess the demographic trends, grouping structure and dynamic of this small and isolated population. We surveyed the population during seven years and detected an average of 117 (+ 72.7 SD) individuals (44 censuses). The average population structure observed was 55% adult females, 34% adult males, 10% juveniles, and 1% fawns, with a low recruitment rate of 0.11. The pampas deer is a gregarious cervidae with 62% of individuals being observed within groups of at least three animals. Nevertheless we observed substantial differences on group size and composition based on sex, reproductive status, season and trophic resources availability. The population dynamics showed significant changes around the year in the sexual aggregation-segregation pattern, corresponding with reproductive and physiological status. The mean density on this population (11 deer/ km(2)) is the highest reported for the species. Comparable data, from other populations, showed a significant correlation between density and sex ratio, with a reduction in the proportion of males with higher deer densities. An action plan for this endangered population should include initiatives involving private landowners, and guidelines to improve the deer habitat.

Cosse M; González S

2013-12-01

230

Improved assessment of the safety of structural reactor components against brittle fracture on the basis of fracture mechanical weight. Final Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of polynomial influence functions is derived for some typical cracks in nuclear reactor components. The crack geometries considered are: (1) Circumferential and axial part-elliptical cracks on the inner surface of a cylindrical pressure vessel; (2) corner cracks at a pressure vessel nozzle; (3) two-dimensional and three-dimensional branched cracks. Based on the boundary-element method, the influence functions are calculated for a wide range of crack configuration parameters and at numerous kinds of polynomial crack-face loading. Based on the averaged error estimation technique, the efficiency of numerical analyses and the accuracy of related solutions are shown to be rather high. The results on stress intensity factors are fitted by parametric formulae making use of the least-square procedure. The derived solutions are employed for crack analyses at pressurized thermal shock loading of a reactor pressure vessel, as well as for the verification of existing regulatory guides. The computational procedure based on the influence function method is implemented in a computer code. The latter applies to the analysis of surface cracks in the cylindrical and nozzle parts of a pressure vessel. (orig.).

1996-01-01

231

Development of functional foods for radiation workers - Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herbal mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts (Him-I, Him-II) which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Some fractions of Him-I and Him-II increased the proliferation of bone marrow cells irradiated {gamma}-ray(4Gray). Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. 20 refs., 23 figs. (Author)

Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea)

2000-04-01

232

How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation, t-test, Anova and Tukey analysis. As a result of this research; it has been seen that, there is no statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees work at hotel establishments considering their gender and marital status. Besides, it has been understood that, there is a statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees considering their ages, education levels, incomes, and length of time in tourism sector.

Derya KARA

2010-01-01

233

Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agro)ecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators). Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.). Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population) or sublethal (below that range). Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index). Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm) as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

Dejan Mar?i?

2007-01-01

234

Digital pathology evaluation of complement C4d component deposition in the kidney allograft biopsies is a useful tool to improve reproducibility of the scoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Complement C4d component deposition in kidney allograft biopsies is an established marker of antibody-mediated rejection. In the Banff 07 classification of renal allograft pathology, semi-quantitative evaluation of the proportion of C4d-positive peritubular capilaries (PTC) is used. We aimed to explore the potential of digital pathology tools to obtain quantitative and reproducible measure of C4d deposition in the renal allograft tissue. 34 routine kidney allograft biopsies immunohistochemically stained for C4d were included in the study and were evaluated by a qualified pathologist twice, recording an approximate percentage of positive PTC and glomerular area. The same slides were scanned by Aperio ScanScope scanner. Two layers of annotations were created: layer of glomeruli and the remaining non-glomerular area. Image analysis was performed with Aperio Positive Pixel Count algorithm to quantify the proportion of C4d-positive pixels in the area analysed. The percentage of positive (defined as 2+ and 3+) pixels in glomeruli and non-glomerular area was obtained and compared to the percentage of C4d-positive PTC and C4d-positive area of glomeruli recorded by the pathologist. The correlation of digital and manual C4d-positive area scoring in glomeruli was very high (r= 0.89, p Digital evaluation of C4d deposition in allograft kidney correlates with pathologist‘s scoring and exceeds the latter in reproducibilty. Therefore, it provides a useful tool to control for intraobserver and interobserver variability and may serve as quality assurance measure for allograft pathology diagnosis and research.

Brazdziute Ernesta; Laurinavicius Arvydas

2011-01-01

235

The verification of virtual community members socio-demographic profile  

CERN Document Server

This article considers the current problem of investigation and development of the method of web-members' socio-demographic characteristics' profile validation based on analysis of socio-demographic characteristics. The topicality of the paper is determined by the necessity to identify the web-community member by means of computer-linguistic analysis of their information track (all information about web-community members, which posted on the Internet). The formal model of basic socio-demographic characteristics of virtual communities' member is formed. The algorithm of these characteristics verification is developed.

Fedushko, Solomia; Peleschyshyn, Andriy; Syerov, Yuriy

2013-01-01

236

Measuring Trust Component in Patient-Physician Relationship in Dermatology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Design: Patient’s trust is an essential component of the patient-physician relationship. The aim of this study was to measure the level of trust of the patients in physicians, to determine factors affecting trust level and to propose some suggestions in order to improve trust component in patient-physician relationship. Material and Method: Three hundred five patients participated in the survey. A questionnaire was prepared to evaluate the level of patients’ trust in physician and satisfaction to the dermatology department and patients’ socio-demographic variables. Analyses of data obtained from questionnaires were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Science), version 15.0. Results: Patients have an average of 3.72±0.54 trust level (out of 5) in their physicians. This reveals the patients have a trust slightly above the medium level for their physicians. There are no statistically significant relationships between the trust level and other socio-demographic variables such as age, sex and income. Patients’ satisfaction level towards the dermatology department was 4.17±0.65. There was a positive and statistical significantly correlation between trust and satisfaction. Patients choose more cheerful and well-informed physicians. Trust had been determined as an important factor in the patient-physician relationship. Patients trust well-informed, sympathetic and honest physicians. Nevertheless, disrespectfulness and lack of information had been determined as the most distrusted physician behaviors.Conclusion: Although there are many studies to evaluate this subject in the literature as far as we determine this is the first study in dermatology practice in Turkey. Because there are many chronic diseases in dermatology to provide concordance of patients’ treatment and continuity to same physicians or medical clinics may be obtained by building the patient’s trust. In this sense, trust component in patient-physician relationship in dermatology must not be neglected. Also must be avoided for the distrusted attitudes and behaviors.

Sad?k Y?lmaz; Vahide Baysal Akkaya

2009-01-01

237

Índices de seleção no aprimoramento simultâneo dos componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro Selection index for simultaneously improving fruit production components of assai palm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a estratégia seletiva mais adequada para o incremento simultâneo de componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea). Implantou-se um experimento com 25 progênies de meio-irmãos, no Município de Santa Izabel, PA, tendo-se utilizado o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcela de cinco plantas. Os índices de seleção de Smith & Hazel, Williams, e Mulamba & Mock foram aplicados em três estratégias seletivas. Foram utilizados, como pesos econômicos, os coeficientes de variação genéticos, a herdabilidade, a razão entre a correlação genética do caráter selecionado com a produção de frutos, e a somatória de todos os caracteres que compõem o índice e a produção de frutos. Aponderação pela razão das correlações permitiu que os índices de seleção discriminassem as melhores progênies nas diferentes estratégias de seleção avaliadas. A seleção simultânea por meio do índice de Mulamba & Mock, quanto ao número de meses em frutificação, ao número de cachos colhidos, à produção de frutos e ao número de ráquilas no cacho, estima ganhos de forma mais robusta.The objective of this work was to determine the most appropriate strategy to simultaneously increase fruit production components of assai palm (Euterpe oleracea). An experiment with 25 half-sib progenies was carried out in the county of Santa Isabel, PA, Brazil, using a randomized complete block design with four replicates and five plants per plot. The Smith & Hazel, Williams, and Mulamba & Mock's selection indexes were applied in three selective strategies. The coefficients of genetic variation, heritability, the ratio between the genetic correlation of the trait under selection and fruit yield, and the sum of all genetic correlations between the traits that comprise the index and fruit yield were used as economic weights. Weighting of the correlation ratio allowed the selection indexes to discriminate the best progenies in the different selection strategies evaluated. Simultaneous selection by the Mulamba & Mock index, as to the number of fruiting months, number of bunches harvested, fruit yield, and number of rachilles per bunch, robustly estimates genetic gains.

Davi Henrique Lima Teixeira; Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira; Flávia Maria Avelar Gonçalves; José Airton Rodrigues Nunes

2012-01-01

238

Índices de seleção no aprimoramento simultâneo dos componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro/ Selection index for simultaneously improving fruit production components of assai palm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a estratégia seletiva mais adequada para o incremento simultâneo de componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea). Implantou-se um experimento com 25 progênies de meio-irmãos, no Município de Santa Izabel, PA, tendo-se utilizado o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcela de cinco plantas. Os índices de seleção de Smith & Hazel, Williams, e Mulamba & Mock foram aplicados em tr (more) ês estratégias seletivas. Foram utilizados, como pesos econômicos, os coeficientes de variação genéticos, a herdabilidade, a razão entre a correlação genética do caráter selecionado com a produção de frutos, e a somatória de todos os caracteres que compõem o índice e a produção de frutos. Aponderação pela razão das correlações permitiu que os índices de seleção discriminassem as melhores progênies nas diferentes estratégias de seleção avaliadas. A seleção simultânea por meio do índice de Mulamba & Mock, quanto ao número de meses em frutificação, ao número de cachos colhidos, à produção de frutos e ao número de ráquilas no cacho, estima ganhos de forma mais robusta. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the most appropriate strategy to simultaneously increase fruit production components of assai palm (Euterpe oleracea). An experiment with 25 half-sib progenies was carried out in the county of Santa Isabel, PA, Brazil, using a randomized complete block design with four replicates and five plants per plot. The Smith & Hazel, Williams, and Mulamba & Mock's selection indexes were applied in three selective strategies. The coefficie (more) nts of genetic variation, heritability, the ratio between the genetic correlation of the trait under selection and fruit yield, and the sum of all genetic correlations between the traits that comprise the index and fruit yield were used as economic weights. Weighting of the correlation ratio allowed the selection indexes to discriminate the best progenies in the different selection strategies evaluated. Simultaneous selection by the Mulamba & Mock index, as to the number of fruiting months, number of bunches harvested, fruit yield, and number of rachilles per bunch, robustly estimates genetic gains.

Teixeira, Davi Henrique Lima; Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha de; Gonçalves, Flávia Maria Avelar; Nunes, José Airton Rodrigues

2012-02-01

239

Select non-coding RNA in blood components provide novel clinically accessible biological surrogates for improved identification of traumatic brain injury in OEF/OIF Veterans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to identify clinically accessible molecular biomarkers of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) that could be used to help identify returning Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Veterans who are suffering from the effects of mTBI. While analyzing the expression profile of small non-coding RNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from an OEF/OIF veteran study cohort using a high throughput array chip platform, we identified 18 candidate small non-coding RNA biomarkers that are differentially regulated in PBMCs of mTBI compared to non-TBI control cases. Independent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed that 13 of these candidate small RNA biomarker species are, indeed, significantly down-regulated in PBMCs of mTBI compared to non-TBI control veteran cases. Based on unsupervised clustering analysis, we identified a 3-biomarker panel which was most able to distinguish mTBI from non-TBI control veteran cases with high accuracy, selectivity and specificity. The majority of mTBI cases in our biomarker study were co-morbid with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and thus our non-TBI control cases were selected to match PTSD diagnoses. Therefore, our identified panel of 3 small RNA biomarkers likely represents a biological index selective for mTBI. Outcomes from our studies suggest that additional applications of the clinically accessible small non-coding RNA biomarkers to current diagnostic criteria may lead to improved mTBI detection and more sensitive outcome measures for clinical trials. Future studies exploring the physiological relevance of mTBI biomarkers will also provide a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying mTBI and insights into novel therapeutic targets for mTBI.

Pasinetti GM; Ho L; Dooley C; Abbi B; Lange G

2012-01-01

240

Demographic changes and consumers behaviours on the bread market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of demographic changes occurring in Poland conducted in the present article shows trends and allows the consideration of demographic premises of the development and changes in behaviours of consumers on the bread market, i.e. of the product which takes priority place in the group of essential needs. Following demographic indicators were discussed: the size of Polish population, the rate of the fertility and mortalities, the age structure, average life expectancy, the household and the level of education. Appearing demographic trends allow forecasting the volume of demand for products. It was stated that on the bread market there will be changes of quantitative, genre as well as qualitative character that determine a challenge for enterprises of the bakery industry.

El?bieta Gory?ska-Goldmann

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Tobacco use among American adolescents: geographic and demographic variations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A previous national study indicated that the South dominated other regions of the United States in tobacco use. Using the results of the Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, we examined the geographic and demographic differences of tobacco use among US adolescents. The sample consisted of teenagers in grades 7 through 12 nationwide (N = 6,599). Data were collected through telephone interviewing. The variables included demographics and measures of smoking or use of smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco/snuff). Results indicated that the overall prevalence rate for smokeless tobacco use was 4.44%, but in the South it was 6.38%. The overall smoking prevalence rate was 13.31%, with no substantial difference among regions. Demographic variables such as sex, ethnicity, education, and poverty levels were also related to tobacco use prevalence. These geographic and demographic variations in tobacco use help target specific regions and populations in greatest need of intervention programs.

Wang MQ; Fitzhugh EC; Green L; Eddy JM; Westerfield RC

1994-06-01

242

Profile: the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHDSS), located on the south-eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal, was established in 1999 and is one of the field sites of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDRB). The surveillance covers 118 315 residents living in 19 847 households. Data on socio-demographic and health indicators including birth, death, migration, marriage, maternal health, education and employment are recorded through quarterly household visits. The primary objective of CHDSS is to monitor the changes in socio-demographic indicators, inequalities in health and impact of public health interventions. A demographic change was accompanied by a shift from traditional to modern society during the past decade, but inequality in health still persists. The findings from the surveillance are shared regularly among the local and global communities. Data are also available upon request to ICDDRB and INDEPTH for use by researchers and policy makers.

Hanifi MA; Mamun AA; Paul A; Hasan SA; Hoque S; Sharmin S; Urni F; Khan IR; Mahmood SS; Rasheed S; Iqbal M; Moula A; Rahman M; Bhuiya A

2012-06-01

243

[The demographic behavior of linguistic groups in Quebec during  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"The purpose of this paper is to analyse simultaneously, according to what is known as the multiregional approach, the interactions between fertility, migration and mortality, for each of the main linguistic groups of Quebec [Canada]. Results show that, on the basis of the demographic regime observed between 1976 and 1981, while migration probably has reduced regional disparities in fertility and mortality behavior, it also has markedly amplified the demographic impact of linguistic disparities in this behavior." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

Termote M; Gauvreau D

1985-04-01

244

GCS component development cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

2012-09-01

245

A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

Jamal Abdul Nasir; M. H. Tahir

2011-01-01

246

HTR components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Volume 1 describes in detail the situation of the R+D Programs in the domain of heat conducting Components within the PNP-Project, materials development and testing devices (PNP, KVK=Komponenten-Versuch-Kreislauf, EVA II and vibration simulator SAMSON) and fabrication conditions. Planning requirements and development aims of the He/He-intermediate heatexchanger are discussed in the view of stress analysis, fabrication and quality assurance. The heat exchanger with helical configuration is discussed concerning Thermohydraulics, vibration analysis and the development of a novel high temperature insulating material for the PNP-Project. (GL)

1984-01-01

247

Variance Components  

CERN Multimedia

WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES. The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. ". . .Variance Components is an excellent book. It is organized and well written, and provides many references to a variety of topics. I recommend it to anyone with interest in linear models.".

Searle, Shayle R; McCulloch, Charles E

1992-01-01

248

[Demographic profile of a person with symptomatic hepatitis C in Poland].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: In Poland high HCV prevalence was observed among people infected with HIV, injecting drug users, people dialyzed before 1998, people with hemophilia born before 1990. However the majority of cases are diagnosed outside of those groups and the incidence varies by demographic factors. In this study we aimed to distinguish demographic profiles among symptomatic cases diagnosed and reported to the surveillance system and to assess the frequency of exposures previously shown to impact HCV incidence in Poland in relation to the profiles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used routine HCV surveillance data collected on all cases registered in 2006: 2935 cases, including 97 (3.3%) classified as acute and 1281 (43.6%) females. The profiles were distinguished by a two stage procedure--firstly constructing 2 most important factors with principal component analysis based on demographic variables. Then cluster analysis by Ward's minimum variance was performed using these 2 factors' scores. RESULTS: 5 profiles were found: (1) young men, inhabiting villages and small towns; (2) older inhabitants of villages and small towns, frequently women; (3) young men, inhabiting large cities; (4) older women inhabiting large cities; (5) inhabitants of Warsaw. The medical exposures were the most common, but the distribution of exposures was significantly different between profiles. For example injecting drug use ever was reported by 3.4% of all cases, but was more common in clusters 3 (6.0%) and 5 (5.5%) and very rare in cluster 4 (0.9%), in which hospitalization in the past was more common (63.1%) then on average (47.2%). CONCLUSION: HCV transmission patterns in Poland vary depending on demographic factors. Our results could help target screening campaigns that ideally should pick up HCV cases before they develop chronic hepatitis symptoms.

Kajko M; Slusarczyk J; Czarkowski M; Rosi?ska M

2012-01-01

249

Demographic portrait of an industrial city (by the example of Volgograd city) / ??????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? (?? ??????? ?. ??????????)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author gives the evaluation of the demographic potential of Volgograd basing on the analysis of the main demographic indexes: fertility, mortality, nuptiality, migration. / ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?. ??????????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????: ???????????, ??????????, ????????? ? ????????.

Sergeyeva Ye.Yu. / ???????? ????? ???????

2008-01-01

250

Demographic faultlines: a meta-analysis of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting of 311 data points (i.e., k [predictor-criterion relationships]), from 39 studies that were obtained from 36 papers with a total sample size of 24,388 individuals in 4,366 teams, we found that sex and racial diversity increased demographic faultline strength more than did diversity on the attributes of functional background, educational background, age, and tenure. Demographic faultline strength was found to increase task and relationship conflict as well as decrease team cohesion. Furthermore, although demographic faultline strength decreased both team satisfaction and team performance, there was a stronger decrease in team performance than in team satisfaction. The strength of these relationships increased when the study was conducted in the lab rather than in the field. We describe the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for advancing the study of faultlines.

Thatcher SM; Patel PC

2011-11-01

251

Thinking about post-transitional demographic regimes: A reflection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND For the last 70 years the concept of the demographic transition has provided a basis for understanding and predicting population trends in the developing world. However, a majority of the developing world's population will soon be post-transitional - what will happen then? This paper attempts to outline where answers to this question might be found. It suggests that a valuable way to organise the study of these issues is the concept of the demographic regime. OBJECTIVE The aim of the paper is to encourage discussion on the nature of post-transitional demographic regimes around the world, especially in the developing world. The style of the reflection is that of a speculative essay - a Denkstuck or ballon d'essai. METHODS In addition to a discussion of the concept of a demographic regime, the paper looks at three possible sources of information on the determinants of post-transitional regimes in the developing world: 1) the nature of the transition itself, 2) lessons drawn from pre-transitional regimes, and 3) demographic trends in Europe and other developed countries, some which have been post-transitional for several decades. CONCLUSIONS The paper concludes with a set of suggestions for future research on the topic.

Chris Wilson

2013-01-01

252

Active filter of symmetrical components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a filter which provides frequency symmetry between electrical components. In order to improve its accuracy when the frequency deviates, the filter includes two bridge phase shifters and a transformer. A diagram is provided.

Benin, V.L.; Saydov, A.S.

1982-01-01

253

Improved long-term expression from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors packaged using combinations of mutated HSV-1 proteins that include the UL13 protein kinase and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) gene expression is thought to shut off recombinant gene expression from HSV-1 vectors; however, in a helper virus-free HSV-1 vector system, a number of promoters support only short-term expression. These results raise the paradox that recombinant gene expression remains short-term even in the absence of almost all (~99%) of the HSV-1 genome, HSV-1 genes, and HSV-1 gene expression. To resolve this paradox, we hypothesized that specific proteins in the HSV-1 virus particle shut off recombinant gene expression. In two earlier studies, we examined the effects on recombinant gene expression of packaging vectors using specific mutated HSV-1 proteins. We found that vectors packaged using mutated UL13 (a protein kinase), or VP16, or UL46 and/or UL47 (components of the VP16 transcriptional complex) supported improved long-term expression, and vectors packaged using mutated UL46 and/or UL47 also supported improved gene transfer (numbers of cells at 4 days). These results suggested the hypothesis that specific proteins in the HSV-1 particle act by multiple pathways to reduce recombinant gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined combinations of mutated proteins that included both UL13 and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex. Results A HSV-1 vector containing a neuronal-specific promoter was packaged using specific combinations of mutated proteins, and the resulting vector stocks were tested in the rat striatum. For supporting long-term expression, the preferred combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins was mutated UL13, UL46, and UL47. Vectors packaged using this combination of mutated proteins supported a higher efficiency of gene transfer and high levels expression for 3 months, the longest time examined. Conclusion Vector particles containing this combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins improve recombinant gene expression. Implications of these results for strategies to further improve long-term expression are discussed. Moreover, long-term expression will benefit specific gene therapy applications.

Liu Meng; Wang Xiaodan; Geller Alfred I

2009-01-01

254

China’s Savings and Current Account Balance: A Demographic Transition Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we build an overlapping generation model to analyze how China’s family planning policy affects the demographic structure and the dependency ratios. We also employ the Cointegration Test and Granger Causality Test to examine the relationship between Chinese population dependency ratios and the national savings rate, as well as the relationship between relative productivity differences and the national current account balance. We find that the family planning policy can be sustainable with respect to these metrics. The current account balance reflects the transfer of savings over time and space. We posit that the demographic structure determines the savings transfer over time, while the relative productivity difference determines the savings transfer across the space. This transfer does not change the total welfare calculated on a national or generational basis. Consequently, focusing on improving the consumption rate to boost the economy without consideration of demographic structure transition warrants further serious discussion. Similarly, too much attention to short-term current account surplus or deficit is not productive.

Chao Zhu

2011-01-01

255

Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

1998-01-01

256

The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch) trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP) control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC) in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs). Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications), psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy), and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet) characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%), middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years), high school educated (62.4%), low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income), and received Medicaid (35.9%) or Medicare (12.6%). Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). One-quarter (25.6%) of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7%) reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7%) reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ? 2. Diabetes mellitus was common (35.8%), and moderate/severe depression was present in 16% of participants. Participants were sedentary (835.3 ± 1,644.2 Kcal burned per week), obese (59.7%), and had poor global physical health, poor eating habits, high health literacy, and good overall mental health. Conclusions A majority of patients in the CAATCH trial exhibited adverse lifestyle behaviors, and had significant medical and psychosocial barriers to adequate BP control. Trial outcomes will shed light on the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for BP control when implemented in real-world medical settings that serve high numbers of low-income hypertensive African-Americans with multiple co-morbidity and significant barriers to behavior change.

Fernandez Senaida; Tobin Jonathan N; Cassells Andrea; Diaz-Gloster Marleny; Kalida Chamanara; Ogedegbe Gbenga

2011-01-01

257

Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

Sinan NARDALI

2011-01-01

258

Successful workforce planning : aligning recruitment strategies with changing demographics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation described how demographic trends are changing the energy industry. Duke Energy acquired Westcoast Energy in March 2002 and must attract and retain a skilled workforce to maintain its newly acquired and very large infrastructure. Duke Energy has committed $1.88 million over 3 years to northern opportunities through partnerships with educators, community organizations, government agencies and industry. This paper emphasizes the need for a new focus on workforce planning to ensure that staffing needs are met. It described how to use demographics to identify recruitment needs within a company, and what to look for in data. It also described how to make sure that a recruitment strategy is tailored to various demographic groups. Energy companies are attracting young workers through apprenticeship programs, training and development programs, and other incentives. figs.

Bodnar, B. [Duke Energy Gas Transmission, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2004-07-01

259

Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

Abdoul Hossain Madani; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi; Madhurima Dikshit; Teamur Aghamolaie; Debanshu Bhaduri

2010-01-01

260

Multiculturalism in Vojvodina and demographic development of national minorities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the basic characteristics of Vojvodina is multiculturalism, namely a large number of various ethnic communities mutually settled in the same region. Apart from the majority nation, numerous national minorities live there which are extremely differentiated in view of demographic development, socio-economic, historical and cultural-civilization characteristics, and by national emancipation and political organization. This paper analyzes population dynamics, ethno-demographic changes, as well as geographical distribution of the minorities which is characterized by spatial dispersion or distinct concentration and process of ethnic homogenization conditioned by numerous factors. Good inter-ethnic relations, respect of the rights of minorities, integration and loyalty of the minorities to the state in which they live are necessary for an even demographic and stable economic and political development of this region. .

Raduški Nada

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Demographic, employment and development trends: the need for integrated planning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"The authors contend that problems associated with rapid demographic growth in developing countries have to be tackled through comprehensive population and human resource planning. Linkages between population and development are especially close in the area of labour markets. Following a discussion of the impacts of demographic factors on labour supply, labour demand and migration, the article proposes a practical framework in which population and human resource development plans may be operationalised. The concluding section briefly discusses the emerging area of population policy formulation and implementation."

Farooq GM; Mackellar FL

1990-01-01

262

Demographic, employment and development trends: the need for integrated planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

"The authors contend that problems associated with rapid demographic growth in developing countries have to be tackled through comprehensive population and human resource planning. Linkages between population and development are especially close in the area of labour markets. Following a discussion of the impacts of demographic factors on labour supply, labour demand and migration, the article proposes a practical framework in which population and human resource development plans may be operationalised. The concluding section briefly discusses the emerging area of population policy formulation and implementation." PMID:12283282

Farooq, G M; Mackellar, F L

1990-01-01

263

The demographic transition: an attempt to reformulate a population theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this effort to reformulate the demographic transition theory, attention is directed to the following: Malthus and Karl Marx's criticism of his principle of population; the 1st stage of transition, i.e., high mortality, high fertility, and slow population growth; the 2nd stage of declining mortality; the 3rd stage of declining fertility; the 4th stage when mortality and fertility are both low; the growth potential; and the demographic transition in the 3rd world countries. The demographic transition theory has become popular among demographers, economists, historians, and others interested in studying the development of population over time since the end of World War 2. This interest has most likely been created by the anxiety over the population explosion in the 3rd world countries. Transition has made demographers believe that the period of rapid population growth will be automatically succeeded by a period of more or less constant population size. The question that arises is whether it is as simple as that. Demographic transition has to a great extent taken the place of Malthus' principle of population as a general theory of population. Demographic transition appears to describe in a satisfactory way the development of population which all currently industrialized countires have passed through, when going from the preindustrial to the present industrialized stage. The objectives to demographic transition as a general theory are considered. Some of the factors which have accounted for the decline in fertility in Europe may also apply to the 3rd world countries. 1 such factor is the effect of reduced infant and child mortality on the individual level. The fertility decline, caused by reduced infant and child mortality may, however, be of limited size. The great amount of unemployment in the 3rd world may affect fertility in a downward direction. The fertility decline in Europe occurred simultaneously with an industrialization process, which gradually covered the entire population. In most 3rd world countries the "modernization" that is going on implies that a small industrialized sector with its subsistence agriculture is left more or less untouched. There remains a strong incentive for many children in this kind of society. A rapid decline in fertility cannot be expected under these circumstances. To realize a thorough change in the social structure and in the social relations is necessary. PMID:12177839

Hofsten, E

1981-01-01

264

Demographic Factors and Knowledge Sharing Quality among Malaysian Government Officers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of the important elements in knowledge management. Previous works indicate that employees are reluctant to share knowledge among themselves. Many factors impede knowledge sharing among employees in organizations. One of those factors is demography. The purpose of this study is to find out the differences among government officers’ knowledge sharing quality in terms of demographic factors. A survey of 48 respondents using questionnaire as data collection method was conducted. The results show that demographic variables are not significant predictors to government officers’ knowledge sharing quality.

Mohd Bakhari Ismail; Zawiyah Mohammad Yusof

2009-01-01

265

Do we need numbers? The demographic fingerprint on crisis evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic revolution that took place in the world through globalization and through the industrial revolution made a deep and lasting impression that continues to haunt current visions on the future, leaving aside the importance of understanding demographic dynamics. The tendency towards a purely economic “reading” of contemporary reality pays scant regard to the demographic conditions of its production. Put simply, if we are to understand the contemporary crisis and if we desire for our current system to survive we should focus on a reconciliation of demography within the analysis of the actual functioning society.

Drago? Lucian IVAN

2012-01-01

266

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spirituality. At the end, discussion and conclusion of the study is given.

Huma Ali; Hina Ali

2011-01-01

267

The effect of premorbid demographic factors on the recovery of neurocognitive function in traumatic brain injury patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Premorbid demographic backgrounds of injured individuals are likely to reflect more accurately the status of patients with traumatic brian injury (TBI) than clinical factors. However, the concrete study about the relationship between the demographic factors and neurocognitive function in TBI patients has not been reported. The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of premorbid demographic factors on the recovery of neurocognitive function following TBI. METHODS: From July 1998 to February 2007, 293 patients (male: 228, female: 65) with a history of head injury, who had recovered from the acute phase, were selected from our hospital to include in this study. We analyzed the effect of premorbid demographic factors including age, sex, educational level and occupation on the recovery of neurocognitive function in each TBI subgroup as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Intelligence and memory are components of neurocognitive function, and the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS) and the Korean memory assessment scale (K-MAS) were used in this study. The results were considered significant at p<0.05. RESULTS: The higher level of education was a good prognostic factor for intelligence regardless of GCS score and younger age group showed a better result for memory with an exception of severe TBI group. In the severe TBI group, the meaningful effect of demographic factors was not noted by the cause of influence of severe brain injury. CONCLUSION: The demographic factors used in this study may be helpful for predicting the precise prognosis and developing an appropriate rehabilitation program for TBI patients.

Jeon IC; Kim OL; Kim MS; Kim SH; Chang CH; Bai DS

2008-11-01

268

The loglinear model as a tool for the analysis of demographic data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The author discusses the use of loglinear models in demographic analysis, particularly with regard to the analysis of contingency tables. Their use is illustrated using data from the 1980 World Fertility Survey for Sudan to analyze the determinants of fifth-birth intervals. The results show "the ability of the technique to improve our understanding of the mechanism of fertility differentials using individual--instead of aggregate--data. It has shown how each variable affects the process when all other variables are held constant."

Khalifa M

1990-06-01

269

Demographic Data and Clinical Characteristics of 202 Cerebral Palsy Cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who applied to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinic.Materials and Methods: Data of the 202 cases who had reffered to our outpatient clinic between December 2005 and June 2007 was evaluated retrospectively.Results: Ninety-four of the cases were girls and 108 were boys. Their mean age was 6.98 years (1-33 years). The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia 34% (n:69), tetraplegia 32% (n:66), hemiplegia 26% (n:53), monoplegia 4.5% (n:9), dyskinetic %1 (n:2) and mixed type 1.4% (n:3). CP severity, assessed with the Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS), was distributed as follows: level 1 (9.9%), level 2 (17.8%), level 3 (20.8%), level 4 (22.8%), level 5 (8.7%). The most frequently encountered prenatal risk factor was consanguineous marriage - 25% (n=51), perinatal risk factors were low birth weight - 37.1% (n=75) and premature birth - 35% (n=72), natal risk factor was forced birth - 14.9% (n=30), postnatal risk factor was convulsion - 9.9% (n=20), and 14.9% (n=30) were unclassified. 55.4% of the children had speech disorder, 50.4% had mental retardation, 35.6% had visual impairment, 5.9% had epilepsy. Eighty-six of the cases who applied to the clinic were using orthesis. New orthesis were prescribed to 74 patients, botulinum toxin–A injection were performed in 11 cases and 12 of them were referred for surgery.Conclusion: Perinatal risk factors were the most frequently seen when assessing the etiologic factors in CP. Better health conditions will decrease the prevalence of CP by minimizing prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal damage. Prenatal care should be improved, high-risk babies should be followed up closely and the number of neonatal intensive care units should be increased. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2009;55:94-7.

Esma Öcal Eriman; Afitap ?ça?as?o?lu; Esma Demirhan; ?eyma Koluk?sa; Huriye Aras; Sema Halilo?lu; Hatice ?ule Baklac?o?lu

2009-01-01

270

[The application of event history analysis to historical demographic studies].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe some statistical methods used in event history analysis, and some possible applications to historical demographic data. An example is given using data on neonatal mortality in Venice from 1850 to 1868. Several relevant statistical packages are briefly described. PMID:12348621

Lagazio, C; Pagani, L

1996-01-01

271

Demographics and macroeconomic effects in aesthetic surgery in the UK.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Media interest in aesthetic surgery is substantial and suggestions of demographic changes such as reductions in age or an increase in the number of male patients are common. In spite of this, there is no peer reviewed literature reporting demographics of a contemporary large patient cohort or of the effect of macroeconomic indicators on aesthetic surgery in the UK. In this study, computer records 13006 patients presenting between 1998 and the first quarter of 2003 at a significant aesthetic surgery centre were analysed for procedures undergone, patient age and sex. Male to female ratios for each procedure were calculated and a comparison was made between unit activity and macroeconomic indicators. The results showed that there has been no significant demographic change in the procedures studied with patient age and male to female ratio remaining constant throughout the period studied for each procedure. Comparison with macroeconomic indicators suggested increasing demand for aesthetic surgery in spite of a global recession. In conclusion, media reports of large scale demographic shifts in aesthetic surgery patients are exaggerated. The stability of unit activity in spite of falling national economic indicators suggested that some units in the UK might be relatively immune to economic vagaries. The implications for training are discussed.

Duncan CO; Ho-Asjoe M; Hittinger R; Nishikawa H; Waterhouse N; Coghlan B; Jones B

2004-09-01

272

Homeschool Progress Report 2009: Academic Achievement and Demographics  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007, the Home School Legal Defense Association commissioned Dr. Brian D. Ray of the National Home Education Research Institute to conduct a nationwide study of homeschooling in America. The study's purpose was to develop a current picture of homeschool students and their families--capturing their demographics and educational background--and…

Ray, Brian D.

2009-01-01

273

The Second Demographic Transition in Israel: One for All?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores family behaviours and attitudes in Israel over the last decades through the lens of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT). Israel is divided by religious affiliation, the level of religiosity, ethnic origin and timing of immigration. Although fertility transition to replaceme...

Evgenia Bystrov

274

Demographic survey of veterinarians employed in western Canada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to generate demographic data on veterinarians working in western Canada. A sample of 551 veterinarians was randomly selected from a population of 2474 veterinarians employed in western Canada, 425 (77.1%) of whom responded to the survey. The respondents were evenly sp...

Jelinski, Murray D.; Campbell, John R.; Naylor, Jonathan M.; Lawson, Karen L.; Derkzen, Dena

275

Demographic Processes in Hungary and their Manifestation in Small Towns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hungary, belonging more and more to the prestigious group of developed countries, can be characterised increasingly by the demographic characteristics of that type. Ageing population, decreasing number of live births, decreasing population size are commonly used terms when analysing the demographic profile of our country. This simplified picture can be modulated and coloured with the help of spatial data. In spite of the comparatively small-sized and relatively homogenous structure of Hungary, several differences can be found. The network of small towns could be an obvious and representative sample for the spatial investigations since it almost totally covers the area of Hungary, it is numerous enough but still easy to handle. Within a Hungarian geographical context, settlements having a maximum of 30,000 inhabitants and possessing city rank can be defined as small towns. Because of their size and functions, small towns are sensitive enough to illustrate the national demographic tendencies, but they are numerous enough to be split into different groups according to their remarkably diverse character. Traditional historic small towns widely differ from the ones located in the rapidly urbanising agglomerations, even though the socialist new towns, having similar origin, reflect significant demographic variants.

GÁBOR PIRISI; ANDRÁS TRÓCSÁNYI

2007-01-01

276

Demographic and Social Correlates of Suicide in the Czech Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article the authors review the trends & differentials in mortality from self-inflicted injury & poisoning in the Czech Republic between the early 1970s & the present in terms of their socio-economic & demographic associations. They describe the sources of data on suicide & explore the possib...

Dragomirecka, Eva; Dzurova, Dagmar; Ruzicka, Lado

277

Demographic Characteristics of Our Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: Carpal tunnel (CTS) is the most common trap neuropathy but, still fully understood the cause of this and effective factors. In this study was aimed to the evaluation demographic features of the cases with CTS admitted to our electroneuromyography (ENMG) laboratory. Material and Methods: In the ...

Ebru Umay; Sevgi Polat; Ece Ünlü; Özlem Çelik; Aytül Çakç?

278

Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The food/feed quality of a variety of genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Cry1Ab Bt-toxin was tested over the life-cycle of Daphnia magna, an arthropod commonly used as model organism in ecotoxicological studies. Demographic responses were compared between animals fed GM or unmodified (UM) ne...

Bøhn, Thomas; Traavik, Terje; Primicerio, Raul

279

[Demographic analysis of the aging society: the case of Japan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The author "describes the demographic aspects of the ageing process of Japan and its implications in the fields of economic support of the aged population and of family structure." Possible solutions to the socioeconomic problems of an aging population are considered. (summary in ENG)

Kono S

1985-07-01

280

Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of...

Abdoul Hossain Madani; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi; Madhurima Dikshit; Teamur Aghamolaie; Debanshu Bhaduri

 
 
 
 
281

Evaluation of demographic factors that influence acute radiation response.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Casualty estimation tools are critical in planning for nuclear event scenarios. Current consequence assessment models based on healthy adult males may not adequately represent the population. To develop an understanding of the impact of demographic variables on casualty estimates, human data was surveyed to identify key demographic factors that affect acute radiation response. Information on in utero exposures, gender, age, and comorbidity status was collected from atomic bomb survivors, radiation accidents, and clinical oncology. Burn and trauma studies were also examined to gain insight into the impact of demographic variables on acute injury outcomes. Fetal radiation sensitivity is well documented; increased mortality or malformations are observed depending on gestational age. A greater incidence of radiation syndrome was observed among male atomic bomb survivors. Trauma data show increased mortality in males, apparently due to immunological differences between genders. Limited data suggest vulnerability in the very young and old due to immunological status and comorbidities, respectively. Certain genetically susceptible subpopulations demonstrate marked increased sensitivity to radiation exposure. Interaction of radiation and comorbid conditions has not been well studied; however, burn and trauma data indicate that comorbidities negatively impact response to acute injury. Key factors evaluated together with their prevalence indicate the importance of modeling demographic variability in casualty estimations. Also they can help identify vulnerable subpopulations and provide insight on treatment requirements.

Stricklin D; Millage K

2012-08-01

282

Component verification system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Typical hybrid microcircuits (HMC's) manufactured at the Bendix Corporation, Kansas City, MO, contain 100 beam lead devices and gold ribbon crossovers. Verification for the presence of these applique components historically has been done manually by comparing a visual aid to the HMC. All HMC's were verified visually, a process requiring 4 to 5 min/HMC. Approximately 12% of the defects were missed. A system has been developed for automatically verifying the presence of beam lead devices and ribbon crossovers. The component verification system (CVS) includes a minicomputer-controlled X-Y stage which indexes the HMC below a vidicon camera. The camera is interfaced to the computer through a video digitizer. Bendix-developed software uses the equipment capabilities to magnify and project a 5.1-mm/sup 2/ area onto a 177.8-mm/sup 2/ screen with the image data points addressable in a 512 by 480 line matrix. The image analysis software determines component presence based on data point brightness. The CVS can verify beam lead device and crossover presences on a typical HMC in fewer than 30 s. The part identification of any missing part is printed as an aid to rework. The CVS has reduced the time needed for component verification and has improved verification accuracy.

Schroeder, D.D.; Hines, R.E.

1980-09-01

283

Independent component analysis: recent advances.  

Science.gov (United States)

Independent component analysis is a probabilistic method for learning a linear transform of a random vector. The goal is to find components that are maximally independent and non-Gaussian (non-normal). Its fundamental difference to classical multi-variate statistical methods is in the assumption of non-Gaussianity, which enables the identification of original, underlying components, in contrast to classical methods. The basic theory of independent component analysis was mainly developed in the 1990s and summarized, for example, in our monograph in 2001. Here, we provide an overview of some recent developments in the theory since the year 2000. The main topics are: analysis of causal relations, testing independent components, analysing multiple datasets (three-way data), modelling dependencies between the components and improved methods for estimating the basic model. PMID:23277597

Hyvärinen, Aapo

2012-12-31

284

Independent component analysis: recent advances.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Independent component analysis is a probabilistic method for learning a linear transform of a random vector. The goal is to find components that are maximally independent and non-Gaussian (non-normal). Its fundamental difference to classical multi-variate statistical methods is in the assumption of non-Gaussianity, which enables the identification of original, underlying components, in contrast to classical methods. The basic theory of independent component analysis was mainly developed in the 1990s and summarized, for example, in our monograph in 2001. Here, we provide an overview of some recent developments in the theory since the year 2000. The main topics are: analysis of causal relations, testing independent components, analysing multiple datasets (three-way data), modelling dependencies between the components and improved methods for estimating the basic model.

Hyvärinen A

2013-02-01

285

Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [{sup 11}C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([{sup 11}C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [{sup 11}C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

Razifar, Pasha [Molecular Imaging and CT Research, GE Healthcare, WI 53188, Waukesha (United States); Engler, Henry [Department of Medical Science, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Blomquist, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Ringheim, Anna; Estrada, Sergio [Uppsala Imanet AB, GE Healthcare, Box 967, SE-751 09, Uppsala (Sweden); Laangstroem, Bengt [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergstroem, Mats [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-06-07

286

Demographic survey of the level and determinants of perinatal mortality in Karachi, Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A demographic survey was used to estimate the level and determinants of perinatal mortality in eight lower socio-economic squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. The perinatal mortality rate was 54.1 per 1000 births, with a stillbirth to early neonatal mortality ratio of 1:1. About 65% of neonatal deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, and early neonatal mortality contributed 32% of all infant deaths. Risk factor assessment was conducted on 375 perinatal deaths and 6070 current survivors. Poorer socio-economic status variables such as maternal and paternal illiteracy, maternal work outside the home and fewer household assets were significantly associated with perinatal mortality as were biological factors of higher parental age, short birth intervals and poor obstetric history. Multivariable logistic analysis indicated that some socio-economic factors retained their significance after adjusting for the more proximate biological factors. Population attributable risk estimates suggest that public health measures for screening of high-risk women and use of family planning to space births will not improve perinatal mortality substantially without improvement of socio-economic conditions, particularly maternal education. The results of this study indicate that an evaluation of perinatal mortality can be conducted using pregnancy histories derived from demographic surveys.

Fikree FF; Gray RH

1996-01-01

287

Demographic differences between health care workers who did or did not respond to a safety and organizational culture survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Areas for institutional improvement to enhance patient safety are commonly identified by surveying health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes, values, beliefs, perceptions and assumptions regarding institutional practices. An ideal response rate of 100% is rarely achieved in such surveys, and non-response bias can occur when non-respondents differ from respondents on a dimension likely to influence survey conclusions. The conditions for non-response bias to occur can be detected by comparing demographic characteristics of respondents and non-respondents and relating any differences to findings in the literature of differences in the construct of interest as a function of these demographic characteristics. The current study takes this approach. Findings All 5,609 HCWs at a university medical center were invited to participate in a survey measuring safety and organizational culture (response rate = 53.40%). Respondents indicated their professional group, gender, age group, years of working in the hospital and executive function. Because all HCWs were invited, the demographic composition of the group who did not respond was known. Differences in the demographic composition of respondents and non-respondents were compared using separate Pearson's chi-square tests for each demographic characteristic. Nurses and clinical workers were generally more likely to respond than were physicians, laboratory workers and non-medical workers. Male HCWs were less likely to respond than were females, HCWs aged younger than 45 years old had a lower response rate than did HCWs aged 45 to 54 years old, HCWs who had worked in the hospital for less than 5 years were less likely to respond than were those who had worked in the hospital for 5 years or more and HCWs without an executive function were less likely to respond than were executives. Conclusions Demographic characteristics can be linked to response rates and need to be considered in conducting surveys among HCWs. The possibility of non-response bias can be reduced by conducting analyses separately as a function of relevant demographic characteristics, sampling a higher percentage of groups that are known to be less likely to respond, or weighting responses with the reciprocal of the response rate for the respective demographic group.

Listyowardojo Tita A; Nap Raoul E; Johnson Addie

2011-01-01

288

Applying the Gurson model for improved description of the flow and fracture performance of motor vehicle components made of aluminium; Verbesserte Beschreibung des Fliess- und Bruchverhaltens von Aluminium-Automobilkomponenten mit Hilfe des Gurson-Modells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gurson model is of help in improving the information value of crash test simulations with respect to the critical load bearing capacity, or failure, resp., of a vehicle structural component. The damage parameters of relevance to crash simulation can be determined via flat tensile tests and subsequent simulation. The Gurson model delivers the data representing the contributions of multiaxial stresses to the damaging processes. A clear strain rate dependence of the real stress-strain curve, and in particular of the strain-to-fracture curve, was observed in the base material AlMgSiO.5 and in a welded joint and therefore should be taken into account in real crash simulations. (orig./MM) [German] Die Anwendung des Gurson-Modells kann die Aussagefaehigkeit von Crashsimulationen bezueglich der kritischen Tragfaehigkeit bzw. der Schwachstellen eines Bauteils erweitern. Die fuer Crashsimulationen relevanten Schaedigungsparameter koennen durch Versuche an Flachzugproben und anschliessende Simulationen bestimmt werden. Mit dem Gurson-Modell werden die Einfluesse der Spannungsmehrachsigkeit auf die Schaedigungsentwicklung erfasst. Allerdings muesste das Modell zur Simulation des Schubversagens erweitert werden. Das extrudierte Aluminium-Profil weist eine senkrechte Anisotropie auf, die bei der Simulation duennwandiger Strukturen beruecksichtigt werden muss. Eine deutliche Dehnratenabhaengigkeit der wahren Spannungs-Dehnungskurve und insbesondere der Bruchdehnung wurde bei einem Grundwerkstoff AlMgSi0.5 und einem Schweissgut festgestellt und sollte in realen Crashsimulationen beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

Sun, D.Z.; Boehme, W.; Andrieux, F. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Christlein, J. [Audi NSU Auto Union AG, Neckarsulm (Germany)

1999-07-01

289

Valor nutritivo de los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala/ Nutritive value of the forage components of an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En una vaquería de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas, con el objetivo de determinar algunos indicadores del valor nutritivo en los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas (Cynodon nlemfuensis y Panicum maximum) y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham en condiciones comerciales, se selecciona­ron las especies más representativas de la composición florística y se evaluaron por la degradación in situ de la materia seca y la técnica de producci? (more) ?n de gas in vitro en función del momento de muestreo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar la degradación de la materia seca de P. maximum cv. Likoni y L. leucocephala a las 48 y 72 horas (P Abstract in english In a dairy unit of the Genetic Enterprise of Matanzas, with the objective of determining some indicators of the nutritive value in the forage components of an association of improved grasses (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Panicum maximum) and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham under commercial conditions, the most representative species of the floristic composition were selected and evaluated by the in situ degradation of dry matter and the in vitro gas production technique r (more) egarding the sampling moment. Significant differences were found when comparing the dry matter degradation of P. maximum cv. Likoni and L. leucocephala after 48 and 72 hours (P

Sánchez, Tania; Ørskov, E.R; Lamela, L; Pedraza, R; López, O

2008-09-01

290

The impact of extrinsic demographic factors on Cantonese speech acquisition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education, presence of siblings and having a domestic helper as the main caregiver was collected via parent questionnaires. After controlling for age and sex, higher maternal education and higher household income were significantly associated with better speech skills; however, these variables explained a negligible amount of variance. Paternal education, number of siblings and having a foreign domestic helper did not associate with a child's speech acquisition. Extrinsic factors only exerted minimal influence on children's speech acquisition. A large amount of unexplained variance in speech ability still warrants further research.

To CK; Cheung PS; McLeod S

2013-05-01

291

Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acceleration of demographic transition in East Asia is a process of great potential import for the world. The most rapid and large scale transformation of demographic pattern in world history is being accomplished in this region. Demographic processes in other countries and regions have been viewed in the light of past events. Demographic transition has been accepted as a desirable goal, but its realization was believed subject to certain constraints. These include the need to attain high rates of economic growth in order to stimulate the transition and the longer period of time required to accomplish the transition. It was assumed that at least 2 generations would be subject to gradually diminishing rates of increase and slow cultural modification before transition entered its last phase. This interpretation of the preconditions and specific character of demographic transition has been subject to increasing challenge, and recent events in East Asia accentuate such doubts. Most new views begin with the premises that contemporary pretransition societies are not European in culture and the 1970s are not the 1880s. East Asia also differs culturally from other developing areas, including South and Southeast Asia. The most significant regional features are cultural. Demographic transition in the region began after World War 2 and somewhat differently in each East Asian country. The process began first in Japan. The 3rd phase was accomplished rapidly but not as a specific consequence of the modernization process. The end of World War 2 and the spurt in births accompanying military demobilization contributed to a population surge. The cultural factors of practicality, homogeneity, social discipline, and nearly universial literacy were decisive here. Abortion was legalized in 1948 and other forms of birth control were made readily available. Between 1947 and 1957 the birthrate was halved to 17/1000. In Taiwan and South Korea public concern about high rates of population increase was initially expressed in the early 1960s. The government of Taiwan designed a 10-year plan of action to reduce the rate of increase from 2.9% to 1.9% by 1975, a goal that was reached on schedule. The South Korean experience was similar. The birthrate decreased from 2.9% to about 2.0% between 1960-70. Demographic conditions in North Korea are known only poorly. Decreased growth rates in all of these countries would not be of major significance if the demographic situation within China remained unchanged, but marked alterations in birthrate have occurred in China. These reductions in average family size were realized in essentially similar ways. The basic mechanisms were delayed marriage, increased use of contraceptive devices, abortion, and sterilization. More fundamental to the success of family planning programs than mere access to the techniques have been the ability of different countries to provide incentives for birth limitation. A vital element in the success of family planning programs in East Asia has been a marked drop in mortality. Overall, a rising level of prosperity appears less essential than does provision of basic subsistence and a broadened range of occupational options for both sexes and all classes. PMID:12338953

Anderson, T D

292

Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban) housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

Swiaczny F.

2010-01-01

293

Demographic corrections for the modified telephone interview for cognitive status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community-dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted mTICS total score, and depression and premorbid intellect further enhanced this prediction. These results were comparable when only examining the 153 cognitively intact subjects. By using these corrections, clinicians and researchers can more accurately predict an individual's cognitive status with this telephone screening measure.

Dennett K; Tometich D; Duff K

2013-10-01

294

Demographic transition and population aging with Caribbean nation states.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper considers the role which the demographic parameters of fertility, mortality and migration will play on the pace and concentration of aging within the context of a developing region. This paper examines the demographic transition and analyzes historic and projected data for the development patterns of the anglophone nation states of the Caribbean. Trends in fertility, mortality, and migration are contrasted among the larger (Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad/Tobago), mid-sized (Bahamas, Barbados, Belize) and smaller (Antigua/Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St Kitts/Nevis, St Lucia, and St Vincent/Grenadines) states. The paper then goes on to consider shifts in the structure of population at older ages due to the decline in fertility and mortality and points to some of the policy considerations that these relatively small and newly independent states will need to deal with during the next several decades.

Serow WJ; Cowart ME

1998-01-01

295

ROMANIAN DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND THE INVESTMENTS ON CAPITAL MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing interest for investments in capital markets creates the need for studies focused on monitoring and analysing demographic environment in which the investors operate. Its analysis may represent a starting point for finding out opportunities and threats brought by environment for the evolution of Financial Investment Services Companies in Romania. Our paper starts from the assumption that the behaviour of the investor in financial services is influenced by the demographic factors. We focus on some of them, in a descriptive manner. Specifically, they are: monthly net average incomes, gender, age, employment rate and education level of the population. This study also presents a short case of a Financial Investment Services Company named Target Capital.

Petric Ioana Ancuta

2010-01-01

296

Assessing economic and demographic factors that influence United States dairy demand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low-fat dairy products are key components of a healthy diet for all Americans. As the USDA increases its focus on nutrition and healthy eating, it is important to understand the underlying demands for dairy products, both the healthy and the less healthy ones. The consumption of fluid milk products has decreased over the last decade, whereas milk used for manufactured dairy products such as cheese, ice cream, yogurt, and butter, and for use as an ingredient in other food products, has risen. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of changes in demographic variables, retail prices, and total dairy expenditure on at-home consumption of dairy products, using purchase data from Nielsen 2007 Homescan (ACNielsen, New York, NY) data. To derive the demand elasticities for 16 products, a censored Almost Ideal Demand System model is used. Results reveal that demographic variables do have effects on the purchase of the 16 products, and own-price elasticities are 1 or greater for all 16 products for both uncompensated and compensated elasticities except 4: ice cream, refrigerated yogurt, processed cheese, and margarine. A substitution relationship exists among all fluid milk categories, natural and processed cheese, low-fat ice cream, and refrigerated yogurt, butter, and margarine.

Davis CG; Yen ST; Dong D; Blayney DP

2011-07-01

297

[Recent data on the demographic problem of Bangladesh  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With a 1980 population of 90.6 million, Bangladesh is "one of the most densely peopled states. 91% of the population live in rural areas and 80% of them are agriculturally employed. As a food deficit country, this amounts to overpopulation, which makes Bangladesh very vulnerable to natural disasters. Growing at 2.6% per annum there are few signs of demographic transition as birth rates remain higher than in India. Projections cannot but reflect a crisis point in the near future."

Lariviere JP

1981-01-01

298

Canada's unemployment-immigration linkage: demographic, economic, and political influences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"This paper rejects Veugelers and Klassen's initial suggestion that greater concern with demographic considerations might provide a useful explanation for their empirical finding of a post-1989 change in the unemployment-immigration linkage [in Canada] and offers alternative explanations consistent with economic and, especially, sociological-political theories. It shows how elements of Hawkins's (1988) ¿bureaucratic control' and Simmons and Keohane's (1991) ¿political legitimacy' theories can be combined to explain both continuity and change in Canada's postwar immigration policy."

Foot DK

1994-01-01

299

Socio- Demographic Factors And Non- Immunization In Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Investigation was conducted to evaluate various socio- demographic variables and non- immunization in children of this region. Among all the children brought to well baby clinics, 20% were not immunized against any of the six killer diseases. Eighty two percent these were from social class I and II. Mothers of 50% and fathers of 40% non â€" immunized children were illiterate. Common factors for non- immunization were illness, ignorance and indifference.

Singh H; Kaur L; Soni R.K

1992-01-01

300

The demographic problems of the Baltic cities: general trends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the trends of demographic development of the Baltic Sea region's cities. It analyses the factors affecting the urban population dynamics in the second half of the 20th — the beginning of the 21st centuries. The authors emphasise the dependence of the Baltic cities on the socioeconomic development level throughout the region as well as intraregional disparities. The article analyses the conclusions drawn in the "Urban audit.2007" report.

Kosov Yu. V.; Mikheeva N. M.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Demographic Predictors of Cognitive Change in Ethnically Diverse Older Persons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how demographic variables relate to cognitive change and address whether cross-sectional demographic effects on cognitive tests are mirrored in differences in longitudinal trajectories of cognitive decline. We hypothesized that race and ethnicity, education, and language of test administration would relate to cross-sectional status and that the rate of cognitive decline would differ among African Americans, Hispanics, and Caucasians, across levels of educational attainment, and according to linguistic background. Participants were 404 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal study of cognition. Mixed-effects regression analysis was used to measure baseline status and longitudinal change in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory. Results showed that ethnicity and education were strongly associated with baseline scores, but were, at most, weakly associated with change in cognition over time after accounting for confounding variables. There was evidence that the episodic-memory scores of Spanish-speaking Hispanic participants with limited education underestimated their true abilities in the initial evaluation, which may reflect lack of familiarity with the testing environment. These results-consistent with other reports in the literature-suggest that cross-sectional effects of demographic variables on cognitive-test scores result from differences in life experiences that directly influence test performance and do not indicate greater disease effects on cognition in minorities and those with limited education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Early DR; Widaman KF; Harvey D; Beckett L; Quitania Park L; Tomaszewski Farias S; Reed BR; Decarli C; Mungas D

2013-02-01

302

[Demographic characteristics, social inequality and inequity in Mexican childhood health].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Demographically describing the present and future for Mexican children to correlate aspects regarding demographic and social equity during childhood and describing the challenges these variables represent for Mexican children during the next few years. METHODS: The present and future scenario for Mexican childhood was evaluated using existing population projections. Mortality rates were estimated from avoidable causes during childhood per Mexican state, per state grouped by quartile depending on their marginalisation level and by municipality grouped according to their degree of marginalisation. The Gini coefficient was used for measuring inequality. RESULTS: Even though the absolute numbers of children in Mexico will tend to decrease in the future, the number will remain high until 2025. A greatest numbers of children were living in states having the highest degree of social marginalisation. Avoidable mortality was higher in these states compared to states having lower marginalisation. The Gini coefficient was highest concerning mortality rate caused by acute respiratory infection (0.34). Excess of avoidable mortality was evident in municipalities having high and extremely high marginalisation. CONCLUSIONS: Conditions related to demographic ageing and childhood diseases coexist in Mexico. Inequity in children's health is evident; it is related to high levels of social marginalisation. In-depth structural changes are needed to change this situation which will lead to reducing some Mexican populations' unjust social disadvantages.

González-Pérez GJ; Vega-López MG; Cabrera-Pivaral CE; Romero-Valle S; Vega-López A

2011-02-01

303

Demographic Regulators in Small-Scale World-Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of world-systems theory’s iteration model of early human societies. The polities modeled are composed of sedentary foragers and/or simple horticulturalists that rely upon basic subsistence technologies and display low levels of internal differentiation. World-systems theory’s iteration model integrates several processes of demographic regulation: environmental constraints, migration, intra-polity conflict, and inter-polity warfare. Computer simulation of this model reveals that different degrees of resource richness, land area, and initial population size have important effects on the average population levels and the behavior of interacting polities. A well-known ecological phenomenon, “the paradox of enrichment,” emerges when polities interact through warfare. Variations in the size and resources of local and regional areas, along with climatic variation, provide explanations of patterns of warfare in such systems. Finally, to make the iteration model compatible with other existing simulations of early human societal demographic regulation, we demonstrate that the ability of polities to regulate fertility has large consequences for both population sizes and inter-polity relations. A simulation of the world-systems iteration model would provide insights about how world-system dynamics produce selection pressures for the emergence of technological development, interpolity trade, and within-polity hierarchy, but these are subsequent steps. Our initial simulation holds technology and social organization constant in order to examine the demographic consequences of resource use and competition among polities for resources.

Jesse B. Fletcher; Jacob Apkarian; Robert A. Hanneman; Hiroko Inoue; Kirk Lawrence; Christopher Chase-Dunn

2011-01-01

304

Fertility in the Age of Demographic Maturity: An Essay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As humanity is moving into a new age of its demographic evolution, I call it demographic maturity, the emerging demographic configurations – generational sub-replacement fertility, advanced aging and potential population implosion – call for new ways of thinking about population and new policy approaches. While we live longer and healthier, we also reproduce less and less. We are stuck in a culture of low fertility. The strong motivations for foregoing motherhood are financial: a two-salary wage is better than one even for the higher middle class. No less important is the woman’s financial independence in a societal environment where marriage as an institution is under considerable stress. Motherhood is to be rewarded adequately for its highly important social role and it has to be sufficient to reassure potential mothers of their financial concerns. What is required is a more balanced resource allocation between production and reproduction. The old welfare type hand-outs like child bonuses do not work. Societies, particularly the rich, ought to realize that to raise fertility, even to generational replacement level, not only is a much greater financial effort called for but some of the tenants of the liberal economy need to be put into question to make room for social concerns such a renewal of generations, if they want to survive as national entities. This essay advocates a stationary population as the best response to challenges such as ecological health, national identity and cohesion, and possibly world peace.

Anatole Romaniuk

2010-01-01

305

Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence) in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25) students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

Paul Rohe Milton; Beth J. Patton

2011-01-01

306

The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57 561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: thb@hsph.edu.vn). PMID:23608769

Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu

2013-04-22

307

The Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CRHSP-AIIMS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), also known as the Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project (CRHSP) Ballabgarh, is located in north India and was established in 1961 to develop a model for rural health-care practice in India. In addition to demographic surveillance and community-based research, CRHSP Ballabgarh provides preventive, health-promotion, and curative services to its surrounding population. The population served by CRHSP Ballabgarh in 2011 was about 90 000. The system collects data for the entire population through fortnightly visits by health workers (HWs). The system's data base is updated once every month and further updated with missing data and special morbidity surveillance data during the annual census. Since 1961, CRHSP Ballabgarh has collected demographic data, reproductive data, and health data about mothers and their children. More recently, the project began collecting data on diseases such as tuberculosis, and because of changes in life style it recently began collecting data about non-communicable diseases (NCD) and risk factors for NCDs. Nonetheless, an adverse sex ratio, with more boys than girls, and a stagnant neonatal mortality rate, remain major challenges in the population served by CRHSP Ballabgarh. The project shares data with different agencies for health-management purposes, which can be made available to bona fide researchers on receipt of a proposal (enquiries should be directed to: crhsp.ballabgarh@gmail.com); collaboration requests are welcome. PMID:23620380

Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Gupta, Sanjeev; Goswami, Kiran; Krishnan, Anand; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Chandrakant S

2013-04-25

308

The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57 561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: thb@hsph.edu.vn).

Tran BH; Nguyen HT; Ho HT; Pham CV; Le VT; Le AV

2013-06-01

309

Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that most of the sampled NHIS patrons and non patrons were literate, engaged in meaningful employment, mostly married with average income, and were still in their active ages, and demonstrated meaningful exposure to insurance health information, which enable them to be or not to be active participants of the scheme. From the regression analysis, it was evident that all the variables except religion influenced insurance consumption positively whereas religion affects health insurance consumption negatively. Based on this, we recommended among other things, a re-alignment of health insurance marketing strategies with consumers socio-economic and demographic characteristics, as a measure to boost patronage.Key words: Socio-Economic; Demographic; Health insurance; Consumption

Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

2012-01-01

310

The Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CRHSP-AIIMS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), also known as the Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project (CRHSP) Ballabgarh, is located in north India and was established in 1961 to develop a model for rural health-care practice in India. In addition to demographic surveillance and community-based research, CRHSP Ballabgarh provides preventive, health-promotion, and curative services to its surrounding population. The population served by CRHSP Ballabgarh in 2011 was about 90,000. The system collects data for the entire population through fortnightly visits by health workers (HWs). The system's data base is updated once every month and further updated with missing data and special morbidity surveillance data during the annual census. Since 1961, CRHSP Ballabgarh has collected demographic data, reproductive data, and health data about mothers and their children. More recently, the project began collecting data on diseases such as tuberculosis, and because of changes in life style it recently began collecting data about non-communicable diseases (NCD) and risk factors for NCDs. Nonetheless, an adverse sex ratio, with more boys than girls, and a stagnant neonatal mortality rate, remain major challenges in the population served by CRHSP Ballabgarh. The project shares data with different agencies for health-management purposes, which can be made available to bona fide researchers on receipt of a proposal (enquiries should be directed to: crhsp.ballabgarh@gmail.com); collaboration requests are welcome.

Kant S; Misra P; Gupta S; Goswami K; Krishnan A; Nongkynrih B; Rai SK; Srivastava R; Pandav CS

2013-06-01

311

Levels and Atypical Evolutions of the Romanian Demographic Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the XXth century, especially in the second half thereof, the approach views of the relation between the population and economy (both of them regarded in dynamics) have multiplied themselves, the points of view as regards this subject becoming not only much more diverse but also opposite. All these views are characterised by the population transformation in endogenous factor (in internal, intrinsic side) of the economic development (of the economic growth), factor that, at its turn, is determined by the economic processes. The double position of the population in the demo-economical relations system - as main production factor and as virtual recipient of produced goods - is a strong argument in the favour of the demographic factor as endogenous factor of growth and economic development. The correlations between the two variables are diverse and very difficultly to be quantified. It is known that the effect of the demographic impact upon the economic factor is felt after many years from the date of the demo-economic phenomenon occurring. So, within the last decades, the research intended to identify certain essential, durable relations between the population evolution and the economic growth became more intensive. On this line there are presented atypical evolutions and levels of demographic processes in Romania.

Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

2007-01-01

312

DEMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF FAMILIES BREAKFAST HABITS IN TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Face-to-face surveys have been carried out with 252 people from various quarters of Izmit to determine what the breakfast habits of Turkish families are and whether these habits differ according to demographic characteristics. The survey scale, which was utilized for the purpose of this study, consisted of twenty-five questions prepared according to the nine-grade scale. A “One-way Anova” test was applied to the data that we obtained from these face-to-face surveys so as to determine first of all whether the families’ breakfast habits differ according to demographic characteristics. Thereafter, a t-test was applied to differing breakfast foods to verify the differences. The results of these two tests revealed that many breakfast foods differ according to demographic characteristics. Accordingly, the consumption amount of breakfast foods increases as the families’ level of income and the parents’ level of education gets higher, while an increase in the number of family members leads to a decrease in the consumption amount of breakfast foods.

Ethem Soner ÇEL?KKOL; Ceylan Gazi UÇKUN; Vasfi Nadir TEK?N

2013-01-01

313

Profile: the niakhar health and demographic surveillance system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, is located 135 km east of Dakar. The HDSS was established in 1962 by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of Senegal to face the shortcomings of the civil registration system and provide demographic indicators. Some 65 villages in the Niakhar area were followed annually by the HDSS from 1962-1969. The study zone was reduced to 8 villages from 1969-1983, and from then on the HDSS was extended to include 22 other villages, covering a total of 30 villages for a population estimated at 43 000 in January 2012. Thus, 8 villages in the Niakhar area have been under demographic surveillance for almost 50 years and 30 villages for 30 years. Vital events, migrations, marital changes, pregnancies, and immunizations are routinely recorded every 4 months. The HDSS data base also includes epidemiological, economic, and environmental information obtained from specific surveys. Data were collected through annual rounds from 1962 to 1987. The rounds became weekly from 1987-1997, followed by routine visits conducted every 3 months between 1997 and 2007 and every 4 months since then. The data collected in the HDSS are not open to access, but can be fairly shared under conditions of collaboration and endowment.

Delaunay V; Douillot L; Diallo A; Dione D; Trape JF; Medianikov O; Raoult D; Sokhna C

2013-08-01

314

Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education) and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment) with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

Leposavi? Ljubica; Leposavi? Ivana; Jašovi?-Gaši? Miroslava; Nikoli?-Balkoski Gordana; Milovanovi? Sr?an

2006-01-01

315

Demographic impact of the HIV epidemic in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the HIV epidemic on the demographic development of the Thai population. METHODS: A deterministic mathematical model was used to predict simultaneously epidemiological and demographic processes. Partial differential equations express the relationships between biological, behavioural and demographic variables. The model allows the evaluation of different sexual mixing patterns, variable transmission probabilities and incubation times. Validity analysis was performed by generating antecedent HIV prevalence patterns among military recruits and pregnant women. RESULTS: On the national level in Thailand we predict that the cumulative number of people in Thailand with HIV infection will exceed 1 million by 1999; the number of deaths from AIDS will be 555000 by the year 2000 but will not reach 1 million until after the year 2014. Without the HIV epidemic the population growth rate was estimated at 1.3% per annum until 1995, after which a decline to 0.9% by 2005 is predicted. The HIV epidemic started to affect the population growth rate by 0.026% per year in 1991, and the difference is predicted to rise to about 0.12% per year during the period 1995-2000, to decline to 0.06% in 2005 and then to disappear. In the mid-1990s HIV affected mainly the 15-35-year-old age group, but over time younger and older age groups have been affected as a result of perinatal transmission, and a decline in fertility as well as ageing of the 15-35-year-old birth cohort. Because of HIV, in 2000 there will be 612000 (1%) fewer people than expected and by 2010, 1140000 fewer (1.6%). We predict that the demographic impact of the HIV epidemic in the northern region will follow the same pattern, but with greater severity. Here, the effect on the population growth rate and the population age distribution is likely to be twice as high as at the national level. CONCLUSIONS: It is estimated that 1 million Thais will be infected with HIV by the year 2000 and an almost equal number will have died of AIDS by the year 2014. Although these numbers seem high, their direct and indirect effects on the demographic structure of the Thai population are small. However, at a regional level, for example in the northern region, the effect of the HIV epidemic may be more severe.

Surasiengsunk S; Kiranandana S; Wongboonsin K; Garnett GP; Anderson RM; van Griensven GJ

1998-05-01

316

Socio-demographic determinants of hearing impairment studied in 103,835 term babies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Serious hearing problems appear in approximately one in 1000 newborns. In 2000, the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing defined a list of risk factors for neonatal hearing impairment relating to health, physical characteristics and family history. The aim of this study is to determine which personal, environmental and social factors are associated with the prevalence of congenital hearing impairment (CHI). METHODS: The entire population of 103,835 term newborns in Flanders, Belgium, was tested by a universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) programme using automated auditory brainstem responses (AABR). In the case of a positive result, a CHI diagnosis was verified in specialized referral centres. Socio-demographic risk factors were investigated across the entire population to study any relationship with CHI. RESULTS: The prevalence of bilateral CHI of 35 dB nHL (normal hearing level) or more was 0.87/1000 newborns. The sensitivity and specificity of the screening test were 94.02 and 99.96%, respectively. The socio-demographic factors of gender, birth order, birth length, feeding type, level of education and origin of the mother were found to be independent predictors of CHI. CONCLUSIONS: The socio-demographic factors found to be associated with CHI extend the list of classic risk factors as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Assessment of these additional factors may alert the treating physician to the increased risk of newborn hearing impairment and urge the need for accurate follow-up. Moreover, this extended assessment may improve decision making in medical practice and screening policy.

Van Kerschaver E; Boudewyns AN; Declau F; Van de Heyning PH; Wuyts FL

2013-02-01

317

Influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the quality of life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of life is a multidimensional concept, which is best expressed by the subjective well-being. Evaluation of the quality of life is the basis for measuring the well-being, and the determination of factors that determine the quality of life quality is the basis for its improvement Objective. To evaluate and assess the determinants of the perceived quality of life of group distinguishing features which characterize demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the population in Serbia aged over 20 years (9479 examinees). The quality of life was expressed by the perception of well-being (pleasure of life). Data on the examinees (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics) were collected by using a questionnaire for adults of each household. To process, analyze and present the data, we used the methods of parametric descriptive statistics (mean value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation), variance analysis and factor analysis. Results. Although men evaluated the quality of life with a slightly higher grading, there was no statistically significant difference in the evaluation of the quality of life in relation to the examinee’s gender (p>0.005). Among the examinees there was a high statistically significant difference in grading the quality of life depending on age, level of education, marital status and type of job (p0.005). Conclusion. The quality of life is influenced by numerous factors that characterize each person (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individual). Determining factors of the quality of life are numerous and diverse, and the manner and the strength of their influence are variable.

Grbi? Gordana; ?oki? Dragoljub; Koci? Sanja; Mitrašinovi? Dejan; Raki? Ljiljana; Prelevi? Rade; Krivokapi? Žarko; Miljkovi? Snežana

2011-01-01

318

Socio-demographic correlates of physical activity and physical fitness in German children and adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Identifying factors that influence children's and adolescents' participation in physical activity (PA), as well as their physical fitness (PF), is essential for the development of effective intervention strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare influential socio-demographic factors that affect PA such as socio-economic status (SES), rural-urban differences, immigration and age, as well as the effects of age and PA on PF as differentiated by gender. Subjects and METHODS: German children between 6 and 9 years and adolescents between 10 and 17 years of age (n?=?2574) participated in the representative, nationwide, cross-sectional 'Motorik'-Module study between 2003 and 2006. RESULTS: Results revealed that immigrant children and children with a lower SES background were less physically active and that this inactivity subsequently resulted in lower levels of PF as compared with non-immigrant children and children with a higher SES background. PA was further positively associated with age for children. All of these three socio-demographic factors were comparably meaningful for PA. In adolescents, the only PA-relevant socio-demographic parameter was SES with lower PA again resulting in lower PF levels observed in adolescents from lower income families. PF in childhood as well as adolescence was mostly positively affected by age, followed by PA, except for in female adolescents for whom PA and age were nearly equally significant. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention aiming to improve PA levels, and consequently PF levels, must, with respect to age and gender, refer to SES, as well as immigration background, but not to rural-urban differences.

Lämmle L; Worth A; Bös K

2012-12-01

319

Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859) populations stressed by mercury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Genetic and demographic changes in mosquitofish populations are reported after chronic (111 d) exposure to mercury. Sex ratios, normally female-biased in field populations, were also female-biased in control mesocosms. However, the sex ratio was male-biased in the mercury treatments. Frequencies of glucosephosphate isomerase-2 (Gpi-2) allozymes for fish exposed to mercury differed from initial frequencies and from those of control fish. In a selection-component analysis, female sexual selection was statistically significant for the mercury-treated fish; the proportional of females that were gravid differed among Gpi-2 genotypes. The number of developing embryos per female also differed among Gpi-2 genotypes. Mercury had genotype-specific effects on mosquitofish reproduction in addition to genotype-specific effects on mortality reported earlier. These effects may reflect metabolic qualities of the Gpi-2 genotypes or loci closely linked to the Gpi-2 locus.

Mulvey, M.; Newman, M.C.; Chazal, A.; Keklak, M.M.; Heagler, M.G. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hales, L.S. Jr. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Zoology Dept.

1995-08-01

320

RTD Component 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of RTD Component 2 is to improve our knowledge on radionuclide retention processes which are currently not well understood in order to judge if they have to be considered for predictive analysis of the far field of geological repositories. The main topics dealt with in RTD Component 2 are the effect of the presence of inorganic/organic colloids, mineral redox processes and several aspects of microbiologically mediated processes on the transport of radionuclide. Knowledge gained in RTDC-2 will be transferred as direct input parameters for the host rock specific RTDC's 3-5. Scientific work in the nanometer resolution range with trace radionuclide concentrations expected to be found in far-field environments are a big analytical challenge and progress of scientific process understanding therefore relies inter alia on further development of analytical methods as well as on molecular modeling approaches. RTD Component 2 has been structured in 4 work packages and results obtained in the second project year are briefly summarized for each WP. Further, in detail information can be found in the Scientific and Technical contributions and publications listed in chapter 4. Advances within the work packages are reported: WP2.1: Formation, migration and transport processes of inorganic colloids; WP2.2: Formation migration and transport processes of organic/humic colloids; WP2.3: Radionuclide redox transformation on minerals; WP2.4: Impact of biogeochemical processes.

Schaefer, Thorsten [Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: schaefer@ine.fzk.de

2007-06-15

 
 
 
 
321

Valor nutritivo de los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala Nutritive value of the forage components of an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En una vaquería de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas, con el objetivo de determinar algunos indicadores del valor nutritivo en los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas (Cynodon nlemfuensis y Panicum maximum) y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham en condiciones comerciales, se selecciona­ron las especies más representativas de la composición florística y se evaluaron por la degradación in situ de la materia seca y la técnica de producción de gas in vitro en función del momento de muestreo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar la degradación de la materia seca de P. maximum cv. Likoni y L. leucocephala a las 48 y 72 horas (PIn a dairy unit of the Genetic Enterprise of Matanzas, with the objective of determining some indicators of the nutritive value in the forage components of an association of improved grasses (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Panicum maximum) and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham under commercial conditions, the most representative species of the floristic composition were selected and evaluated by the in situ degradation of dry matter and the in vitro gas production technique regarding the sampling moment. Significant differences were found when comparing the dry matter degradation of P. maximum cv. Likoni and L. leucocephala after 48 and 72 hours (P<0,05). The highest values of dry matter degradation rate (0,0306-0,3347% h-1 and 0,0329­0,0407% h-1 for the DS an RS, respectively) and gas production (0,024-0,044 h-1 and 0,032-0,049% h-1 in the DS and RS, respectively) were obtained in the rainy period. It is concluded that the dry matter degradation by means of the in situ technique and the evaluation of the energy potential through gas production, showed a better performance of the forages during the sampling moment that corresponded to the rainy season and the highest degradation rate was obtained in leucaena.

Tania Sánchez; E.R Ørskov; L Lamela; R Pedraza; O López

2008-01-01

322

[Socio-demographic differentials in the functional decline among the elderly in Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a positive reversion in the expectations regarding the health condition of the elderly population, possibly due to the progresses in medical technology; behavioural changes; development of special programmes for the elderly; improvements in the socio-economic status; decrease of infectious diseases. This study aims analyzing differentials in the prevalence rates of mobility disability among elderly people in Brazil. The data used were from 'The 1998 and 2003 National Household Survey (PNAD)', conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geographic and Statistics (IBGE). The two samples were nationally representative, including approximately 30 thousand individuals aged 60 years or more respectively. "Difficulty to walk more than 100 meters" was the variable selected as the indicator of disability. Socio-demographic status measures were sex, age group, region of residence and family income per capita. Comparison of the PNAD results of 1998 and 2003 showed that over that period in Brazil the elderly disability rates decreased among all socio-demographic groups considered. Public policies directed to the elderly must focus on reducing mobility disability. PMID:18813625

Parahyba, Maria Isabel; Veras, Renato

323

[Socio-demographic differentials in the functional decline among the elderly in Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a positive reversion in the expectations regarding the health condition of the elderly population, possibly due to the progresses in medical technology; behavioural changes; development of special programmes for the elderly; improvements in the socio-economic status; decrease of infectious diseases. This study aims analyzing differentials in the prevalence rates of mobility disability among elderly people in Brazil. The data used were from 'The 1998 and 2003 National Household Survey (PNAD)', conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geographic and Statistics (IBGE). The two samples were nationally representative, including approximately 30 thousand individuals aged 60 years or more respectively. "Difficulty to walk more than 100 meters" was the variable selected as the indicator of disability. Socio-demographic status measures were sex, age group, region of residence and family income per capita. Comparison of the PNAD results of 1998 and 2003 showed that over that period in Brazil the elderly disability rates decreased among all socio-demographic groups considered. Public policies directed to the elderly must focus on reducing mobility disability.

Parahyba MI; Veras R

2008-07-01

324

Estimating population size and demographic characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth in middle school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To estimate the size and demographic characteristics of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth populations using data from the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) administered in San Francisco Unified School District middle schools. METHODS: The YRBS was administered to a stratified random sample of 2,730 youth (grades 6-8) across all 22 public middle schools in San Francisco. Cross-tabulations using complex samples analyses were used to derive population estimates and confidence intervals. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results show that 3.8% of middle school students identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, and 1.3% of middle school students identify as transgender. To improve our understanding of the size of these populations across the nation, researchers conclude it is imperative that all YRBS administration sites include items on sexual orientation and gender identity as they would any other demographic item, such as race/ethnicity, sex, or age. The current lack of reliable data on the size and characteristics of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth population limits the capacity of policy makers, administrators, and practitioners to address their needs.

Shields JP; Cohen R; Glassman JR; Whitaker K; Franks H; Bertolini I

2013-02-01

325

Knowledge, attitudes, and demographic factors influencing cervical cancer screening behavior of Zimbabwean women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The aims of this study were (1) to estimate what proportion of rural females had received cervical screening, (2) to assess knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and demographics that influence cervical screening, and (3) to predict cervical screening accessibility based on demographic factors, knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes that influence cervical screening. METHODS: The study sample consisted of randomly selected, sexually active, rural females between 12 and 84 years of age. Five hundred fourteen females responded to an individually administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 514 participants, 91% had never had cervical screening and 81% had no previous knowledge of cervical screening tests; 80% of the group expressed positive beliefs about cervical screening tests after an educational intervention. Females who were financially independent were 6.61% more likely to access cervical screening compared with those who were dependent on their husbands. Females in mining villages were 4.47% more likely to access cervical screening than those in traditional rural reserve villages. Females in resettlement villages were 20% less likely to access cervical screening than those in traditional rural reserve villages. CONCLUSIONS: Accessibility of screening services could be improved through planning and implementation of screening programs involving community leaders and culturally appropriate messages. The government should incorporate the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in its immunization program for adolescents, and health education should be intensified to encourage women and their partners to comply with diagnostic and treatment regimens.

Mupepi SC; Sampselle CM; Johnson TR

2011-06-01

326

The Influence of Demographic Profiles on Emotional Intelligence: A Study on Polytechnic Lecturers in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to identify, understand, experience and express human emotions in a healthy productive way. The benefits of demonstrating high frequency of emotional intelligence in the workplace is vast especially in service based professions like teaching. Therefore this study aimed to explore the level of EI among lectures from a polytechnic in Malaysia and in the same time explore the influence of demographic profiles towards those levels. Demographic profiles such as gender, age group, occupational grade, working experience in the current job and prior working experience in the industry are selected. The Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Concise version) was distributed to all the academic departments and the total number of respondents were n=162. Findings show that the overall level of EI is average. The findings proved that the levels of emotional intelligence among the lecturers improved with age, teaching experience, grade and education where else gender and prior working were not contributing factors© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

Jeya Amantha Kumar; Balakrishnan Muniandy

2012-01-01

327

The Predictive Role of Happiness, Optimism and Demographical Status in Engagement in Health-related Behaviors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: With regard to the importance of life style for health promotion, this research aimed to investigate the predictive role of happiness, optimism and demographical status in engagement in health-related Behaviors for high school students in Semnan. Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive design, 217 (104 boys and 113 girls) high school students in Semnan were selected through a two-stage cluster sampling and completed the Demographical Information Questionnaire, The Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) and The Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHP). Data analysis was performed through correlation and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS.Results: Results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status, and engagement in health-related behaviors (P0/05).Conclusion: Happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status are important for engagement in health-related behaviors by high school students. The principal implication of this research is set an agenda of intervention for improvement of these factors as an important foundation to engagement in health-related behaviors and health promotion of high school students.

Isaac Rahimian Boogar

2013-01-01

328

Steps per day among persons with multiple sclerosis: variation by demographic, clinical, and device characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To identify steps per day in a large sample of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to describe variation by demographic and clinical characteristics and device type. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of persons with multiple sclerosis (N=645) recruited from the general community who were ambulatory and relapse free for 30 days. Mean age ± SD of the participants was 46.3 ± 10.6 years old. Participants were mostly women (85%), white (93%), and employed (64%). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Step counts measured by a motion sensor during a 7-day period. RESULTS: The average value for the entire sample was 5,903 ± 3,185 steps per day. This value varied by demographic and clinical characteristics, but not device type, and indicated that men, participants who were unemployed, had a high school education or less, progressive MS, a longer disease duration, and higher disability were less physically active based on the metric of steps per day. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an expected value for average steps per day among persons with MS. Such an expected value for this population is an important first step to help researchers and clinicians interested in improving the overall health of persons with MS through physical activity promotion.

Dlugonski D; Pilutti LA; Sandroff BM; Suh Y; Balantrapu S; Motl RW

2013-08-01

329

US Hemophilia Treatment Center population trends 1990-2010: patient diagnoses, demographics, health services utilization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For several decades, US government agencies have partially supported regional networks of Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC). HTC multidisciplinary teams provide comprehensive and coordinated diagnosis, treatment, prevention, education, outreach and surveillance services to improve the health of people with genetic bleeding disorders. However, national data are scarce on HTC-patient population trends and services. The aim of the study was to examine national trends over the past 20 years in patient diagnoses, demographics and health services utilization among the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-supported HTC network. Diagnoses, demographics and health services utilization data from 1990 to 2010 were aggregated from all HTCs using the Hemophilia Data Set (HDS). From 1990 to 2010, the HTC population grew 90% from 17 177 to 32 612. HTC patients with von Willebrand's disease increased by 148%, females by 346%, Hispanic patients by 236% and African Americans by 104%. Four thousand and seventy-five deaths were reported. From 2002 to 2010, annual comprehensive evaluations grew 38%, and persons with severe haemophilia on a home intravenous therapy programme rose 37%. In 2010, 46% of patients were less than 18 years vs. 24% for the general US population. The Hemophilia Data Set documents the growth and diversity of the US Hemophilia Treatment Center Network's patient population and services. Despite disproportionate deaths due to HIV, the HTC patient base grew faster than the general US population. The HDS is a vital national public health registry for this rare-disorder population.

Baker JR; Riske B; Drake JH; Forsberg AD; Atwood R; Voutsis M; Shearer R

2013-01-01

330

Demographic and health indicators in Gulf Cooperation Council nations with an emphasis on Qatar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Qatar is a rapidly developing wealthy state that is part of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a group of six countries that share relatively similar economic and cultural profiles. We aimed to capture key health indicators and demographic data from Qatar and GCC countries by examining 1980-2010 data from the World Bank Databank and WHO report. The results highlighted a unique demographic profile in Qatar, which has the lowest age dependency ratio, highest male to female ratio, and second highest migrant population in the world. In comparison to other GCC countries, Qatar had the highest life expectancy and the lowest communicable disease and-all cause mortality rates.The GCC countries generally had a low percentage of their population over age 65, a high percentage of migrants, a very low crude death rate and very high overweight and obesity prevalence. Examination of data trends showed a decline in birth rate and fertility rate with significant improvement in under-five and maternal mortality rates over the last three decades

Hekmat Alrouh; Awatef Ismail; Sohaila Cheema

2013-01-01

331

Demographic and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa, Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The design and development of school health programmes will require information at demographic characteristics of schoolchildren and the major health burdens of the school-age group, the opportunities for intervention and the appropriateness of the available infrastructure. This study aims to analyse demographic and parasitic infections status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa province of south-eastern Turkey. METHOD: Three primary schools were randomly selected in the shantytown, apartment and rural districts. A total of 1820 schoolchildren between 7-14 years age were took part to the survey of whom 1120 (61.5%) were boys and 700 (38.4%) were girls. A child form (including child's name, sex, age, school grade and parasitic infections) and school survey form (including condition of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soaps on the basins and presence of garbage piles around to the schools) were used for demographic, parasitic and sanitary surveys. Stool samples were examined by cellophane thick smear technique for the eggs of intestinal helminths. RESULTS: The demographic survey showed that number of schoolchildren was gradually decreased as their age's increase in shantytown school. The sex ratio was proportional until the second grade, after which the number of females gradually decreased in children in shantytown and rural schools while, in apartment area, schoolchildren was proportionally distributed between age groups and gender even the high-grade students. The prevalence of helminthic infections was %77.1 of the schoolchildren in shantytown, 53.2% in apartment district and 53.1% of rural area. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species and followed by Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species in three schools. Sanitation survey indicated that the tap water was limited in shantytown school, toilet's sanitation was poor, available no soaps on lavatories and garbage piles were accumulated around the schools in shantytown and rural area, while, the school in apartment area was well sanitised. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that burden of parasitic infections and poor sanitation conditions constituted public health importance among to the shantytown schoolchildren. School health programmes including deworming and sanitation activities through the health education and improvement of sanitation conditions in the schools have a potential to better health and education for schoolchildren. These programmes also offer the potential to reach significant numbers of population in the shantytown schools with high level of absenteeism.

Ulukanligil M; Seyrek A

2003-09-01

332

Demographic and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The design and development of school health programmes will require information at demographic characteristics of schoolchildren and the major health burdens of the school-age group, the opportunities for intervention and the appropriateness of the available infrastructure. This study aims to analyse demographic and parasitic infections status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa province of south-eastern Turkey. Method Three primary schools were randomly selected in the shantytown, apartment and rural districts. A total of 1820 schoolchildren between 7–14 years age were took part to the survey of whom 1120 (61.5%) were boys and 700 (38.4%) were girls. A child form (including child's name, sex, age, school grade and parasitic infections) and school survey form (including condition of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soaps on the basins and presence of garbage piles around to the schools) were used for demographic, parasitic and sanitary surveys. Stool samples were examined by cellophane thick smear technique for the eggs of intestinal helminths. Results The demographic survey showed that number of schoolchildren was gradually decreased as their age's increase in shantytown school. The sex ratio was proportional until the second grade, after which the number of females gradually decreased in children in shantytown and rural schools while, in apartment area, schoolchildren was proportionally distributed between age groups and gender even the high-grade students. The prevalence of helminthic infections was %77.1 of the schoolchildren in shantytown, 53.2% in apartment district and 53.1% of rural area. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species and followed by Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species in three schools. Sanitation survey indicated that the tap water was limited in shantytown school, toilet's sanitation was poor, available no soaps on lavatories and garbage piles were accumulated around the schools in shantytown and rural area, while, the school in apartment area was well sanitised. Conclusions These results indicated that burden of parasitic infections and poor sanitation conditions constituted public health importance among to the shantytown schoolchildren. School health programmes including deworming and sanitation activities through the health education and improvement of sanitation conditions in the schools have a potential to better health and education for schoolchildren. These programmes also offer the potential to reach significant numbers of population in the shantytown schools with high level of absenteeism.

Ulukanligil Mustafa; Seyrek Adnan

2003-01-01

333

Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had significant effect on physical violence; specifically, hitting and psychological violence; specifically, denying choices and cessation of intermarital intercourse. Also, the level of education had significant effect on the physical (e.g., throwing objects) and psychological (e.g., Cessation of marital intercourse and denying choices). Finally, present results indicated that the level of income, by itself, did not have any effects on experiencing any types of violence by men but its effect was visible and significant in the presence of the other two factors, the age and the level of education. The results in the present study are, in fact, only of their kinds in that the characteristics of abused men by their wives are assessed in male victims of domestic violence and can contribute to further understanding of the types of men susceptible to victimization by their wives. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that other demographic variables such as the number of children, the type of housing (ownership of the house or renting) and so on, were also determined in this study, but given their lack of any significant effects on the occurrence of violence of any kind against men, were not mentioned in the study.

Said Pournaghash-Tehrani; Zahra Feizabadi

2007-01-01

334

Les démographes et le temps Demographers and Time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article présente la façon dont les démographes ont pris en compte la question du temps dans leurs travaux depuis l’après seconde guerre. Le temps, dimension centrale de la démographie, est à la fois un élément constitutif des instruments de mesure des phénomènes démographiques et  un objet d’étude en soi. Les modalités de la prise en compte du temps ont considérablement évolué depuis les années 1950. L’approche synchronique, la plus fréquente alors, va être complétée par l’approche longitudinale, puis biographique et enfin multi-niveaux. A chacune de ces étapes, la question du temps (individuel ou collectif), de sa mesure et de sa signification, fait l’objet d’une réflexion qui rappellera la complexité de son appréhension. Après avoir mis en lumière ces étapes, l’article examine différents travaux démographiques qui ont pris le temps et les temporalités sociales comme objet d’étude, notamment au travers du repérage de l’âge, de l’appartenance générationnelle ou encore des marqueurs de transitions.This article shows how demographers have dealt with the question of time since WWII. Time, a central dimension of demography, has been both a tool for measuring demographic phenomena and an object of study in itself, and the ways it has been taken into account have considerably developed since the 1950s. The most usual point of view at the time, which was synchronic, was later to be completed by a longitudinal, then biographical and finally multi-faceted approach. At each of these stages, the question of time (individual or collective), as well as of how to measure it and how to evaluate its significance, came under more scrutiny, reminding use how complex an object it is to grasp. After a review of these various stages, the paper examines those demographic studies that have focused on time and social temporalities, particularly through the factors of age, generation or transition markers.

Olivia Samuel

2009-01-01

335

Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities.

1991-05-03

336

Social implication of demographic changes in the European Union countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process of demographic changes in European countries is characterized by greater and greater ageing of the population, as a result of the decline in the rate of natural increase and the rise in life expectancy. Europeans have less and less children, they live longer and face the problems how to ensure a safe old age. Noticed trends of change will be intensified till the middle of the new millennium (2050), when the following situation is expected: the decline in the number of children (0-14 years) for almost 20% and the active-working population (15-64), while there will be more "old persons" (65-79) for more than 44%, and "the oldest" persons (80 or more) for even 180%. Ageing of the population characterizes all regions, but is specially pronounced in the countries in the south and countries in transition. Faced with the challenges of the disturbances in the demographic structure, the members of the European Union (25) developed an entire spectrum of measures and activities to prevent the negative social-economic consequences. Creation of "the policy of ageing" at the Union level develops within the co-ordination (OMC) of the process of modernization of the social security system (old-age pension insurance, health insurance, social and child protection); it also implies the creation of conditions for "the active old age" (increase in employment and staying as long as possible on the job market), the development of "the new forms of solidarity" between generations (as a consequence of the increase of the coefficient of dependency between active working and supported population), preventing poverty and social exclusion, etc. Strategic documents, directions and national action-plans determined the concrete measures needed to face the demographic challenges.

Vukovi? Drenka

2006-01-01

337

The long goodbye: Age, demographics, and flexibility in retirement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current literature on retirement decisions has given inadequate attention to the impacts of increasing life expectancy. This paper examines workforce aging and retirement within a framework that not only includes age, but also integrates increasing life expectancy into the discussion. Employee preference surveys regarding choice in retirement are supported by the demographic and by work-time compression arguments for retirement flexibility. We outlinearguments why partial-retirement policies would be a practical and timely transition strategy for organizations and societies in a world of increasing life expectancies and aging workforces,especially when facing the imminent retirement of the large post-war baby-boom generation.

David K. Foot; Rosemary A. Venne

2011-01-01

338

The Verification of Virtual Community Member's Socio-Demographic Profile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers the current problem of investigation and development of method of web-members'socio-demographic characteristics' profile validation based on analysis of socio-demographiccharacteristics. The topicality of the paper is determined by the necessity to identify the web-communitymember by means of computer-linguistic analysis of their information track (all information about web-community members, which posted on the Internet). The formal model of basic socio-demographiccharacteristics of virtual communities' member is formed. The algorithm of these characteristicsverification is developed.

Fedushko Solomia; Peleschyshyn Oksana; Peleschyshyn Andriy; Syerov Yuriy

2013-01-01

339

A Demographic Study of Information Technology Professionals' Organizational Citizenship Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been suggested to facilitate organizational functioning. However, previous research has found that information technology (IT) professionals exhibit significantly lower OCB than non-IT professionals. To explain this phenomenon, this research includes demographic variables including age, gender, and tenure and examines their impact on the OCB of these highly skilled professionals. Using IT professionals as the unit of analysis with a sample size of 85, the results indicate that age and tenure are significant predictors of an IT professional’s OCB. Results of this research can be used by organizations and managers to establish a work environment where OCB is encouraged.

Shih Yung Chou; John Pearson

2011-01-01

340

[Theories of demographic transition: toward a certain convergence?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"The aim of this paper is to present, in their points of convergence and opposition, the main theoretical currents which have arisen around the concept of demographic transition in its application to Third World countries. Four currents are identified: structural functionalism, culturalism, Marxism and feminism. The authors identify two main trends in recent debates surrounding the question of transition in demography: on the one hand, convergence of macro-structural approaches and, on the other, greater opposition between the latter and those which favor cultural factors." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

Piche V; Poirier J

1990-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

[Theories of demographic transition: toward a certain convergence?].  

Science.gov (United States)

"The aim of this paper is to present, in their points of convergence and opposition, the main theoretical currents which have arisen around the concept of demographic transition in its application to Third World countries. Four currents are identified: structural functionalism, culturalism, Marxism and feminism. The authors identify two main trends in recent debates surrounding the question of transition in demography: on the one hand, convergence of macro-structural approaches and, on the other, greater opposition between the latter and those which favor cultural factors." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12284074

Piche, V; Poirier, J

1990-04-01

342

Blood pressure demographics: nature or nurture ... ... genes or environment?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Hypertension is a growing worldwide problem associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the rates of prevalence of hypertension are higher in some populations than others. Although ethnic and genetic factors have been implied in the past to explain this, the environmental influence and psychosocial factors may play a more important role than is widely accepted. Examining the non-genetic influences in future hypertension research may be necessary in order to clearly define the local blood pressure demographics and the global hypertensive disease burden.

Tomson Joseph; Lip Gregory YH

2005-01-01

343

Profile of the Navrongo Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Located in the Kassena-Nankana districts of northern Ghana, the Navrongo health and demographic surveillance system (NHDSS) was established in 1992 by the Navrongo health research centre (NHRC). The NHRC is one of three research centres of the Ghana health service. The activities and potential of the NHDSS for collaborative research are described. The NHDSS monitors health and demographic dynamics of the two Kassena-Nankana districts of northern Ghana and facilitates evaluation of the morbidity and mortality impact of health and social interventions. The total population currently under surveillance is 152 000 residing in 32 000 households. Events monitored routinely include pregnancies, births, morbidity, deaths, migration, marriages and vaccination coverage. Data updates are done every 4 months by trained fieldworkers. The NHRC also undertakes biomedical and socio-economic studies. Additional features of the NHDSS include the community key informant system where trained volunteers routinely report key events, such as births and deaths as they occur in their locality and the verbal autopsy (VA) system for determining the probable causes of deaths that occur at the community level. Data from the NHDSS are shared with funders and collaborators and partners in the INDEPTH Network. The Director of the NHDSS is the contact person for potential collaboration with the NHDSS and the use of its data. PMID:22933645

Oduro, Abraham Rexford; Wak, George; Azongo, Daniel; Debpuur, Cornelius; Wontuo, Peter; Kondayire, Felix; Welaga, Paul; Bawah, Ayaga; Nazzar, Alex; Williams, John; Hodgson, Abraham; Binka, Fred

2012-08-01

344

Association between Social and Demographic Factors with Feeding Methods in  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Healthy Nutrition has an important role in childhood. Food habits of a child probably will continue to adulthood and increase the risk of many chronic diseases. Role of parents in child nutrition as a food producer and eating pattern has recognized to most important factor of child nutrition. Recent studies have shown that the methods used by parents to child feeding have an important role in the child’s diet and BMI. This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children’s nutrition. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools. Measures included demographic and social factors and aspects of child feeding practices.Results: Results showed that stay at home mothers used more modeling practices. Mothers of sons used more pressure to eat than others. Older mothers used less pressure to eat. Mothers with higher BMI used more emotion regulation strategy and less modeling. And mothers with more education used more modeling.Conclusion: The results showed a significant relationship between demographic and social factors with aspects of the feeding practices.

Maryam Gholamalizadeh; Saeid Doaei; Naser Kalantari; Bahram Rashidkhani

2013-01-01

345

Demographic variations in observed energy expenditure across park activity areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Parks are important physical activity (PA) settings, but few studies have examined PA differences between park areas according to multiple user demographic characteristics. This study explored variations in adult/senior and child/teen PA intensity across park settings by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. METHODS: In July-August 2009, the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) was used in four parks in Kansas City, Missouri to record park users' PA behavior within specific park areas. A total of 8855 observations were recorded. ANCOVAs compared mean energy expenditure (EE) for various demographic groups across the five most-used park target areas for adults/seniors and children/teens. RESULTS: Among adults/seniors, all sub-samples exhibited higher EE on paved trails (0.086-0.093 kcal/kg/min) and tennis courts (0.086-0.089 kcal/kg/min), than in open spaces, playgrounds, or picnic shelters. Among children/teens, the child, White, and all child/teen sub-samples showed greater EE on playgrounds (0.088-0.089 kcal/kg/min) than in picnic shelters. CONCLUSION: Park planning and design efforts should consider environmental and programming initiatives to increase intergenerational PA levels within park areas such as playgrounds, open spaces, and picnic shelters.

Besenyi GM; Kaczynski AT; Wilhelm Stanis SA; Vaughan KB

2013-01-01

346

Social and demographic determinants in the prescription of systemic antibiotics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spain presents a high level of systemic antibiotic consumption and subsequently shows important rates of bacterial resistance. Diverse parameters explain the uneven distribution of their consumption such as the epidemiology of infectious processes, population-dependent factors, and factors dependent on the prescribing doctor. The aim of this study was to investigate demographic parameters that may affect antibiotic consumption. We carried out a retrospective longitudinal study from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of antibiotic consumption data provided by the information system of the drugstore Concylia. The consumption indicator used is the number of defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID). The area studied was the region of Castile and Leon, with nine provinces and eleven health districts. Global consumption per health district under study was as follows: Avila (22.37 DID), Zamora (21.83 DID), Salamanca (21.0 DID), Soria (20.67 DID), Palencia (18.97 DID), Leon (17.56 DID), Burgos (16.59 DID), Segovia (16.50 DID), East Valladolid (16.36 DID), The Bierzo (16 DID) and the lowest consumer, West Valladolid (13.46 DID). Different patterns of consumption were found in the study period, according to the variability of infectious diseases and demographic factors such as population age and population density. Significant area-dependent global consumption differences were observed in relation to acute respiratory infections and population-dependent factors. The differences were more marked when studying the geographical distribution of the consumption of the principal active ingredients.

Álvarez M; Pastor E; Eiros JM

2012-03-01

347

[Demographic influence on economic stability: the United States experience].  

Science.gov (United States)

Up to the 1930s the international migration rate into the U.S. was very high, while birth and mortality rates had little variation; migration was, therefore, the principal responsible for population growth rate. Migration cycles were induced by economic conditions, and had, in their turn, important effects on economic feedback. The growing of urban areas, i.e., accelerated demand for new homes and urban services in general, prolonged the economic expansion. After World War 2 a new period opened in the relation between demographic and economic cycles. At the end of the 1950s the U.S. experienced a considerable growth in the number of people between 15-29, due to corresponding birth rate increase, which initiated around 1940. This marked difference in the relative number of young adults, or manpower, resulted in an economic situation relatively unfavorable. For the future a decrease in the relative number of young adults is expected, reflecting the decrease in birth rate experienced around 1960. If the U.S. should experience a new "baby boom" in the next few decades, radical changes in the demographic composition of manpower will have to be expected. PMID:12261363

Easterlin, R A; Wachter, M; Wachter, S M

348

Islamic Credit Card: Are Demographic Factors a Good Indicator?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates on the relationship between demographic factors and the usage of Islamic credit card as well as Conventional credit card demonstrates their interdependencies. The debatable issues as been addressed by many authorities not only in terms of the numbers of credit card flooding the nation’s economy, but the amount of transactions that end up with payment default and the numbers of credit card fraud as been recorded which threatened the economy should be seriously focused. Nevertheless the advances and changing habits in purchasing activities significantly contributed the diffusion of credit card as becoming more important and relevant in maintaining the purchasing activities. The study was conducted involving 305 respondents as a sample of study. While 26 items were used for addressing the research questions. Section A of the questionnaire seeks for information concerning the demographic profile of the respondents whilst section B and C that used Likert scale aimed to investigate information related to income and usage of credit card. The results of the study offer certain important managerial implications for the policy makers, finance institutions and the authorities bodies that take controls the credit card activities.

Norudin Mansor; Azman Che Mat

2009-01-01

349

Geographical distribution and demographic characteristics of gestational trophoblastic disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To outline the geographical distribution pattern of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in a referral center in Bahia, Brazil, and determine the demographics of the disease. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a study of data retrieved from medical records of 140 GTD patients referred to our Trophoblastic Diseases Center in 2002-2007, assessing geographical distribution across health care districts, demographics, referral sources, and previous pregnancy status. RESULTS: The most common GTD types were hydatidiform mole (106, 75.7%), invasive mole (32, 22.9%), choriocarcinoma (1, 0.7%), and placental site trophoblastic tumor (1, 0.7%). GTD incidence was 8.5 in 1,000 deliveries. Most patients originated from the coastal region (East district), which includes the state capital (77.9%). The 20-34 age group predominated (65%). Education level (67.9% attended elementary school only) and employment rate (42.9%) were low. Secondary hospitals were the principal source of referral (84.3%), followed by self-referrals (15.7%). Regarding previous pregnancy status, 42.1% (n = 59) had had term pregnancy, 39.3% (n = 55) no pregnancy, 15% (n = 21) miscarriage, and 0.7% (n = 1) ectopic pregnancy; 4 patients (2.9%) had previous hydatidiform mole. CONCLUSION: GTD predominated in the peak fertility age group and among patients of unfavorable sociodemographic status.

Soares PD; Maestá I; Costa OL; Charry RC; Dias A; Rudge MV

2010-07-01

350

Demographic increase in the context of divorce and extramarital partnership  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basic goal of this paper is to point to the scope and significance of the share of divorce and extramarital partnership in the issues related to demographic increase. The paper consists of three parts. The first part discusses the relevant demographic data which - through the increase of the divorce rates and the rates of children born extramaritally, as well as through the specification of general indicators within these categories of population (age, marriage length, education, job) - indirectly point to the reduction and impoverishment of the reproductive potentials in this subpopulation. The second part of the paper presents contemporary theoretical-research argumentation which tends to explain the dynamics of the functioning of the pattern of family and heterosexual partnership (postulates of evolution psychology, psychology of sex roles, psychology of reproductive behaviour and sociology of family). The third part presents the concluding remarks and the standpoints of the author herself about the need to construct a new thinking area and discourse which would follow the created changes and processes, as well as to preserve in them the idea of longstanding co-operative relations in which man and woman, in new life conditions and realities, contribute to the benefit of the descendents.

Polovina Nada

2006-01-01

351

Demographic and Clinical Outcomes of the Patients with Shoulder Pain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Localized shoulder pain is one of the most important pathologies of musculoskeletal system. A prevalence study has revealed that it is the third most common pathology among the locomotor system diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the statistical results of the demographic and clinical information regarding patients, who applied to our clinic with shoulder pain. Methods: Information of 68 patients with shoulder pain, who were registered in the first 6 months of 2011 to our Physical medicine and rehabilitation Clinique were examined. Patients' demographic data and information regarding their complaints were obtained (e.g. duration, diagnosis, treatment, and so on.) and statistical analyses were performed on these findings. Results: Totally findings of 42 patients were obtained. The majority of patients were female, who were housewives. A large proportion of complaints were chronic with multiple diagnoses. Almost all patients received combined treatments. Conclusion: Even though our findings are in accordance with the literature, the low sampling size was a significant limitation. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000): 170-173

Bayram Kelle; Selen Inan

2013-01-01

352

Profile: the Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Karonga HDSS) in northern Malawi currently has a population of more than 35?000 individuals under continuous demographic surveillance since completion of a baseline census (2002-2004). The surveillance system collects data on vital events and migration for individuals and for households. It also provides data on cause-specific mortality obtained by verbal autopsy for all age groups, and estimates rates of disease for specific presentations via linkage to clinical facility data. The Karonga HDSS provides a structure for surveys of socio-economic status, HIV sero-prevalence and incidence, sexual behaviour, fertility intentions and a sampling frame for other studies, as well as evaluating the impact of interventions, such as antiretroviral therapy and vaccination programmes. Uniquely, it relies on a network of village informants to report vital events and household moves, and furthermore is linked to an archive of biological samples and data from population surveys and other studies dating back three decades.

Crampin AC; Dube A; Mboma S; Price A; Chihana M; Jahn A; Baschieri A; Molesworth A; Mwaiyeghele E; Branson K; Floyd S; McGrath N; Fine PE; French N; Glynn JR; Zaba B

2012-06-01

353

Profile of the Navrongo Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Located in the Kassena-Nankana districts of northern Ghana, the Navrongo health and demographic surveillance system (NHDSS) was established in 1992 by the Navrongo health research centre (NHRC). The NHRC is one of three research centres of the Ghana health service. The activities and potential of the NHDSS for collaborative research are described. The NHDSS monitors health and demographic dynamics of the two Kassena-Nankana districts of northern Ghana and facilitates evaluation of the morbidity and mortality impact of health and social interventions. The total population currently under surveillance is 152 000 residing in 32 000 households. Events monitored routinely include pregnancies, births, morbidity, deaths, migration, marriages and vaccination coverage. Data updates are done every 4 months by trained fieldworkers. The NHRC also undertakes biomedical and socio-economic studies. Additional features of the NHDSS include the community key informant system where trained volunteers routinely report key events, such as births and deaths as they occur in their locality and the verbal autopsy (VA) system for determining the probable causes of deaths that occur at the community level. Data from the NHDSS are shared with funders and collaborators and partners in the INDEPTH Network. The Director of the NHDSS is the contact person for potential collaboration with the NHDSS and the use of its data.

Oduro AR; Wak G; Azongo D; Debpuur C; Wontuo P; Kondayire F; Welaga P; Bawah A; Nazzar A; Williams J; Hodgson A; Binka F

2012-08-01

354

Russian Federation: From the first to second demographic transition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demographic transition in Russia was accelerated by several social cataclysms during the "Soviet type" modernization. Frequent changes in the timing of births and marriages engendered a mass "abortion culture". Contraceptive devices of poor quality were produced on a limited scale. The Soviet regime promulgated pronatalism and considered contraception to contradict this ideology. There have been two waves of government policy interventions. In the 1930s and 1940s restrictive and propaganda measures prevailed. These failed to yield serious effects. In the 1980s, policies aimed at lessening the tension between full-time employment and maternal roles. These generated shifts in birth timing, namely shorter birth intervals and earlier second and third births, however increase in completed cohort fertility was minimal. A third wave started in 2007. Preoccupied with continuous depopulation, authorities intend to boost births by substantially increasing benefits. The mid-1990s was a turning point in the change of fertility and nuptiality models. The 1970s birth cohorts marry and become parents later. They delay first and second births and increasingly begin partnerships with cohabitation. Contraception is replacing abortion. New attitudes and perceptions about family, partnership, childbearing, and family planning are emerging. A major transformation typical for developed countries, the Second Demographic Transition, is underway. Nevertheless, many neo-traditional features of fertility and nuptiality remain. These distinguish Russia from most European countries and will persist in the near future. Completed fertility, however, hardly differs from the average European level.

Sergei Zakharov

2008-01-01

355

Demographic and Economic Dependency Ratios – Present and Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present research article, we outline the distinction between the demographic dependency ratio and the economic dependency ratio and present its evolution in Romania within the European Union, but not restrictive to the EU27. The evolution of demographic dependency ratio changed dramatically in Romania in the last 15 years comparing to the UE27. On the other hand, the evolution of economic dependency ratios is much more relevant because it also reflects the problems the economy is facing and should be brought to the fore in the political debates and to decision makers. In the paper we present the factors that are leading to the increase of the economic dependency ratio and we conclude with the solutions which a state has to adopt in order to prevent excessive public debt and structural gaps due to long term rise in economic dependency ratio. Moreover, policy-makers must face up the painful inter-temporal transfer choices that have to be done. Our concern about Eastern-European Countries is strengthened by the global results reached by OECD through Minilink Model Study, IMF Study of G7 and QUEST II Model that suggest the fall of the living standards over the next 50 years due to economic dependency ratio. For Romania we considered two main solution to this problem: increasing birth rate (long term solution) and lowering the unemployment rate through investment and a high rate of EU funds absorption (medium term solution).

Mihail Titu; Ilie Banu; Ioana-Madalina Banu

2012-01-01

356

The association between interleukin-6, sleep, and demographic characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the relationship between the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and sleep architecture in 70 healthy men and women. Blood was drawn in the early morning for assessment of IL-6 followed by nocturnal sleep monitoring with polysomnography. Sleep records were scored for sleep stages using standard criteria. Morning IL-6 levels were positively correlated with REM latency after sleep onset [rho = .31, p = .01], percent (%) stage 1 sleep [rho = .23, p = .053], % wake after sleep onset (WASO) [rho = .29, p<.05]. IL-6 levels were negatively correlated with sleep efficiency [rho = -.36, p<.01] and slow wave sleep (SWS) [rho = -.26, p<.05]. After controlling for demographic variables including race, gender, age, and BMI, multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that morning IL-6 levels accounted for a significant portion of the variance of REM latency (p<.01), sleep efficiency (p<.01), and % WASO (p = .01). IL-6 was no longer associated with % stage 1 sleep, SWS, and total sleep time after controlling for the demographic characteristics. These findings suggest that the inflammatory marker IL-6 is associated with sleep quality and that certain individual characteristics such as race, gender, and age modify that relationship. Higher IL-6 levels were associated with lower quality of sleep among healthy asymptomatic men and women.

Hong S; Mills PJ; Loredo JS; Adler KA; Dimsdale JE

2005-03-01

357

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERS OF PATIENTS WITH TUBERCOLOSIS: ISFAHAN 1998-1999  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculosis is a wide spread disease in the world. It is a health problem in every where. The prevalence of tuberculosis have been increased since several years ago due to some factors such as AIDS. For management of this problem, we need to data about our identified patients. Then we can have a solution for disease control. We demonstrate the patients demographic characters in our province. Methods. All of 164 identified patients under treatment for tuberculosis in Isfahan province were studied (1998-1999). Demographic data such as age, sex, nationality and gender and some characters about their discase was collected. HIV screening was done for all patients by ELISA method and documented in suspicious patients by western blot test. Results. Male to female ratio was 21:20. About 70 percent of patients had primary lung tuberculosis. Skeletal TB was the most common type of extrapulmonary invasion. Seventy four patients were Afghanian and 90 patients were Iranian. Only one patient (a 14 years old boy) was positive for HIV infection. He was a hemophilic patient with history of infected blood transfusion. Discussion. Compared to developed and far east countries, in our country, HIV infection is not a frequent infection in tuberculosis patients. This study shows that migration from Afghanestan to Iran is a very important affecting factor in tuberculosis epidemiology in our region.

H SALEHI; M POOR AHMAD

2001-01-01

358

The Role of Personality and Demographic Traits in Spouse Abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of personality traits of female victims with different types of violence, and to determine the role of demographic characteristics (compared to personality traits) in the prediction of violence against women. Method: The present descriptive correlational study was carried out on married women presenting to District Health Centers in the year of 1387. Based on socio-economic status, city districts were divided into low (40 centers), medium (30 centers), and high (15 centers). Thereafter, based on the size and extension of each level, a number of centers were randomly chosen from each district, and finally 396 individuals, who were selected through convenience sampling, completed the Five Factor Inventory and Spouse Abuse Questionnaire. Data analysis was done via SPSS-16 and using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression. Results: Neuroticism, conscientiousness, and extraversion predicted psychological and physical, sexual, and physical violence respectively (p<0.05). Male addiction, male and female age, male education, duration of marriage and not having a child also played roles in the prediction of different types of aggression (p<0.05). Conclusion: Even though personality traits have dominant roles in the prediction of all three types of violence, demographic factors and physical and mental illnesses were also shown to have significant predictive roles in this regard.

Leili Panaghi; Dara Pirouzi; Minoo Shirinbayan; Zohre Ahmadabadi

2011-01-01

359

Sessile serrated adenomas: Demographic, endoscopic and pathological characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To study the demographic and endoscopic characteristics of patients with sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) in a single center.METHODS: Patients with SSA were identified by review of the pathology database of Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2005 to 2007. A retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on demographics, polyp characteristics, presence of synchronous adenomatous polyps or cancer, polypectomy methods, and related complications.RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-one (2.9%) of all patients undergoing colonoscopy had a total of 226 SSAs. The mean (SE) size of the SSAs was 8.1 (0.4) mm; 42% of SSAs were ? 5 mm, and 69% were ? 9 mm. Fifty-one per cent of SSAs were located in the cecum or ascending colon. Approximately half of the patients had synchronous polyps of other histological types, including hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps. Synchronous adenocarcinoma was present in seven (4%) cases. Ninety-seven percent of polyps were removed by colonoscopy.CONCLUSION: Among patients with colon polyps, 2.9% were found to have SSAs. Most of the SSAs were located in the right side and were safely managed by colonoscopy.

Suryakanth R Gurudu, Russell I Heigh, Giovanni De Petris, Evelyn G Heigh, Jonathan A Leighton, Shabana F Pasha, Isaac B Malagon, Ananya Das

2010-01-01

360

Defining management rules for grasslands using weed demographic characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study objective was to use demographic information to adjust forage production practices to control the invasive weeds golden chervil and yellow-rattle without herbicides by defining the population dynamics traits that are directly involved in weed responses to farming practices. The principal population traits are capacity for dominance, sensitivity and accessibility of targeted developmental stages, and variation in weed population reactions from year to year. On the basis of demographic surveys of these two weed species when subjected experimentally to various cutting regimes (by date and number), we used matrix simulation models to describe each weed in terms of these traits and to construct species-specific management strategies. Management strategies for golden chervil need to prevent new recruitment by focusing on limiting or eliminating seed production and seedling survival because adult mortality is insensitive to cutting. Grazing to a low residual height is proposed in spring, when seedling emergence is maximal, or when adults reach their apex height to prevent the development of reproductive stems. Cutting before flowering may also efficiently limit seed production. The annual life cycle of yellow-rattle allows more flexibility in its management, even when density fluctuates and is unpredictable. If cutting is scheduled to coincide with peak juvenile height, this can drastically reduce population density the next year, and the population can be eradicated within 3 yr.

Magda D; Duru M; Theau JP

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Contrasting demographic histories of the neighboring bonobo and chimpanzee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Pleistocene epoch was a period of dramatic climate change that had profound impacts on the population sizes of many animal species. How these species were shaped by past events is often unclear, hindering our understanding of the population dynamics resulting in present day populations. We analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes representing all four recognized chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo to infer the recent demographic history and used simulations to exclude a confounding effect of population structure. Our genus-wide Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed surprisingly dissimilar demographic histories of the chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo, despite their overlapping habitat requirements. Whereas the central and eastern chimpanzee subspecies were inferred to have expanded tenfold between around 50,000 and 80,000 years ago and today, the population size of the neighboring bonobo remained constant. The changes in population size are likely linked to changes in habitat area due to climate oscillations during the late Pleistocene. Furthermore, the timing of population expansion for the rainforest-adapted chimpanzee is concurrent with the expansion of the savanna-adapted human, which could suggest a common response to changed climate conditions around 50,000-80,000 years ago.

Hvilsom C; Carlsen F; Heller R; Jaffré N; Siegismund HR

2013-08-01

362

MCFC component development at ANL.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing advanced cathode and electrolyte components for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Working in support of the MCFC developers, the goal of this effort is to extend the life of the MCFC cell and to improve its performance.

Bloom, I.

1998-09-15

363

Elbow injuries at the London 2012 Summer Olympic Games: demographics and pictorial imaging review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Elbow injuries in Olympic sports and their imaging findings have not been described previously. The main objective of this article is to analyze the demographic data on imaging of elbow injuries at the London 2012 Summer Olympic Games and to review the spectrum of imaging findings. CONCLUSION: Elbow injuries were seen in a wide variety of sports. Judo and weight-lifting contributed nearly half of all injuries, with only a surprisingly small number of injuries seen in throwing athletes. Knowledge of elbow anatomy coupled with awareness of types of elbow injuries and their prevalence in various sports will contribute toward improving diagnostic accuracy, handling of workload, and overall provision of services at similar major international sporting events in the future.

Bethapudi S; Robinson P; Engebretsen L; Budgett R; Vanhegan IS; O'Connor P

2013-09-01

364

Demographic Properties of the First 200 Radiotherapy Patients in the Southeast Anatolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cancer rates are increasing globally in the 21st century and this situation is more pronounced in developing countries. One of the main treatment modality of cancer is radiotherapy and underdeveloped countries are especially problematic in terms of radiotherapy facilities. Radiotherapy has a long-standing history in Turkey but there are inadequacies because of the developmental inequalities between regions in the country. We wanted to evaluate the patient profile of our radiotherapy center as it is the only center in Southeast Anatolia. Clinical and demographic properties of the patients has been investigated and interpreted with comparing the data with literature. Lung cancer in males and breast cancer in females constitude the largest group of patients but urological malignancies were seldom. In conclusion less than expected cancer patients are admitted to our center and general pattern of care in cancer patients must be improved in Southeast part of our country.

Bilgehan Karaday?; S. Burhanedtin Zincircio?lu; Ahmet Dirier

2006-01-01

365

[Geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic differences in quality of data on cause of death in Brazilian elders].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic differences in the quality of data on underlying causes of death in the Brazilian elderly population. We used three quality indicators: the proportion of ill-defined causes, the proportion of unspecified causes, and the two proportions combined. We analyzed the main ill-defined and unspecified causes and the association between these indicators and individual characteristics on death certificates (DC) and characteristics of the municipalities. Unspecified causes exceed ill-defined causes, and both increase with age. Schooling, race, size of municipality, and per capita GDP were associated with quality of data (especially with ill-defined as compared to unspecified causes). Having received medical care decreased the odds of cause of death being recorded as ill-defined and increased the odds of unspecified records. Programs to improve quality of information on death certificates should focus on ill-defined and unspecified causes in the elderly. PMID:21808817

Kanso, Solange; Romero, Dalia Elena; Leite, Iúri da Costa; Moraes, Edgar Nunes de

2011-07-01

366

Multispectral principal component imaging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyze a novel multispectral imager that directly measures the principal component features of an object. Optical feature extraction is studied for color face images, multi-spectral LANDSAT-7 images, and their grayscale equivalents. Blockwise feature extraction is performed that exploits both spatial and spectral correlation, with the goal of enhancing feature fidelity (i.e., root mean square error). The effect of varying block size, number of features, and detector noise is studied in order to quantify feature fidelity and optimize reconstruction performance. These results are compared with conventional imaging and demonstrate the advantages of the multiplexed approach. Specifically, we find that in addition to reducing the number of detectors within the imager, the reconstruction fidelity (i.e., root mean square error) can be significantly improved using a feature-specific imager.

Pal H; Neifeld M

2003-09-01

367

An Analysis of Competencies and Moderating Influence of Demographic Profiles – Evidence From Exporting Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing numbers of organizations involved in exporting intensifies the competition level. Therefore, to manage the competition effectively, organizations need the necessary competencies. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between competencies and export performance. The competencies tested are in the area of personal traits, management, production and marketing. The results showed that except for personal traits, all the competencies have an influence on export performance. Demographic characteristics (key decision makers’ demographics and organizational demographics) are also tested to identify whether they have moderating effects on the relationship between competencies and export performance. These include key decision makers’ demographics (age, education, overseas exposure and employment experience) and organizational demographics (age, size of organization and export experience). The result showed age and education (key decision maker’s demographics) have an effect in the relationship between competencies and export performance. However, all the organizational demographics tested have a moderating effect.

Jayanty Kuppusamy; R.N. Anantharaman

2008-01-01

368

Variation in school health policies and programs by demographic characteristics of US schools, 2006.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS 2006. METHODS: SHPPS 2006 assessed the status of 8 components of the coordinated school health model using a nationally representative sample of public, Catholic, and private schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Data were collected from school faculty and staff using computer-assisted personal interviews and then linked with extant data on school characteristics. RESULTS: Results from a series of regression analyses indicated that a number of school policies and programs varied by school type (public, Catholic, or private), urbanicity, school size, discretionary dollars per pupil, percentage of white students, percentage of students qualifying for free lunch funds, and, among high schools, percentage of college-bound students. Catholic and private schools, smaller schools, and those with low discretionary dollars per pupil did not have as many key school health policies and programs as did schools that were public, larger, and had higher discretionary dollars per pupil. However, no single type of school had all key components of a coordinated school health program in place. CONCLUSIONS: Although some categories of schools had fewer policies and programs in place, all had both strengths and weaknesses. Regardless of school characteristics, all schools have the potential to implement a quality school health program.

Balaji AB; Brener ND; McManus T

2010-12-01

369

Component of Erytype S  

Science.gov (United States)

... Component of Erytype S. Proper Name: Blood Grouping Reagent Tradename: Component of Erytype S Manufacturer: Biotest ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

370

Demographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors in sixteen Michigan parks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Building Healthy Communities (BHC) initiative addresses inadequate physical activity in Michigan using a population-based approach to prevent chronic disease. Eighteen local health departments through 2010 received $1,505,179 to plan and implement community-based interventions to increase physical activity among low-income and minority populations. This paper examines park user demographics, compares park user demographics to the demographic characteristics and examines physical activity behaviors of park users in these parks. BHC Park usage was examined from 2008 to 2010 using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). One sample binomial tests were used to examine if the proportion of male and female park users was different than the proportion of males and females in Michigan and to examine if the proportion of white and other park users was different than the proportion of whites and others in Michigan. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to examine whether the observed proportions for age groups observed using the park differed from the actual proportions for age groups in Michigan. The majority of BHC park users were white. More children were observed than other age groups. Park users were most often observed engaging in walking or vigorous activity rather than sedentary activities. When comparing the proportion of whites (54.7%) and others (42.8%) observed using the parks to the proportion of whites (79%) and others (21%) residing in Michigan, there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) with a greater proportion of whites and smaller proportion of persons of other ethnicities expected to be observed using the parks. This chi square goodness of fit test showed a significant difference in the observed and expected number of persons observed using the trail in each age group (?(2) = 4,897.707, df = 3, P < 0.001) with a greater number of children (n = 1,939) and teens (n = 1,116) observed than the number of children (n = 828) and teens (n = 305) expected based on 2010 Michigan census data. A greater proportion of non-whites (compared to whites) were observed using the park than would be expected. In Michigan, 60% of blacks, 37% of Hispanics, and 53% of other minority groups do not meet national physical activity recommendations. Perhaps developing additional parks in Michigan can increase physical activity behaviors among minorities. PMID:21922166

Reed, Julian A; Price, Anna E; Grost, Lisa; Mantinan, Karah

2012-04-01

371

Demographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors in sixteen Michigan parks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Building Healthy Communities (BHC) initiative addresses inadequate physical activity in Michigan using a population-based approach to prevent chronic disease. Eighteen local health departments through 2010 received $1,505,179 to plan and implement community-based interventions to increase physical activity among low-income and minority populations. This paper examines park user demographics, compares park user demographics to the demographic characteristics and examines physical activity behaviors of park users in these parks. BHC Park usage was examined from 2008 to 2010 using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). One sample binomial tests were used to examine if the proportion of male and female park users was different than the proportion of males and females in Michigan and to examine if the proportion of white and other park users was different than the proportion of whites and others in Michigan. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to examine whether the observed proportions for age groups observed using the park differed from the actual proportions for age groups in Michigan. The majority of BHC park users were white. More children were observed than other age groups. Park users were most often observed engaging in walking or vigorous activity rather than sedentary activities. When comparing the proportion of whites (54.7%) and others (42.8%) observed using the parks to the proportion of whites (79%) and others (21%) residing in Michigan, there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) with a greater proportion of whites and smaller proportion of persons of other ethnicities expected to be observed using the parks. This chi square goodness of fit test showed a significant difference in the observed and expected number of persons observed using the trail in each age group (?(2) = 4,897.707, df = 3, P < 0.001) with a greater number of children (n = 1,939) and teens (n = 1,116) observed than the number of children (n = 828) and teens (n = 305) expected based on 2010 Michigan census data. A greater proportion of non-whites (compared to whites) were observed using the park than would be expected. In Michigan, 60% of blacks, 37% of Hispanics, and 53% of other minority groups do not meet national physical activity recommendations. Perhaps developing additional parks in Michigan can increase physical activity behaviors among minorities.

Reed JA; Price AE; Grost L; Mantinan K

2012-04-01

372

Demographic and Work-Related Correlates of Job Burnout in Professional Eating Disorder Treatment Providers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with eating disorders present unique challenges to treatment providers that may contribute to job burnout. This study examined demographic and work-related correlates of three primary components of burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lack of personal accomplishment) in a sample of 296 professional eating disorder treatment providers. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS; Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996), demographics, and a questionnaire developed by the authors measuring eating disorder-specific factors theorized to be relevant to burnout. Overall, participants reported comparable levels of emotional exhaustion but significantly less cynicism and lack of personal accomplishment relative to established norms for mental health care providers on the MBI-HSS. Analyses of variance and backward regression analyses suggested that higher levels of burnout were associated with being younger, female, and overweight; working longer hours; having less experience; and experiencing a patient's death. Conversely, working in a private practice setting, having children, and having a personal history of an eating disorder were associated with lower burnout levels. Furthermore, over 45% of participants reported that treatment resistance, ego-syntonicity, high relapse rates, worry about patient survival, emotional drain, lack of appropriate financial reimbursement, and extra hours spent working contributed to feelings burned out somewhat to very much. Overall, these data suggest that emotional exhaustion is the most common aspect of burnout experienced by eating disorder treatment providers and highlight some of the key correlates of burnout for this population, which can be used to inform prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Warren CS; Schafer KJ; Crowley ME; Olivardia R

2013-06-01

373

The Hanford Site New Production Reactor (NPR) economic and demographic baseline forecasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this is to present baseline employment and population forecasts for Benton, Franklin, and Yakima Counties. These forecasts will be used in the socioeconomic analysis portion of the New Production Reactor Environmental Impact Statement. Aggregate population figures for the three counties in the study area were developed for high- and low-growth scenarios for the study period 1990 through 2040. Age-sex distributions for the three counties during the study period are also presented. The high and low scenarios were developed using high and low employment projections for the Hanford site. Hanford site employment figures were used as input for the HARC-REMI Economic and Demographic (HED) model to produced baseline employment forecasts for the three counties. These results, in turn, provided input to an integrated three-county demographic model. This model, a fairly standard cohort-component model, formalizes the relationship between employment and migration by using migration to equilibrate differences in labor supply and demand. In the resulting population estimates, age-sex distributions for 1981 show the relatively large work force age groups in Benton County while Yakima County reflects higher proportions of the population in the retirement ages. The 2040 forecasts for all three counties reflect the age effects of relatively constant and low fertility increased longevity, as well as the cumulative effects of the migration assumptions in the model. By 2040 the baby boom population will be 75 years and older, contributing to the higher proportion of population in the upper end age group. The low scenario age composition effects are similar. 13 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Cluett, C.; Clark, D.C. (Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Pittenger, D.B. (Demographics Lab., Olympia, WA (USA))

1990-08-01

374

Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition.

Kehoe SH; Krishnaveni GV; Veena SR; Guntupalli AM; Margetts BM; Fall CH; Robinson SM

2013-07-01

375