WorldWideScience

Sample records for improving demographic components

  1. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  2. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exacerbate symptoms. Symptoms Causes Related Conditions Measuring Tinnitus Impact of Tinnitus Demographics Subscribe to Tinnitus Today Tinnitus ... The Facts Symptoms Causes Related Conditions Measuring Tinnitus Impact of Tinnitus Demographics Managing Your Tinnitus Patient Roadmap ...

  3. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prone to experiencing burdensome tinnitus. While these behavioral health issues do not cause tinnitus, per se, they do exacerbate symptoms. Symptoms Causes Related Conditions Measuring Tinnitus Impact of Tinnitus Demographics Subscribe to Tinnitus ...

  4. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with severe, sometimes debilitating, tinnitus. Demographic Trends with Tinnitus Tinnitus is primarily caused by environmental and behavioral ... in the American Journal of Medicine. Males get tinnitus more often than females This disparity may be ...

  5. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your tinnitus and improve your quality of life. Learn More Over 45 million Americans struggle with tinnitus, ... delivered to your home, three times a year. Learn More Sign up for our mailing list Patient ...

  6. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the burden of your tinnitus and improve your quality of life. Learn ... the U.S. Centers for Disease Control conducts its National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey , ...

  7. Demographic and socioeconomic disparity in nutrition: application of a novel Correlated Component Regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Vernier, Céderic; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the most important demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with diet quality, evaluated in terms of compliance with national dietary recommendations, selection of healthy and unhealthy food choices, energy density and food variety. We hypothesised that different demographic and socioeconomic factors may show disparate associations with diet quality. Study design A nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based study. Participants A total of 1352 apparently healthy and non-institutionalised subjects, aged 18–69?years, participated in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study in 2007–2008. The participants attended the nearest study centre after a telephone appointment, and were interviewed by trained research staff. Outcome measures Diet quality as measured by 5 dietary indicators, namely, recommendation compliance index (RCI), recommended foods score (RFS), non-recommended foods score (non-RFS), energy density score (EDS), and dietary diversity score (DDS). The novel Correlated Component Regression (CCR) technique was used to determine the importance and magnitude of the association of each socioeconomic factor with diet quality, in a global analytic approach. Results Increasing age, being male and living below the poverty threshold were predominant factors associated with eating a high energy density diet. Education level was an important factor associated with healthy and adequate food choices, whereas economic resources were predominant factors associated with food diversity and energy density. Conclusions Multiple demographic and socioeconomic circumstances were associated with different diet quality indicators. Efforts to improve diet quality for high-risk groups need an important public health focus. PMID:25967988

  8. The Demographic Component in the Development of a Metropolis. Case-Study: Ia?i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several peculiarities make Ia?i an outstanding city: it is a first-rank city in the national settlement system and the capital of the historical province of Moldova, numbers over 300,000 inhabitants and holds the 2nd position in the national urban hierarchy by demographic size, and a national growth pole since 2008 (Government Decision 998/2008. In view of the above, Ia?i has a significant demographic potential, also discharging complex functions and polarizing a large influence area, being one of the pillars of urban development in Romania. The aim of this paper is to outline the urban development strategy in the light of demographic structures and evolution. The demography today in the peri-urban space shows two characteristic features, namely the urban–rural migration, on the one hand, and the dominant agricultural functionality, on the other hand, as mirrored by the structure of employment. The development–related factors are the positive natural demographic balance, low level of population ageing and supply of a large workforce, a potential well-balanced local labour market. Concluding, the provision of Ia?i integrated urban and peri-urban strategy are pointed out.

  9. SOCIAL/DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND VITAL EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CLINICAL IMPROVEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERBESI FERNANDEZ, Dedsy Yajaira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: depression is the most frequent disabling mental disorder: the present study strives to analyze the social/demographic factors and vital events associated to depression in patients in 14 hospitals in the State of Antioquia. Methods: a study of cases and controls in a population of 204 patients in hospitals of first level of attention was designed. The sample was selected by convenience. The patients diagnosed with depression were evaluated within three months of having started treatment and were classified: no improvement (case and with clinical improvement (control. Results: there was an association found between no improvement of the depressive symptoms after three months of starting anti-depressive treatment and the social/ demographic background, financial problems and vital events. Conclusion: the main factors associated with depression that were found are: not having an affiliation regime to the social security and health system; financial problems, death of a son/daughter and psychological and physical domestic violence, which point to the need to explore these variables.

  10. Laser Peening For Improving Metallic Components

    OpenAIRE

    Grum, Janez; Trdan, Uros; Ocaña Moreno, Jose Luis; Porro González, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Suitable variation of residual stress profiles, fatigue strength and frequently also corrosion resistance of a material, are key requirements to be fulfilled for usability and long life of a vital machine component. Laser Peening (LP) is an innovative surface treatment which was initially developed for the aeronautic industry as the method for the improvement of the fatigue cracking resistance of the turbine spades of an aircraft, such as Falcon F-16 and Rockwell F-22. LP is based on plasm...

  11. Impact of the demographic component on the market of educational services of Astrakhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romantsova Elena Victorovna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present development stage of higher education system is characterized by keen interest in it, but thus demand from year to year falls in connection with an adverse demographic situation. The number of graduates of schools in the city of Astrakhan for the last five years was cut off by half; the system of the unified state examination led to increase of mobility of graduates and their outflow to the capital region, and higher educational institutions, having lost demand for paid edu-cational service as the main source of the income, are compelled to fill up the budget at the expense of the income bringing activity.

  12. Improved component mode synthesis and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsovasilis, Panagiotis, E-mail: PKoutsovasilis@borgwarner.com [BorgWarner Turbo Systems Engineering GmbH, Structural Mechanics/Calculations and Simulations/Turbo Systems (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    This survey focuses on the two known model order reduction schemes being widely integrated in various commercial finite element packages, namely, the static and dynamic condensation methods. The advantages as well as the corresponding drawbacks have been extensively analyzed in several papers throughout the last decades. Based on combining the beneficial properties of the aforementioned methods, several alternative reduction methodologies are outlined in this paper, i.e., the generalized improved reduction system method, the generalized component mode synthesis and the improved component mode synthesis with its generalized version, which incorporate in a more efficient way the system's inertia terms. Therefore, the associated error regarding higher frequency ranges of interest is better controlled. Basis of these methodologies is the so-called master and slave degrees of freedom partitioning, the right selection of which highly influences the reduced order model's dynamics. The methods are tested and verified on a rather small three-dimensional bar structure and on the lever part of a turbocharger's variable turbine geometry. Several reduced order models are generated by varying both the number of Craig-Bampton modes and the selection of the required master degrees of freedom. A comparison is conducted based on the modal criterion of the corresponding eigenvectors and the associated computation time required.

  13. Improved component mode synthesis and variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey focuses on the two known model order reduction schemes being widely integrated in various commercial finite element packages, namely, the static and dynamic condensation methods. The advantages as well as the corresponding drawbacks have been extensively analyzed in several papers throughout the last decades. Based on combining the beneficial properties of the aforementioned methods, several alternative reduction methodologies are outlined in this paper, i.e., the generalized improved reduction system method, the generalized component mode synthesis and the improved component mode synthesis with its generalized version, which incorporate in a more efficient way the system’s inertia terms. Therefore, the associated error regarding higher frequency ranges of interest is better controlled. Basis of these methodologies is the so-called master and slave degrees of freedom partitioning, the right selection of which highly influences the reduced order model’s dynamics. The methods are tested and verified on a rather small three-dimensional bar structure and on the lever part of a turbocharger’s variable turbine geometry. Several reduced order models are generated by varying both the number of Craig–Bampton modes and the selection of the required master degrees of freedom. A comparison is conducted based on the modal criterion of the corresponding eigenvectors and the associated computation time required.

  14. The Effectiveness of Institutional Intervention on Minimizing Demographic Inertia and Improving the Representation of Women Faculty in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V. Bakian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Women remain under-represented among full time tenured/tenure-track science and engineering faculty at research universities in the United States despite their increasing availability in the employment pool. In response, intervention strategies aimed at boosting their participation have been introduced at university and national levels. Efforts to improve women’s representation may be challenged by demographic inertia, the tendency for the maintenance of the entrenched population structure that favors men despite improvements in women’s vital parameters. Here, we investigate the effectiveness of the U.S. National Science Foundation’s ADVANCE institutional intervention program at curtailing demographic inertia at a research university dubbed ‘Snow State University’ (SSU. We found that demographic inertia’s impact on women’s representation was lessened during ADVANCE. Yet to achieve long-lasting improvements in women’s representation, universities will need to increase their recruitment of women at the associate and full professor ranks while maintaining promotion and retention probabilities favorable to women over the long-term.

  15. Pulsed lavage improves fixation strength of cemented tibial components

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegel, Ulf J.; Siewe, Jan; Delank, Karl S.; Eysel, Peer; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; de Uhlenbrock, Anne Gebert

    2010-01-01

    Pulsatile lavage is purported to improve radiographic survival in cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Similarly, a potential improvement of fixation strength of the tibial tray has been assumed based on the increased cement penetration. In this study, the influence of pulsed lavage on fixation strength of the tibial component and bone cement penetration was evaluated in six pairs of cadaveric specimens. Following surgical preparation, the tibial surface was irrigated using pulsatile lavag...

  16. IMHEX fuel cell repeat component manufacturing continuous improvement accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakaitis, L.A.; Petraglia, V.J.; Bryson, E.S. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power is taking a power generation technology that has been proven in the laboratory and is making it a commercially competitive product. There are many areas in which this technology required scale up and refinement to reach the market entry goals for the IMHEX{reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. One of the primary areas that needed to be addressed was the manufacturing of the fuel cell stack. Up to this point, the fuel cell stack and associated components were virtually hand made for each system to be tested. M-C Power has now continuously manufactured the repeat components for three 250 kW stacks. M-C Power`s manufacturing strategy integrated both evolutionary and revolutionary improvements into its comprehensive commercialization effort. M-C Power`s objectives were to analyze and continuously improve stack component manufacturing and assembly techniques consistent with established specifications and commercial scale production requirements. Evolutionary improvements are those which naturally occur as the production rates are increased and experience is gained. Examples of evolutionary (learning curve) improvements included reducing scrap rates and decreasing raw material costs by buying in large quantities. Revolutionary improvements result in significant design and process changes to meet cost and performance requirements of the market entry system. Revolutionary changes often involve identifying new methods and developing designs to accommodate the new process. Based upon our accomplishments, M-C Power was able to reduce the cost of continuously manufactured fuel cell repeat components from the first to third 250 kW stack by 63%. This paper documents the continuous improvement accomplishments realized by M-C Power during IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell repeat component manufacturing.

  17. Improvement of ICP Component Analysis System Related to Iron Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Jin; Song, Nam Sook [Dongbu Advanced Research Council, (Korea); Kim, Jae Young; Choi, Sung Il [Samyang Industries Co., Seoul (Korea); Park, Chan Wook; Cha, Doo Hyun [Samsung Corning Co., (Korea)

    1998-09-30

    In order to establish the ICP composition analysis system of the companies which have been producing and using the domestic iron oxides, the Sectional Committee of Iron Oxides had organized an analysis working team, which carried out the component analysis of several samples and then discussed about their analysis results through 1 year. At the first meeting, the component analysis data of each company had been shown a large deviation. The more the team meeting repeated, the more its component deviation was reduced. At the third meeting, the deviation range of each company was reduced below {+-}20% and it means to be improved on an analysis level with Japanese steel companies. (author). 2 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Improvement in quantification of urine components: Alternate technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S

    2014-01-01

    Urea and creatinine are two important diagnostic components of urine. The study of creatinine in liquid phase is difficult due to its feeble concentration in urine. To bring down the detection limit, DCD Raman spectroscopy was employed. Raman studies in association with partial least square algorithm of artificial urine samples gave improved results in dried phase as compared to liquid phase. These findings were further validated on real urine samples.

  19. Could non-grade based selection improve medical student socio-demographic diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Students with lower socioeconomic backgrounds have been found to be underrepresented in medical education. There is little evidence as to whether the type of student admission strategy used could make a difference to diversity of medical students. The aim of this paper was to examine if selection strategy made a difference to the diversity of admitted medical students. Method: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The population was 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 at one medical school. Of these, 454 was admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected with a non-grade-based or ’non-cognitive’ admission program. The two admission groups were compared on seven social indices (doctor parent, ethnic origin, father’s education, mother’s education, parenthood, parents live together, parent on benefit). Result: Selection strategy made no difference to the social diversity of admitted medical students. The non-cognitive admission program studied was nota useful initiative for improving medical student diversity nor did it further disadvantaged educationally vulnerable population groups in these cohorts. Discussion: The social heritage and general intelligence of potential applicants from underrepresented groups may be far more influential on diversity in medical school than the choice of medical school selection strategy.

  20. Managerial improvement efforts after finding unreported cracks in reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002 TEPCO found that there were unreported cracks in reactor components, of which inspection records had been falsified. Stress Corrosion Cracking indications found in Core Shrouds and Primary Loop Re-circulation pipes at some plants were removed from the inspection records and not reported to the regulators. Top management of TEPCO took the responsibility and resigned, and recovery was started under the leadership of new management team. First of all, behavioral standards were reconstituted to strongly support safety-first value. Ethics education was introduced and corporate ethics committee was organized with participation of external experts. Independent assessment organization was established to enhance quality assurance. Information became more transparent through Non-conformance Control Program. As for the material management, prevention and mitigation programs for the Stress Corrosion Cracking of reactor components were re-established. In addition to the above immediate recovery actions, long term improvement initiatives have also been launched and driven by our aspiration to excellence in safe operation of nuclear power plants. Vision and core values were set to align the people. Organizational learning was enhanced by benchmark studies, better systematic use of operational experience, self-assessment and external assessment. Based on these foundation blocks and with strong sponsorship from the top management, work processes were analyzed and improved by P processes were analyzed and improved by Peer Groups. (author)

  1. Improved temperature regulation of APS linac RF components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature of the APS S-Band linac's high-power rf components is regulated by water from individual closed-loop deionized (DI) water systems. The rf components are all made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper and respond quickly to temperature changes. The SLED cavities are especially temperature-sensitive and cause beam energy instabilities when the temperature is not well regulated. Temperature regulation better than ± 0.1 F is required to achieve good energy stability. Improvements in the closed-loop water systems have enabled them to achieve a regulation of ± 0.05 F over long periods. Regulation philosophy and equipment are discussed and numerical results are presented

  2. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  3. A method for improving test rig performance using passive components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders T.; Abrahamsson, Thomas J. S.

    2015-02-01

    The time waveform replication (TWR) algorithm is presently used in industry for calculating the actuation force needed to replicate a certain reference sensor output in a test rig. Power and force rate limitations restrict the feasible range of that actuation force. If the input force distribution of the reference test cannot be replicated in the test rig, the required test rig input force magnitudes may be large or the replication properties poor due to lack of controllability. To circumvent this, a theory of passive components to improve replication and limit the input force demands of dynamic test rigs is developed. The theory fits within the framework of the TWR algorithm.

  4. The business of demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C

    1984-06-01

    The emergence of "demographics" in the past 15 years is a vital tool for American business research and planning. Tracing demographic trends became important for businesses when traditional consumer markets splintered with the enormous changes since the 1960s in US population growth, age structure, geographic distribution, income, education, living arrangements, and life-styles. The mass of reliable, small-area demographic data needed for market estimates and projections became available with the electronic census--public release of Census Bureau census and survey data on computer tape, beginning with the 1970 census. Census Bureau tapes as well as printed reports and microfiche are now widely accessible at low cost through summary tape processing centers designated by the bureau and its 12 regional offices and State Data Center Program. Data accessibility, plummeting computer costs, and businessess' unfamiliarity with demographics spawned the private data industry. By 1984, 70 private companies were offering demographic services to business clients--customized information repackaged from public data or drawn from proprietary data bases created from such data. Critics protest the for-profit use of public data by companies able to afford expensive mainframe computer technology. Business people defend their rights to public data as taxpaying ceitzens, but they must ensure that the data are indeed used for the public good. They must also question the quality of demographic data generated by private companies. Business' demographic expertise will improve when business schools offer training in demography, as few now do, though 40 of 88 graduate-level demographic programs now include business-oriented courses. Lower cost, easier access to business demographics is growing as more census data become available on microcomputer diskettes and through on-line linkages with large data bases--from private data companies and the Census Bureau itself. A directory of private and public demographic resources is appended, including forecasting, consulting and research services available. PMID:12313263

  5. Codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components to improve Jewett transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett Transform is not yet, it is being. First ideas on this metaphor are from 1980 while monitoring cerebral function. It was conceived in contrast with Fourier Transform. Its application is limited to Auditory Brain Stem Responses. It uses a non-orthogonal physiologically rooted basis. Non-orthogonal basis has limited power in front of orthogonal basis: no analytical method exists to evaluate the corresponding transforms and numerical methods are required. In previous works, numerical methods were replaced for by trained artificial neural networks. Jewett transform was applied to increase the training set. Being a physiologically inspired basis, it promises better understanding of analysis of these evoked responses. It is envisioned that diverse new transforms, tailored to different problem specificity are to emerge. Considering the short temporal influence of Jewett components, it is stated that codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components can be used to improve Jewett Transform. Previously used neural network was modified. Output vector codes are built up by grouping components instead of grouping parameters. This allows synaptic pruning in the artificial neural network. Only a fraction (0.49) of the previous network weights is used. Mean square error in fitting signal to model are acceptable (mean ?<0.3%, n= 600). Memorization is eliminated

  6. Improved Joining of Metal Components to Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Systems requirements for complex spacecraft drive design requirements that lead to structures, components, and/or enclosures of a multi-material and multifunctional design. The varying physical properties of aluminum, tungsten, Invar, or other high-grade aerospace metals when utilized in conjunction with lightweight composites multiply system level solutions. These multi-material designs are largely dependent upon effective joining techAn improved method of joining metal components to matrix/fiber composite material structures has been invented. The method is particularly applicable to equipping such thin-wall polymer-matrix composite (PMC) structures as tanks with flanges, ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liners for high heat engine nozzles, and other metallic-to-composite attachments. The method is oriented toward new architectures and distributing mechanical loads as widely as possible in the vicinities of attachment locations to prevent excessive concentrations of stresses that could give rise to delaminations, debonds, leaks, and other failures. The method in its most basic form can be summarized as follows: A metal component is to be joined to a designated attachment area on a composite-material structure. In preparation for joining, the metal component is fabricated to include multiple studs projecting from the aforementioned face. Also in preparation for joining, holes just wide enough to accept the studs are molded into, drilled, or otherwise formed in the corresponding locations in the designated attachment area of the uncured ("wet') composite structure. The metal component is brought together with the uncured composite structure so that the studs become firmly seated in the holes, thereby causing the composite material to become intertwined with the metal component in the joining area. Alternately, it is proposed to utilize other mechanical attachment schemes whereby the uncured composite and metallic parts are joined with "z-direction" fasteners. The resulting "wet" assembly is then subjected to the composite-curing heat treatment, becoming a unitary structure. It should be noted that this new art will require different techniques for CMC s versus PMC's, but the final architecture and companion curing philosophy is the same. For instance, a chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) fabrication technique may require special integration of the pre-form and

  7. A comparative method for improving the reliability of brittle components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculating the absolute reliability built in a product is often an extremely difficult task because of the complexity of the physical processes and physical mechanisms underlying the failure modes, the complex influence of the environment and the operational loads, the variability associated with reliability-critical design parameters and the non-robustness of the prediction models. Predicting the probability of failure of loaded components with complex shape for example is associated with uncertainty related to: the type of existing flaws initiating fracture, the size distributions of the flaws, the locations and the orientations of the flaws and the microstructure and its local properties. Capturing these types of uncertainty, necessary for a correct prediction of the reliability of components is a formidable task which does not need to be addressed if a comparative reliability method is employed, especially if the focus is on reliability improvement. The new comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws proposed here is based on an assumed failure criterion, an equation linking the probability that a flaw will be critical with the probability of failure associated with the component and a finite element solution for the distribution of the principal stresses in the loaded component. The probability that a flaw will be critical is determined directly, after a finite number of steps equal to the number of finite elements into which thhe number of finite elements into which the component is divided. An advantage of the proposed comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws is that it does not rely on a Monte Carlo simulation and does not depend on knowledge of the size distribution of the flaws and the material properties. This essentially eliminates uncertainty associated with the material properties and the population of flaws. On the basis of a theoretical analysis we also show that, contrary to the common belief, in general, for non-interacting flaws randomly located in a stressed volume, the distribution of the minimum failure stress is not necessarily described by a Weibull distribution. For the simple case of a single group of flaws all of which become critical beyond a particular threshold value for example, the Weibull distribution fails to predict correctly the probability of failure. If in a particular load range, no new critical flaws are created by increasing the applied stress, the Weibull distribution also fails to predict correctly the probability of failure of the component. In these cases however, the probability of failure is correctly predicted by the suggested alternative equation. The suggested equation is the correct mathematical formulation of the weakest-link concept related to random flaws in a stressed volume. The equation does not require any assumption concerning the physical nature of the flaws and the physical mechanism of failure and can be applied in any situation of locally initiated failure by non-interacting entities

  8. Improved methods of creep-fatigue life assessment of components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Alfred; Berger, Christina [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IfW), Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The improvement of life assessment methods contributes to a reduction of efforts at design and an effective long term operation of high temperature components, reduces technical risk and increases high economical advantages. Creep-fatigue at multi-stage loading, covering cold start, warm start and hot start cycles in typical loading sequences e.g. for medium loaded power plants, was investigated here. At hold times creep and stress relaxation, respectively, lead to an acceleration of crack initiation. Creep fatigue life time can be calculated by a modified damage accumulation rule, which considers the fatigue fraction rule for fatigue damage and the life fraction rule for creep damage. Mean stress effects, internal stress and interaction effects of creep and fatigue are considered. Along with the generation of advanced creep data, fatigue data and creep fatigue data as well scatter band analyses are necessary in order to generate design curves and lower bound properties inclusive. Besides, in order to improve lifing methods the enhancement of modelling activities for deformation and life time are important. For verification purposes, complex experiments at variable creep conditions as well as at creep fatigue interaction under multi-stage loading are of interest. Generally, the development of methods to transfer uniaxial material properties to multiaxial loading situations is a current challenge. For specific design purposes, a constitutive material model is introduced which is implemented as an user subroutine for Finite Element applications due to start-up and shut-down phases of components. Identification of material parameters have been performed by Neural Networks. (orig.)

  9. Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

  10. Improvement of retinal blood vessel detection using morphological component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Elaheh; Javidi, Malihe; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza

    2015-03-01

    Detection and quantitative measurement of variations in the retinal blood vessels can help diagnose several diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Intrinsic characteristics of abnormal retinal images make blood vessel detection difficult. The major problem with traditional vessel segmentation algorithms is producing false positive vessels in the presence of diabetic retinopathy lesions. To overcome this problem, a novel scheme for extracting retinal blood vessels based on morphological component analysis (MCA) algorithm is presented in this paper. MCA was developed based on sparse representation of signals. This algorithm assumes that each signal is a linear combination of several morphologically distinct components. In the proposed method, the MCA algorithm with appropriate transforms is adopted to separate vessels and lesions from each other. Afterwards, the Morlet Wavelet Transform is applied to enhance the retinal vessels. The final vessel map is obtained by adaptive thresholding. The performance of the proposed method is measured on the publicly available DRIVE and STARE datasets and compared with several state-of-the-art methods. An accuracy of 0.9523 and 0.9590 has been respectively achieved on the DRIVE and STARE datasets, which are not only greater than most methods, but are also superior to the second human observer's performance. The results show that the proposed method can achieve improved detection in abnormal retinal images and decrease false positive vessels in pathological regions compared to other methods. Also, the robustness of the method in the presence of noise is shown via experimental result. PMID:25697986

  11. Demographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic Research is a newly launched, peer-reviewed online journal of the population sciences published by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. The first article in Volume One (covering May 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999) has recently been posted: Cancer Rates over Age, Time, and Place: Insights from Stochastic Models of Heterogeneous Populations by James W. Vaupel and Anatoli I. Yashin. Articles are available in both HTML and .pdf formats. The Website provides detailed information about the journal's purpose, mission, submission guidelines, and review process.

  12. A components paint facility upgrade to improve production efficiency, quality and working conditions at UCW Company

    OpenAIRE

    Masombuka, Willy Sizo

    2011-01-01

    A design of an improved facilities plan for Components Paint Shop, with appropriate and efficient material flow and handling system. The facility should optimise production efficiency throughout Components Paint Shop.

  13. Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Williams

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. Objective: To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. Design: This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. Results and Conclusions: This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.

  14. Improved cure method for single component silicone rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitt, M. W.

    1969-01-01

    Water is incorporated in a carrier and then thoroughly mixed with the single component silicone rubber containing acetic anhydride as a curing agent. Because curing occurs with the water supplied internally, controlled curing is possible within a reasonable period of time, regardless of the thickness of the material.

  15. Will modeling demographic differences in xylem vulnerability and stomatal closure in tropical trees improve drought response predictions of tropical forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, T.; da Costa, A. C. L.; Meir, P.; Saleska, S. R.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is projected to cause significant shifts in precipitation patterns across the Amazon basin; yet, there remains considerable uncertainty about the resilience of its forests under increasing water stress. Simulations by four leading dynamic vegetation models—CLM3.5, ED2, IBIS and JULES—revealed limited ability to replicate both the 20% decline in aboveground biomass and compositional shifts observed in two long-term ecosystem-scale drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. These four models were not parameterized to mechanistically represent competitive differences in plant hydraulics that exist between demographic groups; which may in part explain why they performed poorly in the drought simulations. Therefore, we measured xylem vulnerability to cavitation and sensitivity of stomatal conductance to leaf water potential, as determined by turgor loss point (TLP), in order to parameterize a hydrodynamic pipe model for inclusion in the Ecosystem Demography (ED2) dynamic vegetation model. Measurements were made on four genera common to both experimental study sites. Each genus was placed a prior into one of four functional categories: drought tolerant versus intolerant and early versus late successional. We evaluated the hypothesis that these two traits would be significantly different between each of the plant functional groups and thus explain the observed differential mortality rates. P50 values for both xylem cavitation and stomatal closure (i.e. TLP) occurred at 0.5 to 1.0 MPa and 0.75 MPa, respectively, higher water potentials in the drought intolerant genera compared to the tolerant genera. In comparison, the early versus late successional genera showed no significant differences in xylem P50 and TLP. These hydraulic trait values were then used to parameterized a hydrodynamic pipe model that effectively tracked the flow of water through the trees of each functional group and showed differential water-use between the drought tolerant and intolerant groups. The ecological implications during droughts of these differences in hydraulic traits can be evaluated fully once implemented in ED2, which currently tracks competitive dynamics between trees belonging to different demographic groups, but lacks a mechanistic formulation of plant water-use.

  16. Improvement of BCI Performance Through Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Arjon Turnip; Dwi Esti Kusumandari

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings provide an important means of brain-computer communication, but their classification accuracy and transfer rate are limited by unexpected signal variations due to artifacts and noises. In this paper, a nonlinear independent component analysis (NICA) extraction method for brain signal based EEG-P300 are proposed. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through a comparison of well known extraction methods (i.e., AAR, JADE, and SOBI algorithm...

  17. Improved dependent component analysis for hyperspectral unmixing with spatial correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Wan, Jianwei; Huang, Bingchao; Lan, Tian

    2014-11-01

    In highly mixed hyerspectral datasets, dependent component analysis (DECA) has shown its superiority over other traditional geometric based algorithms. This paper proposes a new algorithm that incorporates DECA with the infinite hidden Markov random field (iHMRF) model, which can efficiently exploit spatial dependencies between image pixels and automatically determine the number of classes. Expectation Maximization algorithm is derived to infer the model parameters, including the endmembers, the abundances, the dirichlet distribution parameters of each class and the classification map. Experimental results based on synthetic and real hyperspectral data show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, J.; Ferl, J.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; DeAngelis, G.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.J.

    2002-05-08

    In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs.

  19. Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs

  20. Improvement of BCI Performance Through Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjon Turnip

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG recordings provide an important means of brain-computer communication, but their classification accuracy and transfer rate are limited by unexpected signal variations due to artifacts and noises. In this paper, a nonlinear independent component analysis (NICA extraction method for brain signal based EEG-P300 are proposed. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through a comparison of well known extraction methods (i.e., AAR, JADE, and SOBI algorithms. Finally, the promising results reported here reflect the considerable potential of EEG for the continuous classification of mental states.

  1. Improving tag/seal technologies: the vulnerability assessment component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, has sponsored the development of numerous tag and seal technologies for high-security/high-valued applications. One important component in this technology development effort has been the continuous integration of vulnerability assessments. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been the lead laboratory for vulnerability assessments of fiber-optic-based tag/seal technologies. This paper presents a brief historical overview and the current status of the DOE high-security tag/seal development program and discusses INEL`s adversarial role and assessment philosophy. Verification testing criteria used to define ``successful`` tampering attempts/attacks are discussed. Finally, the advantages of integrating a vulnerability assessment into the development of commercial security tag/seals are presented.

  2. Problem and improvement of accelerator components at SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SACLA is under user operation after the lasing at 0.06 nm in July 2011. The demanded rf temporal stabilities of an injector cavities should be within 50 - 100 fs and the trip rate of high-power rf sources should also be less than twice a hour for the stable practical user operation of SACLA, respectively. In the present, since the day and night user operation is already established by smidgen trimming by operators to the phases of the injector's cavities, we can say the demand previously mentioned is almost satisfied. However there are some problems after the end of the construction of SACLA, as follows. 1. Even thorough, an environment temperature around accelerator active components is controlled within 0.1 K, The X-ray laser intensity of SACLA is drifted by the effect of outside air temperature. Such intensity drift is caused by the insufficient rf phase stabilities of the water cooled cavities in the injector. 2. The unignorable trip rate of thyratrons by self-arcing, the trouble of an inverter power supply for a klystron modulator and the arcing of a high-voltage transformer for the klystron exist. 3. Deposition of oxidized copper in cooling waterlines is happen by the effect of dissolve oxygen in the water. Countermeasures to the problems are replacing LLRF components having poor thermal phase dependence, changing deuterium density of the thyratron to reduce the number of the self-arcing, reinforcement of high-voltage insulation ability to the inverter power supply and the high-voltage transformer, and installation of oxygen reduction equipment in to the cooling-water line. We expect the temporal drift of the laser intensity and the rf temporal stabilities are going to reduce within the demanded value after the countermeasures. (author)

  3. Development of improved coating for advanced carbon-carbon components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Y. R.; Brown, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Reaction sintered silicon nitride (RSSN) was studied as a substitute coating material on the carbon-carbon material (RCC) presently used as a heat shield on the space shuttle, and on advanced carbon-carbon (ACC), a later development. On RCC, RSSN showed potential in a 538 C (1000 F) screening test in which silicon carbide coated material exhibits its highest oxidation rate; RSSN afforded less protection to ACC because of a larger thermal expansion mismatch. Organosilicon densification and metallic silicon sealing methods were studied as means of further increasing the oxidation resistance of the coating, and some improvement was noted when these methods were employed.

  4. Improvement in strength, reliability and durability of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some problems of improvement in strength, reliability and durability of power plant equipment and various estimation methods for the above properties are considered. Shown is significance of studying the kinetics of fatigue crack propagation from a position of fracture mechanics, the effect of the scale factor on resistance of samples to brittle and fatigue fracture and on the temperature of ductile-brittle transitions of articles under cyclic loads. These principles are illustrated by the graphical and numerical data obtained during mechanical tests of the 00Kh12N3D, 10GN2MFA, 15Kh2NMFA steels

  5. INVESTIGATIONS TO IMPROVE THE TRANSFERABILITY OF SPECIMEN RESULTS BY REAL COMPONENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Riedler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the improvement of the lifetime calculation of components made of the titanium alloy Ti-6-4, a closed loop methodology from specimen to the component is presented. Based on forged pre-material specimens fatigue tests are done as a basic research, which are presented as S/N-curves. With the determined material data a lifetime calculation with the program FEMFAT is done on a typically fitting element. Finally the results of the lifetime calculation are compared to real component tests, which are done to evaluate the results of the lifetime calculation. The component tests are performed with constant and variable load. Therewith the transferability of specimen results to real components is shown. Additional fracture analysis by light microscope and scanning electron microscope is carried out to give further information of the influence factor of the lifetime and a further description between fracture behaviour of specimen and components.

  6. An Improved Independent Component Analysis Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Yuan Chen; Chi-Jie Lu

    2013-01-01

    Traditional independent component analysis (ICA) method based on FastICA algorithm faced two main disadvantages. One is that the order of the independent components (ICs) is difficult to be determined and the other is that the FastICA algorithm often leads to local minimum solution, and the suitable source signals are not isolated. To alleviate these problems, an improved ICA algorithm based on artificial immune system (AIS) (called AIS-ICA) is presented. AIS is an attractive heuristic techni...

  7. Methodology for Process Improvement Through Basic Components and Focusing on the Resistance to Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-manzano Villalon, Jose Antonio; Cuevas Agustin, Gonzalo; Go?mez, Gerzo?n; Mejia, Jezreel; Mun?oz, Mirna; San Feliu Gilabert, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-model methodology that implements a smooth and continuous process improvement, depending on the organization's business goals and allowing users to establish their improvement implementation pace. The methodology focuses on basic process components known as ‘best practices’. Besides, it covers following the topics: knowledge management and change management. The methodology description and the results of a case study on project management process are included.

  8. A Program to Improve the Triangulated Surface Mesh Quality Along Aircraft Component Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been developed for improving the quality of unstructured triangulated surface meshes in the vicinity of component intersections. The method relies solely on point removal and edge swapping for improving the triangulations. It can be applied to any lifting surface component such as a wing, canard or horizontal tail component intersected with a fuselage, or it can be applied to a pylon that is intersected with a wing, fuselage or nacelle. The lifting surfaces or pylon are assumed to be aligned in the axial direction with closed trailing edges. The method currently maintains salient edges only at leading and trailing edges of the wing or pylon component. This method should work well for any shape of fuselage that is free of salient edges at the intersection. The method has been successfully demonstrated on a total of 125 different test cases that include both blunt and sharp wing leading edges. The code is targeted for use in the automated environment of numerical optimization where geometric perturbations to individual components can be critical to the aerodynamic performance of a vehicle. Histograms of triangle aspect ratios are reported to assess the quality of the triangles attached to the intersection curves before and after application of the program. Large improvements to the quality of the triangulations were obtained for the 125 test cases; the quality was sufficient for use with an automated tetrahedral mesh generation program that is used as part of an aerodynamic shape optimization method.

  9. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

  10. Introduction of cooperating conductive components into the phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the electric conductivity of Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor with the least amount of conductive component so as to maximize the improvement in low voltage cathodoluminescence, In2O3 and Cu nanowires (NWs) were simultaneously introduced to form Cu NWs/In2O3-attached Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor. In2O3 and Cu NWs play different roles in the formation of electrically conductive network, i.e., Cu NWs are suitable as conductive channels for charge transmission due to their one-dimensional morphology with large slenderness ratios, while the island-like In2O3 condensates form local conductive contacts joining the adjacent Cu NWs. Meanwhile, In2O3 forms attachment between Cu NWs and the phosphor. Owing to the cooperating effects between Cu NWs/In2O3 conductive components in the phosphor, the efficiency in low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved. -- Highlights: ? In2O3/Cu NWs were introduced in Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence. ? In2O3/Cu NWs play different key roles in the formation of electrically conductive network. ? The cooperating effect was proved by comparing the experimental data and the calculated results. ? The low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved

  11. Improving image contrast using principal component analysis for subsequent image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Goldszal, A; Butman, J; Choyke, P

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a technique for improving MR image contrast by linearly combining multiple MR images with different tissue contrast. The weighting coefficients of the linear combination are derived using principal component analysis. The contrast-enhanced composite image is segmented subsequently using gray level-based 1D segmentation methods. The technique reduces a multispectral image set to composite eigenimages and allows application of appropriate 1D segmentation methods that do not have equivalent counterparts in multispectral methods. PMID:11584246

  12. Improved E-ELT subsystem and component specifications, thanks to M1 test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmler, M.; Marrero, J.; Leveque, S.; Barriga, Pablo; Sedghi, B.; Kornweibel, N.

    2014-07-01

    During the last 2 years ESO has operated the "M1 Test Facility", a test stand consisting of a representative section of the E-ELT primary mirror equipped with 4 complete prototype segment subunits including sensors, actuators and control system. The purpose of the test facility is twofold: it serves to study and get familiar with component and system aspects like calibration, alignment and handling procedures and suitable control strategies on real hardware long before the primary mirror (hereafter M1) components are commissioned. Secondly, and of major benefit to the project, it offered the possibility to evaluate component and subsystem performance and interface issues in a system context in such detail, that issues could be identified early enough to feed back into the subsystem and component specifications. This considerably reduces risk and cost of the production units and allows refocusing the project team on important issues for the follow-up of the production contracts. Experiences are presented in which areas the results of the M1 Test Facility particularly helped to improve subsystem specifications and areas, where additional tests were adopted independent of the main test facility. Presented are the key experiences of the M1 Test Facility which lead to improved specifications or identified the need for additional testing outside of the M1 Test Facility.

  13. Component improvement of free-piston Stirling engine key technology for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    The successful performance of the 25 kW Space Power Demonstrator (SPD) engine during an extensive testing period has provided a baseline of free piston Stirling engine technology from which future space Stirling engines may evolve. Much of the success of the engine was due to the initial careful selection of engine materials, fabrication and joining processes, and inspection procedures. Resolution of the few SPD engine problem areas that did occur has resulted in the technological advancement of certain key free piston Stirling engine components. Derivation of two half-SPD, single piston engines from the axially opposed piston SPD engine, designated as Space Power Research (SPR) engines, has made possible the continued improvement of these engine components. The two SPR engines serve as test bed engines for testing of engine components. Some important fabrication and joining processes are reviewed. Also, some component deficiencies that were discovered during SPD engine testing are described and approaches that were taken to correct these deficiencies are discussed. Potential component design modifications, based upon the SPD and SPR engine testing, are also reported.

  14. Use of High Magnetic Fields to Improve Material Properties for Hydraulics, Automotive and Truck Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Ahmad, Aquil [Eaton Corporation

    2010-08-01

    In this CRADA, research and development activities were successfully conducted on magnetic processing effects for the purpose of manipulating microstructure and the application specific performance of three alloys provided by Eaton (alloys provided were: carburized steel, plain low carbon steel and medium carbon spring steel). Three specific industrial/commercial application areas were considered where HMFP can be used to provide significant energy savings and improve materials performance include using HMFP to: 1.) Produce higher material strengths enabling higher torque bearing capability for drive shafts and other motor components; 2.) Increase the magnetic response in an iron-based material, thereby improving its magnetic permeability resulting in improved magnetic coupling and power density, and 3.) Improve wear resistance. The very promising results achieved in this endeavor include: 1.) a significant increase in tensile strength and a major reduction in volume percent retained austenite for the carburized alloy, and 2.) a substantial improvement in magnetic perm respect to a no-field processed sample (which also represents a significant improvement over the nominal conventional automotive condition of no heat treatment). The successful completion of these activities has resulted in the current 3-year CRADA No. NFE-09-02522 Prototyping Energy Efficient ThermoMagnetic and Induction Hardening for Heat Treat and Net Shape Forming Applications .

  15. Wave-shaping of pulse tube cryocooler components for improved performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Dion Savio; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2014-11-01

    The method of wave-shaping acoustic resonators is applied to an inertance type cryogenic pulse tube refrigerator (IPTR) to improve its performance. A detailed time-dependent axisymmetric experimentally validated computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the PTR is used to predict its performance. The continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved for both the refrigerant gas (helium) and the porous media regions (the regenerator and the three heat-exchangers) in the PTR. An improved representation of heat transfer in the porous media is achieved by employing a thermal non-equilibrium model to couple the gas and solid (porous media) energy equations. The wave-shaped regenerator and pulse tube studied have cone geometries and the effects of different cone angles and the orientation (nozzle v/s diffuser mode) on the system performance are investigated. The resultant spatio-temporal pressure, temperature and velocity fields in the regenerator and pulse tube components are evaluated. The performance of these wave-shaped PTRs is compared to the performance of a non wave-shaped system with cylindrical components. Better cooling is predicted for the cryocooler using wave-shaped components oriented in the diffuser mode.

  16. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Burress, T.; Fugate, D.; Holcomb, D.; Wilgen, J.; Miller, J.; Wilson, D.; Silva, P.; Whitlow, L.; Peretz, F.

    2012-09-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) components and systems. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration platform. I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the system; treating I&C as an integral part of the system design is innovative and will allow significant improvement in capabilities and performance. As systems become more complex and greater performance is required, traditional I&C design techniques become inadequate and more advanced I&C needs to be applied. New I&C techniques enable optimal and reliable performance and tolerance of noise and uncertainties in the system rather than merely monitoring quasistable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in NPP components after the design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. By incorporating I&C at the beginning of the design phase, the control system can provide superior performance and reliability and enable designs that are otherwise impossible. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the platform to demonstrate the performance and reliability improvements enabled by advanced embedded I&C.

  17. The improvement of dust model applying modified soil component of dust source over East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, D. H.; Koo, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    The East Asia region is the world's most populous area with a rapidly growing economy resulting in large air pollutant emissions. Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Area. These mineral aerosols PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 um in diameter) concentration frequently exceeds the daily ambient air quality standards of 100?gm-3, and the number of exceedance days of daily PM10 reached about 40 times annually. The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency to underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. This is partially due to the uncertainty of fugitive dust emissions. This study is aim to improve dust model(ADAM2 - Asian Dust Aeorosol Model 2) by changing soil component over source regions using Harmonized World Soil Database. ADAM2 has four dust components of the Gobi Desert, sand dsert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil. The soil components, however, should be updated as current and detailed soil components. Therfore, we apply updated dust model with CTM(Chemical Transport Model), CMAQ(Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model) to simulate dust concentration over East Asia. It is found that dust concentration with updated dust model is better agreement with observation during dust event periods, compared with standard dust model.

  18. Independent component regression for seasonal climate prediction: an efficient way to improve multimodel ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yaeji; Lee, Jaeyong; Oh, Hee-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2015-02-01

    The main goal of this study is to improve the seasonal climate prediction of multimodel ensembles. The conventional principal component regression has been used to build a statistical relation between observations and multimodel ensembles. It predicts future climate values when there are a large number of variables, which is a typical issue in climate research field. However, principal component analysis which is prerequired to perform principal component regression assumes that information of the data should be retained by the second moment. This condition would be stringent to climate data. In this paper, we present a new prediction method that is efficient to adapt to non-Gaussian and high-dimensional data. The proposed method is based on a combination of independent component analysis and regularized regression approach. The main benefits of the proposed method are as follows. (1) It explains a statistical relationship between multimodel ensembles and observations, when either one is not normally distributed; and (2) it is capable of evaluating the contribution of climate models for prediction by selecting some specific models that are appropriate. The superiority of the proposed method is demonstrated by the prediction of future precipitation in boreal summer (June-July-August; JJA) for 20 years (1983-2002) on both global and regional scales.

  19. An Improved Independent Component Analysis Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yuan Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional independent component analysis (ICA method based on FastICA algorithm faced two main disadvantages. One is that the order of the independent components (ICs is difficult to be determined and the other is that the FastICA algorithm often leads to local minimum solution, and the suitable source signals are not isolated. To alleviate these problems, an improved ICA algorithm based on artificial immune system (AIS (called AIS-ICA is presented. AIS is an attractive heuristic technique and has many advantages over other heuristic techniques such as it can be easily implemented and has great capability of escaping local optimal solutions The basic idea of the proposed AIS-ICA algorithm is to use AIS to determine the separating matrix of ICA. Simulation results from the artificial signal data illustrate the efficiency of the proposed AIS–ICA approach.

  20. Demographic Dividend or Demographic Threat in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nayab, Durr-e-

    2006-01-01

    Population growth and size have remained the focus of debate for centuries but the recent demographic transition in developing countries has made social scientists take note of the changing age structure of the population as well. As a result of declining population growth and consequent changes in age structure, the proportion of working-age population is increasing in most developing countries, with an associated decline in the dependent age population, offering a window of opportunity to t...

  1. Improved Differential Evolution Based on Stochastic Ranking for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Liu, Jinchao

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an improved differential evolution (DE) algorithm for robust layout synthesis of microelectromechanical system components subject to inherent geometric uncertainties. A case study of the layout synthesis of a combdriven microresonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less sensitive to geometric uncertainties than the typical designs. It is also demonstrated that the algorithm proposed in this paper cannot only obtain better results than the standard DE algorithm but also outperform some other state-of-art algorithms in constrained optimization.

  2. Improving the voltage quality of an inverter via by-passing the harmonic current components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Qing-Chang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is proposed to improve the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage of an inverter. The physical interpretation of the control strategy is to connect shunt resonant filters at harmonic frequencies to the output so that the harmonic current components are by-passed and do not flow through the inverter. As a result, the voltage THD can be maintained low even when a nonlinear load is connected. Experimental results are provided to verify the analysis and design.

  3. Application of improved hybrid interface substructural component modal synthesis method in vibration characteristics of mistuned blisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bin; Bai, Guangchen; Li, Chao

    2014-11-01

    The large and complex structures are divided into hundreds of thousands or millions degrees of freedom(DOF) when they are calculated which will spend a lot of time and the efficiency will be extremely low. The classical component modal synthesis method (CMSM) are used extensively, but for many structures in the engineering of high-rise buildings, aerospace systemic engineerings, marine oil platforms etc, a large amount of calculation is still needed. An improved hybrid interface substructural component modal synthesis method(HISCMSM) is proposed. The parametric model of the mistuned blisk is built by the improved HISCMSM. The double coordinating conditions of the displacement and the force are introduced to ensure the computational accuracy. Compared with the overall structure finite element model method(FEMM), the computational time is shortened by 23.86%-31.56% and the modal deviation is 0.002%-0.157% which meets the requirement of the computational accuracy. It is faster 4.46%-10.57% than the classical HISCMSM. So the improved HISCMSM is better than the classical HISCMSM and the overall structure FEMM. Meanwhile, the frequency and the modal shape are researched, considering the factors including rotational speed, gas temperature and geometry size. The strong localization phenomenon of the modal shape's the maximum displacement and the maximum stress is observed in the second frequency band and it is the most sensitive in the frequency veering. But the localization phenomenon is relatively weak in 1st and the 3d frequency band. The localization of the modal shape is more serious under the condition of the geometric dimensioning mistuned. An improved HISCMSM is proposed, the computational efficiency of the mistuned blisk can be increased observably by this method.

  4. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  5. Towards improved hardware component attenuation correction in PET/MR hybrid imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, D. H.; Tellmann, L.; Quick, H. H.

    2013-11-01

    In positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging attenuation correction (AC) of the patient tissue and patient table is performed by converting the CT-based Hounsfield units (HU) to linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of PET. When applied to the new field of hardware component AC in PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid imaging, this conversion method may result in local overcorrection of PET activity values. The aim of this study thus was to optimize the conversion parameters for CT-based AC of hardware components in PET/MR. Systematic evaluation and optimization of the HU to LAC conversion parameters has been performed for the hardware component attenuation map (µ-map) of a flexible radiofrequency (RF) coil used in PET/MR imaging. Furthermore, spatial misregistration of this RF coil to its µ-map was simulated by shifting the µ-map in different directions and the effect on PET quantification was evaluated. Measurements of a PET NEMA standard emission phantom were performed on an integrated hybrid PET/MR system. Various CT parameters were used to calculate different µ-maps for the flexible RF coil and to evaluate the impact on the PET activity concentration. A 511 keV transmission scan of the local RF coil was used as standard of reference to adapt the slope of the conversion from HUs to LACs at 511 keV. The average underestimation of the PET activity concentration due to the non-attenuation corrected RF coil in place was calculated to be 5.0% in the overall phantom. When considering attenuation only in the upper volume of the phantom, the average difference to the reference scan without RF coil is 11.0%. When the PET/CT conversion is applied, an average overestimation of 3.1% (without extended CT scale) and 4.2% (with extended CT scale) is observed in the top volume of the NEMA phantom. Using the adapted conversion resulting from this study, the deviation in the top volume of the phantom is reduced to -0.5% and shows the lowest standard deviation inside the phantom in comparison to all other conversions. Simulation of a µ-map misregistration shows acceptable results for shifts below 5 mm for the flexible surface RF coil. The adapted conversion from HUs to LAC at 511 keV within this study can improve hardware component AC in PET/MR hybrid imaging as shown for a flexible RF surface coil. Furthermore, these results have a direct impact on the improvement of the hardware component AC of the examined flexible RF coil in conjunction with position determination.

  6. IMPROVING INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES FOR MULTIMODAL IMAGE FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Egfin Nirmala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to combine multiple images of a scene acquired by different sensors to create a new image with all important information from the input images. Recent studies show that bases trained using Independent Component Analysis (ICA is effective in multisensor fusion and has improved performance over traditional wavelet approaches. In the ICA based fusion, the coefficients of the input images are combined simply by selecting the coefficients with maximum magnitude. But this method resulted in fused images with poor contrast, due to the distortion introduced in constant background areas. The performance of ICA based fusion can be greatly improved by using a region based approach with intelligent decision making in order to choose the significant regions in the source images. Hence, a new region based image fusion algorithm for combining visible and Infrared (IR images using Independent Component Analysis and Support Vector Machines (SVM is proposed. Region based joint segmentation of the source images is carried out in the spatial domain and important features of each region are computed in spatial and transform domain. A Support Vector Machine is trained to select the regions from the source images with significant features and the corresponding ICA coefficients are combined to form the fused ICA representation. The proposed algorithm is applied to different sets of multimodal images to validate the robustness of the algorithm and compared with some standard image fusion methods. The fusion results demonstrate that the proposed scheme performs better than the state-of-the-art image fusion methods and show a significant improvement in Entropy, Petrovic and Piella evaluation metrics.

  7. Seafloor ground rotation observations: potential for improving signal-to-noise ratio on horizontal OBS components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Fabian; Wassermann, Joachim; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Schreiber, Ulrich; Igel, Heiner

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that the horizontal components of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) records have a very poor signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio compared to the vertical components, the difference substantially exceeding that of terrestrial records. This is unfortunate as 1) OBS experiments are expensive and the main possibility to gather data in offshore areas, and 2) today we are more and more interested in modelling complete waveforms including all three components aiming at optimally constraining geophysical parameters for inverse problems for Earth's structure and seismic sources. Despite the fact that it is expected that tilting is the major cause of this high S/N - to our knowledge - this effect has never been directly observed. The reason is that (standard) instruments for the measurement of uncontaminated rotational ground motions with the required sensitivity still do not exist. Here, we report observations from an experiment we carried out in the North Sea, close to the island of Helgoland in the summer of 2014. A commercial fibre-optic gyro (usually used for navigation purposes) recording ground rotation rate with a sensitivity of approx. 10-7 rad/s was mounted on an OBS system together with a broadband seismometer. The system was lowered to the seafloor for about a week. To investigate a potential connection between rotational ground motions around the two horizontal axes (i.e., tilting) we calculate the coherence between the corresponding motion components (e.g., rotations around x-axis and translational motions along y-axis, and vice versa). We find very high correlations, on average exceeding 0.73 in the period interval 7-13 seconds. Correlations seem to increase with noise amplitude. Rotation rate amplitudes are in the range of 10-6 -10-5 rad/s. This clearly indicates that the horizontal translational components are severely contaminated by rotations around the horizontal axes. The ground rotation observations allow correcting for this effect thereby considerably improving the S/N on the horizontal translational components. The relatively high-amplitude rotational motions are expected to originate from water motion, seafloor interface waves or both. An added benefit of seafloor ground rotation observations using fibre-optic systems is that the orientation of the recording system is known to within a degree, as the optical system uses the Earth's rotation as a reference.

  8. Segmented independent component analysis for improved separation of fetal cardiac signals from nonstationary fetal magnetocardiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murta, Luiz O; Guzo, Mauro G; Moraes, Eder R; Baffa, Oswaldo; Wakai, Ronald T; Comani, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Fetal magnetocardiograms (fMCGs) have been successfully processed with independent component analysis (ICA) to separate the fetal cardiac signals, but ICA effectiveness can be limited by signal nonstationarities due to fetal movements. We propose an ICA-based method to improve the quality of fetal signals separated from fMCG affected by fetal movements. This technique (SegICA) includes a procedure to detect signal nonstationarities, according to which the fMCG recordings are divided in stationary segments that are then processed with ICA. The first and second statistical moments and the signal polarity reversal were used at different threshold levels to detect signal transients. SegICA effectiveness was assessed in two fMCG datasets (with and without fetal movements) by comparing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the signals extracted with ICA and with SegICA. Results showed that the SNR of fetal signals affected by fetal movements improved with SegICA, whereas the SNR gain was negligible elsewhere. The best measure to detect signal nonstationarities of physiological origin was signal polarity reversal at threshold level 0.9. The first statistical moment also provided good results at threshold level 0.6. SegICA seems a promising method to separate fetal cardiac signals of improved quality from nonstationary fMCG recordings affected by fetal movements. PMID:25781658

  9. Improvement of the two steps HIP diffusion welding process for fusion blanket sub-components manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Hot Isostatic Pressing - Diffusion Welding is a preferred process for the fabrication of fusion blanket sub-components. The structural material is a ferritic-martensitic steel, Eurofer 97 (X10CrWTaV9-1). Several options can be envisaged depending on the kind of parts used to obtain the final structure. More precisely, flat sub-components such like caps, stiffening plates and cooling plates can in principle be manufactured using two mirror-like grooved plates joined together. The main problem is to avoid groove deformation during bonding. A process allowing achieving minimum deformation has been defined at CEA, but the joint mechanical properties are not satisfactory. The objective of the work is to improve the process performance in view of improving joint mechanical properties. The two steps HIP process consists in joining pairs of grooved plates in two steps: a low pressure HIP cycle with encapsulated channels to ensure joining with minimum groove deformation, and a high pressure HIP cycle with opened channels to achieve full bonding. Joints obtained by this process have degraded mechanical properties with regard to those obtained for plain samples with a single high pressure HIP cycle, and microstructure analyses reveal inclusions at the joint line. It seems that the two steps HIP process requires specific outgassing procedures. The main objective of this study is to optimise the current outgassing process. A first experiment whichtgassing process. A first experiment which consists in heating under vacuum Eurofer samples inserted in a quartz tube is led to precisely analyse the desorption phenomenon in order to find appropriate improved solutions. A series of experiments are then realised with an optimised outgassing device, new encapsulation methods and with several specimen designs (plain or grooved) to evaluate the effect of outgassing conditions on joints quality. The definition of an outgassing procedure that leads to acceptable joint qualities would enable the use of the 2 steps HIP process for the conception of fusion blanket sub-components. (authors)

  10. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  11. Recent improvements in SPARK: Strong component decomposition, multivalued objects, and graphical interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, W.F.; Erdem, A.E.; Winkelmann, F.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environmental Div.; Sowell, E.F. [California State Univ., Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1993-08-01

    The Simulation Problem Analysis Research Kernel (SPARK) environment for simulation of nonlinear differential algebraic systems has been revised to improve modeling convenience, modeling flexibility, and solution efficiency. Solution efficiency has been enhanced by automatic decomposition of the problem into strongly connected components, characterized as separately solvable subproblems. The normally constructed data flow graph in SPARK allows such components to be identified and placed in the correct order for sequential solution resulting in significant speed-up for problems that are not strongly interconnected. Modeling flexibility has been enhanced by adding the Multivalued Objects. Whereas conventional SPARK objects represent single equations and produce a single result, this extension allows more complex objects which themselves solve simultaneous sets of equations for multiple results. The need for such objects arises when submodels are to be solved independently of the spark solver; e.g., to use a specially tailored algorithm. With regard to modeling convenience, the graphical user interface now allows model definition by selection and placement of object icons in a graphical window in an X-windows environment. These objects can be connected with macro links comprising multiple problem variables. The resulting problem is then translated into a Network Language Specification file for SPARK processing.

  12. Improved ultrasonic inspection of austenitic stainless steel components by signal averaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel austenitic materials is highly restricted by backscattered ultrasound which is either caused by the coarse grained structure and by the high anisotropy and herewith related steps in acoustic impedance at grain boundaries. The backscattered signal can be of the same amplitude as the signal from the reflector. Today, a lot of research and development work is done worldwide to improve the ultrasonic inspectability of these components. Regarding the test arrangement as chain in the sense of the communication theory, consisting of the test block, the probe, the UT-device and the signal processing unit, our work is connected with the tact link of this chain. In the A-scan the backscattered signal appears as interference structure. The distribution of the amplitudes depends on the probe position upon the surface of the specimen, on the test frequency and on the angle of incidence. Small variations of these parameters cause great changes in the backscattered signal interference structure, while the amplitude from a reflector remains constant. Adding up a certain number of A-scans from different positions, frequencies or angles, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is improved. In this contribution will be reported about the physical background of backscattering, necessary to understand the method, the diffident signal averaging techniques (averaging analog or digital signals, high-frequency or video signals, spatial-, frequency-, directideo signals, spatial-, frequency-, directional averaging), the experimental set up (on-line signal averaging unit) and the results obtained at austenitic welds or castings with improvements in SNR up to 20 dB

  13. DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic and Health Surveys are nationally representative household surveys with large sample sizes of between 5,000 and 30,000 households, typically. DHS surveys provide data for a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators in the areas of population, health, a...

  14. SYNTHESIS OF MULTIPLE DATA STRUCTURES FOR IMPROVED ACCURACY OF ABUNDANCE AND DEMOGRAPHIC ESTIMATES FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Michael J. [MJ CONROY WILDLIFE BIOMETRICS

    2014-12-08

    The goal of this study was to provide a framework for combining existing data (from camera trapping, harvest surveys, and spotlight counts) into an integrated system that produces the most accurate estimates possible for use in setting harvest goals. A summary of the key data components that were available is included.

  15. Women's demands and demographic goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, S W

    1994-01-01

    When the international family planning (FP) movement was launched, its goal was to improve the well-being of individuals, particularly of women. During the past 3 decades, governments have begun to take an active interest in FP programs because of concerns about the negative impact of high growth rates on development efforts. The potential for conflict between individual and government interests was heightened by the widespread assumption that it would be difficult to convince people to limit their fertility. However, data from the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys have shown that a high level of unwanted fertility exists in most developing countries. This level of expressed need has been high, persistent, and a good predictor of subsequent contraceptive usage and emerging fertility patterns. These data will possibly reduce the conflict between people who place a high priority on world population stabilization and those who consider population policies to be a threat to human rights. By increasing investments in better quality FP programs whose sole objective is to help individuals and couples meet their own family size ideals, developing countries will meet their demographic goals. Of the 21 countries which have adopted quantitative demographic targets, for example, 17 have survey data which measures unmet demand for FP. In 13 of these, meeting the existing demand for fertility control will result in a higher contraceptive use rate than necessary to meet national goals. Alone among the other 4, Thailand has reached a saturation point for expanded contraceptive services. Modern contraceptives are not yet broadly available in Haiti, Nigeria, or Ghana (thus, it is difficult to assess actual levels of need). These findings imply that whereas countries should indeed set longterm demographic targets, they should evaluate the success of their programs by how well FP services meet the goals of individuals and couples. This will require modifications in the organization of FP programs, particularly in the relationships between supervisors and field workers and in the attitudes of service providers to their clients. These efforts should be augmented by other development strategies to improve living standards. PMID:12345732

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF THE FISCAL COMPONENT OF THE MECHANISM OF INCOME POPULATION STATE REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhebchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of the country development it is important to create such a tax system that would positively affected the economic growth. Under conditions of restructuring the national economy and state budget deficit it is important that the fiscal component of the relationship between the state and taxpayers should contribute to the development of partner relationships between the two parties and not hinder their development and self-realization. The objective of this study is to identify 'bottlenecks' of the mechanism of taxing population incomes and find ways to resolve them. As practice of European countries shows, the main role in eliminating inequality in the distribution of income and assets is progressive taxation and social costs of the state. Having researched the current mechanism of personal income tax in Ukraine (especially wages through using scientific methods of research, including analysis and synthesis, analogy and modeling, grouping and gene­ralization, induction and deduction, scientific abstraction, the author found a number of problems and regularities that exist in the current mechanism of taxation, which were the main reason for constructing five models of improving the current mechanism of taxation of income from wages. Each model has its anticipated positive socioeconomic effects from the introduction and from application of an adjustment factor to the basic tax rate of 15 %. Its use aims to "smooth out" the instability of the tax burden in the current tax mechanisms and balance tax contribution of every citizen according to the level of earnings. A stepwise progression model of taxation provides compliance with the principle of vertical equity in taxation and has clear economic explanation. From the point of view of fair taxation, the stepwise progression will be most fair in the case, where the tax rate will continuously increase with every additional hryvnia of the taxable income (this provision is taken into account in the construction of the five proposed models. Based on the research, the total tax effect of using each model was calculated, which shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the introduction of the proposed models. The ways of improvement of the fiscal component of state regulation of incomes from wages in Ukraine in the long run were identified.

  17. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  18. Improving the Effectiveness of the Bio-slurry Extension Component of National Biodigester Program in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. F.

    2009-10-15

    This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management. Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth. Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g. monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring)

  19. Studies on the improvement of the components of essential oil of genus Mentha by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. arvensis L. var. piperascens M sub(AL). (2 n = 96, R sup(a)Rsup(a)SS JJ AA, main component menthol) as the material the elucidation of biosynthetic mechanisms of essential oil was attempted. As the result it has been demonstrated that the biosynthesis is completed between 84 - 86 days after placing individual cells in the culture medium, especially on 85 days. Such an elucidation serves as the criteria of the biosynthetic pathway elucidation and it is the first accomplishment in the world. Next, the irradiation with ?-rays of 55R/min, total dose 19.5 KR gives a marked effect, and by this method a new plant (rose mint) having aroma similar to rose oil has been established, and this new plant has been designated as ''rose mint.'' This new improved plant can yield about 1 Kg of essential oil from 30 Kg of plant, and in comparing to 1 Kg of essential oil obtained from about 106 rose flowers by the conventional method, the yield is enormously greater and its wide application can be expected in the future. This newly developed breeding method can be also applied to other plants where the extraction of the plant compositions is desired, and at present this method is applied to the Perilla by which a new plant having sweet taste has been successfully established. (author)

  20. Wear Resistance Improvement of Small Dimension Invar Massive Molds for CFRP Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giolli, C.; Turbil, M.; Rizzi, G.; Rosso, M.; Scrivani, A.

    2009-12-01

    Invar alloy (Fe-36%Ni) is used in industrial applications that require high dimensional stability because of its exceptionally low thermal expansion coefficient. The purpose of this work is to improve the wear resistance of the molds in the production of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components applying thermal spray coatings. Four different kinds of commercial powders were coated on an Invar substrate: ZrO2-8Y2O3, Al2O3-13TiO2, and Cr2O3 by air plasma spray (APS) and WC-CoCr by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF). Metallographic microscopy observation and scanning electron microscopic analysis were carried out, microhardness and fracture toughness were evaluated using the microindentation method. Friction behavior and wear resistance were evaluated with pin-on-disk apparatus. Tungsten carbide coating had the lowest average coefficient of friction. Cermet and alumina-titania coatings showed the lowest wear mass loss. Among the APS ceramic coatings, alumina-titania exhibited the best wear behavior and the HVOF cermet coating exhibited the best behavior among all the coatings.

  1. Which components of a primary care affiliated home visiting nurse program are associated with disability maintenance/improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Dianne V; Friedman, Bruce; Watson, Nancy M; Powers, Bethel Ann

    2012-01-01

    A process evaluation of a primary care affiliated home visiting nurse intervention was performed to determine which intervention components were associated with disability maintenance/improvement. This secondary analysis (N = 238) used data recorded in intervention databases and patient interviews among community-dwelling elders with disability. Intervention components were examined in descriptive, correlational, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses. Results demonstrated that two structure components--physician-patient-family-nurse conference visits and intervention (education) materials--and three process components--disease management activities, goal setting, and medication management activities--were linked to maintaining/improving activities of daily living disability status. Confirmation of these findings may help home care nurses to delay disability worsening. PMID:22656915

  2. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  3. Demographics in demand systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Household composition can be expected to affect the allocation of household expenditure among goods, at the very least because of economies of scale as household size increases and because different people have different needs (adults versus children, for example). Specifying demographic effects correctly in demand analysis is important both in order to estimate correct price and expenditure elasticities and for the purpose of making household welfare comparisons. A common way of including de...

  4. Socio-demographic Psychosocial and Clinical Characteristics of Participants in e-HealthyStrides©: An Interactive ehealth Program to Improve Diabetes Self-Management Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Pemu, Priscilla E.; Quarshie, Alexander Q.; Josiah-willock, R.; Ojutalayo, Folake O.; Alema-mensah, Ernest; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes self-management (DSM) training helps prevent diabetic complications. eHealth approaches may improve its optimal use. The aims were to determine a) acceptability of e-HealthyStrides© (an interactive, Internet-based, patient-driven, diabetes self-management support and social networking program) among Morehouse Community Physicians’ Network diabetics; b) efficacy for DSM behavior change c) success factors for use of e-HealthyStrides©. Baseline characteristics of pilot study partici...

  5. Improvements in High Speed, High Resolution Dynamic Digital Image Correlation for Experimental Evaluation of Composite Drive System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Handschuh, Robert Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials have the potential to reduce the weight of rotating drive system components. However, these components are more complex to design and evaluate than static structural components in part because of limited ability to acquire deformation and failure initiation data during dynamic tests. Digital image correlation (DIC) methods have been developed to provide precise measurements of deformation and failure initiation for material test coupons and for structures under quasi-static loading. Attempts to use the same methods for rotating components (presented at the AHS International 68th Annual Forum in 2012) are limited by high speed camera resolution, image blur, and heating of the structure by high intensity lighting. Several improvements have been made to the system resulting in higher spatial resolution, decreased image noise, and elimination of heating effects. These improvements include the use of a high intensity synchronous microsecond pulsed LED lighting system, different lenses, and changes in camera configuration. With these improvements, deformation measurements can be made during rotating component tests with resolution comparable to that which can be achieved in static tests

  6. Improved CuCrZr / 316L Transition for Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma Facing Components used in all advanced nuclear fusion experiments and in particular for ITER consist of heat sinks made of the precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy. This material has been selected due to the requirements regarding thermal and mechanical properties with and without the presence of neutrons. The divertor parts which are highly heat loaded are actively cooled and are assembled onto weld stainless steel pressure vessels of grade 316L. Therefore these plasma facing parts need a transition in the cooling pipes from CuCrZr to 316L which withstands the internal pressure, the fatigue loads and remains leak tight during operation. As direct fusion welding of CuCrZr with 316L is regarded as critical due to metallurgical issues, the current design uses a transition of Ni - sleeve which is welded onto the CuCrZr and 316L, respectively. However, there is still some concern for the mechanically constraint region of the inlet coolant that this intermediate adapter is the weakest point and could fail due to strongly localised plasticity. The aim of this project is to investigate alternative solutions for the transition of CuCrZr / 316L, to down-select the most promising candidate and finally qualify a new improved tubular transition system. Basic EB welding experiments have been carried out on CuCrZr / 316L tubular samples using different adapter and filler materials. The adapter materials, e.g. Inconel 625 and Monel K500, were chosen due to their high temperature strength and good weldability with respect to Cu - alloys and austenitic steels. In case of the investigated filler metals Ni and Ti the intention was to control the dilution and to produce a fine grained weld zone with no formation of detrimental phases. As a further option the use of an explosively welded CuCrZr/316L adapter was evaluated. The application of such an adapter would simplify the issue to the welding of CuCrZr / CuCrZr and 316L / 316L respectively. In the characterisation programme the samples were first characterised by non destructive testing and metallographic examination. An indication on the mechanical properties was gained by tensile testing of welded samples at RT and 400oC. After the down-selection of the most promising candidate test samples were manufactured for the qualification programme. Besides the general requirements for the application as cooling system the qualification programme considered tensile testing at different temperatures, fatigue and torsion testing as well as inspection regarding leak tightness. (author)

  7. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Natalia S. Gavrilova

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

  8. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findings from relevant fields of basic research, focusing on the increasingly heterogeneous nature of the ageing population. All CONSOL partners contributed to the report by writing parts of the report (authors), participating in the literature research and/or commenting to earlier versions of this report. We would like to give special thanks to Heather Ward for constructive suggestions and inspiring comments to an earlier version of this report.

  9. Are Demographic Diversity Effects Spurious?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Nüesch

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The substantial literature on the relationship between demographic diversity and team performance yields weak and/or inconsistent results. Using match-level data of all games played in the German soccer league Bundesliga over six seasons, this paper analyzes age, race and tenure diversity of the fielded team under different model specifications to test the robustness of demographic diversity effects. The empirical results reveal that the correlations between demographic diversity and the outcome of the game are confounded by mean values of the demographic attributes and contextual covariates.

  10. 10-Gingerol, a component of rikkunshito, improves cisplatin-induced anorexia by inhibiting acylated ghrelin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakane, Chiharu; Muto, Shuichi; Nakagawa, Koji; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Saegusa, Yayoi; Nahata, Miwa; Hattori, Tomohisa; Asaka, Masahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Rikkunshito (RKT), a Japanese traditional medicine, has been shown to stimulate food intake in rats with cisplatin-induced anorexia; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether RKT is involved in the degradation of peripheral ghrelin. RKT inhibited decreases in plasma ghrelin level and enhanced acyl- to desacyl-ghrelin (A/D) ratio in cisplatin-treated rats. Several components of RKT demonstrated inhibitory activity against ghrelin deacylating enzymes. In addition, 10-gingerol, a component of RKT, inhibited exogenous ghrelin deacylation. Therefore, RKT may enhance plasma acyl-ghrelin level, at least in part, by inhibiting the circulating ghrelin degrading enzyme. PMID:21846463

  11. Surface Protection and Improved Performance of Satellite Components as well as Mitigation of Space Environmental Pollution by Plasma Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three plasma processing systems based on PII technique have been used in the improvement of surface properties of different materials important for aerospace and space applications. Metal plasma PII of Al and Mg was used for surface protection of polymers used in space such as Kapton, Mylar and polyethylene. Al alloys were treated with nitrogen PII for improved resistance to corrosion aiming at aerospace applications. A rigid polymer UHMWPE was also treated in a nitrogen PII to produce a protective layer with DLC. Although not very light, SS304 stainless steel components are being used in a imaging camera in space, and some components made of this material showed endurance to vibration tests after nitrogen PII, therefore being qualified for on-board application.

  12. Patellar component stability improves with pulsatile lavage in total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Ruediger J.; Heisel, Christian; Breusch, Steffen J

    2002-01-01

    In a cadaver study, we prepared 37 fresh frozen human patella pairs to determine the efficacy of jet lavage in comparison to syringe lavage with respect to cement penetration and stability of the polyethylene patellar component after patellar resurfacing. For 12 patella pairs, sagittal sections were obtained at predefined levels using a diamond saw. Cement penetration was significantly greater (P

  13. A Community Patient Demographic System

    OpenAIRE

    Gabler, James M.; Simborg, Donald W.

    1985-01-01

    A Community Patient Demographic System is described. Its purpose is to link patient identification, demographic and insurance information among multiple organizations in a community or among multiple registration systems within the same organization. This function requires that there be a competent patient identification methodology and clear definition of local responsibilities for number assignment and database editing.

  14. Adding components improves treatment outcomes: Reply to Flückiger et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, David K; Bell, Erin C; Mercer, Sterett H

    2015-04-01

    In our article "Are the Parts as Good as the Whole? A Meta-Analysis of Component Treatment Studies" (Bell, Marcus, & Goodlad, 2013), we found that adding a component to an existing treatment resulted in better outcomes than the standard treatment for targeted problems at both termination and follow-up. The effect size at follow-up was twice as large as at termination, suggesting a "sleeper effect," but we did not test whether this increase was statistically significant. In their commentary on our article, Flückiger, Del Re, and Wampold (2015) tested whether this difference was significant, and they found that it was not. The lack of support for a sleeper effect should not, however, distract from our central findings that specific ingredients can make a modest contribution to targeted treatment outcomes. The implications of these findings for the common factors versus specific ingredients debate are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25822244

  15. How simulation of failure risk can improve structural reliability - application to pressurized components and pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Cioclov, Dimitru Dragos

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic methods for failure risk assessment are introduced, with reference to load carrying structures, such as pressure vessels (PV) and components of pipes systems. The definition of the failure risk associated with structural integrity is made in the context of the general approach to structural reliability. Sources of risk are summarily outlined with emphasis on variability and uncertainties (V&U) which might be encountered in the analysis. To highlight the problem, in its practical...

  16. Relationships Between Yield and Yield Components on Currently Improved Spring Rapeseed Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    O?zer, Hakan; Oral, Erol

    1999-01-01

    This research was conducted in Erzurum in 1991 and 1992 seasons using 14 spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.) cultivars in order to investigate the relationships between yield and yield components by correlation and path analyses. Positive values were obtained in both seasons between seed yield and the characters: days to flowering, plant height, number of branch, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod diameter, pod length, 1000-seed weight, and oil content. ...

  17. Addition of Alarm Pheromone Components Improves the Effectiveness of Desiccant Dusts Against Cimex lectularius

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua B. Benoit; PHILLIPS, SETH A.; CROXALL, TRAVIS J.; Christensen, Brady S.; Yoder, Jay A.; Denlinger, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rate...

  18. A proposition for an improved theoretical treatment of the corrosion of multi-component glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper points out how the accumulated knowledge of glass corrosion and the latest understanding of the glassy state need to be merged in order to improve the predictive power of existing corrosion models. In specific, two areas are identified which require substantial improvement. These are, firstly, an adequate description of the effects of glass composition, and, secondly, an explicit formulation of the pH dependence of the forward reaction rate. The former problem is solved by employing a constitutional approach to the Gibbs energy of the glass. The latter problem is tackled by taking into account the occupation of the glass surface by charged species (H+, OH-, R+, etc.). (author)

  19. Compressive epitactic layers on single-crystal components for improved mechanical durability and strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compressive epitactic layers grown on single-crystal substrates are shown to substantially improve mechanical durability. In this study, neodymium-substituted gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) layers are grown on undoped GGG substrates. The layers are found to dramatically improve the abrasion resistance of the substrates, but to have only a slight effect on strength. Abrasion treatments, which cause up to 20 times decrease in the strength of substrates without epitactic layers, do not cause a significant decrease in the strength of substrates with these compressive surface layers. This permits the high strength of specially prepared strong substrates to be retained after abrasion

  20. Astronomy 101 Student Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, G. L.; Hufnagel, B.; Snyder, K. L.; Miller, E. A.

    2001-05-01

    From 1999 to 2001, the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2.0 (ADT 2.0) was administered to undergraduates taking introductory astronomy for non-science majors (Astronomy 101) across the United States. A national database has been established using the results from the ADT 2.0 taken as a pretest by more than 5000 students. The 33-question multiple choice test contains 12 student background questions that can be used to create a profile of student enrollments in Astronomy 101. Students who take introductory astronomy reflect undergraduate national trends of gender, choice of major, and ethnic background. Specific questions on course expectations reveal that these students are less confident of their abilities in science than in mathematics. Mathematics background is evenly split between those who have completed only high school level topics (algebra and geometry) and those who have completed college level topics (pre-calculus and calculus). Class demographics aid in the design of effective teaching strategies for successful learning. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation through grants REC-0089239 and DGE-9714489.

  1. Improvement of ultrasonic testing methods of austeno-ferritic steel cast components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the low signal to noise ratio incountered in cast stainless steel components of P.W.R. reactor cooling system, usual ultrasonic testing aren't efficient. In order to enhance ultrasonics capabilities Electricite de France and C.E.A. have carried out a study main results of which are shown in this paper. These results include: Metallurgical structure effects: very high diffusion noise, beam distortion, low pass filter. Probe parameters that leed to examinations enhancement: focusing, aperture, damper. Efficient signal processing techniques: Split Spectrum, Image processing. Results of enhancement means on actual defects (shrinkage cavities). (authors). 2 refs., 9 figs

  2. Improvement of the performance of a classical matched filter by an independent component analysis preprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosa, R.; Forte, L. A.; Garufi, F.; Milano, L.

    2012-02-01

    Current gravitational wave searches for compact binaries coalescence are done using a bank of templates (matched filters) on each running detector. Given a network of interferometers, we propose to use a denoising strategy based on an independent component analysis which considers two interferometers at a time and then to use a standard matched filter on the processed data. We show that this method allows to lower the level of noise and increases the signal-to-nose ratio at the output of the matched filter.

  3. Improvement of the wear behaviour of highly-loaded components and tools by multi-combined surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundis Grumbt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel multi-combined surface treatment consisting of the individual treatments of plasma nitriding (PN, physical vapour deposition (PVD and electron beam hardening (EBH. Using graded surface layers produced by such a combined surface treatment, it is possible to withstand the complex load conditions incurred by components and tools. It is shown, that the treatment sequences PN+EBH+PVD and EBH+PN+PVD are suitable for improving material properties. These multi-combined surface treatments lead to a significant improvement in load-supporting capacity. Critical load values of cohesive failure measured by scratch tests are tripled when compared to the individual treatment of PVD, and increased by at least 20% in comparison to the duplex treatments of EBH+PVD or PN+PVD. The metallurgical compatibility of the single treatments is essential for the success of combined treatments. Material-specific limitations are defined, which exclude failure due to crack initiation, the occurrence of retained austenite, and tempering effects. Based on the model wear-test assembly block-on-cylinder, it was proved, that the specific wear rate of multi-combined treated specimens is reduced about 20-50% while wear of counterpart components is decreased as well. The triplex surface heat treatment introduced opens up new prospects for highly-loaded components and tools.

  4. A Study on Selected Hot-Metal and Slag Components for Improved Blast Furnace Control

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Annika

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to gain an increasedunderstanding of selected blast furnace phenomena which couldbe utilized for an improved blast furnace process control. Thisthesis contributes with both a model study and an experimentalstudy on blast furnace tapping, and results from these findingscan be used to enhance the control of the blast furnace. The work was divided in two parts. The first part dealt witha model study for optimisation of the blast furnace burdencalculation. Duri...

  5. Component Selection, Accelerated Testing, and Improved Modeling of AMTEC Systems for Space Power (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; Suitor, J.; O'Connor, D.

    1993-01-01

    Alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) designs for space power are numerous, but selection of materials for construction of long-lived AMTEC devices has been limited to electrodes, current collectors, and the solid electrolyte. AMTEC devices with lifetimes greater than 5 years require careful selection and life testing of all hot-side components. The likely selection of a remote condensed design for initial flight test and probable use with a GPHS in AMTEC powered outer planet probes requires the device to be constructed to tolerate T greater than 1150K, as well as exposure to Na(sub (g)), and Na(sub (liq)) on the high pressure side. The temperatures involved make critical high strength and chemical resistance to Na containing Na(sub 2)O. Selection among materials which can be worked should not be driven by ease of fabricability, as high temperature stability is the critical issue. These concepts drive the selection of Mo alloys for Na(sub (liq)) containment in AMTEC cells for T to 1150K operation, as they are significantly stronger than comparable NB or Ta alloys, are less soluble in Na(sub (liq)) containing dissolved Na(sub 2)O, are workable compared to W alloys (which might be used for certain components), and are ductile at the T greater than 500K of proposed AMTEC modules in space applications.

  6. Component selection, accelerated testing, and improved modeling of AMTEC systems for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likely selection of a remote condensed design for initial flight test and probably use with a radioisotope heat source in AMTEC powered planet probes requires the device to be constructed to tolerate operating T > 1,150 K, as well as exposure to Na(g), and Na(liq) on the high pressure side. The temperatures involved make the characterization of high strength and chemical resistance to Na containing Na2O critical. Selection among materials which can be worked should not be driven by ease of fabricability, as high temperature stability is the critical issue. This paper will provide an assessment of some of the materials and components required for high performance AMTEC devices for space applications. Basic models for AMTEC cell operation include a fundamental electrode performance model and an electrode life model which have been compared to experimental performance results. Recent work indicates that several AMTEC electrode have the potential for high performance and long life. Other AMTEC components still present problems, although some issues have little experimental or fundamental basis. The status of these problems will be discussed in this paper, with the goal of focusing attention on critical problems, and correcting some mis-impressions about other issues

  7. Three-component adsorption modeling to evaluate and improve integrated sorption-membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schideman, Lance C; Mariñas, Benito J; Snoeyink, Vernon L; Qi, Shaoying; Campos, Carlos

    2007-09-15

    Integrated sorption-membrane (ISM) processes combining low-pressure membranes with adsorbents are increasingly popular because they cost-effectively expand low-pressure membrane treatment to include dissolved contaminant removal. However, contemporary ISM processes often exhibit antagonistic tradeoffs between adsorption and membrane performance that were investigated using state-of-the-art adsorption models that include both of the predominant competitive effects of natural organic matter: direct site competition and pore blockage. Two currently used ISM process configurations, powdered activated carbon-ultrafiltration (PAC-UF) and adsorptive floc blanket reactor-ultrafiltration (FBR-UF), were compared with a novel configuration, upflow adsorption-ultrafiltration (UA-UF), which consists of a moving-bed of granular activated carbon upstream of a membrane. Model simulations quantitatively compared performance and evaluated potential improvements for each configuration. For instance, using contemporary PAC-UF practices and 90% atrazine removal as a baseline, alternative membrane backwashing procedures can lower carbon usage rates (CURs) by 75% but may also reduce membrane hydraulic performance. Using the same baseline, FBR-UF can reduce CURs by 92% while simultaneously improving membrane performance via pretreatment; however, process size increases 10-fold. The novel UA-UF configuration only increases process size modestly, but can still yield CURs 96% lower than the PAC-UF baseline while simultaneously providing beneficial membrane pretreatment and improving sustainability features by reducing residuals. PMID:17948807

  8. Mechanical reliability of ceramic PTC components - Possibilities of improvement; Mechanische Zuverlaessigkeit von keramischen Kaltleiterbauelementen - Moeglichkeiten zur Verbesserung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supancic, P.; Danzer, R. [Inst. fuer Struktur- und Funktionskeramik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, und Materials Center Leoben (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    In service, PTC-components have to withstand large temperature changes, which result from their electric working conditions. These temperature changes cause large temperature differences due to heat transport and inhomogeneously distributed heat sources. As a result, thermo-mechanical stresses occur, which my cause the failing of the component. A physical model is presented which makes the calculation of mechanical stresses in PTC components in dependence on the electrical loading possible, if the relevant material parameters are known. The interaction between the electric field equations and the equation of the thermal diffusion is taken into account, and the electric and the temperature field in dependence of the position in the PTC is calculated. Then the mechanical stress field and the failure rate is determined. This model is then used to reduce temperature differences (thermal management) and - in consequence - mechanical stresses in PTC components by selection of more suitable PTC materials and by a better design of components (shape, size, structure). This ''mechanical design process'' also improves the reliability of the electroceramic components in service. Further ways to improve the in-service reliability are to increase the strength of the PTC materials and the proof testing of the finished components, which help to sort out parts with an inferior strength. (orig.) [German] Kaltleiterbauelemente werden funktionsbedingt mit Temperaturwechseln beansprucht. Aufgrund des Waermetransports und der inhomogenen Verteilung der Waermequellen kommt es im Bauteil zu Temperaturunterschieden, die ihrerseits wieder mechanische Spannungen (Waermespannungen) bewirken. Diese Spannungen koennen so gross werden, dass sie die Festigkeit des Kaltleiters ueberschreiten und zur Zerstoerung der Bauteile fuehren. Es wird ein Modell vorgestellt, mit dessen Hilfe es moeglich ist, die mechanischen Spannungen in keramischen Kaltleitern (bei Kenntnis der relevanten Materialparameter) in Abhaengigkeit von den angelegten elektrischen Beanspruchungen zu berechnen. Dabei wird die Wechselwirkung zwischen den elektrischen Feldgleichungen und der Waermeleitungsgleichung geloest und das elektrische Feld und das Temperaturfeld in Abhaengigkeit vom Ort bestimmt. Im Anschluss daran kann das mechanische Spannungsfeld bestimmt und eine Ausfallrate der Teile ermittelt werden. Dieses Modell wird verwendet, um durch Auswahl geeigneter Werkstoffe und ueber die Veraenderung des Bauteildesigns (Form, Groesse, Aufbau der Bauteile) die Temperaturunterschiede (Thermal Management) und damit auch die mechanischen Spannungen im Bauteil gezielt zu verringern (mechanisches Konstruieren). Dadurch wird die Zuverlaessigkeit der Teile im Einsatz erhoeht. Weitere Massnahmen zur Verbesserung der Zuverlaessigkeit sind die Verbesserung der Festigkeit der Kaltleiterwerkstoffe und ein elektrischer Proof-Test, durch den Bauteile mit zu geringer Festigkeit aussortiert werden koennen. (orig.)

  9. Is the demographic dividend an education dividend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Lutz, Wolfgang; Sanderson, Warren

    2014-02-01

    The effect of changes in age structure on economic growth has been widely studied in the demography and population economics literature. The beneficial effect of changes in age structure after a decrease in fertility has become known as the "demographic dividend." In this article, we reassess the empirical evidence on the associations among economic growth, changes in age structure, labor force participation, and educational attainment. Using a global panel of countries, we find that after the effect of human capital dynamics is controlled for, no evidence exists that changes in age structure affect labor productivity. Our results imply that improvements in educational attainment are the key to explaining productivity and income growth and that a substantial portion of the demographic dividend is an education dividend. PMID:24302530

  10. Proportional hazards models for improving the analysis of light water reactor component failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications

  11. Proportional-hazards models for improving the analysis of light-water-reactor-component failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications

  12. Video Image Object Tracking Algorithm based on Improved Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the existing object tracking algorithms are very difficult to adapt the object appearance changes caused by illumination changes, large pose variations, and partial or full occlusions, an object tracking algorithm based on two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA and sparse-representation is proposed in this paper. The tracking algorithm adopts 2DPCA and sparse-representation to establish object appearance model. In order to reduce dimension of object template, incremental subspace updating algorithm is introduced to online update the object template, reduce the requirement of memory space and enhance the precision of object appearance description. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm is robust for image illumination variance and object partial occlusion.

  13. Updating TRIGA related component data for improved safety analysis of TRIGA research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two former Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies (first phase and second phase) performed at the Atominstitut are presented and compared, together with the status of a new launched CRP on ''Update and expand of the IAEA reliability data for research reactor PSA's'' started in 2001. The objective of the TRIGA Vienna PSA's was to analyze the various possible accident sequences leading to radiation exposure of persons. Although the TRIGA Vienna is considered inherent safe due to its negative temperature coefficient, the reactor core contains a notable amount of radioactivity, which could lead, under very inauspicious conditions, to radiation exposure of facility staff and the public, above internationally accepted limits; such conditions could be: accidents during fuel element manipulation, loss of coolant water, and catastrophic external events (e.g. earthquake, sabotage, plane crash). The accident sequences (fault tree) were traced and occurrence probabilities per year were calculated. Finally, the results were classified into three categories. The comparison of the results of both studies was summarized as follows: a) The mean values of the second phase PSA were approximately one order of magnitude higher than the appropriate values obtained from the first phase PSA and b) The corresponding relative width of the uncertainty bands remained about the same or is slightly reduced. On the other hand, having changed only the statistical component failure data in the statistical component failure data in the second phase PSA, this comparison showed, that the obtained results primarily depend on reactor specific failure data. The use of generic data from other sources, as it was the case in the first phase PSA, can significantly distort the real occurrence probabilities. Therefore the continuous extension of the IAEA coordinated research reactor specific database is of great importance in order to obtain results of great validity in research reactor PSA's. Refs. 6, Figs. 4, Tabs. 6 (nevyjel)

  14. Use of independent component analysis to improve signal-to-noise ratio in multi-probe fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, L; Lucotte, B; Glancy, B; Chang, L-C; Hsu, L-Y; Balaban, R S

    2014-11-01

    In conventional multi-probe fluorescence microscopy, narrow bandwidth filters on detectors are used to avoid bleed-through artefacts between probes. The limited bandwidth reduces the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection, often severely compromising one or more channels. Herein, we describe a process of using independent component analysis to discriminate the position of different probes using only a dichroic mirror to differentiate the signals directed to the detectors. Independent component analysis was particularly effective in samples where the spatial overlap between the probes is minimal, a very common case in cellular microscopy. This imaging scheme collects nearly all of the emitted light, significantly improving the image signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, we focused on the detection of two fluorescence probes used in vivo, NAD(P)H and ANEPPS. The optimal dichroic mirror cutoff frequency was determined with simulations using the probes spectral emissions. A quality factor, defined as the cross-channel contrast-to-noise ratio, was optimized to maximize signals while maintaining spatial discrimination between the probes after independent component analysis post-processing. Simulations indicate that a ?3 fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio using the independent component analysis approach can be achieved over the conventional narrow-band filtering approach without loss of spatial discrimination. We confirmed this predicted performance from experimental imaging of NAD(P)H and ANEPPS in mouse skeletal muscle, in vivo. For many multi-probe studies, the increased sensitivity of this 'full bandwidth' approach will lead to improved image quality and/or reduced excitation power requirements. PMID:25159193

  15. Thermodynamic approach to improving solubility prediction of co-crystals in comparison with individual poorly soluble components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic approach for solubility improvement of co-crystal was developed. • The graphical technique for estimation of co-crystal solubility was elaborated. • Hydration enthalpies of some drugs and amino acids were calculated. • Applicability/operability of the approach was exemplified by some drugs and amino acids. - Abstract: A novel thermodynamic approach to compare poorly soluble components (active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)) both in co-crystals and individual compounds was developed. An algorithm of choosing potential co-crystals with improved solubility characteristics on the basis of the known solvation/hydration API and co-former enthalpies is described. The applicability and operability of the algorithm were tested exemplified by some drugs and amino acids

  16. Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

  17. Residual life assessment, technical improvements and backfitting of components and systems from the materials standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety standard which is attained at the time of initial startup by a nucleaar power plant built in accordance with state-of-the-art design and engineering principles must be assured throughout the plant's entire lifetime. Based on operating experience a plant's original design life should be systematically reevaluated in the light of new findings and developments in safety. The results of an analysis of this type can also be useful for the purposes of preventive maintenance or to prolong a plant's planned or licensed service life. Moreover, they form the basis of decisions regarding technical upgrades and backfits and are of value in optimizing plant reliability and availability. A concept exists for components in light water reactors which provides for prompt identification and remedying of damage due to the deterioration in service of materials and their properties (e.g. fatigue, local corrosion mechanisms, erosion corrosion, neutron irradiation). It may be necessary or appropriate to implement technical upgrades or backfits where application of more up-to-date safety standards (e.g. break preclusion methodology) demands compliance with more stringent requirements than those originally used in the design basis, or where systematic damage cannot be ruled out (unstabilized austenitic steels in BWR plants), or where it is possible to make substantial reductions in the radiation exposure of operating or maintenance personnel (substitution of cobalt-containing materl (substitution of cobalt-containing materials) during the plant's lifetime. (orig.)

  18. Improved Principal Component Analysis for Anomaly Detection: Application to an Emergency Department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-07-03

    Monitoring of production systems, such as those in hospitals, is primordial for ensuring the best management and maintenance desired product quality. Detection of emergent abnormalities allows preemptive actions that can prevent more serious consequences. Principal component analysis (PCA)-based anomaly-detection approach has been used successfully for monitoring systems with highly correlated variables. However, conventional PCA-based detection indices, such as the Hotelling’s T2T2 and the Q statistics, are ill suited to detect small abnormalities because they use only information from the most recent observations. Other multivariate statistical metrics, such as the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) control scheme, are more suitable for detection small anomalies. In this paper, a generic anomaly detection scheme based on PCA is proposed to monitor demands to an emergency department. In such a framework, the MCUSUM control chart is applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the PCA model. The proposed PCA-based MCUSUM anomaly detection strategy is successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department in the Lille Regional Hospital Centre, France. The detection results evidence that the proposed method is more effective than the conventional PCA-based anomaly-detection methods.

  19. Improved grinding quality inspection of large bearing components using Barkhausen noise analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarits, Francis M.

    2014-02-01

    Assuring that the finished surfaces of precision large bearing components are free from grinding injury is important due to the high initial value of these bearings, heavy application loadings and high costs associated with potential reduced service life. Inspecting bearing raceway surfaces for grind burn can be done by nital etching but this method is time consuming, involves using hazardous acids, is non-quantitative and does not provide information about residual stresses. An experimental study was performed to assess scanning Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) to detect various levels of induced grind injury on four steels used in large bearing ring production. Test samples having approximately 0.25 m diameter were fabricated from bearing steels heat treated by case carburizing, induction hardening and through hardening. A series of grinding cycles was designed and subsequently the entire ground surface on each sample was tested by scanning BNA. Selected samples were then evaluated by nital etching or destructive metallurgical tests. BNA results are compared with specific grinding power, nital etch and destructive measurements to show BNA to be an effective technique for identification of grind injury on these steel materials. Similar relative trends in the BNA response are present regardless of alloy or heat treatment.

  20. Improvement of the detectability of near surface cracks in cladded components by combined NDT-methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience in the use of eddy current testing as a selected compliment to a sensitive ultrasonic test confirm the physically justified expectation that the total efficiency of the non-destructive test can be increased for detection of flaws near the surface and near the plating by the fact that this approach very reliably guarantees that a component is free of cracks in the area monitored by both of these methods. Using the eddy current test to check ligaments under practical conditions makes it possible to use an ultrasonic test with SEL 70 technique adjusted for high sensitivity for the reliable detection of cracks. The SEL technique lacks precision as far as the depth and depth extension is concerned. Therefore, this technique supplies many indications when adjusted for sensitivity in detecting cracks below plating without countertesting by means of eddy current which would have to be interpreted as cracks if this could not be unambiguously ruled out for each position with the eddy current test. It was possible to show how effective this combination is at many places during our work in summer 1995. Checking the entire plating for potential cracks using the combination of eddy current testing to monitor ligaments, and surface crack testing with an ultrasonic test set with high sensitivity guarantees detection of faults. (orig.)

  1. Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Chonan (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herval mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. In addition, these extracts induced the same effects on the peritoneal macrophages. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression - IL-1{beta}, IL-6, LT and iNOS-were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. (author). 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensio...

  3. Demographic change, growth and agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Grafeneder-Weissteiner, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a framework within which the effects of demographic change on both agglomeration and growth of economic activities can be analyzed. I introduce an overlapping generation structure into a New Economic Geography model with endogenous growth due to learning spillovers and focus on the effects of demographic structures on long-run equilibrium outcomes and stability properties. First, life-time uncertainty is shown to decrease long-run economic growth perspectives. In doing s...

  4. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Ann Flyvholm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  5. Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-10-01

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places. PMID:24129115

  6. Plasma Performance Improvement with Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium as a plasma-facing material has many attractive features, including a reduction in the recycling of hydrogenic species and the potential for withstanding high heat and neutron fluxes in fusion reactors. Recent NSTX experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and recurring benefits of lithium coatings on plasma-facing components (PFC's) to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. They included decreases in the plasma density and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate. Extended periods of MHD quiescence were also achieved, and measurements of the visible emission from the lower divertor showed a reduction in the deuterium, carbon, and oxygen line emission. Other salient results with lithium evaporation included a broadening of the electron temperature profile, and changes in edge density gradients that benefited electron Bernstein wave coupling. There was also a reduction in ELM frequency and amplitude, followed by a period of complete ELM suppression. In general, it was observed that both the best and the average confinement occurred after lithium deposition and that the increase in WMHD occurs mostly through an increase in We. In addition, a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) is being installed on NSTX this year. As the first fully-toroidal liquid metal divertor target, experiments with the LLD can provide insight into the behavior of metallic ITER PFC's should they liquefy during high-power divertor tokamak operations. The NSTX lithium coating and LLD experiments are important near-term steps in demonstrating the potential of liquid lithium as a solution to the first-wall problem for both magnetic and inertial fusion reactors

  7. On an efficient modification of singular value decomposition using independent component analysis for improved MRS denoising and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient modification of singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed in this paper aiming at denoising and more importantly at quantifying more accurately the statistically independent spectra of metabolite sources in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Although SVD is known in MRS applications and several efficient algorithms exist for estimating SVD summation terms in which the raw MRS data are analyzed, however, it would be more beneficial for such an analysis if techniques with the ability to estimate statistically independent spectra could be employed. SVD is known to separate signal and noise subspaces but it assumes orthogonal properties for the components comprising signal subspace, which is not always the case, and might impose heavy constraints for the MRS case. A much more relaxing constraint would be to assume statistically independent components. Therefore, a modification of the main methodology incorporating techniques for calculating the assumed statistically independent spectra is proposed by applying SVD on the MRS spectrogram through application of the short time Fourier transform (STFT). This approach is based on combining SVD on STFT spectrogram followed by an iterative application of independent component analysis (ICA). Moreover, it is shown that the proposed methodology combined with a regression analysis would lead to improved quantification of the MRS signals. An experimental study based on synthetic MRS signals has been conducted to evaluate the herein proposed methodologies. The results obtained have been discussed and it is shown to be quite promising

  8. Applications [an improved crack growth model for low alloy steel component flaw evaluations in Light Water Reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Applications subcommittee of the International Cooperative Group on Cyclic Crack Growth (ICCGR) is to demonstrate the successful application of an improved crack growth model to low alloy steel component flaw evaluations in Light Water Reactor environments. Building on the work of the other subcommittees, a well defined predictive model must be shown to be suitable for such applications, consistent with the laboratory data, and consistent with current understanding of the damage mechanisms of corrosion-fatigue crack growth. The established convention for fatigue crack growth data correlation models presumes a relationship between da/dN and ?K, as reported by Paris. The influence of other variables of loading, material environment is determined empirically to define a model such as the one adopted by current ASME XI Appendix A flaw evaluation curves. Research presented to the ICCGR has led the group to consider a fundamentally different relationship for data correlation and applications models, when the time-dependent influence of corrosion on fatigue crack growth is strong. It is expected in those circumstances that the time rate of crack growth can be correlated with the time rate of crack tip straining. A practical derivation of this approach is the so-called time domain presentation of fatigue crack growth data. Effort has been focused on correlating the data to define a model which is also suitable for engineering application to component fla engineering application to component flaw evaluation. (author)

  9. Wear mechanisms and improvements of wear resistance in cobalt-chromium alloy femoral components in artificial total knee joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Like

    Wear is one of the major causes of artificial total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. Wear debris can cause adverse reactions to the surrounding tissue which can ultimately lead to loosening of the prosthesis. The wear behavior of UHMWPE tibial components have been studied extensively, but relatively little attention has been paid to the CoCrMo femoral component. The goal of the present study was to investigate the wear mechanisms of CoCrMo femoral components, to study the effect of CoCrMo alloy surface roughness on the wear of UHMWPE, and to determine the effect of heat treatments on the wear resistance of the CoCrMo implant alloys. The surface roughness of twenty-seven retrieved CoCrMo femoral components was analyzed. A multiple station wear testing machine and a wear fixture attached to an MTS 858 bionix system were built and used for in vitro wear studies of the CoCrMo/UHMWPE bearing couple. Solution and aging treatments were applied to the CoCrMo alloys. A white light interference surface profilometer (WLISP) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to measure the surface roughness and to study wear mechanisms of CoCrMo alloy. An optical microscope was used for alloy microstructure study. X-ray diffraction tests were performed to identify alloy phase transformation after aging. The micro-structure, hardness, and wear resistance of the alloys were studied. Surface roughness was used to quantify alloy wear, and the minimum number of surface roughness measurements required to obtain a reliable and repeatable characterization of surface roughness for a worn alloy surface was determined. The surfaces of the retrieved CoCrMo femoral components appeared to be damaged by metal particles embedded in the UHMWPE tibial component and metal-on-metal wear due to UHMWPE tibial component through-wear. Surface roughness of the femoral components was not correlated with patient age, weight, sex, or length of implantation. In vitro wear tests showed that when the CoCrMo alloy surface roughness was higher than 0.022 mum Ra (surface roughness average), UHMWPE wear increased with increasing CoCrMo alloy surface roughness. Bone and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement abrasive particles created scratches on the alloy via a ploughing mechanism, and resulted in significantly rougher surfaces than controls without particles (P < 0.01). Solution treatments at 1230sp°C and 1245sp°C reduced the hardness and wear resistance of the as-cast F75 CoCrMo alloy. Aging at 700sp°C caused recrystallization of the forged F799 alloy and improved wear resistance. Thermo-mechanical treatments have the potential to increase the lifetime of artificial joints by increasing the wear resistance of CoCrMo components.

  10. NIDI: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIDI is an independent institute engaged in the scientific study of population. Research carried out at NIDI aims to contribute to the description, analysis, explanation or prediction of demographic trends in the past, the present and the future. The NIDI site offers several items of interest to Demographers and graduate students. Users can consult a list of projects the Institute is currently sponsoring, with some links to abstracts and contact information; the site also contains information on a number of NIDI's publications including Institute reports, European Studies of Population, and the Dutch language journals DEMOS and Bevolking en Gezin (Population and Family). Lists of articles and English abstracts are available for all publications, as is a comprehensive annotated list of related links, including a number of links to sites with Demographic software.

  11. Estimation of Properties of Pure Components Using Improved Group-Contribution+ (GC+) Based Models and Uncertainty Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent

    Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components are needed to carry out tasks such as process design and computer aided molecular/mixture design among others. The experimental values of properties of many important pure components have not been measured due to many reasons, and hence they must be estimated. Predictive methods such as the group-contribution+ (GC+) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) are generally suitable to estimate the needed property values. For assessing the quality and reliability of the selected property prediction method, an engineer needs to know the uncertainties in the estimated property values obtained from that method. With this information, the engineer can then perform better- informed design calculations by taking into account these uncertainties. Hence, given the importance of reliable estimation of properties and uncertainties in the property estimates in the engineering calculations, this work aims to revise and improve GC+ method based estimation of properties as well as to estimate the confidence intervals of estimated property values. To this end, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis, in general, is developed and used. In total 21 properties of pure components, which include normal boiling point, critical constants, normal melting point among others have been analysed. The statistical analysis of the model performance for these properties is highlighted through several illustrative examples. Important issues related to property modeling such as thermodynamic consistency of the predicted properties (relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature etc.) are analysed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only the estimated property values using the GC+ approach, but also the uncertainties in the estimated property values. This feature allows one to evaluate the effects of these uncertainties on the product-process design calculations thereby contributing to better-informed and reliable engineering solutions.

  12. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignal, N., E-mail: nicolas.vignal@cea.fr; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m{sup ?2}, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material.

  13. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m?2, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material

  14. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensions to meet the needs of senior consumers.

  15. Counting Heads: Israel's Demographic Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer J. Petersen-Overton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Israel is a country uniquely affected by demography, insofar as the state is bound by an explicitly Jewish nature. This balance has forced Israel to combat external demographic threats from before 1948 up until the present. The implementation of policies including the endorsement of “transfer”—a euphemism for the expulsion of Palestinians in 1948, the razing of Palestinian villages, discriminatory legislation and the creation of facts on the ground—are a logical extension of the Zionist ideology. The construction of the West Bank Barrier (WBB is the current manifestation of Israeli demographic fears and the Zionist desire to further curb non-Jewish elements.

  16. Social Demographic Change and Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; BEARMAN, PETER

    2010-01-01

    Parental age at child’s birth—which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992–2000 birth cohorts—is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents’ DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic ...

  17. Improved curvature gravity gradient tensor with principal component analysis and its application in edge detection of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Meng, Xiaohong; Li, Fang

    2015-07-01

    Edge detection is one of the common processes in the interpretation of gravity data, and it gives a view of the earth which highlights boundaries of geological bodies. Many mathematical techniques have been proposed for edge detection including the curvature gravity gradient tensor method (CGGT). Eigenvalues of the curvature gravity gradient tensor can well delineate the edges of some geological bodies. However, it cannot be applied to complex gravity data with both positive and negative anomalies. Moreover, the CGGT method is also very sensitive to noise. In view of limitations of the method, we proposed an improved CGGT method by incorporating the principal component analysis (PCA) into the CGGT formula. The improved method can be utilized to outline the edges of causative bodies in more general cases and is insensitive to noise. The method was tested on synthetic gravity data and actual gravity data recorded from a metallic mineral deposit area in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. All of the results have shown effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Are Demographics the Nation's Destiny?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Gene V.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the demographic trends affecting America's public schools. As an expert on empirical evaluation of education, the author believes the major debates over vouchers, charter schools, bilingual education, and other issues are not really about preparing the next generation to compete with China or India, or about…

  19. Socio-demographic factors and oral health conditions in the elderly: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tamires Carneiro; da Silva, Diviane Alves; Leite de Freitas, Yan Nogueira; da Silva, Romerito Lins; Pegado, Carla Patrícia de Castro; de Lima, Kenio Costa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between oral health conditions and socio-demographic factors in an elderly population from Macaíba/RN (Brazil). A questionnaire was used to characterize the socio-demographic profiles and a clinical examination was performed to assess oral health conditions such as tooth decay, gum disease, use of dental prosthesis, need for dental prosthesis and soft tissue injuries. The technique of random sampling by conglomerates was used, taken from randomly selected census drafts, with a total sample of 441 individuals. The prevalence of edentulism, bleeding and dental calculus was 50.8%, 27.2% and 32%, respectively, excluding all sextants in 59% of the elderly. Data analysis was conducted using the chi-squared test with the level of significance set at 5%. Prior to association tests, the dependant variables were submitted to principal component analysis. Four factors were extracted to represent the oral health conditions of elderly individuals. A statistically significant association was found between the following variables: gender and the presence of a caregiver with gum disease; age, residence area, presence of a caregiver and household density with need for dental prosthesis; and household density with soft tissue injuries. Therefore, precarious oral health conditions were found among the elderly and associations were found between these conditions and the socio-demographic factors, particularly gender, age and residence area. The results obtained demonstrated the need for improved oral health conditions in the elderly. The study of these conditions, allied to socio-demographic factors, is important in terms of both dental care and public policy planning related to these individuals. PMID:23773366

  20. Two-dimensional retention indices improve component identification in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming; Kulsing, Chadin; Nolvachai, Yada; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-06-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography hyphenated with accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-accTOFMS) was applied for improved analytical accuracy of saffron analysis, by using retention indices in the two-dimensional separation. This constitutes 3 dimensions of identification. In addition to accTOFMS specificity, and first dimension retention indices ((1)I), a simple method involving direct multiple injections with stepwise isothermal temperature programming is described for construction of isovolatility curves for reference alkane series in GC × GC. This gives access to calculated second dimension retention indices ((2)I). Reliability of the calculated (2)I was evaluated by using a Grob test mixture, and saturated alkanes, revealing good correlation between previously reported I values from the literature, with R(2) correlation being 0.9997. This essentially recognizes the retention property of peaks in the GC × GC 2D space as being reducible to a retention index in each dimension, which should be a valuable tool supporting identification. The benefit of (2)I data, in supplementing (1)I and MS library matching, was clearly demonstrated by the progressive reduction of the number of possible compound matches for peaks observed in saffron. 114 analytes were assessed according to (1)I and (2)I values within ±20 index unit of reference values, and by MS spectrum matching above a match statistic of 750 (including mass accuracy of the molecular ion <20 ppm) and their possible identities derived. The described method provides a new avenue to utilize the full capability of the two-dimensional separation (GC × GC), in combination with MS library matching in complex sample analysis, to provide improved component identification. PMID:25936794

  1. Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and In-vessel components towards ITER construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints and revised VV support system to gain a more comfortable margin in the structural performance. The blanket design has been updated; an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet-outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and non destructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. With regard to the R and D for the FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block and the divertor components have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

  2. Improvement of Fatigue Life of Welded Structural Components of a Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engine by Grinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Hansen, Anders V.

    2004-01-01

    The crankshaft housings of large two-stroke diesel engines are welded structures subjected to constant amplitude loading and designed for infinite life at full design load. A new design of the so-called frame box has been introduced in the engine using butt weld joints of thick plates, welded from one side only, with no access to the root side. Various investigations on the fatigue life of the structural components of this new design have been carried out. The present investigation concentrates on the improvement in fatigue life which may be obtained by grinding of the weld toes. The tests performed showed a significant increase in fatigue life due to the grinding, ranging from a factor of approx. 2.8 to infinity, depending on the load level. Although the number of tests was limited, the results indicate a favourable change of slope of the S-N curve, from m=3 for the test series without grinding to m=6 for the test series with grinding. In one of the test series, it was observed that in most cases crack initiation moved from the weld toe to the non-ground surface between the ground areas at the weld toes. Tests were made on steel S 275, on centrally and eccentrically loaded test specimens.

  3. Demographics

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  10. Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control conducts its National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey , a longitudinal study of the health ... prevalent occupational health problems in the United States. Workers involved in agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, and transportation ...

  11. Development and validation of an improved creep-fatigue interaction rule for lifetime determination of high temperature components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For design purposes and for lifetime assessments of components operating at elevated temperatures the creep-fatigue interaction rule is widely used. Although this rule - because of its shortcomings - does not provide sufficient results, the world-wide use is due to the simplicity of its application in connection with inelastic lifetime analyses. In view of this, the creep-fatigue interaction rule was improved. A significant shortcoming is the missing strain rate dependence on creep damage during a relaxation phase. The influence of the strain rate on the creep damage in a material is caused by different deformation modes. At high strain rates the motion and formation of dislocation dominates, whereas grain boundary sliding increases with decreasing strain rate. These basic deformation modes cause different creep damage. Since the strain rate during a relaxation phase correlates with holdtime, an interaction term c(t) was introduced, describing the fractional change of creep damage in dependence of timedependent damage due to fatigue, with time as variable. The interaction term c(t) represents a weight function for the differential creep damage dt/t and varies between zero and unity, nonlinear with respect to holdtime. The effect of the interaction term c(t) consist in a lower accumulated creep damage in comparison with the unmodified rule in the region of fast strain rates. This fact is an agreement with the experience, that dislocation controlled deformation is less damaging than grain boundary sliding. With increasing holdtime corresponding with decreasing interaction between creep and fatigue the term c(t) tends to unity. In case of pure creep the improved rule turns over to the modified one. The improved rule has been validated by evaluation of uniaxial low-cycle fatigue holdtime experiments. The following materials have been investigated: Inconel 617 (NiCr22Co12Mo); AISI 304ss (X6CrNi1811); 12%Cr-Mo-V-steel (X20CrMoV121). A comparison with the results of the unmodified rule is given. (author). 2 refs, 11 figs

  12. Counting Heads: Israel's Demographic Imperative

    OpenAIRE

    Kristofer J. Petersen-Overton

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a country uniquely affected by demography, insofar as the state is bound by an explicitly Jewish nature. This balance has forced Israel to combat external demographic threats from before 1948 up until the present. The implementation of policies including the endorsement of “transfer”—a euphemism for the expulsion of Palestinians in 1948, the razing of Palestinian villages, discriminatory legislation and the creation of facts on the ground—are a logical extension of the Zioni...

  13. Improving teacher-child relationship quality and teacher-rated behavioral adjustment amongst externalizing preschoolers: effects of a two-component intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Wouters, Sofie; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde

    2015-02-01

    The school-based Playing-2-gether is a 12-week intervention with two components aimed at decreasing child externalizing behavior through improving teacher-child interactions. The first component is rooted in attachment theory and aimed at enhancing teacher-child relationship quality, and the second is based on learning theory and aimed at improving teachers' behavior management. In this three-wave randomized study, effects of Playing-2-gether on the teacher-child relationship quality and on teacher-rated child behavioral adjustment were investigated. To this aim, 175 dyads consisting of male preschoolers with relatively high levels of externalizing problem behavior and their teachers were randomly assigned to Playing-2-gether (n = 89) or an education-as-usual control condition (n = 86). Teacher-rated questionnaires were collected at pre-test, after the first intervention component, and at post-test. At post-test, the intervention group showed a larger decrease in teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems, and child hyperactivity/inattention. Supplementary analyses showed that all positive effects were already visible after the first intervention component and that teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention did not further reduce during the second component. In addition, an increase in closeness was found following the first component, but subsequently disappeared at post-test. PMID:25028283

  14. Demographic vulnerability of the clonal and endangered meadow thistle

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejans, E.; Vere, N.; Kroon, H.

    2008-01-01

    For effective management of endangered species it is pivotal to understand why a species is endangered and which key life cycle components are involved in its response to environmental changes. Our objective was to investigate the response of rosettes of the redlisted clonal herb Cirsium dissectum to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, which threatens its populations, and the consequences of these responses for its population dynamics. We constructed matrix population models with demographic d...

  15. IQ-test-improving quality in testing and evaluation of solar and thermal characteristics of building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [BRE Scotland, East Kilbride (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    IQ-test is a Thematic Network supported by the European Community under the EESD Programme. The objective of IQ-test is to further the development of common quality procedures at the PASLINK test cell facilities in 12 European countries, for the assessment of the thermal characteristics of building components. This should consolidate the network, integrate the newer test sites and strengthen its common approach of support for new product developments in the field of innovative building components. Round robin tests are underway to assess both the inter-site quality of testing and analytical procedures of the participants. Two components were designed: (1) an opaque, well insulated, homogeneous panel and (2) a window, which is used to replace the central section of the first component. Common test and quality procedures have been implemented at each test site. The data sets generated by each team have been made available for cross-analysis by another team. The results available so far on the first component indicate good agreement between sites. This paper summarises the progress to date. Results are also presented from a training exercise which asked participants to identify the performance characteristics of an unknown component without providing any physical description of the component. (author)

  16. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental idealism—that inform demographers’ understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms.

  17. The Use of Probabilistic Methods to Evaluate the Systems Impact of Component Design Improvements on Large Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    Probabilistic Structural Analysis (PSA) is now commonly used for predicting the distribution of time/cycles to failure of turbine blades and other engine components. These distributions are typically based on fatigue/fracture and creep failure modes of these components. Additionally, reliability analysis is used for taking test data related to particular failure modes and calculating failure rate distributions of electronic and electromechanical components. How can these individual failure time distributions of structural, electronic and electromechanical component failure modes be effectively combined into a top level model for overall system evaluation of component upgrades, changes in maintenance intervals, or line replaceable unit (LRU) redesign? This paper shows an example of how various probabilistic failure predictions for turbine engine components can be evaluated and combined to show their effect on overall engine performance. A generic model of a turbofan engine was modeled using various Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) tools (Quantitative Risk Assessment Software (QRAS) etc.). Hypothetical PSA results for a number of structural components along with mitigation factors that would restrict the failure mode from propagating to a Loss of Mission (LOM) failure were used in the models. The output of this program includes an overall failure distribution for LOM of the system. The rank and contribution to the overall Mission Success (MS) is also given for each failure mode and each subsystem. This application methodology demonstrates the effectiveness of PRA for assessing the performance of large turbine engines. Additionally, the effects of system changes and upgrades, the application of different maintenance intervals, inclusion of new sensor detection of faults and other upgrades were evaluated in determining overall turbine engine reliability.

  18. Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Owusu-Agyei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

  19. Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

  20. Asia's demographic miracle: 50 years of unprecedented change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R; Alam, I

    1999-12-01

    The demographic landscape of Asia has seen unprecedented changes over the past 50 years. The transition from high to low mortality and fertility rates has made the eventual stabilization of the world's population a real possibility. The demographic success of Asia is associated with the stunning economic and social changes that have taken place during this period. Aside from social and economic improvements, population and health policies also played a major part in shaping the region's demographic transformation. National programs made a substantial contribution to increasing contraceptive use, lowering fertility, and slowing population growth. The success of family planning programs was frequently supported by positive changes in the demand for children. As the initial impact of the recent financial and economic crisis has shown, the Asian demographic miracle cannot be taken for granted. Since mid-1997, the crisis has interrupted and reversed the region's remarkable development gains. Economic downturns often tend to affect the social sectors unevenly. Strengthening the provision of basic social services, including reproductive health and care of the elderly, particularly in poor nations, will remain a challenge in the next century. The establishment of goals, including in areas such as HIV/AIDS, will help Asian countries realize the vision of the International Conference on Population and Development¿s 20-year Programme of Action. PMID:12349488

  1. Demographics and the Long-Horizon Returns of Dividend-Yield Strategies in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, King Fuei

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between demographic changes and the long-run returns of dividend-yield investment strategies in the US. We hypothesise that in a world where components of wealth are mentally treated as being non-fungible, the preference for high dividend-paying stocks by older investors means that the excess returns of high dividend-yielding stocks, relative to other stocks, should be positively related to demographic clientele variation. In particular, we find that, ...

  2. Demographic studies of extrasolar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Timothy

    Uncovering the demographics of extrasolar planets is crucial to understanding the processes of their formation and evolution. In this thesis, we present four studies that contribute to this end, three of which relate to NASA's Kepler mission, which has revolutionized the field of exoplanets in the last few years. In the pre-Kepler study, we investigate a sample of exoplanet spin-orbit measurements---measurements of the inclination of a planet's orbit relative to the spin axis of its host star---to determine whether a dominant planet migration channel can be identified, and at what confidence. Applying methods of Bayesian model comparison to distinguish between the predictions of several different migration models, we find that the data strongly favor a two-mode migration scenario combining planet-planet scattering and disk migration over a single-mode Kozai migration scenario. While we test only the predictions of particular Kozai and scattering migration models in this work, these methods may be used to test the predictions of any other spin-orbit misaligning mechanism. We then present two studies addressing astrophysical false positives in Kepler data. The Kepler mission has identified thousands of transiting planet candidates, and only relatively few have yet been dynamically confirmed as bona fide planets, with only a handful more even conceivably amenable to future dynamical confirmation. As a result, the ability to draw detailed conclusions about the diversity of exoplanet systems from Kepler detections relies critically on understanding the probability that any individual candidate might be a false positive. We show that a typical a priori false positive probability for a well-vetted Kepler candidate is only about 5-10%, enabling confidence in demographic studies that treat candidates as true planets. We also present a detailed procedure that can be used to securely and efficiently validate any individual transit candidate using detailed information of the signal's shape as well as follow-up observations, if available. Finally, we calculate an empirical, non-parametric estimate of the shape of the radius distribution of small planets with periods less than 90 days orbiting cool (less than 4000K) dwarf stars in the Kepler catalog. This effort reveals several notable features of the distribution, in particular a maximum in the radius function around 1-1.25 Earth radii and a steep drop-off in the distribution larger than 2 Earth radii. Even more importantly, the methods presented in this work can be applied to a broader subsample of Kepler targets to understand how the radius function of planets changes across different types of host stars.

  3. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic

  4. Children of Divorced Parents in Demographic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Paul C.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on demographic changes regarding children of divorced parents between 1960-78. Shows how many children may be expected to be living with divorced parents in 1990. Also presents social and economic characteristics of divorced parents and projects demographic consequences of these patterns. (Author/GC)

  5. [Contemplations on demographic theories (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W

    1979-03-01

    All demographic theories make statements on the relationship between population developments and economic developments. The demographic teachings of Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, and Karl Marx are embedded in their specific economic theories and contain ideologic statements which are not detrimental to demographic and economic sciences but a stimulus for research. The demographic theories which developed with the onset of the industrial revolution of the 19th century are all sceptical of too high populations independent of their analysis of the market mechanisms or of capitalistic production relationships. This has remained unchanged to date. The statistical evaluation of the 1980's underlines this problem. The reproductive behaviour and demographic theory of a highly industrialized economy can not be based on experience alone but must also be based on rational findings. The rejection of the prestige value of children on the reproductive behaviour which is independent of circumstances must be recognized. PMID:437463

  6. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  7. Group-contribution+ (GC+) based estimation of properties of pure components: Improved property estimation and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present revised and improved model parameters for group-contribution+ (GC+) models (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) employed for the estimation of pure component properties, together with covariance matrices to quantify uncertainties in the estimated property values. For this purpose, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis of GC models and CI models using maximum-likelihood estimation theory is developed. For parameter estimation, large data-sets of experimentally measured property values of pure components of various classes (hydrocarbons, oxygenated components, nitrogenated components, poly-functional components, etc.) taken from the CAPEC database are used. In total 18 pure component properties are analyzed, namely normal boiling point, critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume, normal melting point, standard Gibbs energy of formation, standard enthalpy of formation, normal enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization at 298 K, enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, flash point, auto ignition temperature, Hansen solubility parameters, Hildebrand solubility parameter, octanol/water partition coefficient, acentric factor, and liquid molar volume at 298 K. Important issues related to property modeling such as reliability and predictive capability of the property prediction models, and thermodynamic consistency of the predicted properties (such as, relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature) are also analyzed and discussed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only the estimated pure component property values but also the uncertainties (e.g. prediction errors in terms of 95% confidence intervals) in the estimated property values. This feature allows one to evaluate the effects of these uncertainties on product-process design, simulation and optimization calculations, contributing to better-informed and more reliable engineering solutions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mari-Ann Flyvholm; Karen Bo Frydendall; Louise Hardman Smith; Kirsten Hviid

    2013-01-01

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workpl...

  9. Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain with Imperfect Quality of Commodity Components in Uncertain State

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Alden Ghasimi; Rizauddin Ramli; Nizaroyani Saibani

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a mathematical model for four-level defective goods supply chain with imperfect quality of commodity components in an uncertain state to maximize profit of supply chain. It is assumed that the inspection of incoming parts in suppliers is randomly done and incomplete. This lead some of the manufactured products will not be properly manufactured because of defective parts and are considered as defective goods and in most cases, the defective products can be repaired b...

  10. The contribution of educational class in improving accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction across European regions : The MORGAM Project Cohort Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrario, Marco M; Veronesi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether educational class, an index of socioeconomic position, improves the accuracy of the SCORE cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction equation. METHODS: In a pooled analysis of 68 455 40-64-year-old men and women, free from coronary heart disease at baseline, from 47 prospective population-based cohorts from Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, Sweden), the UK (Northern Ireland, Scotland), Central Europe (France, Germany, Italy) and Eastern Europe (Lithuania, Poland) and Russia, we assessed improvements in discrimination and in risk classification (net reclassification improvement (NRI)) when education was added to models including the SCORE risk equation. RESULTS: The lowest educational class was associated with higher CVD mortality in men (pooled age-adjusted HR=1.64, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.90) and women (HR=1.31, 1.02 to 1.68). In men, the HRs ranged from 1.3 (Central Europe) to 2.1 (Eastern Europe and Russia). After adjustment for the SCORE risk, the association remained statistically significant overall, in the UK and Eastern Europe and Russia. Education significantly improved discrimination in all European regions and classification in Nordic countries (clinical NRI=5.3%) and in Eastern Europe and Russia (NRI=24.7%). In women, after SCORE risk adjustment, the association was not statistically significant, but the reduced number of deaths plays a major role, and the addition of education led to improvements in discrimination and classification in the Nordic countries only. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend the inclusion of education in SCORE CVD risk equation in men, particularly in Nordic and East European countries, to improve social equity in primary prevention. Weaker evidence for women warrants the need for further investigations.

  11. Principal component analysis of atrial fibrillation: Inclusion of posterior ECG leads does not improve correlation with left atrial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Daniel; Langley, Philip; Shepherd, Ewen; Lord, Stephen; Murray, Stephen; Murray, Alan; Bourke, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lead V1 is routinely analysed due to its large amplitude AF waveform. V1 correlates strongly with right atrial activity but only moderately with left atrial activity. Posterior lead V9 correlates strongest with left atrial activity. Aims (1) To establish whether surface dominant AF frequency (DAF) calculated using principal component analysis (PCA) of a modified 12-lead ECG (including posterior leads) has a stronger correlation with left atrial activity compared to the standard ECG. (2) To assess the contribution of individual ECG leads to the AF principal component in both ECG configurations. Methods Patients were assigned to modified or standard ECG groups. In the modified ECG, posterior leads V8 and V9 replaced V4 and V6. AF waveform was extracted from one-minute surface ECG recordings using PCA. Surface DAF was correlated with intracardiac DAF from the high right atrium (HRA), coronary sinus (CS) and pulmonary veins (PVs). Results 96 patients were studied. Surface DAF from the modified ECG did not have a stronger correlation with left atrial activity compared to the standard ECG. Both ECG configurations correlated strongly with HRA, CS and right PVs but only moderately with left PVs. V1 contributed most to the AF principal component in both ECG configurations. PMID:25619612

  12. An Aging World--demographics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunenfeld, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The world has seen enormous changes over the past century, including historically unprecedented declines in mortality rates and increases in population, followed by equally unprecedented declines in fertility rates. This century will see a new set of demographic challenges, including a mix of falling fertility rates alongside persisting worldwide population growth, and the subsequent aging of populations in both developing and developed countries. The 20th century was the century of population growth; the 21st century will go into the history books as the century of aging. A holistic approach to this new challenge of the 21st century will necessitate a quantum leap in multidisciplinary and internationally coordinated research efforts, supported by a new partnership between industry and governments, philanthropic and international organizations. This collaboration we hope will enrich us with a better understanding of healthy aging, permit us to help to improve quality of life, prevent the preventable, and postpone and decrease the pain and suffering of the inevitable. PMID:18224537

  13. Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates. Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead on programs that aim to enable choice about childbearing; in concrete terms this means measures such as one-off payments, improving childcare availability, and addressing worklife balance concerns.1 As an issue, low fertility is seen as a particular problem for a number of European and East Asian advanced industrialized countries. Germany and Japan stand out in having experienced especially low fertility over a sustained period of time, while countries with an established and generous welfare state or long traditions of migration appear to buck these trends among members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

  14. Wheat signature modeling and analysis for improved training statistics: Supplement. Simulated LANDSAT wheat radiances and radiance components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malila, W. A.; Cicone, R. C.; Gleason, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Simulated scanner system data values generated in support of LACIE (Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment) research and development efforts are presented. Synthetic inband (LANDSAT) wheat radiances and radiance components were computed and are presented for various wheat canopy and atmospheric conditions and scanner view geometries. Values include: (1) inband bidirectional reflectances for seven stages of wheat crop growth; (2) inband atmospheric features; and (3) inband radiances corresponding to the various combinations of wheat canopy and atmospheric conditions. Analyses of these data values are presented in the main report.

  15. IMPROVED REAL-TIME FACE RECOGNITION BASED ON THREE LEVEL WAVELET DECOMPOSITION-PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Edy Winarno; Agus Harjoko; Aniati Murni Arymurthy; Edi Winarko

    2014-01-01

    The development of research in the field of real-time face recognition is a study that is being developed in the last decade. Face recognition is used to identify person from an image or video. Recognition rate and computation time of real-time face recognition is one of the big challenges that must be developed. This study proposes a model of face recognition using the method of feature extraction by combining three level wavelet decomposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and using...

  16. Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

  17. Improvements in Low-Frequency, Ultrasonic Phased-Array Evaluation for Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

    2010-12-01

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This particular study focused on the evaluation of custom-designed, low-frequency (500 kHz) phased-array (PA) probes for examining welds in thick-section cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping. In addition, research was conducted to observe ultrasonic sound field propagation effects from known coarse-grained microstructures found in parent CASS material. The study was conducted on a variety of thick-wall, coarse-grained CASS specimens that were previously inspected by an older generation 500-kHz PA-UT probe and acquisition instrument configuration. This comparative study describes the impact of the new PA probe design on flaw detection and sizing in a low signal-to-noise environment. The set of Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) CASS specimens examined in this study are greater than 50.8-mm (2.0-in.) thick with documented flaws and microstructures. These specimens are on loan to PNNL from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. The flaws contained within these specimens are thermal fatigue cracks (TFC) or mechanical fatigue cracks (MFC) and range from 13% to 42% in through-wall extent. In addition, ultrasonic signal continuity was evaluated on two CASS parent material ring sections by examining the edge-of-pipe response (corner geometry) for regions of signal loss.

  18. Overcoming Allee effects through evolutionary, genetic, and demographic rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarek, Andrew R; Webb, Colleen T; Barfield, Michael; Holt, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the amplified threats of extinction facing small founder populations, successful colonization sometimes occurs, bringing devastating ecological and economic consequences. One explanation may be rapid evolution, which can increase mean fitness in populations declining towards extinction, permitting persistence and subsequent expansion. Such evolutionary rescue may be particularly important, given Allee effects. When a population is introduced at low density, individuals often experience a reduction in one or more components of fitness due to novel selection pressures that arise from diminished intraspecific interactions and positive density dependence (i.e. component Allee effects). A population can avoid extinction if it can adapt and recover on its own (i.e. evolutionary rescue), or if additional immigration sustains the population (i.e. demographic rescue) or boosts its genetic variation that facilitates adaptation (i.e. genetic rescue). These various forms of rescue have often been invoked as possible mechanisms for specific invasions, but their relative importance to invasion is not generally understood. Within a spatially explicit modelling framework, we consider the relative impact of each type of rescue on the probability of successful colonization, when there is evolution of a multi-locus quantitative trait that influences the strength of component Allee effects. We demonstrate that when Allee effects are important, the effect of demographic rescue via recurrent immigration overall provides the greatest opportunity for success. While highlighting the role of evolution in the invasion process, we underscore the importance of the ecological context influencing the persistence of small founder populations. PMID:25421449

  19. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raševi? Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  20. Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Stefanescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters’ demographic behaviour. Referring these results to statistical data on this issue, that are to be found in the Statistical Annual of Bihor County, we tried to reveal the trends of the evolution of birth-rate and to make the difference between objective statistical data and subjective echoes of 18 year old high school students way of thinking, regarding the potential impact of religion – nowadays studied in the Romanian schools – on the demographic behaviour.

  1. [Demographic processes and world population numbers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkov, K

    1986-01-01

    Recent global population trends are reviewed. The author notes the growing divergence in demographic trends between the developed and developing regions. These differences are analyzed in the light of Marxist population theory. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12280530

  2. Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, K. B.; Ke?ry, M.

    2004-01-01

    Demographic studies in plants appearsimple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastictags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperatelatitudes have a pronounced seasonal life–cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots oncea year often during or shortly after flowering. Life–states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of ademographic study for an ind...

  3. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedži? Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography and with its multidisciplinary nature, demography gets closer and closer to the field of "woman issues".

  4. Human population growth and the demographic transition

    OpenAIRE

    Bongaarts, John

    2009-01-01

    The world and most regions and countries are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the huge expansion of human numbers: four billion have been added since 1950. Projections for the next half century expect a highly divergent world, with stagnation or potential decline in parts of the developed world and continued rapid growth in the least developed regions. Other demographic processes are also undergoing extraordinary change: women's...

  5. Prospective Demographic Study of Cosmetic Surgery Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schlessinger, Joel; Schlessinger, Daniel; Schlessinger, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The authors sought to examine and assess cosmetic surgery patient demographics as well as age in relation to partner, in a prospective manner, analyzing data for any significant correlations. Design: The authors conducted a prospective study utilizing a survey. Setting: The study was conducted in a private, nonacademic dermatological practice. Participants: Three hundred thirty-six patients participated in this study. Results: Demographics of onabotulinumtoxinA/abobotulinumtoxinA ...

  6. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sherbinin, Alex de; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; TWINE, WAYNE

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studie...

  7. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Irving; Vilma Charlton; Errol Morrison; Aldeam Facey; Oral Buchanan

    2013-01-01

    The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided...

  8. On-line monitoring for improving performance of nuclear power plants. Part 2: Process and component condition monitoring and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's work in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management is aimed at enhancing the capability of Member States to utilize good engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports activities such as improving nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational licence renewal, and modernization of the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants in Member States. The subject of improving the performance of nuclear power plants by utilizing on-line condition monitoring of instrumentation and control systems in plants was suggested by the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in 2003. It was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2004-2007. This is the second report on the use of on-line monitoring (OLM) in nuclear power plants. The first report, On-Line Monitoring for Improving Performance of Nuclear Power Plants, Part 1: Instrument Channel Monitoring (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-1.1), focused on application of OLM to verify the static (calibration) and dynamic (response time) performance of process instruments in nuclear power plants. This second report extends the application of OLM to equipment and process condition monitoring encompassing an array of technologies, including vibration monitoring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts mooring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts monitoring, motor current signature analysis and noise diagnostics, as well as vibration analysis of the reactor core and the primary circuit. Furthermore, this report includes the application of modelling technologies for equipment and process condition monitoring. A majority of these technologies depend on existing data from existing sensors and first principles models to estimate equipment and process behaviour using empirical and physical modelling techniques. In doing so, pattern recognition tools such as neural networks, fuzzy classification of data, multivariate state estimation and other means are used. These means are described in this report, and examples of their application and implementation are provided. It should be pointed out that OLM data are routinely collected in nuclear power plants for a variety of purposes, but that these data are not often trended or used for long term predictive maintenance purposes. This report promotes the idea of trending such data and provides guidance on how this trending may be performed to yield a new maintenance tool for nuclear power plants. This report was produced by experts and advisors from numerous IAEA Member States

  9. Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain with Imperfect Quality of Commodity Components in Uncertain State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Alden Ghasimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a mathematical model for four-level defective goods supply chain with imperfect quality of commodity components in an uncertain state to maximize profit of supply chain. It is assumed that the inspection of incoming parts in suppliers is randomly done and incomplete. This lead some of the manufactured products will not be properly manufactured because of defective parts and are considered as defective goods and in most cases, the defective products can be repaired by replacing with the good parts. The defective parts will be collected and then returned to the suppliers for repairing. Out proposed model considers defective parts problem by optimizing the costs of production, maintenance, shipping, reworking on the defective goods and parts, shortage in retailers due to the production of defective goods and cost of capital incurred by the companies. The model can anticipate the active suppliers/manufacturers/distributors and the quantity of parts and goods that must be exchanged between them. Our proposed model is novel and we used MINOS solver and LINGO software to solve the problem. The results ascertained the correctness and fine function of the proposed model.

  10. An Improved Face Recognition Technique Based on Modular Multi-directional Two-dimensional Principle Component Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method named modular multi-directional two-dimensional principle component analysis (M2D2DPCA is proposed for face recognition. First, the original images are rotated at some predetermined angles so that we may extract features from the images in any direction. Then we divide the rotated images into smaller sub-images and apply 2DPCA approach to each of these sub-images.  Finally we propose a fusion method named modular multi-directional 2DPCA (M2D2DPCA to combine a bank of preliminary results in different directions. Compared with conventional 2DPCA based algorithms, the advantage of the proposed method is that it can extract significant features from the images in any direction and avoid the effects of varying illumination and facial expression. The results of the experiments on ORL and Yale datasets show that the proposed M2D2DPCA method can obtain a higher recognition rate than the conventional 2DPCA based methods.

  11. Independent component analysis-based artefact reduction: application to the electrocardiogram for improved magnetic resonance imaging triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is required during magnetic resonance (MR) examination for monitoring patients under anaesthesia or with heart diseases and for synchronizing image acquisition with heart activity (triggering). Accurate and fast QRS detection is therefore desirable, but this task is complicated by artefacts related to the complex MR environment (high magnetic field, radio-frequency pulses and fast switching magnetic gradients). Specific signal processing has been proposed, whether using specific MR QRS detectors or ECG denoising methods. Most state-of-the-art techniques use a connection to the MR system for achieving their task, which is a major drawback since access to the MR system is often restricted. This paper introduces a new method for on-line ECG signal enhancement, called ICARE, which takes advantage of using multi-lead ECG and does not require any connection to the MR system. It is based on independent component analysis (ICA) and applied in real time. This algorithm yields accurate QRS detection for efficient triggering

  12. An improved independent component analysis model for 3D chromatogram separation and its solution by multi-areas genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The 3D chromatogram generated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) has been researched widely in the field of herbal medicine, grape wine, agriculture, petroleum and so on. Currently, most of the methods used for separating a 3D chromatogram need to know the compounds' number in advance, which could be impossible especially when the compounds are complex or white noise exist. New method which extracts compounds from 3D chromatogram directly is needed. Methods In this paper, a new separation model named parallel Independent Component Analysis constrained by Reference Curve (pICARC) was proposed to transform the separation problem to a multi-parameter optimization issue. It was not necessary to know the number of compounds in the optimization. In order to find all the solutions, an algorithm named multi-areas Genetic Algorithm (mGA) was proposed, where multiple areas of candidate solutions were constructed according to the fitness and distances among the chromosomes. Results Simulations and experiments on a real life HPLC-DAD data set were used to demonstrate our method and its effectiveness. Through simulations, it can be seen that our method can separate 3D chromatogram to chromatogram peaks and spectra successfully even when they severely overlapped. It is also shown by the experiments that our method is effective to solve real HPLC-DAD data set. Conclusions Our method can separate 3D chromatogram successfully without knowing the compounds' number in advance, which is fast and effective. PMID:25474487

  13. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability - System Dynamics Modeling and Control System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    This report documents the current status of the modeling, control design, and embedded control research for the magnetic bearing canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating instrumentation and controls (I{\\&}C) into nuclear power plant components. This pump is a highly inter-connected thermo/electro/mechanical system that requires an active control system to operate. Magnetic bearings are inherently unstable system and without active, moment by moment control, the rotor would contact fixed surfaces in the pump causing physical damage. This report details the modeling of the pump rotordynamics, fluid forces, electromagnetic properties of the protective cans, active magnetic bearings, power electronics, and interactions between different dynamical models. The system stability of the unforced and controlled rotor are investigated analytically. Additionally, controllers are designed using proportional derivative (PD) control, proportional integral derivative (PID) control, voltage control, and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Finally, a design optimization problem that joins the electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and control system design into one problem to balance the opposing needs of various design criteria using the embedded system approach is presented.

  14. Improvement of obesity phenotype by Chinese sweet leaf tea (Rubus suavissimus) components in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gar Yee; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Dong; Cartwright, Carrie A; Martin, Roy; Yang, Peiying; Liu, Zhijun

    2011-01-12

    Drinking an herbal tea to lose weight is a well-liked concept. This study was designed to examine the possible improvement of obesity phenotype by a new tea represented by its purified components, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and rubusoside (GER). Male obese-prone SD rats were given low-fat diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet plus GER at the dose of 0.22 g/kg of body weight for 9 weeks. GER significantly reduced body weight gain by 22% compared to the high-fat diet control group with 48% less abdominal fat gain. Food intake was not affected. Blood glucose was lowered in the GER-treated group, whereas serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly reduced by 50%. This improved obesity phenotype may be associated with the attenuated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Although other underlying, possibly multiple, mechanisms behind the improved phenotype are largely unknown, the observed improvement of multiple obesity-related parameters by the new tea warrants further investigations. PMID:21138267

  15. Improvement of the seismic safety of existing nuclear power plants by an increase of the component seismic capacity: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study produces the scenario earthquakes for an example nuclear power plant (NPP) site and suggests the effective seismic capacity of safety-related equipment and components which significantly contribute to a core damage to improve the seismic safety of an existing NPP by using a probabilistic safety assessment. The response spectra for the scenario earthquakes show greater spectral accelerations than those for the design response spectrum in the frequency range higher than about 12 Hz. In order to improve the seismic safety of an example NPP, the effects of the seismic capacity of safety-related equipment and components on the core damage frequency (CDF) are investigated, and their effective seismic capacities are determined. The results of the case study show that an increase of the seismic capacity of the equipment reduces the CDF considerably. The effective seismic capacities for the diesel generator, offsite power, condensate storage tank and battery rack are determined as 0.84, 0.35, 0.63 and 0.63 g, respectively

  16. Privacy-Preserving Demographic Filtering Alambic Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recommender systems are used as a way to user choices that needs to solve the protection problem in e-commerce. For solving such a problem we need to protect the privacy interests of users by hiding their identity and demographic features such as age, sex, geographical location, wealth, level of education, etc. and sometimes users buying preferences along with behavior. An E-commerce service provider allow commercial interests of users to protect data by recommending not to reveal valuable information that is related to market trends to the third parties. This paper concentrates only on recommender system that depends on demographic filtering which is familiar by making recommendations on feedback of previous users. The proposed system is called LAMBIC which is used to improve the privacy protection depending on semi-trusted third party by attaining limited confidence using such recommender systems. The process is to split the user’s data between the service provider and the third party in such a way that neither of them share the private data and protect it by preserving using demographic filtering.

  17. Development and improvement of synthetic imaging methods for non-destructive ultrasonic testing of complex industrial components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this thesis was, initially, to evaluate phased array methods for ultrasonic Non Destructive Testing (NDT) in order to propose optimizations, or to develop new alternative methods. In particular, this works deals with the detection of defects in complex geometries and/or materials parts. The TFM (Total Focusing Method) algorithm provides high resolution images and several representations of a same defect thanks to different reconstruction modes. These properties have been exploited judiciously in order to propose an adaptive imaging method in immersion configuration. We showed that TFM imaging can be used to characterize more precisely the defects. However, this method presents two major drawbacks: the large amount of data to be processed and a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially in noisy materials. We developed solutions to these two problems. To overcome the limitation caused by the large number of signals to be processed, we propose an algorithm that defines the sparse array to activate. As for the low SNR, it can be now improved by use of virtual sources and a new filtering method based on the DORT method (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator). (author)

  18. Propuesta para el perfeccionamiento del componente investigativo de la carrera de Estomatología Improvement of the Researching Component in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Albertí Vázquez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye el resultado de la fase final de una investigación, dirigida a elaborar una propuesta basada en acciones que contribuyan a perfeccionar el diseño de la carrera en cuanto a la actividad investigativa a partir del perfeccionamiento de los programas de las asignaturas que tienen posibilidades de dar tratamiento a la actividad científica investigativa y de la capacitación de los profesores, de manera que el egresado pueda dar respuestas a los problemas de salud de Estomatología a través de la investigación científica. Se diseñó una propuesta basadas en tres acciones, donde la 1ra y 2da acción están dirigidas a explicitar y precisar al nivel de objetivos y contenidos lo referido a la actividad investigativa y la 3ra acción dirigida a la capacitación de los profesoresThe present work constitutes the result of the final phase of an investigation, directed to elaborate a proposal based on actions that contribute to perfect the design of the career as for the investigative activity starting from the improvement of the programs of those subjects with possibilities to give treatment to the investigative activity and that contribute to the training of professors, so that the graduate can cope effectively with health problems through scientific investigation. A proposal was designed based on three actions. The 1ra and 2da action are directed to specify investigative activity to the level of objectives and contents. The 3ra action is directed to the training of professors

  19. Propuesta para el perfeccionamiento del componente investigativo de la carrera de Estomatología / Improvement of the Researching Component in Dentistry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lizette, Albertí Vázquez; Sarah, Gutiérrez Martorell; Gerardo, Quintero Pupo; Maheli, Más Sarabia.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye el resultado de la fase final de una investigación, dirigida a elaborar una propuesta basada en acciones que contribuyan a perfeccionar el diseño de la carrera en cuanto a la actividad investigativa a partir del perfeccionamiento de los programas de las asignaturas que [...] tienen posibilidades de dar tratamiento a la actividad científica investigativa y de la capacitación de los profesores, de manera que el egresado pueda dar respuestas a los problemas de salud de Estomatología a través de la investigación científica. Se diseñó una propuesta basadas en tres acciones, donde la 1ra y 2da acción están dirigidas a explicitar y precisar al nivel de objetivos y contenidos lo referido a la actividad investigativa y la 3ra acción dirigida a la capacitación de los profesores Abstract in english The present work constitutes the result of the final phase of an investigation, directed to elaborate a proposal based on actions that contribute to perfect the design of the career as for the investigative activity starting from the improvement of the programs of those subjects with possibilities t [...] o give treatment to the investigative activity and that contribute to the training of professors, so that the graduate can cope effectively with health problems through scientific investigation. A proposal was designed based on three actions. The 1ra and 2da action are directed to specify investigative activity to the level of objectives and contents. The 3ra action is directed to the training of professors

  20. Demographic characteristics of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Duman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a common disease with high mortality and difficult diagnosis.The incidence in our country cannot be calculated because there is no adequate and regular data. In our study,we aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics,risk factors, incidence, Wells and Geneva scores diagnostic and treatment methods of the patients in our emergency department with a diagnosis of PTE. Methods:Files of the 112 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Emergency Department between January 2010 - February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results:The mean age of patients was 65.02 ± 16.23.Forty-one (36.6% of the patients were male and 71 (63.4% were female. The most common complaint of patients was shortness of breath (81.3%, respectively.Immobilization(35.7% and history of previous surgery(19.6% were among the risk factors of the patients. Average troponin levels of the patients was 0.13 ± 0.48 ng/Land average d-dimer levels was 12.698.12 ± 8.779.92 ?g/L. Geneva scores of the patients were: 4 patients (3.6% low score, 88 patients (78.6% medium score and 20 patients (17.9% high score. Wells Clinical Probability scores of the patients were; 1 patient (0.9% low probability, 74 patients (66.1% intermediate probability and 37 patients (33% high probability. In the treatmentof patients; heparin infusion (36.6%, enoxaparin sodium(59.8% and tPA (3.6% were used. Conclusion: In spite of improvements in diagnosis and treatment methods, pulmonary embolism diagnosis is stil a problem. The first step to diagnosis in patients with risk factors begin to suspect.J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1:10-15

  1. Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Kirkham, Melanie J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Bansal, Dinesh G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities

    2012-09-20

    This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

  2. [Demographic transition or revolution? The weaknesses and implications of the demographic transition theory. Part 1: the origins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1998-01-01

    The work of Adolphe Landry is reviewed in relation to development of demographic transition theory. Landry was appointed administrator in 1912 of the National Alliance Against Depopulation and remained active in it his whole life. He also helped create family allowance programs in France. As early as 1909, Landry described three different population regimes. In the "primitive" regime, which characterized all nonhuman life and human life during most of history, the population was adjusted to available subsistence by mortality. In the "intermediate" phase, restrictions on marriage and control of reproduction outside marriage maintained the population at a level below the maximum supportable. In the "contemporary" regime, the universal practice of contraception and abortion could lead to very low levels of fertility. The spread of contraception and low fertility appeared to Landry a true demographic revolution. He attributed the acceptance of contraception to a change in the common aspirations of human beings regarding their conditions, a desire for improved material well-being and social advancement, and an increased spirit of rationality and even calculation in their behavior. Landry believed that the contemporary regime, unlike the preceding two, had no mechanism implying equilibrium. The demographic revolution freed fertility from social determinants and linked it more closely to individual interests. Landry expected the contemporary regime to spread throughout the entire world, with many areas still in the primitive phase passing directly to the contemporary. He was concerned with the effects of demographic aging, and he deplored birth control propaganda that claimed it as a cure for unemployment and for overpopulation in the poor Asian countries. The birth control movements in England and the US were successful in bringing the two countries into the contemporary regime. A number of organizations such as the Population Association of America and the Office of Population Research at Princeton were favorable toward the spread of birth control through the rest of the world. PMID:12294439

  3. Demographics, energy and our homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The projected growth in households in the UK is a key factor in future domestic energy consumption, particularly electricity consumption. While every household needs a home and its heating, lighting and appliances, increasing incomes have historically led to significantly higher appliance ownership, higher expectations of levels of energy service and greater usage. In the past this trend was combined with increasing household numbers to drive growth in domestic electricity demand. Official projections for population growth and household composition indicate significant drivers for future growth in energy demand. Curbing this will require policies to reverse the tendency for energy-efficiency improvements to be overwhelmed by growing numbers of households, more widespread appliance ownership and increased service expectations

  4. Comparing Simple Quasar Demographics Models

    CERN Document Server

    Veale, Melanie; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores several simple model variations for the connections among quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos for redshifts 1 < z < 6. A key component of these models is that we enforce a self-consistent black hole (BH) history by tracking both BH mass and BH growth rate at all redshifts. We connect objects across redshift with a simple constant-number-density procedure, and choose a fiducial model with a relationship between BH and galaxy growth rates that is linear and evolves in a simple way with redshift. Within this fiducial model, we find the quasar luminosity function (QLF) by calculating an "intrinsic" luminosity based on either the BH mass or BH growth rate, and then choosing a model of quasar variability with either a lognormal or truncated power-law distribution of instantaneous luminosities. This gives four model variations, which we fit to the observed QLF at each redshift. With the best-fit models in hand, we undertake a detailed comparison of the four fiducial models, and explore...

  5. GENDER DEMOGRAPHIC DISPARITIES IN BACAU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ancuta Stangaciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender demographic disparities existing in Bacau County were determined by means of some demographic indicators such as: population, natural growth, live births, marriages, divorces, indicators which have been broken down by gender. The assessment of the disparities between men and women from the point of view of the demographic phenomena emphasize the fact that on the level of Bacau County there is a surplus of female population, as during the whole period subjected to the analysis, the positive and respectively the negative natural growth for the male population were lower and higher respectively than the one registered in the case of the female population. The birth rate, marriage rate and divorce rate phenomena also changed significantly after 1990 ; thus, the average age of marriage increased, and the gender difference also had a certain growth, which caused a shift in the fertility intensity from the age group 20-24 to the very next one - the 25-29 age group.

  6. Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jeong Hun; Kim, J. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Lim, Y. S

    1999-08-01

    A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials on materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a power feeding system for the primary system. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phase of the clad. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clad. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR. (author)

  7. Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jeong Hun; Kim, J. S.; Han, J. H.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, S. S

    2000-08-01

    A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. (1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. (2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. (3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. (4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. (5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. (6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR.

  8. Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials on materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a power feeding system for the primary system. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phase of the clad. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clad. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR. (author)

  9. Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR

  10. Strongyloides ratti antigenic components recognized by IgE antibodies in immunoblotting as an additional tool for improving the immunodiagnosis in human strongyloidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Rosângela Maria

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available IgE antibody response in human strongyloidiasis was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunoblotting (IB using Strongyloides ratti saline extract as heterologous antigen. A total of 50 serum samples of patients who were shedding S. stercoralis larvae in feces (group I, copropositive, 38 of patients with other intestinal parasites (group II, and 38 of subjects with negative results in three parasitologic assays (group III, copronegative were analyzed. Levels of IgE anti-Strongyloides expressed in ELISA Index (EI were significantly higher in patients of group I (1.32 than in group II (0.51 and group III (0.81, with positivity rates of 54%, 0%, and 10.5%, respectively. Fifteen S. ratti antigenic components were recognized in IB-IgE by sera of group I, with frequency ranging from 8% to 46%. In group II, only two antigenic bands (101, 81 kDa were detected in a frequency of 10% and no reactivity was found in group III. Sera with EI values > 1.5 recognized five from 13 specific antigenic bands (70, 63, 61, 44, 7 kDa. It can be concluded that these five antigenic components recognized by IB-IgE using S. ratti antigen might be employed as an additional tool for improving the immunodiagnosis in human strongyloidiasis.

  11. FACTORES SOCIODEMOGRÁFICOS Y EVENTOS VITALES ASOCIADOS CON LA MEJORÍA CLÍNICA DE PACIENTES CON DEPRESIÓN / SOCIAL/DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND VITAL EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CLINICAL IMPROVEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH DEPRESSION / FATORES SOCIODEMOGRAFICOS E EVENTOS VITAIS ASSOCIADOS À MELHORIA CLÍNICA DE PACIENTES COM DEPRESSÃO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dedsy Yajaira, Berbesi Fernández; Ángela María, Segura Cardona.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: a depressão é o transtorno mental mais frequente e incapacitante; o atual estudo buscava analisar os fatores sociodemograficos e eventos vitais associados à depressão, em pacientes de 14 hospitais do Departamento de Antioquia. Métodos: desenhou-se um estudo de casos e controles em popula [...] ção de 204 pacientes de hospitais de primeiro nível de atuação. A amostra foi obtida por convergência. Os pacientes diagnosticados com depressão foram avaliados aos três meses do início do tratamento e classificados como sem melhora (caso) e com mel horia clínica (controle). Resultados: encontrou-se associação entre a não melhora dos sintomas depressivos aos três meses de iniciado o tratamento anti-depressivo e os antecedentes sociodemograficos, problemas econômicos e eventos vitais. Conclusão: encontraram-se como principais fatores relacionados com a depressão - não estar filiado à seguridade social em saúde, a morte de um filho e a violência doméstica psicológica e física, pelo que se destaca a necessidade de se eliminar tais variáveis. Abstract in spanish Introducción: la depresión es el trastorno mental más frecuente y discapacitante. El presente estudio buscaba analizar los factores sociodemográficos y eventos vitales asociados a la depresión en pacientes de 14 hospitales del departamento de Antioquia. Métodos: se diseñó un estudio de casos y contr [...] oles en una población de 204 pacientes de hospitales de primer nivel de atención. La muestra se seleccionó por conveniencia. Los pacientes diagnosticados con depresión fueron evaluados a los tres meses de haber iniciado tratamiento y se clasificaron: sin mejoría (caso) y con mejoría clínica (control). Resultados: se encontró asociación entre la no mejoría de los síntomas depresivos a tres meses de iniciar tratamiento antidepresivo y los antecedentes sociodemográficos, problemas económicos y eventos vitales. Conclusión: se encontraron como principales factores relacionados con la depresión: no tener un régimen de afiliación al sistema de seguridad social en salud; problemas económicos; la muerte de un hijo y la violencia doméstica psicológica y física, por lo cual se señala la necesidad de explorar estas variables. Abstract in english Introduction: depression is the most frequent disabling mental disorder: the present study strives to analyze the social/demographic factors and vital events associated to depression in patients in 14 hospitals in the State of Antioquia. Methods: a study of cases and controls in a population of 204 [...] patients in hospitals of first level of attention was designed. The sample was selected by convenience. The patients diagnosed with depression were evaluated within three months of having started treatment and were classified: no improvement (case) and with clinical improvement (control). Results: there was an association found between no improvement of the depressive symptoms after three months of starting anti-depressive treatment and the social/ demographic background, financial problems and vital events. Conclusion: the main factors associated with depression that were found are: not having an affiliation regime to the social security and health system; financial problems, death of a son/daughter and psychological and physical domestic violence, which point to the need to explore these variables.

  12. Demographic determinants of formation and use of human capital in Ukraine: differential analysis and forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychuk, Dmytro Petrovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem that is little investigated in domestic economics. It assesses the impact of demographic processes on the prospects of accumulation and productivity of human capital. The author argues that focusing only in the quality of education and training that is inherent in most modern research, minimizes the effectiveness of human capital management as an economic asset. A man is a demographic basis of human capital accumulation. Accordingly, the particular demographic processes such as fertility, mortality, migration, development and disintegration of families, require careful analysis. The main objectives of the study related to the specification of the impact of demographic situation on the effectiveness of formation and use of human capital. It was found that due to the increasing demographic crisis in Ukraine initial conditions of accumulation of human capital at all levels of the economic system deteriorated significantly. It was substantiated that the renovation of demographic policy is a key factor for improving the efficiency of social investment; it also causes optimization of relations in various spheres of social interaction.

  13. Predictive validity of demographically adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin E; Woods, Steven Paul; Scott, J Cobb; Childers, Meredith; Beck, Jennifer Marquie; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop and validate demographically adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). Given the association between demographic variables and the HDS summary score, demographically adjusted normative standards may enhance the classification accuracy of the HDS. Demographically adjusted normative standards were derived from a sample of 182 seronegative healthy participants and were subsequently applied to a sample of 135 HIV-1 seropositive individuals with multidisciplinary case conference diagnoses of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (e.g., HIV-1-associated dementia and minor-cognitive/motor disorder) in proportions consistent with published epidemiologic reports. In the normative sample, age and education (and their interaction) emerged as the only demographic factors significantly associated with the HDS. In comparison to the traditional HDS cut score (raw score total HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. The application of demographically adjusted normative standards on the HDS improves the clinical applicability and accuracy of this cognitive screening measure in the detection of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:17852582

  14. IMPROVING SOFTWARE QUALITY IN THE SERVICE PROCESS INDUSTRY USING AGILITY WITH SOFTWARE REUSABLE COMPONENTS AS SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF INDIAN SERVICE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ikerionwu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a software – based business process outsourcing (BPO environment, the quality of services delivered to clients hinges on the quality of software used in processing the service. Software quality attributes have been defined by ISO/IEC standards but different organisations give priorities to specific attributes based on client’s requirements and the prevailing environment. The aim of this study is to identify and demonstrate the particular software development process that guarantees an acceptable level of software quality within a specific domain that would translate to desired quality of services delivered to clients. Therefore, this study through a mixed method approach investigated BPO service providers in India to ascertain what software quality means to their respective organisations, what software quality attributes are given priority and how it could be improved. The findings suggest that software quality is highly dependent on the software development process. The vast majority of successful organisations operated in-house software development through the establishment of software product line as a platform to embed software reusable components within an agile framework. Through this process, there is significant reduction in defect density, thereby improving the software quality. This software quality is also translated to the quality of services delivered to clients

  15. Process evaluation of a multi-component intervention to reduce infectious diseases and improve hygiene and well-being among school children : the Hi Five study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, C T; Plauborg, R

    2015-01-01

    The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial designed to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among pupils. Participating schools (n = 43) were randomized into either control (n = 15) or one of two intervention groups (n = 28). The intervention consisted of three components: (i) a curriculum (ii) mandatory daily hand washing before lunch (iii) extra cleaning of school toilets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation and to identify challenges to program implementation. Several data sources were used, including observations of school toilets, semi-structured interviews with school coordinators (n = 4), focus groups with pupils (n = 6) and teachers (n = 5), and questionnaires among pupils (n = 5440), teachers (n = 387) and school coordinators (n = 28). This study indicates that the curriculum was successfully implemented at most schools, and that teachers and pupils reacted positively to this part of the intervention. However, daily hand washing beforelunch seems to be difficult to implement. Overall, the implementation process was affected by several factors such as poor sanitary facilities, lack of time and prioritization and objections against the increasing tendency to place the responsibility for child-rearing tasks on schools. This study reveals the strong and weak parts of the Hi Five study and can guide program improvement.

  16. Process evaluation of a multi-component intervention to reduce infectious diseases and improve hygiene and well-being among school children: the Hi Five study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnesen, C T; Plauborg, R; Denbæk, A M; Due, P; Johansen, A

    2015-06-01

    The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial designed to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among pupils. Participating schools (n = 43) were randomized into either control (n = 15) or one of two intervention groups (n = 28). The intervention consisted of three components: (i) a curriculum (ii) mandatory daily hand washing before lunch (iii) extra cleaning of school toilets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation and to identify challenges to program implementation. Several data sources were used, including observations of school toilets, semi-structured interviews with school coordinators (n = 4), focus groups with pupils (n = 6) and teachers (n = 5), and questionnaires among pupils (n = 5440), teachers (n = 387) and school coordinators (n = 28). This study indicates that the curriculum was successfully implemented at most schools, and that teachers and pupils reacted positively to this part of the intervention. However, daily hand washing before lunch seems to be difficult to implement. Overall, the implementation process was affected by several factors such as poor sanitary facilities, lack of time and prioritization and objections against the increasing tendency to place the responsibility for child-rearing tasks on schools. This study reveals the strong and weak parts of the Hi Five study and can guide program improvement. PMID:25964369

  17. A Demographic Profile of Cuban Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Thomas D.

    This study offers a demographic profile of the U.S. Cuban population, using data from the decennial census and current population surveys. Part one estimates the number of Cuban Americans and describes their geographic distribution nationwide. Part two compares the socioeconomic characteristics (age, gender, educational attainment, income,…

  18. Some Demographic Correlates of Changing Newspaper Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Wallace B.

    There are varied opinions on the relationship between the circulation penetration of the American daily newspapers and certain demographic indicators. Previous studies have treated the growth of circulation figures by utilizing gross national data and have indicated the role newspaper circulation plays in defining the limits of major urban…

  19. Current demographical processes in the Penza region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronin Ye.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the basic ethnic groups of the Penza region and identifies the demographic processes taking place within each group. The author comes to a conclusion that these processes are determined by the features of the historical development and socioeconomic standing of the ethnic groups.

  20. [Demographic transition at the epoch of industrialization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, W

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between the early stages of industrialization and population factors in the United Kingdom, France, and the United States is analyzed from a Marxist perspective. The author attempts to associate successive phases of industrialization with phases of the demographic transition. He concludes that no comprehensive general theory concerning this relationship has been established. (summary in ENG, RUS) PMID:12266382

  1. Population Bulletin. Pakistan: A Demographic Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report presents a brief history of Pakistan as a nation and reviews a number of demographic variables. Major topics discussed are population growth and shifts, urbanization, and labor characteristics and problems. Based on this information and projections, the report concludes with a discussion of the failure of family planning programs and…

  2. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  3. Componente demográfico do sistema de informação da atenção à saúde indígena, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brasil / Composante demographique du systeme d'information a l'attention de la sante indigene, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Bresil / Demographic component of the information system of the attention to indigenous health, Dsei-Xavánte, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciene Guimarães de, Souza; Ricardo Ventura, Santos.

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a consistência do módulo demográfico do Sistema de Informação da Atenção da Saúde Indígena para o Distrito Especial Indígena Xavante (DSEI), Mato Grosso, no período de 1999 a 2004. Os dados foram obtidos através de relatórios disponibilizados pelo SIASIWEB. A base de dados foi in [...] vestigada com vistas a detectar inconsistências, incluindo mais de um registro para um mesmo evento. Para todo o DSEI, a taxa de mortalidade infantil (TMI) no período passou de 89,2 para 83,8 por mil após as correções na base de dados. Ao se analisar por polo-base, as alterações foram ainda mais substanciais. No caso do Polo-base de Água Boa, a redução da TMI foi de 43,3 para 21,3 por mil. As taxas brutas de mortalidade e de natalidade também experimentaram redução após as correções. Esses achados evidenciam problemas significativos na base de dados sobre saúde do povo Xavante, com a geração de indicadores demográficos que se distanciam da situação real da população. Os autores destacam a necessidade de aprimoramento da coleta e análise dos dados demográficos no âmbito do sistema de informação sobre a saúde indígena. Abstract in english This study analyzes the consistence of the demographic module of the System of Information of Attention to Indigenous Health for the Shavante Indian Indigenous Special District (in Portuguese, DSEI), Mato Grosso, from 1999 to 2004. The data were obtained through reports made available by SIASIWEB. T [...] he database was investigated trying to detect inconsistencies, including more than a single registration for the same event. For the whole DSEI, the infant mortality rate (in Portuguese, TMI) in the period went from 89,2 to 83,8 per thousand after the corrections in the database. Analyzing by base headquarters, the alterations were even more substantial. In the case of the Água Boa base headquarters, the reduction of TMI went from 43,3 to 21,3 per thousand. The gross mortality and birth rates also experienced reduction after the corrections. Those discoveries evidence significant problems in the database on the health of the Shavante people, generating demographic indicators that are distant of the real situation of the population. The authors point out the need of enhancement of the collection and analysis of the demographic data in the extent of the system of information about the indigenous health.

  4. Demographic growth and development of spa places in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ur?ev Branislav S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of population growth and components of demographic growth in five most important spa settlements in Serbia: Vrnjacka banja, Niska banj, Banja Koviljaca. As indices of demographic development, we have analyzed: natural and mechanical movement of population, age and sex, activity and sex, households and apartments in spa places. The finding is that demographic development of spa places in Serbia has been politically influenced. Due to dismantling state territory of former Yugoslavia, the choice of domestic tourist destination for Serbian population became smaller. Because of that, spas became more important tourist destination which fostered demographic growth of those places. The data analysis demonstrated that during the last six decades, population in all spa places increased with higher insensitive compare with the rest of Serbia. This is the result of high inmigration, particularly in the last decade, when the share of this movement was over 90%. The pacing of population ageing in spa places, did not follow ageing of total population in Serbia. Average age in Serbia between 1961-2002. increased for 31.8%, while in spas population ageing was more intensify with 36.4% increase. The number of household showed constant increase from census to census, as well as in Serbia as in each of spa places with no exception. Average size of household in spas in 1948. was smaller than the average in Serbia for almost one member. By the year 2002. the average sizes of households in spas and in Serbia was almost equalized. Spa places suffered sortage of apartments in 1948. By the year 2002. the evidence showed considerable surplus which as the biggest in Vrnjacka Banja spa. The amount of surplus was 15%, which is higher than the average in Serbia. The purpose of this surplus is rent and accommodation of spa visitors. Overall results point out that despite of population decrease of Serbia, spa places enjoy more and more permanent residents. Among the reasons economic stability of spa places (in the areas of services and medical care should be emphasized, which triggered inmigration increase, outmigration decrease, and slower rate of ageing (despite of small rate of natural increase.

  5. India has done it: demographic transition already underway in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowarikar, V

    1995-10-01

    The author posits that a classical demographic transition in India in underway. Birth and death rates are declining in both rural and urban areas of all states. Specifically, the following four stages were completed. 1) During 1941-71, the death rate declined sharply and the birth rate declined somewhat. 2) The natural growth rate increased dramatically from 8.7 to 22.2. 3) After 1971, the birth rate began to decline dramatically over a 10-year period and the natural growth rate stabilized at 22.2. 4) During 1981-91, the magnitude of the birth rate decline was greater than the death rate decline. The natural growth rate declined to 19.7. The final stage of transition is the current one. The natural growth rate is expected to decline at a faster rate until it reaches zero. The birth rate ranges from 18.1 in Kerala to 35.8 in Madhya Pradesh. It is expected in the final stage of India's demographic transition that the crude birth rate will decline to 21 in 2003 and the crude death rate will decline to 8. The natural growth rate under such a scenario would be 13. The estimation of the decline in the crude birth rate is based on present determinant factors, such as literacy, wealth generation, energy consumption, and food availability. Future strategies should continue with the improvement in the role of the Family Welfare Department and with continued strengthening of existing programs. The rise in population size should be understood as a natural historical demographic process and not a reason to dismantle and destabilize a program going back to 1951. Rajasthan and Haryana have legislation that bars people from holding office, if their family size is greater than two children. This action is commended. India has a need for government to demystify contraception as was accomplished in Thailand and to create awareness of modern methods and the potential for side effects without discouraging use. PMID:12291348

  6. Education, Elderly Health, and Differential Population Aging in South Korea: A Demographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongoh Kye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Mare and Maralani 2006 by using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA. Results: First, improvements in education lead to improvements in health among the elderly. Intermediate demographic factors make positive contributions to this improvement. Second, improvements in education lead to a decline in the ratios of offspring to the elderly because better-educated people have fewer children. However, this decrease is not substantial. Third, improvements in education increase the ratio of college-educated offspring to the unhealthy elderly because of improvements in both offspring's education and elderly health. Conclusions: The results suggest that improvements in education change configurations of the elderly and their offspring's generations, mitigating the negative consequences of population aging, such as increasing burdens of elderly support.

  7. Demographic Factors and Communal Mastery as Predictors of Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…

  8. Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([11C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [11C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The ina generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

  9. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  10. Aboriginal Populations: Social Demographic and Epidemiological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Kerr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This edited collection provides a valuable overview of Aboriginal demography, with a primary yet not exclusive emphasis upon Canadian research. It provides the reader with much insight not only into the major demographic, sociological, and health trends to characterize Aboriginal peoples, but also some of the most serious conceptual and methodological issues that hinder research of this nature. With additional contributions from the United States, Australia, New Zealand, as well as the circumpolar northern regions of Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia, this book also addresses how Aboriginal conditions in these countries may resemble or differ from those in Canada. For this reason, this edited collection is valuable to those who are interested in using demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological data as a basis for guiding policy, both in Canada and internationally. The contributions are by and large non-technical in nature and, for this reason, accessible to a wide readership.

  11. DEMOGRAPHICAL AND MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY RESEARCHES IN BUCOWINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin DUMITRAS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the ecology factors of environment and medicaldemographycal situations of sickness rate and populations’mortality demonstrated with an example of urbanized landscapes of Bucowina. A greater corrective connection is revealed among cancer apathy (r=0.5-0.6, general dent rate (r=0.5, and an integral index of ecological safety of city’s landscape environment. The authors revealed backward (negative dependency among the increased harshness of drinking water and cancer pathology of digestion organs and abdominal cavity.This article deals with synthesis of medical-demographic study results of anthropic landscapes under the aspect of their utilization in order to increase human ecological conditions. One of the problems that authors tried to solve in the process of research lies indeveloping of theoretical and methodological thesis (based on combined analysis ofecological factors and demographical status in order to determine ecological situation inthe region and to evaluate life and activity conditions of population.

  12. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    OpenAIRE

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of t...

  13. Complexity and Demographic Explanations of Cumulative Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing— while favoured by increasing—population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more li...

  14. Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Brian C.; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Leiwen; Pachauri, Shonali; Zigova, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy–economic growth model that accounts for a...

  15. Demographics and Functional Outcome of Toe Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet-koppert, S. T.; Cakir, H.; Lieshout, E. M. M.; Vries, M. R.; Elst, M.; Schepers, T.

    2011-01-01

    Toe fractures are common; however, there are few data on demographics and functional outcome. We studied outcomes in 339 consecutive patients with toe fractures treated between January 2006 and September 2008. Two hundred and sixty-four patients, aged 16 to 75, were mailed an outcome questionnaire, and overall subjective satisfaction with the outcome of treatment was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). Most frequently affected were the first (38%) and fifth (30%) toes, and most (75.6%...

  16. Demographics, dividend clienteles and the dividend premium

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, King Fuei

    2010-01-01

    The catering theory of dividends proposed that corporate dividend policy is driven by prevailing investor demand for dividend payers, and that managers cater to investors by paying dividends when the dividend premium is high. While earlier research found that the dividend premium is not driven by traditional clienteles derived from market imperfections such as taxes, transaction costs, or institutional investment constraints, we find empirical evidence that demographic clienteles are an impor...

  17. Demographic dynamics and kinship in anthropological populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hammel, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in fertility and mortality affect the size of surviving sibling sets and thus numbers of surviving kin. Because the genealogical generations specifying kinship relations are not temporal cohorts and most plausible demographic changes in anthropological populations are period shocks, the effect of such shocks on kin counts are complex. Shocks increasing fertility or decreasing mortality produce larger numbers of kin per ego and decrease the inequality of the distribution of kin and vic...

  18. Residential Energy Use and Conservation. Economics, Demographics, and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounen, D. [Department of Financial Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kok, N. [Limburg Institute of Financial Economics LIFE, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Quigley, J.M. [Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Energy consumption in the residential sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. However, much of the current debate regarding energy efficiency in the housing market focuses on the physical and technical determinants of energy consumption, neglecting the role of the economic behavior of resident households. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which the use of gas and electricity is determined by the technical specifications of the dwelling as compared to the demographic characteristics of the occupying household, using a unique set of microeconomic data for a sample of more than 300,000 Dutch homes. The results show that residential gas consumption is determined principally by structural dwelling characteristics, such as the vintage, building type and quality of the home, while electricity consumption varies more directly with household composition, in particular income and family composition. Combining these results with projections on future economic and demographic trends, we find that, absent price increases for residential energy, the aging of the population and their increasing wealth will mostly offset improvements in the energy efficiency of the building stock resulting from policy interventions and natural revitalization.

  19. Stochastic game dynamics under demographic fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weini; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne

    2015-07-21

    Frequency-dependent selection and demographic fluctuations play important roles in evolutionary and ecological processes. Under frequency-dependent selection, the average fitness of the population may increase or decrease based on interactions between individuals within the population. This should be reflected in fluctuations of the population size even in constant environments. Here, we propose a stochastic model that naturally combines these two evolutionary ingredients by assuming frequency-dependent competition between different types in an individual-based model. In contrast to previous game theoretic models, the carrying capacity of the population, and thus the population size, is determined by pairwise competition of individuals mediated by evolutionary games and demographic stochasticity. In the limit of infinite population size, the averaged stochastic dynamics is captured by deterministic competitive Lotka-Volterra equations. In small populations, demographic stochasticity may instead lead to the extinction of the entire population. Because the population size is driven by fitness in evolutionary games, a population of cooperators is less prone to go extinct than a population of defectors, whereas in the usual systems of fixed size the population would thrive regardless of its average payoff. PMID:26150518

  20. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  1. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

  2. Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from these data, suggesting that the ABC approach will be a useful tool for analyzing large genome-wide datasets.

  3. Blood Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...

  4. The Epidemiology and Demographics of Hip Dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Randall T. Loder; Skopelja, Elaine N.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown. There are many insights, however, from epidemiologic/demographic information. A systematic medical literature review regarding DDH was performed. There is a predominance of left-sided (64.0%) and unilateral disease (63.4%). The incidence per 1000 live births ranges from 0.06 in Africans in Africa to 76.1 in Native Americans. There is significant variability in incidence within each racial group by geographic location. The in...

  5. Demographic Surprises Foreshadow Change in Neoliberal Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Eric

    2008-01-01

    in the Egypt of 2008, half the population has known only one president, Husni Mubarak. And the rate of population growth, at its peak when Mubarak assumed office in 1981, has stopped declining as it had been in the 1990s. A new kind of population increase has begun. Such are the lessons of the provisional results of the Egyptian general population and housing census, conducted in November 2006 in accordance with the regular ten-year cycle. These demographic surprises have important implicatio...

  6. Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions. (letter)

  7. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. Methodology: A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Results were expressed as percentages. Results: Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. Conclusion: SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions. (author)

  8. Socio-demographic factors of geriatric depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barua Ankur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is a common mental health problem in geriatric population and the overall prevalence rate of depression in this age group varies between 10 and 20%. Objective: To study the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in geriatric population. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done on 74 community-based mental health surveys on depression in geriatric population, which were conducted in the continents of Asia, Europe, Australia, North America, and South America. All the studies were conducted between 1955 and 2005. The researchers had included only community-based cross-sectional surveys and some prospective studies that had not excluded depression on baseline. These studies were conducted on homogenous community of geriatric population in the world, who were selected by simple random sampling technique. A qualitative analysis was conducted to study the socio-demographic factors of depression. Results and Conclusion: The two non-modifiable risk factors found to be significantly associated with depression in geriatric population were "older age group" and "female gender". However, the potentially modifiable risk factors for depression in the geriatric population were identified as low socioeconomic status, loss of spouse, living alone, chronic co-morbidities, cognitive impairment, bereavement and restricted activities of daily living (ADL.

  9. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable accuracy, demographic parameters from three simulated data sets that vary in the magnitude of a founder event and a skew in the effective population size of the X chromosome relative to the autosomes. The behavior of the Markov chain is also examined and shown to convergence to its stationary distribution, while also showing high levels of parameter mixing. The analysis of three pairwise comparisons of sub-Saharan African human populations with non-African human populations do not provide unequivocal support for a strong non-African founder event from these nuclear data. The estimates do however suggest a skew in the ratio of X chromosome to autosome effective population size that is greater than one. However in all three cases, the 95% highest posterior density interval for this ratio does include three-fourths, the value expected under an equal breeding sex ratio. Conclusion The implementation of composite and approximate likelihood methods in a framework that includes MCMCMC demographic parameter estimation shows great promise for being flexible and computationally efficient enough to scale up to the level of whole-genome polymorphism and divergence analysis. Further work must be done to characterize the effects of the assumption of linkage equilibrium among genomic regions that is crucial to the validity of applying the composite likelihood method.

  10. Questões emergentes na análise demográfica: o caso brasileiro / New issues in demographic analysis: the case of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Luiz Gonçalvez, Rios-Neto.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo levanta questões emergentes para a análise demográfica brasileira. O trabalho começa com uma análise dos três componentes da dinâmica demográfica, enfatizando a questão sobre o declínio da fecundidade e a possibilidade de a mesma atingir níveis abaixo da reposição. As tendências futuras [...] de emigração internacional também são discutidas. Passando para as conseqüências demográficas desta dinâmica, o texto aborda, ainda, a demografia dos efeitos de composição, ressaltando as conseqüências demográficas do diferencial de fecundidade por educação materna e mostrando que a dinâmica de melhoria educacional das mães mais que compensa este diferencial. O dividendo demográfico é discutido tanto conceitualmente quanto empiricamente, ficando indicada uma agenda para estudos futuros. Finalmente, uma discussão mais conceitual sobre transferências intergeracionais tenta colocar o debate na perspectiva do gasto público brasileiro, enfatizando trabalhos relevantes que começam a ser desenvolvidos. Abstract in english This article begins with a review of the three components of demography, stressing the decline in fertility, with the possibility of the country's reaching a level of below replacement fertility. Studies on new trends in Brazilian emigration are considered relevant for future research. The demograph [...] y of compositional effects is discussed in terms of an exercise with fertility differentials according to the mothers´ education. The exercise shows that the historical improvement in mothers´ education has offset the possible adverse effects of high fertility among mothers with low levels of education. The demographic dividend is discussed both conceptually and empirically, and directions for future studies are indicated. Finally, the article presents a conceptual discussion on intergenerational transfers, with emphasis on public expenditures and social policy. New studies being developed on this topic are also mentioned.

  11. Improving the peer interactions of students with emotional and behavioral disorders through self-evaluation procedures: a component analysis and group application.

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, L; Wacker, D P; Mace, F C; Falk, G D; Dunlap, G; Kromrey, J D

    1995-01-01

    We conducted two experiments examining the effects of a self-evaluation package on the peer interactions of students described as emotionally or behaviorally disordered. Experiment 1 assessed the additive effects of various components of a self-evaluation package on the frequency of inappropriate and appropriate peer interactions. The components assessed were rewards alone, rewards plus discussion, and self-evaluation plus rewards. Results showed limited effectiveness when rewards alone and r...

  12. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method

    OpenAIRE

    Cherie Mastronardi; Peter Schubert; Elena Levin; Varsha Bhakta; Qi-Long Yi; Adele Hansen; Tamiko Stewart; Craig Jenkins; Wanda Lefresne; William Sheffield; Acker, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB) which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS) was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC), and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yield...

  13. Mining The Relationship Between Demographic Variables And Brand Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Dabbes, Ajayeb Abu; Kharbat, Faten

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to mine the relationship between demographic variables and brand associations, and study the relative importance of these variables. The study is conducted on fast-food restaurant brands chains in Jordan. The result ranks and evaluates the demographic variables in relation with the brand associations for the selected sample. Discovering brand associations according to demographic variables reveals many facts and linkages in the context of Jordanian culture...

  14. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Nardali, Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward on...

  15. Demographic potential of mountain farms on Dravsko Pohorje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kefo Kerbler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article is represented and evaluated the demographic potential of mountain farms on Dravsko Pohorje. The characteristics of socio-economic structure, depopulation, deagrarization, demographic vitality, productiveness,and succession continuity of mountain farms are described. The results indicate that demographic vitality is weakened due to permanent emigration of young population, as well as succession continuity on many farms is not assured.

  16. India’s demographic dividend: opportunities and threats

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    Demographic transition creates a small window for countries to leverage their demographic dividend and leapfrog to a higher level of income-employment situation. This opportunity comes in the middle stage of demographic transition when the population pyramid shows signs of maturity and bulges in the middle, indicating a relatively larger share of youth or working age persons in total population, and hence a low dependency ratio. Consequently, countries can engage this human resource to augmen...

  17. Demographic change and public sector budgets in a federal system

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Michael; Kempkes, Gerhard; Seitz, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic change on public finances in a federal system. We develop a simple methodical procedure to measure the effect of demographic changes on public revenues and expenditures. We apply our method to the local, state and federal government sector as well as on the social security system in Germany. Our results suggest that demographic change will lead to significant vertical fiscal imbalances between the different layers of government. In addition we sh...

  18. Effects of Demographic Variables on Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainah A. Z.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marital satisfaction is an important aspect to study because it is a global evaluation of the state of one’s marriage and a reflection of marital happiness and functioning. This study aimed to ascertain the differences in marital satisfaction based on demographic variables. Subjects for this study were 423 married couples. The instrument used was ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The data were analyzed by inferential statistics using t-test and One-way Analysis of Variance. Results indicated significant differences in marital satisfaction based on the length of marriage and income. This study suggests that marriage counseling, with an emphasis on promoting awareness in marital happiness and satisfaction, would be helpful in addressing marital problems in married couples.

  19. Land use and demographic grids in Cosyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution of the population, agricultural production, economic activity, and the position of land and sea, are important elements of accident consequence codes. These data are necessary in evaluating the health effects within the population arising from the external dose, inhalation and ingestion pathways. These distributions are also essential in calculating the economic impact of implementing countermeasures, such as relocation and food bans. This paper includes a discussion of the agricultural production and population distribution information available for EC countries, their resolution, availability and sources. The gridded data included in the COSYMA system are described. Particular aspects, such as the difficulties involved with using economic land use information, are also explained. Future developments, and their effect on the requirements for land use and demographic grids, are outlined

  20. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

  1. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mirfardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is ?the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms?. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  2. Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of environmental problems abound in Tanzania. The problems range from declining land resources, de-vegetation, urban and air pollution, degradation of the marine environment to the destruction of biological diversity. A thorough analysis of these manifestations of environments decline reveal the presence of linkages to economic, political, cultural and demographic constraints which have been at the crux of Tanzania's efforts towards emancipation. We attested that societies are always dialect and integral parts of the global entity. As such the analysis of any societal problem can not be sufficiently tackled by basing on a 'micro level' societal specific factors. We need to expand our horizon and include 'macro level' elements which impinges on the society under study. Imperatively, influences on any environment, social or biophysical, whether positive or negative, emanates either or both from within the specific society and or from without. In our study we set out to provide an insight into the nature and character of man and environment interaction in Arumeru district, Northern Tanzania. We intended to investigate the extent to which changes in the household production patterns as a result of environmental stress and the consequent resource management strategies influence and are hitherto influenced by population growth. The aspects of demographic changes especially patterns of growth and settlement, agrarian production such as land tenure, food and cash uction such as land tenure, food and cash crop interventions, non-farm activities and management of the commons were studies. Further, local adaptation to crisis including environmental stress and emerging markets were explored. he theoretical model adopted in analysing the man-land environment relationship in Arumeru district and the ensuing findings, give legitimacy to the position that issues of population growth or decline cannot be separated from questions of economic and social development, or from the environmental concerns related to the management of resources both at global and local levels. We found out empirically that despite the dwindling natural resource base, the people in Arumeru still maintain their demographic dynamism. For them, it is a rational thing to do. The explanation for this phenomenon is not discrete, but spans the whole range of the population-resource continuum. From the demographic transition point of view, the society has not reached the threshold where child labour is valueless. In Arumeru, the children are still valued for their labour as they participate in both agro-pastoral related income generating activities. Further, children are still old age insurers. Thus, the age long traditions which favour the persistence of high fertility regimes are still in force. Having children is still a pleasure which costs nothing and hence the family size is rarely determined by the household's income. The interplay of proximate determinants of fertility is found to have an effect on the population increase in the district. People enter into marriage unions at very young ages, while the breastfeeding duration has drastically decreased in recent years. Furthermore, postpartum abstinence is no longer observed and incidences of pathological infertility have been tremendously reduced, thanks to modern medicine. All these factors support high fertility regimes. The argument that rapid population growth always leads to environmental decline and thus forces rural economies into diminishing returns, over-utilisation of resource and pauperisation is rejected. Despite the population increase and dwindling resource base in Arumeru, food security, rural incomes and standard of living have consistently improved throughout the century. The situation in the study area somehow accommodate the Boserupian model, where population growth triggers agricultural intensification, but in this case, the forces which triggers change did not emanate from within, but were externally generated. Institutional arrangements and the markets played a significant role in

  3. The Effects of the Demographic Transition on Economic Growth : Implications for Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sundman, Marie-Lor

    2011-01-01

    Demographic transition implies severe challenges for high income nations, for instance Japan, as the population decreases due to declines in birth rates as well as the higher rate of elderly population. More women are entering the labor market which affects birth rates. In addition, technological progress has improved health care and standard of living, bringing up life expectancies. However, the elderly population is increasing, elevating the dependency ratio which dampens the economic growt...

  4. Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kéry, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic studies in plants appear simple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastic tags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperate latitudes have a pronounced seasonal life–cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots once a year often during or shortly after flowering. Life–states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of a demographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as 0VFVVF000. A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it was seen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities of survival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting. Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, i.e., when plants may stay belowground for one or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as 0VF00F000 may then occur where the meaning of zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methods in wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equated to a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and in Kéry et al. (submitted, we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival and should not be used. In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capturerecapture (CR models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state–transitions and the fraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrial orchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kéry et al., submitted and Cypripedium reginae (Kéry & Gregg, submitted in West Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a total of 620 marked ramets over 10 years, and for Cypripedium, two populations with 98 and 258 marked ramets over 11 years. We chose the ramet (= single stem or shoot as the demographic unit of our study since there was no way distinguishing among genets (genet = genetical individual, i.e., the “individual” that animal ecologists are mostly concerned with. This will introduce some non–independence into the data, which can nevertheless be dealt with easily by correcting variances for overdispersion. Using ramets instead of genets has the further advantage that individuals can be assigned to a state such as flowering or vegetative in an unambiguous manner. This is not possible when genets are the demographic units. In all three populations, auxiliary data was available to show that detection probability of aboveground plants was m 0.995 We fitted multistate models in program MARK by specifying three states (D, V, F, even though the dormant state D does not occur in the encounter histories. Detection probability is fixed at 1 for the vegetative (V and the flowering state (F and at zero for the dormant state (D. Rates of survival and of state transitions as well as slopes of covariate relationships can be estimated and LRT or the AIC machinery be used to select among models. To estimate the fraction of the population in the unobservable dormant state, the encounter histories are collapsed to 0 (plant not observed aboveground and 1 (plant observed aboveground. The Cormack–Jolly–Seber model without constraints on detection probability is used to estimate detection probability, the complement of which is the estimated fraction of the population in the dormant state. Parameter identifiability is an important issue in multi state models. We used the Catchpole–Morgan–Freeman approach to determine which parameters are estimable in principle in our multi state models. Most of 15 tested models were indeed estimable with the notable exception of the most general model, which has fully interactive state- and time-dependent survival and state transition rates. T

  5. Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, M.; Gregg, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    Demographic studies in plants appear simple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastic tags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperate latitudes have a pronounced seasonal life-cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots once a year often during or shortly after flowering. Life-states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of a demographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as OVFVVF000. A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it was seen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities of survival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting. Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, I.e., when plants may stay belowground for one or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as OVFOOF000 may then occur where the meaning of zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methods in wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equated to a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and in Kery et al. (submitted), we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival and should not be used. In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capture-recapture (CR) models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state-transitions and the fraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrial orchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kery et aI., submitted) and Cypripedium reginae (Kery & Gregg, submitted) in West Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a total of 620 marked ramets over 10 years, and for Cypripedium, two populations with 98 and 258 marked ramets over 11 years. We chose the ramet (= single stem or shoot) as the demographic unit of our study since there was no way distinguishing among genets (genet = genetical individual, I.e., the 'individual' that animal ecologists are mostly concerned with). This will introduce some non-independence into the data, which can nevertheless be dealt with easily by correcting variances for overdispersion. Using ramets instead of genets has the further advantage that individuals can be assigned to a state such as flowering or vegetative in an unambiguous manner. This is not possible when genets are the demographic units. In all three populations, auxiliary data was available to show that detection probability of aboveground plants was > 0.995. We fitted multistate models in program MARK by specifying three states (D, V, F), even though the dormant state D does not occur in the encounter histories. Detection probability is fixed at 1 for the vegetative (V) and the flowering state (F) and at zero for the dormant state (D). Rates of survival and of state transitions as well as slopes of covariate relationships can be estimated and LRT or the AIC machinery be used to select among models. To estimate the fraction of the population in the unobservable dormant state, the encounter histories are collapsed to 0 (plant not observed aboveground) and 1 (plant observed aboveground). The Cormack-Jolly-Seber model without constraints on detection probability is used to estimate detection probability, the complement of which is the estimated fraction of the population in the dormant state. Parameter identifiability is an important issue in multi state models. We used the Catchpole-Morgan-Freeman approach to determine which parameters are estimable in principle in our multi state models. Most of 15 tested models were indeed estimable with the notable exception of the most ge

  6. Independent component analysis in non-hypothesis driven metabolomics : Improvement of pattern discovery and simplification of biological data interpretation demonstrated with plasma samples of exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiang; Hansen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    In a non-hypothesis driven metabolomics approach plasma samples collected at six different time points (before, during and after an exercise bout) were analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS). Since independent component analysis (ICA) does not need a priori information on the investigated process and moreover can separate statistically independent source signals with non-Gaussian distribution, we aimed to elucidate the analytical power of ICA for the metabolic pattern analysis and the identification of key metabolites in this exercise study. A novel approach based on descriptive statistics was established to optimize ICA model. In the GC-TOF MS data set the number of principal components after whitening and the number of independent components of ICA were optimized and systematically selected by descriptive statistics. The elucidated dominating independent components were involved in fuel metabolism, representing one of the most affected metabolic changes occurring in exercising humans. Conclusive time dependent physiological changes of the metabolic pattern under exercise conditions were detected. We conclude that after optimization ICA can successfully elucidate key metabolite pattern as well as characteristic metabolites in metabolic processes thereby simplifying the explanation of complex biological processes. Moreover, ICA is capable to study time series in complex experiments with multi-levels and multi-factors.

  7. China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

  8. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  9. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  10. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  11. Demographic and clinical characteristics of parapsoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Esmaeili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background an Aim: parapsoriasis is a rare chronic idiopathic dermatosis which commonly manifests with round or oval scaling and itching erythematosus plaques on trunk and extremities. Considering the size of the lesions, parapsoriasis is divided into two groups: small plaque and large plaque. Study of demographic characteristics of this disease may help to identify the high risk groups who are more susceptible to cutaneous lymphoma with high mortality as well as proper allocation of health service resources.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, affected parapsoriasis patients whom were referred to Razi Hospital in Tehran between April 2003 to March 2009 were studied. Three hundred and twenty patients were investigated for variables: age, sex, place of residence, location of the lesions and clinical subgroups according to the histopathology reports.Results: 53.4% of patients were female. The disease was most commonly observed in age group of 20 to 50 years and the mean age of the patients was 43.3 years. Eighty-five percent of the patients were inhabitant of Tehran province. 88.1% of patients had large plaque lesions and 11.9% had small plaque lesions. The most common sites of lesions were on the trunk (53.4% followed by the extremities (38.7%.Conclusion: Based on these findings, it was determined that parapsoriasis most commonly affects middle-aged women. Involvement of trunks and extremities were most commonly observed. Large plaque type was the most common type. 

  12. Developmental dyscalculia: prevalence and demographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Tsur, V; Manor, O; Shalev, R S

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and forty-three 11-year-old children with development dyscalculia, from a cohort of 3029 students, were studied to determine demographic features and prevalence of this primary cognitive disorder. They were evaluated for gender, IQ, linguistic and perceptual skills, symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), socio-economic status and associated learned disabilities. The IQs of the 140 children (75 girls and 65 boys) retained in the study group (three were excluded because of low IQs) ranged from 80 to 129 (mean 98.2, SD 9.9). 26 per cent of the children had symptoms of ADHD, and 17 per cent had dyslexia. Their socio-economic status was significantly lower than that of the rest of the cohort, and 42 per cent had first-degree relatives with learning disabilities. The prevalence of dyscalculia in the original cohort was 6.5 per cent, similar to that of dyslexia and ADHD. However, unlike these other learning disabilities, dyscalculia affected the two sexes in about the same proportions. PMID:8606013

  13. Closing the Energy Efficiency Gap: A study linking demographics with barriers to adopting energy efficiency measures in the home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study which linked demographic variables with barriers affecting the adoption of domestic energy efficiency measures in large UK cities. The aim was to better understand the ‘Energy Efficiency Gap’ and improve the effectiveness of future energy efficiency initiatives. The data for this study was collected from 198 general population interviews (1.5–10 min) carried out across multiple locations in Manchester and Cardiff. The demographic variables were statistically linked to the identified barriers using a modified chi-square test of association (first order Rao–Scott corrected to compensate for multiple response data), and the effect size was estimated with an odds-ratio test. The results revealed that strong associations exist between demographics and barriers, specifically for the following variables: sex; marital status; education level; type of dwelling; number of occupants in household; residence (rent/own); and location (Manchester/Cardiff). The results and recommendations were aimed at city policy makers, local councils, and members of the construction/retrofit industry who are all working to improve the energy efficiency of the domestic built environment. -- Highlights: ? 7 demographic variables linked to 8 barriers to adopting energy efficiency measures. ? A modified chi-square test for association was used (first order Rao–Scott corrected). ? Results revealed strong associations between most of the demographics and barriers. ? Data was collected from 198 interviews in the UK cities of Manchester and Cardiff. ? Specific recommendations are presented for regional policy makers and industry.

  14. Confronting the Youth Demographic Challenge: The Labor Market Prospects of Out-of-School Young Adults. Policy Issues Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Andrew; Fogg, Neeta; Mangum, Garth

    The labor market prospects of out-of-school young adults and options for improving the employment and earnings potential of all young adults were examined. The following issues were among those considered: demographic and social factors affecting young adults' employment prospects; employment trends and labor market problems in the United States…

  15. Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

  16. Lab experiments in demographic fieldwork: Understanding gender dynamics in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropological literature has long linked bridewealth payments to decision-making about fertility. Recent research underscores the significance of men's preferences regarding women's reproductive behavior, and suggests that bridewealth payments place constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. Yet because survey data on bridewealth are rare, and the collection of new survey data on bridewealth presents serious challenges, this explanation could not be tested. Objective: Our objective in this paper is to highlight the potential utility of lab experiments (in particular, vignette experiments for improving our understanding of gender relations in Africa, using the hypothesized effect of bridewealth on normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy as an illustration. Methods: We discuss our reasons for turning to lab experiments, and to vignette experiments in particular. We also summarize a series of studies (Horne, Dodoo, and Dodoo 2013; Dodoo, Horne, and Biney 2014 which have implemented our experimental approach. Results: Our experimental evidence shows that bridewealth payments are associated with greater normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. We also find that these negative effects of bridewealth are consistent across participant ages, and do not appear to be ameliorated by female schooling. Conclusions: We conclude that lab experiments in general (and vignette experiments in particular are underutilized methodological tools that may be useful for helping us gain a better understanding of the cultural context of gender relations in Africa; and that demographic research more generally may benefit from taking advantage of the strengths of experimental methods.

  17. Cellular observations enabled by microculture: paracrine signaling and population demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Maribella; Yu, Hongmei; Warrick, Jay; Badders, Nisha M.; Meyvantsson, Ivar; Alexander, Caroline M.; Beebe, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The cellular microenvironment plays a critical role in shaping and directing the process of communication between the cells. Soluble signals are responsible for many cellular behaviors such as cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. Despite the importance of soluble signals, canonical methods are not well suited to the study of soluble factor interactions between multiple cell types. Macro-scale technology often puts cells into a convective environment that can wash away and dilute soluble signals from their targets, minimizing local concentrations of important factors. In addition, current methods such as transwells, require large numbers of cells and are limited to studying just two cell types. Here, we present data supporting the use of microchannels to study soluble factor signaling providing improved sensitivity as well as the ability to move beyond existing co-culture and conditioned medium paradigms. In addition, we present data suggesting that microculture can be used to unmask effects of population demographics. In this example the data support the hypothesis that a growth promoting subpopulation of cells exists in the mouse mammary gland. PMID:20011455

  18. [The ecological limits to demographic growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffestin, C

    1989-09-01

    Although most individuals are able to conceive of limitations on local resources, the idea that global resources are also potentially exhaustible appears harder to grasp. Not only are soil resources exhaustible, but the total vegetal biomass is ultimately limited by the fixed quantity of energy received from the sun. If the biomass is finite, the human population must also be finite. It would be very difficult to estimate the size of the human population that could be supported on earth because of the very different use of resources by different groups. Roughly 76% of the world's 5 billion persons live in the developing countries, and most of them weigh less heavily on the ecosystem as individuals than do persons living in the developed countries. Despite the difficulties of defining an ecologic limit on growth, the topic has held a certain fascination throughout history and various attempts have been made, most recently in 1972 with "The Limits of Growth". The question of ecological limits to growth is implicitly or explicitly posed in terms of 3 major problems: food resources, the physical capacity of ecosystems, and the territoriality of populations within ecosystems. The problem is made more complex by the fact that the objective of human societies compatible with resources. Soil erosion, inappropriate agricultural practices, pollution, the automobile and waste disposal are examples of technological aspects of society whose costs have not been rationally dealth with and which are not managed in a satisfactory manner in contemporary life. All economic and demographic growth carries with it bioecological degradation. The question of whether the earth is now overpopulated cannot be answered precisely. Nevertheless, the terrestrial ecosystem is in crisis; it is being degraded faster than it can be restored. There are no more free goods; air and water are not free. PMID:12157693

  19. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Mar?i?

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

  20. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi-component and the quality control of TCMs and TCM prescriptions. PMID:25618711

  1. Improvement and extension of the program system PSU for application in safety evaluation of components of nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety evaluation of power plant components, finite element methods (FEM) play a key role for both the solution of continuum mechanics problems and fracture mechanics problems. Especially in the field of fracture mechanics and damage mechanics specialized methods have to be applied in addition to classical engineering treatment laid down in the standards. The aim of this project was to enhance the finite element program PSU to make it applicable for safety analyses of nuclear power plants, with particular consideration of modern concepts of mechanics of materials, fracture mechanics and damage mechanics. (orig.)

  2. [Demographic research in Togo. Evaluation of change and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomenyo, A

    1986-01-01

    It is only since the independance of Togo, in 1958, and after 3 General Census, (1958-59, 1970, 1981), followed immediately by post-census surveys, that a solid basis of statistical data has been available for demographic research. But it is only after 1970, with the creation of the Benin University, and its Demographic Research Unit, the arrival of researchers at the ORSTOM Center of Lome, and of the demographers trained at the IFORD and IDP, that real demographic research has existed. Since then, the ORSTOM has conducted a study on the dynamics of population (fertility, migration, nuptiality, mortality) and its socioeconomic consequences on the agricultural economy of the Plateau Region (1975-1979). It is currently conducting a study in North Togo, comparing demographic data (nuptiality, fertility, infant mortality, family structure) with socioeconomic data (system of land property, women's activity, wives' status in polygamic families), for a better understanding of the influence of demographic reproduction on global social reproduction. The Demographic Research Unit led several studies on fertility in Southeast Togo and Lome. Several other surveys by the department of statistics and the IFORD, by the INRS, as well as student these from diverse schools of Benin University, are studying demo-geography, demo-economy, and demo-sociology. Still, the main problems are the bad quality of the data on fertility and mortality, and the inconsistancy of civil registration. But the interest of the present administration for demographic information may lead to the creation of a "Population Unit" assisting the government, to the definition of a status for researchers, and to the participation of Togo in the new program of Demographic and Health Surveys planned for 35 countries by the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. PMID:12341938

  3. The verification of virtual community members socio-demographic profile

    CERN Document Server

    Fedushko, Solomia; Peleschyshyn, Andriy; Syerov, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the current problem of investigation and development of the method of web-members' socio-demographic characteristics' profile validation based on analysis of socio-demographic characteristics. The topicality of the paper is determined by the necessity to identify the web-community member by means of computer-linguistic analysis of their information track (all information about web-community members, which posted on the Internet). The formal model of basic socio-demographic characteristics of virtual communities' member is formed. The algorithm of these characteristics verification is developed.

  4. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  5. Sechium edule Shoot Extracts and Active Components Improve Obesity and a Fatty Liver That Involved Reducing Hepatic Lipogenesis and Adipogenesis in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mon-Yuan; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Lee, Yi-Ju; Chang, Xiao-Zong; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2015-05-13

    Excess fat accumulation in the liver increases the risk of developing progressive liver injuries ranging from a fatty liver to hepatocarcinoma. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the polyphenol components of Sechium edule shoots attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of the extract of S. edule shoots (SWE) to modulate fat accumulation in a high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced animal model. In this study, we found that the SWE can reduce the body weight, adipose tissue fat, and regulate hepatic lipid contents (e.g., triglyceride and cholesterol). Additionally, treatment of caffeic acid (CA) and hesperetin (HPT), the main ingredients of SWE, also inhibited oleic acid (OA)-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. SWE enhanced the activation of AMP-activating protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased numerous lipogenic-related enzymes, such as sterol regulator element-binding proteins (SREBPs), e.g., SREBP-1 and SREBP-2, and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCoR) proteins, which are critical regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Taken together, the results demonstrated that SWE can prevent a fatty liver and attenuate adipose tissue fat by inhibiting lipogenic enzymes and stimulating lipolysis via upregulating AMPK. It was also demonstrated that the main activation components of SWE are both CA and HPT. PMID:25912298

  6. Track2-major components reliability and material issues corrosion counter-measures. Inconel overlay weld with improvement of ultrasonic flaw detection using magnetic stirring welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type 304 stainless steel and alloy 182 butt weld joints have sensibility of stress corrosion cracking in high temperature and high pressure water with oxygen dissolution. Some preventive maintenance techniques are improved and applied to actual plants to prevent stress corrosion cracking. One method is overlay welding on the outer surface of pipe joints, that can change the tension residual stress on the inner surface into the compression stress during overlay welding process with water cooling in pipe inside. It is well known that ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in the Inconel welds which have dendrites because they make ultrasonic transmissibility decrease. Also, welding for low alloy steels of reactor vessel nozzles is usually performed with pre- and post- weld heat treatments. But in this method, either treatment is quite difficult for water cooling in pipe inside during overlay welding. We discussed the application of magnetic stirring welding to reduce the growth of dendrites and to improve ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were performed for determination of optimal welding condition range. PT and macro observation after welding were carried out, resulted in the optimal operation conditions. Overlay welding tests were performed, and UT and hardness test of heat affected zone were carried out. Ultrasonic beam transmission of overlay welds is clearly improved and higher detect-ability is promised by application of magnetic stirring welding. Hardness of low alloy steel's heat affected zone after the fourth layer is less than 350 HV. (author)

  7. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105?503 people, residing in 19?315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library. PMID:25747869

  8. Demographic parameters of individual E.coli within and among controlled environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    In most biodemographic studies, demographic parameters, such as lifespan and reproduction, are quantified from populations without controlling environmental or genetic influences. To accurately quantify the demographic parameters, we need to isolate the system from stochastic extrinsic factors. This can be achieved by working on isogenic populations under controlled environments. We use a microfluidic device to limit stochastic processes to their molecular components. The high throughput microfluidic device traps thousands of individual E. coli cells and tracks them over their lifespan. The devise allows a precise control of the culture media and temperature, i.e. the extrinsic environment. Preliminary results indicate substantial variation of lifespan and reproduction within the same environment, and significant shifts in mean lifespan and reproduction among environments. Variance in lifespan and reproduction decreases with increased temperature, as do the means. This study is setting the baseline observations on a range of temperature. This experimental setup opens a prolific research line, which will allow us to explore demographic effects of nutrients availability, molecular signals from bacteria’s host, and antibiotics on individual cells. Those individual level effects can then be scaled to the population level.

  9. Alternative methods to attach components in printed circuit boards to improve their recyclability / Métodos alternativos de fijación de componentes de circuitos impresos para mejorar su reciclabilidad

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André, Canal-Marques; Maria Rita, Ortega-Vega; José-María, Cabrera; Célia de, Fraga-Malfatt.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las Placas de Circuitos Impresos constituyen la base de la industria electrónica. Sin embargo, generan residuos de difícil eliminación y reciclaje, debido a la diversidad de materiales y componentes presentes y su difícil separación. La sustitución de soldaduras de Pb-Sn por aleaciones libres de plo [...] mo intenta minimizar la toxicidad que implica la presencia de Pb, pero no aborda la separación de los componentes para su posterior reutilización y/o reciclaje. Este artículo presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre el problema ambiental que constituyen las placas de circuitos impresos, el estudio de alternativas de fijación, pruebas de fiabilidad para comparar con las placas convencionales y sistemas comerciales para validar o servir de base para futuras investigaciones, enfocadas hacia el desmontaje de PCI. Además, se muestran algunos estudios incipientes mediante prototipos para la realización de pruebas visuales y funcionales. Abstract in english Printed circuit boards (PCB), which form the basis of the electronics industry, generate wastes that are difficult to dispose of and recycle due to the diversity of their materials and components and their difficult separation. The replacement of Pb-Sn welding for lead-free alloys to attach componen [...] ts in printed circuit boards is an attempt to minimize the problem of Pb toxicity, but it does not change the problem of separation of the components for later reuse and/or recycling. This article presents a review of the environmental problem of printed circuit boards, the initial development of alternative fixation studies, and reliability tests for comparison with conventional boards and commercial systems to validate or serve as a basis for future research, focused on PCB disassembly for recycling. At present, initial studies were performed by using prototypes for visual and functional tests.

  10. Application to ethyl-benzene of a numerical method allowing improvement of NMR spectra resolution and determination of individual component parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for estimating parameters of exponentially damped sinusoidal transients has been applied to a NMR spectrum of ethyl-benzene. As it uses the peak derivatives rather than the classical Fourier ones, it makes them thinner and therefore allows an important resolution improvement. When such separated peaks are pure lorentzian ones, it is possible to estimate their five characteristic parameters, i.e. frequency, amplitude, damping factor, initial phase and time-delay. Gaussian peaks may be treated in the same way. (authors). 3 refs., 6 figs

  11. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  15. The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vreni Jean-Richard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. Objective: To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Design: Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. Results: The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Conclusion: Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care.

  16. [Integration of demographic variables into development plans in the Sahel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wane, H R

    1992-07-01

    A founding principle of the Program of Action of N'Djamena is the interdependence of population and development and the need for development strategies to take demographic factors into account. The concept of integration of population variables into development has evolved since its introduction in the 1974 World Population Plan of Action from a simple description of population size, growth rates, and distribution to a stress on harmonizing population policies and development policies with macroeconomic variables. The essence of the concept is the consideration given by development policies and programs to the interrelations between population, resources, the environment, and development factors. Population variables and goals should ideally be treated as endogenous variables in development planning, but in practice the extreme complexity of such a systematic approach limits its ability to be made operational. Usually the most crucial problems only are included. Integrated planning is composed of explicit or implicit population policies intended to influence demographic variables and of socioeconomic policies intended to adapt to demographic change. In the Sahel, only Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali have formal population policies, but around 1980 several countries of the region began to show interest in influencing demographic variables as they did economic variables. Fundamental principles for developing an integration strategy can be applied regardless or whether the plan is based on projections, analysis of interaction of a demographic variable with factors specific to a sector, or a monosectorial or multisectorial demoeconomic planning model. Demographic data is used more frequently in diagnosing problems than in developing projections or formulating objectives. The level of disaggregation of demographic projections and estimates tends to be low, despite the great potential utility of demographic projections in planning. Demographic projections can be useful in analyses of the extent of changes and the implications of alternative scenarios of development planning. The most frequently used demographic variables in development planning have been spatial distribution of the population and mortality. An examination of past development plans in Mali relating to population and nutrition and population and health reveals several inconsistencies between stated goals and strategies intended to achieve them. The incoherence can be explained in part by the absence of a coherent national population policy, the failure to translate the population policy into programs that take into account reciprocal effects of demographic trends and economic perspectives and their social effects, and the absence of disaggregated population projections. An example from Senegal demonstrates the constraints imposed by structural adjustment programs on the entire planning process. PMID:12344768

  17. Analysis of the demographic potential in function of tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-01-01

    Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features. In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc.) for the tourism economy. We know that the ...

  18. DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Huma Ali; Hina Ali

    2011-01-01

    Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spiritualit...

  19. Demographics of cattle movements in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon Matthew C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The United Kingdom (UK) government has been recording the births, deaths, and movements of cattle for the last decade. Despite reservations about the accuracy of these data, they represent a large and valuable body of information about the demographics of the UK cattle herd and its contact structure. In this article, a range of demographic data about UK cattle, and particularly their movements, are presented, as well as yearly trends in the patterns of movements. Results A...

  20. Demographic Predictors of Cognitive Change in Ethnically Diverse Older Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Early, Dawnte? R.; Widaman, Keith F.; Harvey, Danielle; Beckett, Laurel; Park, Lovingly Quitania; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Reed, Bruce R.; Decarli, Charles; Mungas, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how demographic variables relate to cognitive change and address whether cross-sectional demographic effects on cognitive tests are mirrored in differences in longitudinal trajectories of cognitive decline. We hypothesized that race and ethnicity, education, and language of test administration would relate to cross-sectional status and that the rate of cognitive decline would differ among African Americans, Hispanics, and Caucasians, across levels of ...

  1. Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Yanjun; Bond, Michael Harris; Dinca, Margareta; Iliescu, Dragos

    2010-01-01

    Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS), and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results...

  2. Demographic change and the labour share of income

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Torsten; Vosen, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    Despite similar levels of per capita income, education, and technology the development of labour shares in OECD countries has displayed different patterns since 1960. The paper examines the role of demography in this regard. Employing an overlapping generations model we first examine the mechanisms through which demographic change can affect labour shares. Model simulations show that demographic effects on the labour share are larger in open than in closed economies. Empirical estimates, cond...

  3. Spatial correlation and demography. : Exploring India's demographic patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveau, Sébastien; Guilmoto, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Demographers often use maps and regional tabulations to evidence the spatial dimension of population characteristics. While they display considerable ability to test the strength of statistical links between phenomena, they rarely attempt to use similar tools to investigate the nature and extent of spatial correlation between demographic variables. This paper examines this question by combining theoretical and practical issues in the measurement of spatial autocorrelation, using recent Indian...

  4. A global view on demographic pressure and labour market participation

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, Loek; Peeters, Marga

    2011-01-01

    Demographic change across the globe puts pressure on labour markets and public finances. Most studies on ageing focus on the projected development of the old age dependency ratio, being the ratio of persons 65 or older relative to the working age population. This ratio gives a very incomplete picture of the (fiscal) pressure from demographic changes. In this study, besides the share of the dependent population composed of the young and the old, we also include the share of the working age pop...

  5. Demographic Transition in Andhra Pradesh : Dividend or Burden?

    OpenAIRE

    Motkuri, Venkatanarayana

    2012-01-01

    While most of the developed countries moved out of dividend phase and entered into aging burden phase, the developing countries are now witnessing demographic dividend phase. India is one of the countries that are experiencing bulging youth (15-34) and thereby working age (15-59) population termed as demographic dividend given its economic advantages. Within the country, Andhra Pradesh is one of those states that are having the similar experience of bulging working age population. In this con...

  6. Demographic corrections for the modified Telephone Screening for Cognitive Status

    OpenAIRE

    Dennett, Kathryn; Tometich, Danielle; Duff, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted m...

  7. Demographic change and industry-specific innovation patterns in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Henseke, Golo; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2007-01-01

    In Germany, a thread to growth is perceived from demographic change. Demographic change means that a population is aging with the perspective of shrinking. The key question is whether an aging and shrinking population has enough talents to sustain the innovation process that is at the basis of our prosperity. In this paper we deal with the age distributions of inventivity. Specifically, we confirm past conjectures that inventive productivity is age dependent and unequally distributed among in...

  8. Demographic Change and Pharmaceuticals' Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ammann; Rachel Berchtold; Ralf Seiz

    2011-01-01

    We analyze how demographic change affected profits and returns across pharmaceutical industries over the last twenty years. Fluctuations in different age group sizes influence the estimated demand changes for age-sensitive drugs, such as antibacterials for young, antidepressants for middle-aged, and antithrombotics for old people. These demand changes are predictable as soon as a specific age group is born. We use consumption and demographic data to forecast future consumption demand growth f...

  9. Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Said Pournaghash-Tehrani; Zahra Feizabadi

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had sig...

  10. 75 FR 45173 - Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information...OPM), Employee Services proposes to add an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) form, Demographic...

  11. Improving the low-temperature capacitance of CoNiAl three-component layered double hydroxide in a redox electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The specific capacitance of CoNiAl layered double hydroxide in 6 M KOH reduces sharply from room temperature to ?20 °C, which is effectively enhanced by adding redox pair Fe(CN)63?/Fe(CN)64? in the electrolyte. - Highlights: • CoNiAl layered double hydroxide is synthesized by homogeneous precipitation. • The specific capacitance reduces sharply with the decrease of temperature. • At ?20 °C the specific capacitance is increased by 178% in a redox electrolyte. - Abstract: CoNiAl three-component layered double hydroxide with a lamellar structure similar to hydrotalcite-like compounds is synthesized via homogeneous precipitation and the effect of temperature on its capacitive performances in 6 M KOH is investigated. Electrochemical tests show its specific capacitance reduces sharply with the decrease of temperature from 18 to ?20 °C. At ?20 °C an increase of specific capacitance by 178% is achieved by adding redox pair Fe(CN)63?/Fe(CN)64? as the electron shuttle in the electrolyte due to their cooperation with the electrode reaction during the charge/discharge processes

  12. Development of collection technique for uranium from sea water using neutral components for adsorbent. Evaluation of improvement technique for adsorption ability of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection technique of uranium from sea water was investigated in this study. Several natural components (tannin) were examined their adsorb ability of uranium, resulting that tannic acid (Gobaishi) was superior to absorb uranium among them. However, amount of uranium to remove from sea water was evaluated only 23 ?g/g-adsorbent. To increase uranium collection more, alkali metal salt such as sodium sulfate was added in adsorbent production solution as reaction additives. As a result, amount of uranium collection was increased to 3.5 times by adding alkali metal slat to 10% of adsorbent production solution. In addition, the relationship between specific surface area (SSA) of support and amount of uranium collection showed that uranium collection has a potency to be drastically increased when SSA of support is wider. Hence the new adsorbents, SSA of their support was 100 times more than old one, were produced and were tested their ability of uranium collection from sea water, evaluating that 1-3 mg/U-g-adsorbent was capable to collect. (author)

  13. China’s Savings and Current Account Balance: A Demographic Transition Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we build an overlapping generation model to analyze how China’s family planning policy affects the demographic structure and the dependency ratios. We also employ the Cointegration Test and Granger Causality Test to examine the relationship between Chinese population dependency ratios and the national savings rate, as well as the relationship between relative productivity differences and the national current account balance. We find that the family planning policy can be sustainable with respect to these metrics. The current account balance reflects the transfer of savings over time and space. We posit that the demographic structure determines the savings transfer over time, while the relative productivity difference determines the savings transfer across the space. This transfer does not change the total welfare calculated on a national or generational basis. Consequently, focusing on improving the consumption rate to boost the economy without consideration of demographic structure transition warrants further serious discussion. Similarly, too much attention to short-term current account surplus or deficit is not productive.

  14. How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Derya

    2010-01-01

    In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency,...

  15. How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya KARA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation, t-test, Anova and Tukey analysis. As a result of this research; it has been seen that, there is no statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees work at hotel establishments considering their gender and marital status. Besides, it has been understood that, there is a statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees considering their ages, education levels, incomes, and length of time in tourism sector.

  16. Estimating components of variance in demographic parameters of Tawny Owls, Strix aluco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis, C. M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival rates of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco were estimated using recapture and recovery data from approximately 20,000 nestling and adult owls ringed between 1980 and 1999 in southern Finland. Survival rates averaged 33% in the first year of life, 64% in the second, and 73% in subsequent years, but varied dramatically among years. Approximately 50% of annual variation in survival could be explained by stage of the vole cycle and severity of winter weather. Capture probabilities, an index of breeding propensity, varied dramatically among years, and could almost entirely be explained by the vole cycle, superimposed on a long-term increase in capture effort. Matrix models based on mean values in each year of the vole cycle, predict that in 2 out of 3 years, the population would decline by 13%-15% per year, offset by a large increase in the 3rd year. Numbers of nesting pairs are predicted to be low in one of three years, with no long-term trend, consistent with observed estimates of active nests.

  17. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, Kirsten Achilles, E-mail: achilles.kirsten@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Tibbitts, Jay [UCB, Brussels (Belgium); Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (? 4400 ?g DM1/m{sup 2}) and 30 mg/kg (? 6000 ?g DM1/m{sup 2}) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 ?g DM1/m{sup 2}). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic activity. • When conjugated in T-DM1, higher doses of DM1 can be tolerated. • Antibody-drug conjugates may improve the therapeutic window for cytotoxic agents.

  18. WHEN DOES IMPROVING HEALTH RAISE GDP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Quamrul H; Lester, Ashley; Weil, David N

    2009-04-01

    We assess quantitatively the effect of exogenous health improvements on output per capita. Our simulation model allows for a direct effect of health on worker productivity, as well as indirect effects that run through schooling, the size and age-structure of the population, capital accumulation, and crowding of fixed natural resources. The model is parameterized using a combination of microeconomic estimates, data on demographics, disease burdens, and natural resource income in developing countries, and standard components of quantitative macroeconomic theory. We consider both changes in general health, proxied by improvements in life expectancy, and changes in the prevalence of two particular diseases: malaria and tuberculosis. We find that the effects of health improvements on income per capita are substantially lower than those that are often quoted by policy-makers, and may not emerge at all for three decades or more after the initial improvement in health. The results suggest that proponents of efforts to improve health in developing countries should rely on humanitarian rather than economic arguments. PMID:24347816

  19. Assessing population viability while accounting for demographic and environmental uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Hilton, Geoff; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fenton, Calvin; Daley, James; Gray, Gerard; Vickery, Juliet; Gibbons, David

    2014-07-01

    Predicting the future trend and viability of populations is an essential task in ecology. Because many populations respond to changing environments, uncertainty surrounding environmental responses must be incorporated into population assessments. However, understanding the effects of environmental variation on population dynamics requires information on several important demographic parameters that are often difficult to estimate. Integrated population models facilitate the integration of time series data on population size and all existing demographic information from a species, allowing the estimation of demographic parameters for which limited or no empirical data exist. Although these models are ideal for assessments of population viability, they have so far not included environmental uncertainty. We incorporated environmental variation in an integrated population model to account for both demographic and environmental uncertainty in an assessment of population viability. In addition, we used this model to estimate true juvenile survival, an important demographic parameter for population dynamics that is difficult to estimate empirically. We applied this model to assess the past and future population trend of a rare island endemic songbird, the Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi, which is threatened by volcanic activity. Montserrat Orioles experienced lower survival in years with volcanic ashfall, causing periodic population declines that were compensated by higher seasonal fecundity in years with high pre-breeding season rainfall. Due to the inclusion of both demographic and environmental uncertainty in the model, the estimated population growth rate in the immediate future was highly imprecise (95% credible interval 0.844-1.105), and the probability of extinction after three generations (in the year 2028) was low (2.1%). This projection demonstrates that accounting for both demographic and environmental sources of uncertainty provides a more realistic assessment of the viability of populations under unknown future environmental conditions. PMID:25163115

  20. Modelling the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in South Africa and the likely impact of interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Dorrington; Johnson, Leigh F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to incorporating the impact of HIV/AIDS and the effects of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes into a cohort component projection model of the South African population. The modelled HIV-positive population is divided into clinical and treatment stages, and it is demonstrated that the age profile and morbidity profile of the HIV-positive population is changing significantly over time. HIV/AIDS is projected to have a substantial demographic impact in ...

  1. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Gloster Marleny

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs. Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications, psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%, middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years, high school educated (62.4%, low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income, and received Medicaid (35.9% or Medicare (12.6%. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. One-quarter (25.6% of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7% reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7% reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ? 2. Diabetes mellitus was common (35.8%, and moderate/severe depression was present in 16% of participants. Participants were sedentary (835.3 ± 1,644.2 Kcal burned per week, obese (59.7%, and had poor global physical health, poor eating habits, high health literacy, and good overall mental health. Conclusions A majority of patients in the CAATCH trial exhibited adverse lifestyle behaviors, and had significant medical and psychosocial barriers to adequate BP control. Trial outcomes will shed light on the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for BP control when implemented in real-world medical settings that serve high numbers of low-income hypertensive African-Americans with multiple co-morbidity and significant barriers to behavior change.

  2. Combining gene expression, demographic and clinical data in modeling disease: a case study of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrin Seth

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a retrospective statistical study on the newly-released data set by the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium on gene expression in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This data set contains gene expression data as well as limited demographic and clinical data for each subject. Previous studies using statistical classification or machine learning algorithms have focused on gene expression data only. The present paper investigates if such techniques can benefit from including demographic and clinical data. Results We compare six classification algorithms: support vector machines (SVMs, nearest shrunken centroids, decision trees, ensemble of voters, naïve Bayes, and nearest neighbor. SVMs outperform the other algorithms. Using expression data only, they yield an area under the ROC curve of 0.92 for bipolar disorder versus control, and 0.91 for schizophrenia versus control. By including demographic and clinical data, classification performance improves to 0.97 and 0.94 respectively. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that SVMs can distinguish bipolar disorder and schizophrenia from normal control at a very high rate. Moreover, it shows that classification performance improves by including demographic and clinical data. We also found that some variables in this data set, such as alcohol and drug use, are strongly associated to the diseases. These variables may affect gene expression and make it more difficult to identify genes that are directly associated to the diseases. Stratification can correct for such variables, but we show that this reduces the power of the statistical methods.

  3. Experience and further improvement of ISI on steam generator tubing and RPVs with equipment and software developed by Siemens, applicable to all types of LWR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experience with mechanized in-service inspections of light water reactors in Germany, along with that with in-service inspections abroad following different code requirements, has been encompassing the past 16 years. New experience and results were obtained recently by the implementation of advanced inspection systems for LWR pressure vessel and primary circuits. The system comprises a streamlined manipulating concept, e.g. for RPV inspection, such as the central mast manipulator, which proves to be easily adaptable to different RPV types and geometries along with that with the WWER type. The so-called ALOK technique has also been put into practice providing complete A-scan information and allowing sensitive detection of defects and clear discrimination of background noise. Other problem areas are associated with complex geometries such as those of the nozzles or with materials which do not lend themselves easily to a standard inspection such as trimetal welds. The solution to these problems is offered by the phased array technique with UT tomography as the signal processing technique. Another significant area of PWR-ISI is the inspection of SG tubing. An automated defect detection system has been developed and field-proven for further reliability and performance improvement or optimization. This system is based on a specifically developed multifrequency mixing method which has demonstrated high capacity for signal to noise ratio enhancement (e.g., by suppressioise ratio enhancement (e.g., by suppression of tube sheet and roller expansion signals) as well as for close-margin determination of tube wall degradation. The automated system also helps to eliminate the influence of the human factor in the tedious scanning through all the tube data available. The modular design of the channel head manipulator also allows for tube repair and UT inspection of welds. (author). 20 figs

  4. Perceived availability of culturally and demographically diverse photographs for health education materials, Colorado, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Mary K; Bettinghaus, Erwin; Buller, David B; Liu, Xia; Fluharty, Lyndsay

    2015-01-01

    An online survey was conducted with health educators in Colorado to ascertain their needs and ability to access relevant stock art photographs for their print and electronic educational media. Health educators were dissatisfied with the cultural and demographic diversity of photographs available from their own sources or from commercial stock art websites. There was a perceived need for more photographs that would better represent their target populations. The health educators believed, furthermore, that representative visual images can help improve their message effectiveness. PMID:25719214

  5. [A model of demographic transformation in graph presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkiewicz, M

    1983-01-01

    This article attempts to provide a model of demographic transformation giving various possibilities of its realization with constant socioeconomic factors. To this end, some elements of the theory of graphs were used. On the basis of the described cycle of demographic transformation, a graph was established and its features used to show possible ways of demographic transition, with specific socioeconomic factors. The example presented is to show that various observed forms of demographic transformation come into being directly as an evolution of the classical model. The evolution of the 2nd and 3rd stages (the differentiation of forms of transformation appears mostly during these 2 stages) especially in the developing case of countries can be caused by the fact that in thies group of countries, demographic transformation is much delayed as compared with countries which have already attained a high level of industiralization and terminated the transformation cycle as described in the classical definition. The possibility of quick flows of information in the world and the universality of transferring various technologies to developing countries allow a marked shortening or superposition of successive stages of transformation, and even the elimination of certain elements contained in the classical model. PMID:12339464

  6. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Siaka; Baikoro, Nahoua; N'Guessan, Yao; Jaeger, Fabienne N; Silué, Kigbafori D; Fürst, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Ouattara, Mamadou; Séka, Marie-Chantal Y; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Esso, Emmanuel L J C; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I; Gonety, Prosper T; Adiossan, Lukas G; Dao, Daouda; Tschannen, Andres B; von Stamm, Thomas; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2015-02-01

    The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is located in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, approximately 150?km north-west of Abidjan. The Taabo HDSS started surveillance activities in early 2009 and the man-made Lake Taabo is a key eco-epidemiological feature. Since inception, there has been a strong interest in research and integrated control of water-associated diseases such as schistosomiasis and malaria. The Taabo HDSS has generated setting-specific evidence on the impact of targeted interventions against malaria, schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases. The Taabo HDSS consists of a small town, 13 villages and over 100 hamlets. At the end of 2013, a total population of 42 480 inhabitants drawn from 6707 households was under surveillance. Verbal autopsies have been conducted to determine causes of death. Repeated cross-sectional epidemiological surveys on approximately 5-7% of the population and specific, layered-on haematological, parasitological and questionnaire surveys have been conducted. The Taabo HDSS provides a database for surveys, facilitates interdisciplinary research, as well as surveillance, and provides a platform for the evaluation of health interventions. Requests to collaborate and to access data are welcome and should be addressed to the secretariat of the Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire: [secretariat@csrs.ci]. PMID:25433704

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  8. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  9. Memory-endowed US cities and their demographic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, A; Hernando, R; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in a European country (Spain), indicating more coherent evolution in US cities. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (such as the American Civil War) or economic crisis (such as the 1929 Stock Market Crash). PMID:25551139

  10. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  11. Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  12. Socio-demographic distribution of vestibular schwannomas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanidis, Karen; Kessel, Marie

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are diagnosed less frequently in the remote parts of Denmark, whereas the diagnostic age and tumor size is the same across the different socio-demographic areas of Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether VSs are diagnosed equally often in different socio-demographic areas of Denmark and whether a change has occurred during the period 1976-2012. In addition, differences in diagnostic age and tumor size between areas were explored. METHODS: Since 1976, all patients diagnosed with a VS in Denmark have been registered in a national database, in which information on, for example, the size of the tumor and the age and address of the patient has been registered. Up to 2012, 2739 patients were diagnosed with a VS. Patient distribution according to area of habitat was determined by subgrouping into urban, suburban, rural, and remote municipalities, using the definitions of socio-demographic areas elaborated by Demarks Statistic. RESULTS: The mean national incidence increased almost linearly over the time period from 6.1 per million per year in the first period from 1976 to 1984, to 22.1 per million per year in the last period from 2003 to 2012. There was a lower incidence at the end of the period in the remote areas compared with the other socio-demographic areas (1976-1984, p = 0.05 and 2003-2011, p = 0.001). The mean age at diagnosis increased during the period, from 52.6 years in the first period to 58.6 years in the last period. There was no significant difference in the age distribution between socio- demographic areas. The mean diagnostic tumor size decreased during the period, from 28.6 mm in the first period to about 10 mm in the last period. There was no significant difference in the size of the tumor between socio- demographic areas.

  13. Macroeconomic impacts of demographic change in Scotland: a computable general equilibrium analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lisenkova, Katya

    2007-01-01

    This paper combines a multi-period economic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling framework with a demographic model to analyse the macroeconomic impact of the projected demographic trends in Scotland. Demographic trends are defined by the existing fertility-mortality rates and the level of annual net-migration. We employ a combination of a demographic and a CGE simulation to track the impact of changes in demographic structure upon macroeconomic variables under different scenarios f...

  14. DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spirituality. At the end, discussion and conclusion of the study is given.

  15. Food consumption in Mexico: demographic and economic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heien, D; Jarvis, L S; Perali, F

    1989-05-01

    Disaggregated demand analysis is beginning to receive increased importance in food policies for developing countries. Using household data from the 1977 Mexican Income and Expenditure Household Survey, the authors estimate the income and demographic effects on expenditures for 9 aggregate food categories. In addition, they use a probit model to explore the effect of these variables on the purchase decision for 5 high protein supplying goods. The results indicate that demographic variables, as well as income, have important effects in determining food expenditures. The authors analyze these effects and indicate the role they might play in food policy programs such as PRONAL, the National Food Programme. PMID:12315960

  16. MINORITATEA GERMAN? DIN ROMÂNIA ÎNTRE DECLIN DEMOGRAPHIC ?I ADAPTARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILFRIED SCHREIBER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The German minority in Romania between demographic decline and adaptation. As most of the other national minorities in Romania, the German population declined by 40% between 2002 and 2011. The highest decreasing levels were registered in the counties and settlements where Germans had been colonized throughout the centuries, especially in Transylvania. Growth was only registered in Ilfov County due to the economic attractiveness. In 2011 there were still 11 towns with more than 500 German inhabitants and 14 rural municipalities with more than 100 Germans. The demographic setback determined adaptation measures, especially within the Democratic Forum of the Germans in Romania and the Evangelical Lutheran Church.

  17. HTR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 describes in detail the situation of the R+D Programs in the domain of heat conducting Components within the PNP-Project, materials development and testing devices (PNP, KVK=Komponenten-Versuch-Kreislauf, EVA II and vibration simulator SAMSON) and fabrication conditions. Planning requirements and development aims of the He/He-intermediate heatexchanger are discussed in the view of stress analysis, fabrication and quality assurance. The heat exchanger with helical configuration is discussed concerning Thermohydraulics, vibration analysis and the development of a novel high temperature insulating material for the PNP-Project. (GL)

  18. Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of USDA quality and yield grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef chuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S E; Harris, K B; Haneklaus, A N; Savell, J W; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C; Pool, J K; Luna, A M; Engle, T E; Schutz, J S; Woerner, D R; Arcibeque, S L; Belk, K E; Douglass, L; Leheska, J M; McNeill, S; Howe, J C; Holden, J M; Duvall, M; Patterson, K

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Additionally, the impact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Quality and Yield Grade may have on such factors was investigated. Ultimately, these data will be used in the USDA - Nutrient Data Laboratory's (NDL) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). To represent the current United States beef supply, seventy-two carcasses were selected from six regions of the country based on USDA Yield Grade, USDA Quality Grade, gender, and genetic type. Whole beef chuck primals from selected carcasses were shipped to three university laboratories for subsequent retail cut fabrication, raw and cooked cut dissection, and proximate analyses. The incorporation of these data into the SR will improve dietary education, product labeling, and other applications both domestically and abroad, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate and relevant beef nutrient data. PMID:24769877

  19. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  20. Perceptional and Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Household Drinking Water Management Strategies in Rural Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Meha; Lim, Yili; Arce-nazario, Javier A.; Uriarte, Mari?a

    2014-01-01

    Identifying which factors influence household water management can help policy makers target interventions to improve drinking water quality for communities that may not receive adequate water quality at the tap. We assessed which perceptional and socio-demographic factors are associated with household drinking water management strategies in rural Puerto Rico. Specifically, we examined which factors were associated with household decisions to boil or filter tap water before drinking, or to ob...

  1. A Socio- Demographic Profile of Infant Deaths in A Tribal Block of South Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amul Patel, Pradeep Kumar, Naresh Godara, Vikas K Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With progressive reduction in infant mortality rate (IMR and advent of technology, socio – demographic determinants assume more importance (than biological, more so in remote and inaccessible areas, which incidentally also record high IMR. Study was carried out in a tribal block of South Gujarat to generate socio- demographic profile for 48 infant deaths reported during one year. Data was collected through house to house survey on a designed questionnaire. Amongst 48 death cases, literacy rates amongst mothers and fathers were 64.6 and 75% respectively. Occupation wise 81.3% fathers and 52.1% mothers were farm laborer. Joint families were in 81.3% cases and 85.4% belonged to lower social class. Teenage pregnancy was found in 56.3% cases. Age of 25% mothers’ at birth was below 20 years. First birth order was found in 47.9% cases. Birth spacing was less than 2 years in 60.4% cases. It is concluded that improving literacy, increasing age at pregnancy, increasing birth spacing (> 2 years along with overall socioeconomic improvement of community can help in attaining the further reduction in infant mortality.

  2. Demographic Data and Clinical Characteristics of 202 Cerebral Palsy Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Öcal Eriman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP who applied to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinic.Materials and Methods: Data of the 202 cases who had reffered to our outpatient clinic between December 2005 and June 2007 was evaluated retrospectively.Results: Ninety-four of the cases were girls and 108 were boys. Their mean age was 6.98 years (1-33 years. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia 34% (n:69, tetraplegia 32% (n:66, hemiplegia 26% (n:53, monoplegia 4.5% (n:9, dyskinetic %1 (n:2 and mixed type 1.4% (n:3. CP severity, assessed with the Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS, was distributed as follows: level 1 (9.9%, level 2 (17.8%, level 3 (20.8%, level 4 (22.8%, level 5 (8.7%. The most frequently encountered prenatal risk factor was consanguineous marriage - 25% (n=51, perinatal risk factors were low birth weight - 37.1% (n=75 and premature birth - 35% (n=72, natal risk factor was forced birth - 14.9% (n=30, postnatal risk factor was convulsion - 9.9% (n=20, and 14.9% (n=30 were unclassified. 55.4% of the children had speech disorder, 50.4% had mental retardation, 35.6% had visual impairment, 5.9% had epilepsy. Eighty-six of the cases who applied to the clinic were using orthesis. New orthesis were prescribed to 74 patients, botulinum toxin–A injection were performed in 11 cases and 12 of them were referred for surgery.Conclusion: Perinatal risk factors were the most frequently seen when assessing the etiologic factors in CP. Better health conditions will decrease the prevalence of CP by minimizing prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal damage. Prenatal care should be improved, high-risk babies should be followed up closely and the number of neonatal intensive care units should be increased. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2009;55:94-7.

  3. The Russian Market of University Services: Social and Demographic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydanova, Elizaveta; Mushketova, Natalia; Rouet, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of demographic, social, economic and international aspects on the market of university services in Russia. It also reminds readers briefly of the evolution of the Russian higher education system during the last 20 years and considers some consequences of the current public policy and…

  4. Students from Australian Universities Studying Abroad: A Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Australia is one of many countries to encourage its students to study abroad and hence develop a global perspective. Traditionally, students who have pursued this option represented a relatively privileged and demographically narrow group. More recently, governments and other agencies have been offering funding support with the aim of…

  5. Age Differences in Demographic Predictors of Retirement Investment Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Guyla D.; Chen, Yiwei

    2008-01-01

    Increased longevity coupled with inadequate savings makes retirement savings and investment research increasingly important. A policy-capturing method was used to examine the relative importance of 6 demographic predictors on the retirement investment decisions of 64 working adults. All predictors were significant predictors of the investment. In…

  6. Greying at the Temples: Demographics of a Public Service Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, James F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of an empirical study of the effects of demographic trends on a local government occupational group--public welfare workers. Considers effects of these trends on managers' abilities to foster new ideas, to achieve affirmative action goals, and to ensure employee motivation, performance, and productivity. (Author/CH)

  7. Demographic Correlates and Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod assessments of family…

  8. Leisure Lifestyles: Segmentation by Interests, Needs, Demographics, and Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marshall G.; Frank, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Using their own 1978 national survey sample, the authors describe the social and demographic characteristics, psychological needs, and television viewing behaviors of persons who exhibit each of 14 patterns of leisure activities. The patterns were isolated through factor analysis and clustering techniques. (Author/RM)

  9. Homeschool Progress Report 2009: Academic Achievement and Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Home School Legal Defense Association commissioned Dr. Brian D. Ray of the National Home Education Research Institute to conduct a nationwide study of homeschooling in America. The study's purpose was to develop a current picture of homeschool students and their families--capturing their demographics and educational background--and…

  10. Demographic Prognoses for Some Seats in the Ostrava Region.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 14, ?. 2 (2006), s. 16-26. ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : economic restructuring * settlement system * population development * demographic prognoses * unemployment * Ostrava region Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  11. Demographics and Diversity of Asian American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hune, Shirley

    2002-01-01

    The author provides an overview of the Asian American population, its immigration patterns and trends, current demographics, and higher educational statistics and explains why student affairs professionals need to address the diversity of Asian American students if they are to be better served and supported. (Contains 16 references.) (Author)

  12. Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

  13. Demographics and Motivation of Adult Group Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    As people are living longer and enjoying better quality of life, there has been a corresponding increase in interest in recreational music-making by adults. This study examined the demographics and motivations of students enrolled in the Community Piano Experience hosted by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln School of Music. Twenty-six…

  14. Demographic Processes in Hungary and their Manifestation in Small Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÁS TRÓCSÁNYI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungary, belonging more and more to the prestigious group of developed countries, can be characterised increasingly by the demographic characteristics of that type. Ageing population, decreasing number of live births, decreasing population size are commonly used terms when analysing the demographic profile of our country. This simplified picture can be modulated and coloured with the help of spatial data. In spite of the comparatively small-sized and relatively homogenous structure of Hungary, several differences can be found. The network of small towns could be an obvious and representative sample for the spatial investigations since it almost totally covers the area of Hungary, it is numerous enough but still easy to handle. Within a Hungarian geographical context, settlements having a maximum of 30,000 inhabitants and possessing city rank can be defined as small towns. Because of their size and functions, small towns are sensitive enough to illustrate the national demographic tendencies, but they are numerous enough to be split into different groups according to their remarkably diverse character. Traditional historic small towns widely differ from the ones located in the rapidly urbanising agglomerations, even though the socialist new towns, having similar origin, reflect significant demographic variants.

  15. Animal Cruelty Motivations: Assessing Demographic and Situational Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined childhood and adolescent animal cruelty motives. Using a sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the impact of demographic attributes and situational factors relating specifically to a range of animal cruelty motivations. Almost half of the…

  16. Assessing population viability while accounting for demographic and environmental uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Oppel, Steffen; Hilton, Geoff; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fenton, Calvin; Daley, James; Gray, Gerard; Vickery, Juliet; Gibbons, David

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the future trend and viability of populations is an essential task in ecology. Because many populations respond to changing environments, uncertainty surrounding environmental responses must be incorporated into population assessments. However, understanding the effects of environmental variation on population dynamics requires information on several important demographic parameters which are often difficult to estimate. Integrated population models facilitate the integration of ti...

  17. Asians in New York City: A Demographic Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingasser, Jean; And Others

    This demographic survey provides the following information on Asian Americans: (1) states with the highest Asian American population; (2) ethnic breakdown among Asians; (3) Asian immigration history and legislation affecting it; (4) individual immigration histories of Asian Americans in New York City (New York), including the Chinese, Japanese,…

  18. Migration and demographical processes in the zone of radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of demographical processes in the zone of radiation control is analyzed, the influence of social-psychological factors of reproduction of population is considered. On the basis statistic data and results of sociological research the causes of the reduction of insensitivity reproduction behavior of the families in Belarus are revealed. (authors)

  19. Nutrient patterns and their association with socio-demographic, lifestyle factors and obesity risk in rural South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Pedro T; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11-15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (-0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity. PMID:25984738

  20. Improved Magnetic-Field-Component Resolvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    New resolvers for vectorially summing outputs of aircraft-mounted magnetometers are lighter and more economical to fabricate than conventional electromagnetic resolvers. One resolver is based on potentiometric principles, the second uses polarization filters, and the third has variable-capacitance elements. Optical, capacitive and potentiometric devices have applications in aircraft navigation systems.

  1. Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; HEATON, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory...

  2. Changes in growth of pristine boreal North American forests from 1950 to 2005 driven by landscape demographics and species traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Girardin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the many factors that are occurring and known for positively affecting the growth of forests, some boreal forests across North America have recently felt the adverse impacts of environmental changes. Knowledge of causes for productivity declines in North American boreal forests remains limited and this is owed to the large spatial and temporal scales involved, and the many plant processes affected. Here, the response of pristine eastern boreal North American (PEBNA forests to ongoing climatic changes is examined using in situ data, community ecology statistics, and species-specific model simulations of carbon exchanges forced by contemporary climatic data. To examine trends in forest growth, we used a recently acquired collection of tree-ring width data from 252 sample plots distributed in PEBNA forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P. and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.. Results of linear trend analysis on the tree growth data highlight a dominating forest growth decline in overmature forests (age > 120 yr from 1950 to 2005. In contrast, improving growth conditions are seen in jack pine and mature (70–120 yr black spruce stands. Multivariate analysis of climate and growth relationships suggests that responses of PEBNA forests to climate are dependent on demographic and species traits via their mediation of temperature and water stress constraints. In support of this hypothesis, the simulation experiment suggests that in old-growth black spruce stands the benefit to growth brought on by a longer growing season may have been low in comparison with the increasing moisture stress and respiration losses caused by warmer summer temperatures. Predicted increases in wildfire frequency in PEBNA forests will likely enhance the positive response of landscape-level forest growth to climate change by shifting the forest distribution to younger age classes while also enhancing the jack pine component.

  3. Changes in growth of pristine boreal North American forests from 1950 to 2005 driven by landscape demographics and species traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Girardin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the many factors that are occurring and known for positively affecting the growth of forests, some boreal forests across North America have recently felt the adverse impacts of environmental changes. Knowledge of causes for productivity declines in North American boreal forests remains limited, and this is owed to the large spatial and temporal scales involved, and the many plant processes affected. Here, the response of pristine eastern boreal North American (PEBNA forests to ongoing climatic changes is examined using in situ data, community ecology statistics, and species-specific model simulations of carbon exchanges forced by contemporary climatic data. To examine trends in forest growth, we used a recently acquired collection of tree-ring width data from 252 sample plots distributed in PEBNA forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P. and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.. Results of linear trend analysis on the tree growth data highlight a dominating forest growth decline in overmature forests (age > 120 years from 1950 to 2005. In contrast, improving growth conditions are seen in jack pine and mature (70–120 years black spruce stands. Multivariate analysis of climate and growth relationships suggests that responses of PEBNA forests to climate are dependent on demographic and species traits via their mediation of temperature and water stress constraints. In support of this hypothesis, the simulation experiment suggests that in old-growth black spruce stands the benefit to growth brought on by a longer growing season may have been low in comparison with the increasing moisture stress and respiration losses caused by warmer summer temperatures. Predicted increases in wildfire frequency in PEBNA forests will likely enhance the positive response of landscape-level forest growth to climate change by shifting the forest distribution to younger age classes while also enhancing the jack pine component.

  4. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Kuate Defo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains in life expectancy from the 1950s through the 1990s in a context of preponderant communicable diseases in all African countries; 5 the salient role of adult mortality, mostly ascribed to HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities, since the 1990s in reversing trends in mortality decline, its interruption of life expectancy improvements, and its reversal of gender differences in life expectancies disadvantaging women in several countries with the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS; 6 the huge impact of wars in reversing the trends in under-five mortality decline in sub-Saharan countries in the 1990s and beyond. These assessments of these transition frameworks and these phenomena were not well documented to date for all five regions and 57 countries of Africa. Conclusion: Prevailing frameworks of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions as descriptive and predictive models are incomplete or irrelevant for charting the population and health experiences and prospects of national populations in the African context.

  5. Aspects for Run-time Component Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Truyen, Eddy; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Joosen, Wouter; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Component framework technology has become the cornerstone of building a family of systems and applications. A component framework defines a generic architecture into which specialized components can be plugged. As such, the component framework leverages the glue that connects the different inserted components together. We have examined a middle ground between aspect-oriented programming and computational reflection that improves the dynamics of this gluing process such that interaction betwee...

  6. Independent component analysis: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2013-01-01

    Independent component analysis is a probabilistic method for learning a linear transform of a random vector. The goal is to find components that are maximally independent and non-Gaussian (non-normal). Its fundamental difference to classical multi-variate statistical methods is in the assumption of non-Gaussianity, which enables the identification of original, underlying components, in contrast to classical methods. The basic theory of independent component analysis was mainly developed in the 1990s and summarized, for example, in our monograph in 2001. Here, we provide an overview of some recent developments in the theory since the year 2000. The main topics are: analysis of causal relations, testing independent components, analysing multiple datasets (three-way data), modelling dependencies between the components and improved methods for estimating the basic model. PMID:23277597

  7. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  8. The SDSS-IV in 2014: A Demographic Snapshot

    CERN Document Server

    Lundgren, Britt; Zasowski, Gail; Lucatello, Sara; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Tremonti, Christy A; Myers, Adam D; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gillespie, Bruce; Ho, Shirley; Gallagher, John S

    2015-01-01

    Many astronomers now participate in large international collaborations, and it is important to examine whether these structures foster a scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the demographics and gender climate within SDSS-IV, one of the largest and most geographically distributed astronomical collaborations. In April 2014, the CPWS administered a demographic survey to establish a baseline for the incipient SDSS-IV. We received responses from 250 participants (46% of the active membership). Half of the survey respondents were located in the US or Canada and 30% were based in Europe. Eleven percent of survey respondents considered themselves to be an ethnic minority at their current institution. Twenty-five percent of the SDSS-IV collaboration members are women, a fraction that is consistent with the US astronomical community, but substantially higher than the fraction of women in the IAU (16%)...

  9. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCES ON MENTAL HEALTH OF COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RAMANATHAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Students mental health is a public issues, public health policy makes at the international level, are very well concerned about this issue become of the increasing rate of suicide, among students their amenity, depression and involvement in high risk behavior .The aim of the study was to understand the influences of demographic variables on mental health of college students. The mental health scale (MHS constructed and standardized by Kamlesh Sharma (2002 was used to measure the mental health. 500 samples were taken based on Purposive sampling method .Statistical method such as t- test, and correlation analysis was used in the present study to test the hypothesis and interpret the data. The findings of the study were there is an influence of demographic variables on mental health of college students

  10. Demographics Associated with Autistic Spectrum Diagnosis in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa N.C. Mockett

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of work elucidating the demographics surrounding autistic spectrum disorders. This study sought to develop the local evidence base, enhance the awareness of educationalists in north Manchester and test the hypothesis that young people from all cultural groups are able to access the mental health service. The Social Communication Assessment and Intervention Team in the North Manchester Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service received 89 referrals of children with suspected autism between April 2010 and June 2011. Information was available about 69 cases. Some cases are still in the process of assessment while 20 children and young adults have received a diagnoses of autistic spectrum disorders; 4 African Caribbean, 11 White British, 3 Pakistani, 1 dual heritage and 1 did not complete the form. Further demographics and implications for training are discussed.

  11. Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razifar, Pasha [Molecular Imaging and CT Research, GE Healthcare, WI 53188, Waukesha (United States); Engler, Henry [Department of Medical Science, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Blomquist, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Ringheim, Anna; Estrada, Sergio [Uppsala Imanet AB, GE Healthcare, Box 967, SE-751 09, Uppsala (Sweden); Laangstroem, Bengt [Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergstroem, Mats [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-06-07

    This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [{sup 11}C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([{sup 11}C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [{sup 11}C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

  12. Socio Demographic and Clinical Features of the Malaria Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj P Taviad, T. B. Javadekar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the sociodemographic profile of malaria cases admitted on the basis of clinical features. Methods: With purposive sampling 100 cases were taken in these studies who were admitted with clinical findings of fever at Sayajirav Gyakwad Hospital, Vadodara. The indoor patients from April 2006 to October 2006 were retrieved using a prepared case sheet performa on the basis of patient’s demographic profile and clinical findings. Results: Out of 100 cases 66 patients were male an...

  13. Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hatton, Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    2001-01-01

    Two of the main forces driving European emigration in the late nineteenth century were real wage gaps between sending and receiving regions and demographic booms in the low-wage sending regions (directly augmenting the supply of potential movers as well as indirectly making already-measured employment conditions less attractive). These two features are even more prominent in Africa today, but do or can Africans respond to them with the same elasticity as in the days of ?free? migration? Our n...

  14. A Demographic Study of Information Technology Professionals' Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shih Yung Chou; John Pearson

    2011-01-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been suggested to facilitate organizational functioning. However, previous research has found that information technology (IT) professionals exhibit significantly lower OCB than non-IT professionals. To explain this phenomenon, this research includes demographic variables including age, gender, and tenure and examines their impact on the OCB of these highly skilled professionals. Using IT professionals as the unit of analysis with a sample size of...

  15. The Path to Prosperity: A Political Model of Demographic Change

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yi; Kugler, Jacek; Zak, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a formal model that characterizes the political mechanisms of demographic change, establishing a critical link in economic development. We demonstrate that fertility decisions are determined by three fundamental political variables: political stability, political capacity and political freedom. Modeling strategic multi-objective policy setting by the government, we derive a set of equilibrium conditions that enable poor nations to escape a poverty trap and to successfully ...

  16. Clinical and demographic features of HIV infection in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    García Vázquez Elisa; Cedillos Rolando A.; Wheeler David A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand some of the clinical and demographic features of the epidemic of infection by HIV in El Salvador prior to the availability of antiretroviral therapy in that country. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of HIV-infected individuals who were admitted to Hospital Rosales, which is a large public teaching hospital in San Salvador, El Salvador, during the 5-year period of 1994 through 1998. Chart abstraction was done of 194 out of the 208 individuals admitted to th...

  17. [Hereditary spherocytosis: Review. Part I. History, demographics, pathogenesis, and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Hugo; Crisp, Renée Leonor; Rapetti, María Cristina; García, Eliana; Attie, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is the most frequent hereditary anemia excluding beta thalassemia in Argentina. Historical, demographic, genetic and pathogenic aspects of the disease are reviewed, and confirmatory laboratory tests are described. Special characteristics on the outcome of the disease in our population and prevalent protein deficiencies in our country are described. Emphasis is given on new available laboratory tests, which allow an earlier diagnosis using volume of blood samples significantly smaller than required for conventional tests. PMID:25622164

  18. Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rohe Milton; Patton, Beth J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence) in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate studen...

  19. Transformations of the World’s Population: the Demographic Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    MacInnes, John; Pérez Díaz, Julio

    2009-01-01

    The Handbook offers students clear and informed chapters on the history of globalization and key theories that have considered the causes and consequences of the globalization process. There are substantive sections looking at demographic, economic, technological, social and cultural changes in globalization. The Handbook examines many negative aspects - new wars, slavery, illegal migration, pollution and inequality - but concludes with an examination of responses to these problems through hu...

  20. Demographic Variables for Wild Asian Elephants Using Longitudinal Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Shermin; Webber, C. Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U. S.; Pushpakumara, T. V.; Weerakoon, Devaka K.; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species’ remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitore...

  1. NATALITY IMPACT ON RECENT DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING DYNAMICS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaescu, Constanta; Niculescu-aron, Ileana Gabriela; Petre, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The decrease of Romanian natality after the abrogation of the pronatalist-coercive legislation at the end of 1989 was a natural and expected reaction. The surprise was generated by the speed and the magnitude of the fertility decrease and, thus, of the natality, which not even the specialists managed to predict. In this paper we elaborate a statistical model, which evaluates the impact of this evolution on the acceleration of the demographic ageing process.

  2. Achievement and Demographics of Home School Students: 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the largest survey and testing program for students in home schools to date. In Spring 1998, 20,760 K-12 home school students in 11,930 families were administered either the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) or the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency (TAP), depending on their current grade. The parents responded to a questionnaire requesting background and demographic information. Major findings include: the achievement test scores of this group of home sc...

  3. Influence of socio-demographic factors on SRAVEN performance

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Raegan; Cassimjee, Nafisa; Schur, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate the influence of specific socio-demographic variables on a computerized test of non-verbal neuropsychological performance. Six hundred and thirty South African first year students were assessed using the University of Pennsylvania Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (PennCNP). Fluid intelligence was measured by a computerized version of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices (SRAVENS). Analysis of variance indicated that gender, hom...

  4. Outcomes of cause related marketing: a demographic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Syed Tauqeer; Batool, Irem; Quarshi, Salman Ali; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran; Niazi, Ghulam Shabbir Khan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study determines the cause related marketing practices in Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry. Further this study investigates the relationship among the determinants of CRM and demographic variables. The sample size of this study was 629. The concern respondents were the post graduate students and employees of different universities and organizations. SPSS was used to analyze the data. This study finds that CRM is proven as strategic tool with multi-dimensional objective...

  5. Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations

    OpenAIRE

    Guschanski Katerina; Arandjelovic Mimi; Spitzner Marie; Wegmann Daniel; Thalmann Olaf; Leuenberger Christoph; Bergl Richard A; Vigilant Linda

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytic...

  6. Living arrangements of Canada's elderly : changing demographic and economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Priest, Gordon E

    1985-01-01

    Originally presented at the symposium "Innovations in Housing and Living Arrangements for Seniors" sponsored by the Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University and the Canadian Association on Gerontology. The objectives in organizing the symposium were to examine existing housing forms and policies in the light of current demographic and economic trends, sensitize participants to current problems with the development process as it relates to seniors housing and to examine innovative ...

  7. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A.; Go?mez-olive?, F. Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A.; Clark, Benjamin D.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G.; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B.; Wagner, Ryan G.

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observ...

  8. Privacy-Preserving Demographic Filtering Alambic Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Sai, M.

    2012-01-01

    The recommender systems are used as a way to user choices that needs to solve the protection problem in e-commerce. For solving such a problem we need to protect the privacy interests of users by hiding their identity and demographic features such as age, sex, geographical location, wealth, level of education, etc. and sometimes users buying preferences along with behavior. An E-commerce service provider allow commercial interests of users to protect data by recommending not to reveal valuabl...

  9. Socioeconomic and Demographic Determinants of Mental Health across Canadian Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Safaei

    2012-01-01

    Background Many factors contribute to health. This study uses community level data to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and demographic factors as well as physical health on community mental health outcomes. Method Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the impact of determinants on community mental health outcomes for men and women using community level data from up to 113 health regions covering almost the entire population in Canada. Results Study findings indicate that commu...

  10. Socio-Demographic Risk Factors of Child Undernutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dinesh; Mittal, Poonam C.; Sharma, Munesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives: (1) To find the extent of undernutrition among under-five children in terms of stunting, wasting and underweight and also by composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF). (2) To investigate some socio-demographic risk factors of child undernutrition. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: A total of 371 under-five children from 816 households selected by stratified multi-stage random sampling technique. Collected information included weight, height, age, gender, s...

  11. Preface to the Rostock Debate on Demographic Change

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Bernardi; Pascal Hetze

    2011-01-01

    The first Rostock Debate on Demographic Change, which took place on February 21, 2006, centered on the following question: Should governments in Europe push much more aggressively for gender equality to raise fertility? The four debaters were Laurent Toulemon from the Institut National d'Etudes Demograhiques (France), Dimiter Philipov from the Vienna Institute of Demography (Austria), Livia Oláh from Stockholm University (Sweden), and Gerda Neyer from the Max Planck Institute (Germany)

  12. The role of demographics in small business loan pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Neuberger, Doris; Ra?thke-do?ppner, Solvig

    2014-01-01

    To sustain growth in an aging economy, it is important to ease the financing of small firms by bank loans. Using bank internal data of small business loans in Germany, we examine the determinants of loan rates in the period 1995-2010. Beyond characteristics of the firm, the loan contract, and the lending relationship, demographic aspects matter. However, collateral and relationship lending play a larger role in loan pricing than the entrepreneur's age. Banks do not seem to discriminate older ...

  13. Demographic and Economic Trends: Implications for International Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Philip

    2009-01-01

    About three percent of the world’s 6.1 billion people were international migrants in 2000. Population growth is expected to slow between 2000 and 2050 in comparison to 1950-2000, but international migration is expected to rise as persisting demographic and economic inequalities that motivate migration interact with revolutions in communications and transportation that enable people to cross borders. The default policy option to manage what is sometimes deemed out-of-control m...

  14. Long-term demographic consequences of a seed dispersal disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Traveset, Anna; Gonza?lez-varo, Juan P.; Valido, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The loss or decline of vertebrate frugivores can limit the regeneration of plants that depend on them. However, empirical evidence is showing that this is still very scarce, as functionally equivalent species may contribute to maintain the mutualistic interaction. Here, we investigated the long-term consequences of the extinction of frugivorous lizards on the population persistence of a Mediterranean relict shrub Cneorum tricoccon (Cneoraceae). We examined the demographic parameters among 26 ...

  15. Islamic Credit Card: Are Demographic Factors a Good Indicator?

    OpenAIRE

    Norudin Mansor; Azman Che Mat

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates on the relationship between demographic factors and the usage of Islamic credit card as well as Conventional credit card demonstrates their interdependencies. The debatable issues as been addressed by many authorities not only in terms of the numbers of credit card flooding the nation’s economy, but the amount of transactions that end up with payment default and the numbers of credit card fraud as been recorded which threatened the economy should be seriously focused...

  16. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoul Hossain Madani; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi; Madhurima Dikshit; Teamur Aghamolaie; Debanshu Bhaduri

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and co...

  17. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCES ON MENTAL HEALTH OF COLLEGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    G. RAMANATHAN; P. VENKATAMMAL

    2013-01-01

    Students mental health is a public issues, public health policy makes at the international level, are very well concerned about this issue become of the increasing rate of suicide, among students their amenity, depression and involvement in high risk behavior .The aim of the study was to understand the influences of demographic variables on mental health of college students. The mental health scale (MHS) constructed and standardized by Kamlesh Sharma (2002) was used to measure the mental heal...

  18. Demographic Factors and Knowledge Sharing Quality among Malaysian Government Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Bakhari Ismail; Zawiyah Mohammad Yusof

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge sharing is one of the important elements in knowledge management. Previous works indicate that employees are reluctant to share knowledge among themselves. Many factors impede knowledge sharing among employees in organizations. One of those factors is demography. The purpose of this study is to find out the differences among government officers’ knowledge sharing quality in terms of demographic factors. A survey of 48 respondents using questionnaire as data collection method was c...

  19. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    OpenAIRE

    Mouton, Stijn; Willems, Maxime; Back, Patricia; Braeckman, Bart P.; Borgonie, Gaetan

    2009-01-01

    Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria") are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an ...

  20. Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing and research in the USA. People with a domination value orientation believe wildlife should be managed for human benefit and are more likely to prioritize human well-being over wildlife in t...

  1. The Influence of Demographic Profiles on Emotional Intelligence: A Study on Polytechnic Lecturers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeya Amantha Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to identify, understand, experience and express human emotions in a healthy productive way. The benefits of demonstrating high frequency of emotional intelligence in the workplace is vast especially in service based professions like teaching. Therefore this study aimed to explore the level of EI among lectures from a polytechnic in Malaysia and in the same time explore the influence of demographic profiles towards those levels. Demographic profiles such as gender, age group, occupational grade, working experience in the current job and prior working experience in the industry are selected. The Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Concise version was distributed to all the academic departments and the total number of respondents were n=162. Findings show that the overall level of EI is average. The findings proved that the levels of emotional intelligence among the lecturers improved with age, teaching experience, grade and education where else gender and prior working were not contributing factors© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

  2. Associations between fecal indicator bacteria prevalence and demographic data in private water supplies in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tamara; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Hagedorn, Charles; Lawrence, Annie H; Benham, Brian; Ling, Erin; Ziegler, Peter; Marmagas, Susan West

    2014-12-01

    Over 1.7 million Virginians rely on private water sources to provide household water. The heaviest reliance on these systems occurs in rural areas, which are often underserved with respect to available financial resources and access to environmental health education. This study aimed to identify potential associations between concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (coliforms, Escherichia coli) in over 800 samples collected at the point-of-use from homes with private water supply systems and homeowner-provided demographic data (household income and education). Of the 828 samples tested, 349 (42%) of samples tested positive for total coliform and 55 (6.6%) tested positive for E. coli. Source tracking efforts targeting optical brightener concentrations via fluorometry and the presence of a human-specific Bacteroides marker via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) suggest possible contamination from human septage in over 20 samples. Statistical methods implied that household income has an association with the proportion of samples positive for total coliform, though the relationship between education level and FIB is less clear. Further exploration of links between demographic data and private water quality will be helpful in building effective strategies to improve rural drinking water quality. PMID:25473992

  3. The Predictive Role of Happiness, Optimism and Demographical Status in Engagement in Health-related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rahimian Boogar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With regard to the importance of life style for health promotion, this research aimed to investigate the predictive role of happiness, optimism and demographical status in engagement in health-related Behaviors for high school students in Semnan. Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive design, 217 (104 boys and 113 girls high school students in Semnan were selected through a two-stage cluster sampling and completed the Demographical Information Questionnaire, The Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI, Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R and The Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHP. Data analysis was performed through correlation and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS.Results: Results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status, and engagement in health-related behaviors (P0/05.Conclusion: Happiness, optimism and socioeconomic status are important for engagement in health-related behaviors by high school students. The principal implication of this research is set an agenda of intervention for improvement of these factors as an important foundation to engagement in health-related behaviors and health promotion of high school students.

  4. Extracting subject demographic information from abstracts of randomized clinical trial reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Garten, Yael; Supekar, Kaustubh S; Das, Amar K; Altman, Russ B; Garber, Alan M

    2007-01-01

    In order to make more informed healthcare decisions, consumers need information systems that deliver accurate and reliable information about their illnesses and potential treatments. Reports of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) provide reliable medical evidence about the efficacy of treatments. Current methods to access, search for, and retrieve RCTs are keyword-based, time-consuming, and suffer from poor precision. Personalized semantic search and medical evidence summarization aim to solve this problem. The performance of these approaches may improve if they have access to study subject descriptors (e.g. age, gender, and ethnicity), trial sizes, and diseases/symptoms studied. We have developed a novel method to automatically extract such subject demographic information from RCT abstracts. We used text classification augmented with a Hidden Markov Model to identify sentences containing subject demographics, and subsequently these sentences were parsed using Natural Language Processing techniques to extract relevant information. Our results show accuracy levels of 82.5%, 92.5%, and 92.0% for extraction of subject descriptors, trial sizes, and diseases/symptoms descriptors respectively. PMID:17911777

  5. Determinants and treatment of hypertension in South Africans: The first Demographic and Health Survey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Krisela, Steyn; Debbie, Bradshaw; Rosana, Norman; Ria, Laubscher.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify the groups of patients with high prevalence and poor control of hypertension in South Africa. METHODS: In the first national Demographic and Health Survey, 12 952 randomly selected South Africans aged 15 years and older were surveyed. Trained interviewers completed questionna [...] ires on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and the management of hypertension. This cross-sectional survey included blood pressure, height and weight measurements. Logistic regression analyses identified the determinants of hypertension and the treatment status. RESULTS: A high risk of hypertension was associated with less than tertiary education, older age groups, overweight and obese people, excess alcohol use, and a family history of stroke and hypertension. Hypertension risk was lowest in rural blacks and significantly higher in obese black women than in women with a normal body mass index. Improved hypertension control was found in the wealthy, women, older persons, Asians, and persons with medical insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Rural black people had lower hypertension prevalence rates than the other groups. Poorer, younger men without health insurance had the worst level of hypertension control.

  6. Epinephrine auto-injector use and demographics in a Veterans Administration population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirzadeh, Ali; Verma, Prashant; Lee, Sabrina; Klaustermeyer, William

    2010-01-01

    The epinephrine auto-injector has been widely used over a long period of time. Certain aspects of this therapy and demographic data, however, have not been well studied. This study investigates patient use and understanding of epinephrine auto-injector use. As part of an ongoing quality assurance program, we evaluated 66 patients who had been given an epinephrine auto-injector and followed in the Allergy and Immunology Clinics at the West Los Angeles Veterans Medical Center. Data analyzed included patient demographics, medical indications for epinephrine auto-injector prescriptions, and the patient's understanding and use of the device. The mean age of our patients was 50 years. There were 44 men (66.7%) and 22 women (33%). Twenty-three patients were prescribed epinephrine auto-injector for adverse food reactions. Ninety-two percent (92%) of the patients knew how to use their epinephrine auto-injector properly, however, only 58% carried their device with them consistently. Of the patients, 91% understood why the auto-injector was prescribed. Of the total patients prescribed epinephrine auto-injector, 79% refilled their medication before the 1 year expiration date. Only 12% of the patients studied had required the use of their auto-injector. Most patients knew how and when to administer their epinephrine auto-injector. Despite detailed instructions in a specialty clinic only a slight majority carried it consistently. These data clearly indicate that further patient education or other measures are needed to improve compliance and effective use. PMID:20819320

  7. The epidemiology of observed temperament: Factor structure and demographic group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Stifter, Cynthia A; Gottfredson, Nisha C

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of observational indicators of children's temperament that were collected across the first three years of life in the Family Life Project (N=1205) sample. A four-factor model (activity level, fear, anger, regulation), which corresponded broadly to Rothbart's distinction between reactivity and regulation, provided an acceptable fit the observed data. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that a majority of the observational indicators exhibited comparable measurement properties for male vs. female, black vs. white, and poor vs. not-poor children, which improved the generalizability of these results. Unadjusted demographic group comparisons revealed small to moderate sized differences (Cohen ds=|.23-.42|) in temperamental reactivity and moderate to large sized differences (Cohen ds=-.64--.97) in regulation. Collectively, demographic variables explained more of the variation in regulation (R(2)=.25) than in reactivity (R(2)=.02-.06). Follow-up analyses demonstrated that race differences were substantially diminished in magnitude and better accounted for by poverty. These results help to validate the distinction between temperamental reactivity and regulation using observational indicators. PMID:25733489

  8. Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that most of the sampled NHIS patrons and non patrons were literate, engaged in meaningful employment, mostly married with average income, and were still in their active ages, and demonstrated meaningful exposure to insurance health information, which enable them to be or not to be active participants of the scheme. From the regression analysis, it was evident that all the variables except religion influenced insurance consumption positively whereas religion affects health insurance consumption negatively. Based on this, we recommended among other things, a re-alignment of health insurance marketing strategies with consumers socio-economic and demographic characteristics, as a measure to boost patronage.Key words: Socio-Economic; Demographic; Health insurance; Consumption

  9. Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rohe Milton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25 students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

  10. Modeling neolithic dispersal in central Europe: demographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeta, Patrik; Sládek, Vladimír; Sosna, Daniel; Bruzek, Jaroslav

    2011-09-01

    On the basis of new examination of ancient DNA and craniometric analyses, Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe has been recently explained as reflecting colonization or at least a major influx of near eastern farmers. Given the fact that Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe was very rapid and extended into a large area, colonization would have to be associated with high population growth and fertility rates of an expanding Neolithic population. We built three demographic models to test whether the growth and fertility rates of Neolithic farmers were high enough to allow them to colonize Central Europe without admixture with foragers. The principle of the models is based on stochastic population projections. Our results demonstrate that colonization is an unlikely explanation for the Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe, as the majority of fertility and growth rate estimates obtained in all three models are higher than levels expected in the early Neolithic population. On the basis of our models, we derived that colonization would be possible only if (1) more than 37% of women survived to mean age at childbearing, (2) Neolithic expansion in Central Europe lasted more than 150 years, and (3) the population of farmers grew in the entire settled area. These settings, however, represent very favorable demographic conditions that seem unlikely given current archaeological and demographic evidence. Therefore, our results support the view that Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe involved admixture of expanding farmers with local foragers. We estimate that the admixture contribution from foragers may have been between 55% and 72%. PMID:21732320

  11. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse; Vejborg, Ilse; Schwartz, Walter; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-15

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3.07-3.35) for Copenhagen versus Funen, and the adjusted RR was 2.55 (95%CI, 2.43-2.67). The adjusted RR for never use among women without contact to a primary care physician was 2.50 (95% CI, 2.31-2.71) and 2.89 (95% CI, 2.66-3.14), and for women without dental care 2.94 (95% CI, 2.77-3.12) and 2.88 (95% CI, 2.68-3.10) for Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. Other important predictive factors for nonparticipation were not being married and not being Danish. In conclusion, to enhance participation in mammography screening programmes special attention needs to be given to women not using other primary health care services. All women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor. PMID:17893881

  12. CURRENT DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND THEIR GEOPOLITICAL AND STRATEGIC REPERCUSSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel STOICA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Major worldwide demographic trends impact significantly each aspect of people’s lives. The impact will be favorable for some states and completely unfavorable for others since they will depend not only on the magnitude of these tendencies, but also on the aggregated result of the inherent shifts and developments at political, economic, social and military level Global demographic trends will represent a genuine challenge for the powerful states to maintain the existing global political and economic equilibrium and they will also constitute a genuine shocking force for international security and stability. At the same time, they will represent one of the variables underpinning states’ strategies, and domestic and foreign policies and influencing political and military alliances in the future. It is likely that they will lead to the reassessment of the bases of international relations. This paper analyzes the presumed consequences of future demographic shifts on the economic, political, military field and proposes some possible solutions to efficiently manage the issue.

  13. Demographic Regulators in Small-Scale World-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse B. Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of world-systems theory’s iteration model of early human societies. The polities modeled are composed of sedentary foragers and/or simple horticulturalists that rely upon basic subsistence technologies and display low levels of internal differentiation. World-systems theory’s iteration model integrates several processes of demographic regulation: environmental constraints, migration, intra-polity conflict, and inter-polity warfare. Computer simulation of this model reveals that different degrees of resource richness, land area, and initial population size have important effects on the average population levels and the behavior of interacting polities. A well-known ecological phenomenon, “the paradox of enrichment,” emerges when polities interact through warfare. Variations in the size and resources of local and regional areas, along with climatic variation, provide explanations of patterns of warfare in such systems. Finally, to make the iteration model compatible with other existing simulations of early human societal demographic regulation, we demonstrate that the ability of polities to regulate fertility has large consequences for both population sizes and inter-polity relations. A simulation of the world-systems iteration model would provide insights about how world-system dynamics produce selection pressures for the emergence of technological development, interpolity trade, and within-polity hierarchy, but these are subsequent steps. Our initial simulation holds technology and social organization constant in order to examine the demographic consequences of resource use and competition among polities for resources.

  14. Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavi? Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

  15. Demographic stochasticity and evolution of dispersion I. Spatially homogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen Ting; Kim, Hyejin; Doering, Charles R

    2015-02-01

    The selection of dispersion is a classical problem in ecology and evolutionary biology. Deterministic dynamical models of two competing species differing only in their passive dispersal rates suggest that the lower mobility species has a competitive advantage in inhomogeneous environments, and that dispersion is a neutral characteristic in homogeneous environments. Here we consider models including local population fluctuations due to both individual movements and random birth and death events to investigate the effect of demographic stochasticity on the competition between species with different dispersal rates. In this paper, the first of two, we focus on homogeneous environments where deterministic models predict degenerate dynamics in the sense that there are many (marginally) stable equilibria with the species' coexistence ratio depending only on initial data. When demographic stochasticity is included the situation changes. A novel large carrying capacity ([Formula: see text]) asymptotic analysis, confirmed by direct numerical simulations, shows that a preference for faster dispersers emerges on a precisely defined [Formula: see text] time scale. We conclude that while there is no evolutionarily stable rate for competitors to choose in these models, the selection mechanism quantified here is the essential counterbalance in spatially inhomogeneous models including demographic fluctuations which do display an evolutionarily stable dispersal rate. PMID:24682331

  16. Influence of demographic and individual difference factors on impulse buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Mihi?

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to determine the correlation of consumers’ demographic or socioeconomic characteristics and individual difference factors on the impulse buying behavior with respect to a number of single impulsivity indicators and one collective indicator. The paper consists of theoretical and research aspects. The first part encompasses theoretical insights into the secondary research regarding impulse buying while the practical part presents the methodology and primary research results. With respect to the subject matter, research goals as well as previous findings and primary research results, corresponding hypotheses were set and mainly confirmed. The results showed that demographic factors, such as the age and working status, are related to most impulse buying indicators and to the impulsivity collective indicator. However, household income produced opposite results. Household income proved to have no major influence on the majority of impulse buying indicators but to be related noticeably to the collective impulsivity indicator, indicating that this result should be regarded with caution. Research results also pointed to the fact that the majority of individual indicators (innovativeness, tendency to the fashionable and shopping enjoyment are positively and negatively related to the impulse buying behavior and that individual difference factors have a greater influence on impulse buying than do demographic characteristics. The paper also summarizes research limitations as well as the work contribution and future research guidelines.

  17. Predictive Validity of Demographically-Adjusted Normative Standards for the HIV Dementia Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Scott, J. Cobb; Childers, Meredith; Beck, Jennifer Marquie; ELLIS, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop and validate demographically-adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). Given the association between demographic variables and the HDS summary score, demographically-adjusted normative standards may enhance the classification accuracy of the HDS. Demographically-adjusted normative standards were derived from a sample of 182 seronegative healthy participants and were subsequently applied to a sample of 135 HIV-1 seropositive indi...

  18. Valor nutritivo de los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala / Nutritive value of the forage components of an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tania, Sánchez; E.R, Ørskov; L, Lamela; R, Pedraza; O, López.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En una vaquería de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas, con el objetivo de determinar algunos indicadores del valor nutritivo en los componentes forrajeros de una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas (Cynodon nlemfuensis y Panicum maximum) y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham en condiciones comerciales, [...] se selecciona­ron las especies más representativas de la composición florística y se evaluaron por la degradación in situ de la materia seca y la técnica de producción de gas in vitro en función del momento de muestreo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar la degradación de la materia seca de P. maximum cv. Likoni y L. leucocephala a las 48 y 72 horas (P Abstract in english In a dairy unit of the Genetic Enterprise of Matanzas, with the objective of determining some indicators of the nutritive value in the forage components of an association of improved grasses (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Panicum maximum) and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham under commercial condition [...] s, the most representative species of the floristic composition were selected and evaluated by the in situ degradation of dry matter and the in vitro gas production technique regarding the sampling moment. Significant differences were found when comparing the dry matter degradation of P. maximum cv. Likoni and L. leucocephala after 48 and 72 hours (P

  19. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  20. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Madlener; Sjaak Smetsers; Marko van Eekelen

    2011-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. T...

  1. TRENDS OF THE RURAL LABOUR MARKET AND AGRICULTURAL HUMAN POTENTIAL EVOLUTION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC PHENOMENA IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica PRISACARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation was to study the correlative aspects in the evolution of demographic phenomena, labour market in the rural space and human potential from agriculture in the Republic of Moldova. As methodological tools there were used the economic analysis, synthesis, generalization, concretization and reasoning. As a result of our research there have been highlighted correlative trends of the demographic phenomena and basic indicators of the labour market in the rural areas. Also, it was analyzed the human potential from agriculture, underlying the same trends in its evolution, as in the evolution of the labour market in the rural space. The main conclusion of the investigation consists in the need to develop more effective mechanisms to solve the demographic problems especially in the rural areas of the Republic of Moldova, thus being also created prerequisites to improve the negative phenomena manifested in the evolution of human potential from agriculture.

  2. Typology of adults diagnosed with mental disorders based on socio-demographics and clinical and service use characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perreault Michel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorder is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Its cost and negative impact on productivity are substantial. Consequently, improving mental health-care system efficiency - especially service utilisation - is a priority. Few studies have explored the use of services by specific subgroups of persons with mental disorder; a better understanding of these individuals is key to improving service planning. This study develops a typology of individuals, diagnosed with mental disorder in a 12-month period, based on their individual characteristics and use of services within a Canadian urban catchment area of 258,000 persons served by a psychiatric hospital. Methods From among the 2,443 people who took part in the survey, 406 (17% experienced at least one episode of mental disorder (as per the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI in the 12 months pre-interview. These individuals were selected for cluster analysis. Results Analysis yielded four user clusters: people who experienced mainly anxiety disorder; depressive disorder; alcohol and/or drug disorder; and multiple mental and dependence disorder. Two clusters were more closely associated with females and anxiety or depressive disorders. In the two other clusters, males were over-represented compared with the sample as a whole, namely, substance abuses with or without concomitant mental disorder. Clusters with the greatest number of mental disorders per subject used a greater number of mental health-care services. Conversely, clusters associated exclusively with dependence disorders used few services. Conclusion The study found considerable heterogeneity among socio-demographic characteristics, number of disorders, and number of health-care services used by individuals with mental or dependence disorders. Cluster analysis revealed important differences in service use with regard to gender and age. It reinforces the relevance of developing targeted programs for subgroups of individuals with mental and/or dependence disorders. Strategies aimed at changing low service users' attitude (youths and males or instituting specialised programs for that particular clientele should be promoted. Finally, as concomitant disorders are frequent among individuals with mental disorder, psychological services and/or addiction programs must be prioritised as components of integrated services when planning treatment.

  3. Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Pournaghash-Tehrani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had significant effect on physical violence; specifically, hitting and psychological violence; specifically, denying choices and cessation of intermarital intercourse. Also, the level of education had significant effect on the physical (e.g., throwing objects and psychological (e.g., Cessation of marital intercourse and denying choices. Finally, present results indicated that the level of income, by itself, did not have any effects on experiencing any types of violence by men but its effect was visible and significant in the presence of the other two factors, the age and the level of education. The results in the present study are, in fact, only of their kinds in that the characteristics of abused men by their wives are assessed in male victims of domestic violence and can contribute to further understanding of the types of men susceptible to victimization by their wives. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that other demographic variables such as the number of children, the type of housing (ownership of the house or renting and so on, were also determined in this study, but given their lack of any significant effects on the occurrence of violence of any kind against men, were not mentioned in the study.

  4. Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournaghash-Tehrani, Said; Feizabadi, Zahra

    The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had significant effect on physical violence; specifically, hitting and psychological violence; specifically, denying choices and cessation of intermarital intercourse. Also, the level of education had significant effect on the physical (e.g., throwing objects) and psychological (e.g., Cessation of marital intercourse and denying choices). Finally, present results indicated that the level of income, by itself, did not have any effects on experiencing any types of violence by men but its effect was visible and significant in the presence of the other two factors, the age and the level of education. The results in the present study are, in fact, only of their kinds in that the characteristics of abused men by their wives are assessed in male victims of domestic violence and can contribute to further understanding of the types of men susceptible to victimization by their wives. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that other demographic variables such as the number of children, the type of housing (ownership of the house or renting) and so on, were also determined in this study, but given their lack of any significant effects on the occurrence of violence of any kind against men, were not mentioned in the study.

  5. Demographic Transition and Political Stability: Does Corruption Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Witthuhn, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A demographic transition resulting from an increase in the size of the young working age population can be a blessing or a curse for economic performance. We focus on the political stability effects of a larger youth population and hypothesize that corruption matters in this nexus. Using panel data covering the period of 2002-2012 for more than 150 countries, we find a negative interaction effect between the relative size of the youth population (17-25 years old) within the total working age ...

  6. A Demographic Study of Information Technology Professionals' Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Yung Chou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB has been suggested to facilitate organizational functioning. However, previous research has found that information technology (IT professionals exhibit significantly lower OCB than non-IT professionals. To explain this phenomenon, this research includes demographic variables including age, gender, and tenure and examines their impact on the OCB of these highly skilled professionals. Using IT professionals as the unit of analysis with a sample size of 85, the results indicate that age and tenure are significant predictors of an IT professional’s OCB. Results of this research can be used by organizations and managers to establish a work environment where OCB is encouraged.

  7. Assessing the demographic and public service impacts of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demographic and public service impacts are likely to be among the most evident of those changes resulting from nuclear waste repository development. Knowledge of the characteristics of such impacts and of the means to assess them is critical. The first section of this chapter examines those likely to be unique to repositories. The second section describes the alternatives for assessing such impacts and the particular difficulties likely to affect the assessments. Given the state of development of techniques for assessing impacts and the range of factors that must be considered, perhaps their best use is as a means of sensitizing decision makers to the potential implications of their decisions. 2 tables

  8. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation. PMID:21219719

  9. Demographics and management of dog-bite victims at a level two hospital in KwaZulu-Natal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S J W, Kent; B, Naicker; D R, Wood.

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dog bites are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly where rabies is endemic. There is also a significant financial burden attached to prophylactic treatment to diminish the risk of rabies infection. KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) has a high incidence of human rabi [...] es yet little is known about the demographics of dog bites in the province. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the demographics of dog bites in Northern KZN. Methods. Records of all dog bites presenting to the main referral hospital in northern KZN between August 2007 and September 2011 were analysed. RESULTS: We collected data for 821 instances of dog bite. Male children aged 6 - 10 years are most likely to present with dog bites, while women >40 years are more likely to present than men in the same age bracket. While initial vaccine administration is high (98%) with all grades of bite, only 82% of grade 3 bites receive immunoglobulin. CONCLUSION: Our results correlate well with two large studies of the demographics of dog bites, but are the first to show a reverse in male preponderance of presentations above the age of 40 years. Reasons for low rates of immunoglobulin administration in grade 3 bites are discussed. Finally, methods are suggested to improve data collection and the care of patients presenting with dog bites.

  10. The demographic and academic profile of Irish dental school faculty members.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eleanor M

    2010-04-23

    AIM: This paper reviews the demographic, academic and professional profile of Irish dental school faculty members. Faculty duties are explored. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Custom-designed questionnaires were distributed to faculty members for self-completion, adopting a \\'mixed-method\\' approach with quantitative and qualitative components. Response rate was 64.60%. RESULTS: Demographic profile reveals a male-dominated regime (64%). Males also occupy a disproportionate number of senior academic positions. The age profile mirrors international trends with 75% of staff over 40 and c.33% over 50, including 78% of professorial staff (p < 0.001). Dental school faculties are comprised of highly educated professionals with the following qualifications: 89% BDS, 43% FDS, 39% Masters, 16% Doctorates. Most (77%) have 10+ years of clinical experience, while 47% have over 20 years\\' experience. Clinical experience varied by age, rank (p < 0.001) and gender (p < 0.05). A review of contractual agreements and duties confirms the major role of part-time clinical staff in dental education, comprising the largest single group (48%) delivering the bulk of the clinical teaching. However, 54% of part-time clinical staff have less than five years teaching experience. This study also explores staff views of various faculty roles. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides a benchmark profile of Irish dental school faculty members. It reflects on the heavily skewed age groups of our current dental educators and the impending retirement of many senior academics. Educational organisations need to explore ways to make a career in dental education financially and sociologically attractive and provide adequate support for existing faculty to ensure their development during these challenging times.

  11. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition. PMID:23819872

  12. Managing diversity: Changing demographics in the engineering workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological development creates a need for better educated workers with increased basic, analytical, and interpersonal skills. At the same time, both the population of 22-yr olds and the numbers of traditional students who are choosing careers in engineering and science are decreasing, creating a gap between engineering and construction needs and available trained resources. If more and better caliber students are not attracted to engineering, industry is expected to face selective shortages in the future. There is no question that the demographic composition of the next generation of engineers will significantly differ from that of today's engineers. Industry must recognize the changes that are occurring and take action to ensure that there continues to be an adequate supply of technically qualified workers in light of these demographic changes. In its role as adviser and coordinator of industry action, ANS can play a vital role in ensuring that the industry actions are timely and effective. The ANS should form a committee to study the changing composition of future engineers and constructors and formulate an effective action plan that industry can use to continue to attract able, top-performing students to the engineering field

  13. Demographic stochasticity and evolution of dispersion II: spatially inhomogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen Ting; Kim, Hyejin; Doering, Charles R

    2015-02-01

    Demographic stochasticity, the random fluctuations arising from the intrinsic discreteness of populations and the uncertainty of individual birth and death events, is an essential feature of population dynamics. Nevertheless theoretical investigations often neglect this naturally occurring noise due to the mathematical complexity of stochastic models. This paper reports the results of analytical and computational investigations of models of competitive population dynamics, specifically the competition between species in heterogeneous environments with different phenotypes of dispersal, fully accounting for demographic stochasticity. A novel asymptotic approximation is introduced and applied to derive remarkably simple analytical forms for key statistical quantities describing the populations' dynamical evolution. These formulas characterize the selection processes that determine which (if either) competitor has an evolutionary advantage. The theory is verified by large-scale numerical simulations. We discover that the fluctuations can (1) break dynamical degeneracies, (2) support polymorphism that does not exist in deterministic models, (3) reverse the direction of the weak selection and cause shifts in selection regimes, and (4) allow for the emergence of evolutionarily stable dispersal rates. Dynamical mechanisms and time scales of the fluctuation-induced phenomena are identified within the theoretical approach. PMID:24671427

  14. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERS OF PATIENTS WITH TUBERCOLOSIS: ISFAHAN 1998-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H SALEHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculosis is a wide spread disease in the world. It is a health problem in every where. The prevalence of tuberculosis have been increased since several years ago due to some factors such as AIDS. For management of this problem, we need to data about our identified patients. Then we can have a solution for disease control. We demonstrate the patients demographic characters in our province. Methods. All of 164 identified patients under treatment for tuberculosis in Isfahan province were studied (1998-1999. Demographic data such as age, sex, nationality and gender and some characters about their discase was collected. HIV screening was done for all patients by ELISA method and documented in suspicious patients by western blot test. Results. Male to female ratio was 21:20. About 70 percent of patients had primary lung tuberculosis. Skeletal TB was the most common type of extrapulmonary invasion. Seventy four patients were Afghanian and 90 patients were Iranian. Only one patient (a 14 years old boy was positive for HIV infection. He was a hemophilic patient with history of infected blood transfusion. Discussion. Compared to developed and far east countries, in our country, HIV infection is not a frequent infection in tuberculosis patients. This study shows that migration from Afghanestan to Iran is a very important affecting factor in tuberculosis epidemiology in our region.

  15. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U S; Pushpakumara, T V; Weerakoon, Devaka K; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th) percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60), averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings. PMID:24376581

  16. Shrub encroachment control by browsing: Targeting the right demographic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Pontes, Laíse; Magda, Danièle; Jarry, Marc; Gleizes, Benoît; Agreil, Cyril

    2012-11-01

    Exploring key demographic parameters for establishment and growth of shrub populations enables us to identify the life stages or plant organs that browsers need to consume to effectively influence shrub population dynamics. However, there is a lack of concrete knowledge on how browsing can efficiently meet this goal. We therefore tested the impact of different levels of browsing intensity on a key demographic parameter (survival of juveniles) of a major colonizing shrub species (broom, Cytisus scoparius) in order to control population growth, and designed a browsing management strategy focused on this target stage. Three browsing intensities, representing pertinent management practices, were simulated on juveniles (2 years old) in a broom population. Juvenile broom plants were either left untouched (control treatment; n = 126) or had 50% or 90% of their total edible stem biomass removed for "light-intensity browsing" (n = 127) and "high-intensity browsing" (n = 77) treatments, respectively. Survival and fecundity data were collected over 6 years. Standard matrix modeling was used to analyze the impact of browsing on changes in population growth rate (?), and the results were 6.34 (control), 2.26 (light browsing) and 0.85 (heavy browsing). Therefore, the natural expansion of broom populations may be slowed by light browsing or even reversed by heavy browsing (? target early-growth-stage populations and repeat the browsing strategy at the same intensity over several years to achieve cumulative effects.

  17. Islamic Credit Card: Are Demographic Factors a Good Indicator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norudin Mansor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates on the relationship between demographic factors and the usage of Islamic credit card as well as Conventional credit card demonstrates their interdependencies. The debatable issues as been addressed by many authorities not only in terms of the numbers of credit card flooding the nation’s economy, but the amount of transactions that end up with payment default and the numbers of credit card fraud as been recorded which threatened the economy should be seriously focused. Nevertheless the advances and changing habits in purchasing activities significantly contributed the diffusion of credit card as becoming more important and relevant in maintaining the purchasing activities. The study was conducted involving 305 respondents as a sample of study. While 26 items were used for addressing the research questions. Section A of the questionnaire seeks for information concerning the demographic profile of the respondents whilst section B and C that used Likert scale aimed to investigate information related to income and usage of credit card. The results of the study offer certain important managerial implications for the policy makers, finance institutions and the authorities bodies that take controls the credit card activities.

  18. Demographic dynamics and population issues in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta PACE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Mediterranean Basin is an area of sharply contrasting trends in demographic growth and socio-economic development; the effects of their interactions are becoming increasingly urgent and difficult to manage. Fewer children are being born - whether this is due, as Adolphe Landry would have said, to an individual principle of rationalising life or, as for Frank Notestein and Kingsley Davis, supporters of the demographic transition theory, to the emergence of a modern form of economic development - and it is causing population aging that is both marked and rapid. When fewer children join the sustained trend towards longer lifespan, this aging can soon become a major challenge for the societies involved. Aging is nothing new in the Mediterranean; it has long affected the populations of the northern littoral. But now it touches them all, whatever its speed, pattern and effects, which vary by country; and it is due to intensify in the next few decades, albeit at varying rates. And as globalisation increases with the emergence of new centres, competition heats up between economies subject to successive crises, as some countries fall short in political stability and governance, while others ignore or attack each other, aging requires careful attention.

  19. Contrasting demographic histories of the neighboring bonobo and chimpanzee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands

    2014-01-01

    The Pleistocene epoch was a period of dramatic climate change that had profound impacts on the population sizes of many animal species. How these species were shaped by past events is often unclear, hindering our understanding of the population dynamics resulting in present day populations. We analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes representing all four recognized chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo to infer the recent demographic history and used simulations to exclude a confounding effect of population structure. Our genus-wide Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed surprisingly dissimilar demographic histories of the chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo, despite their overlapping habitat requirements. Whereas the central and eastern chimpanzee subspecies were inferred to have expanded tenfold between around 50,000 and 80,000 years ago and today, the population size of the neighboring bonobo remained constant. The changes in population size are likely linked to changes in habitat area due to climate oscillations during the late Pleistocene. Furthermore, the timing of population expansion for the rainforest-adapted chimpanzee is concurrent with the expansion of the savanna-adapted human, which could suggest a common response to changed climate conditions around 50,000-80,000 years ago.

  20. Clinicoinvestigational and demographic profile of children with thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Amita; Sharma, Nivedita; Das, Reena; Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, R K

    2015-03-01

    There are an estimated 200 million carriers of the ?-thalassemia gene worldwide, 20 million being in India. The mean prevalence in India is 3.3 %. Objective To evaluate the clinico-investigational profile and the demographic characteristics of patients with thalassemia major (TM). Methods This was a retrospective analysis of the clinico-demographic profile at presentation of patients of TM diagnosed in the Paediatric Hematology Clinic of our hospital. Results The clinical profile of 964 patients of TM was analyzed. The mean age at presentation of untransfused children was 13.2 ± 9.7 months. Nearly 2/3(rd) children presented before 1 year of age. Almost 40 % had symptoms for 3 months prior to presentation. The manifestations at presentation included pallor and failure to thrive. About 40 % presented with severe anemia, with a hemoglobin of ancestors who hailed originally from Pakistan. Approximately 50 % belonged to the Khatri/Arora castes. The parental literacy rate was about 90 %. Conclusions Thalassemia needs greater public awareness and prevention strategies in our country. Some communities are at high risk as compared to others. Education programs and compulsory antenatal screening appear to be the order of the day. PMID:25548457

  1. Child disaster mental health interventions: therapy components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A; Varma, Vandana; Nelson, Summer D; Newman, Elana

    2014-10-01

    Children face innumerable challenges following exposure to disasters. To address trauma sequelae, researchers and clinicians have developed a variety of mental health interventions. While the overall effectiveness of multiple interventions has been examined, few studies have focused on the individual components of these interventions. As a preliminary step to advancing intervention development and research, this literature review identifies and describes nine common components that comprise child disaster mental health interventions. This review concluded that future research should clearly define the constituent components included in available interventions. This will require that future studies dismantle interventions to examine the effectiveness of specific components and identify common therapeutic elements. Issues related to populations studied (eg, disaster exposure, demographic and cultural influences) and to intervention delivery (eg, timing and optimal sequencing of components) also warrant attention. Pfefferbaum B , Sweeton JL , Nitiéma P , Noffsinger MA , Varma V , Nelson SD , Newman E . Child disaster mental health interventions: therapy components. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-9. PMID:25225954

  2. CANDU improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the CANDU family of nuclear power plants is based on a continuous product development approach. Proven equipment and system concepts from operating stations are standardized and used in new products. Due to the modular nature of the CANDU reactor concept, product features developed for CANDU 9 can easily be incorporated in other CANDU products such as CANDU 6. Design concepts are being developed for advanced CANDU 6 or larger advanced CANDU, depending on the number of fuel channels and the fuel cycle selected. This paper provides a description of the design improvements being incorporated in CANDU 9 and further design enhancements being studied for future incorporation in CANDU 6 or larger advanced CANDU meeting the requirements of future CANDU owners. The design enhancement objectives are: To improve operational simplicity by applying modern information technology; to improve safety in a cost effective way; to improve system and component reliability and to increase plant life; to improve economics and to reduce owners' risks during all phases of a project using up-front licensing, an improved engineering process and project tools during design, construction and operation; to continue to exploit the neutron economy of CANDU with the development of advanced fuels and fuel cycles. (author)

  3. Component structure of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolina; Leahy, Brian; Corradi, Karina; Forchetti, Concetta

    2008-01-01

    The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) has been studied relatively extensively in normal samples, and its theoretically derived index scores have been demonstrated to be useful in the assessment of a variety of clinical conditions. However, examinations of the empirical relationships between individual subtests are limited. The intent of the present study was to explore the component structure of the instrument in a sample of 351 individuals with a diagnosed memory disorder, to examine the impact of demographic factors on these empirically derived components, and to explore differences in performance between diagnostic groups. Findings suggested a three-component solution (Memory, Visuomotor Processing, and Verbal Processing). Demographic variables had relatively small, but significant relationships with various component scores. Significant differences were observed between probable Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's type dementia groups on the memory component score, but not on other component scores or on RBANS index scores. PMID:17919882

  4. The Impact of Water and Sanitation on Childhood Mortality in Nigeria: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys, 2003–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Osita K. Ezeh; Agho, Kingsley E; Dibley, Michael J.; John Hall; Page, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    In Nigeria, approximately 109 million and 66 million people lack access to sanitation facilities and water, respectively. This study aimed to determine whether children under 5 years old without access to improved water and sanitation facilities are at higher risk of death in Nigeria. Pooled 2003, 2008 and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data were used to examine the impact of water and sanitation on deaths of children aged 0–28 days, 1–11 months, and 12–59 months using Cox r...

  5. Prevalence and clinical significance of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease: observations at MR imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, V O

    2013-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease in patients with anterior knee pain and to correlate it with patient demographics, patellar shape, and patellofemoral alignment.

  6. Demographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction among Nigerian male outpatients on conventional antipsychotic medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyekanmi Aina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In psychotic disorders, early intervention with antipsychotic medications increases the likelihood of favourable long-term course. However, the pharmacologic management especially with conventional antipsychotic medications is complicated by a high rate of adverse effects including sexual dysfunction. This study aims to determine the demographic and clinical factors associated with sexual dysfunction among male psychiatric outpatients on conventional antipsychotic medications in South-western Nigeria. Methods Two hundred and seventy five consecutive male outpatients with psychotic disorders on conventional antipsychotic medications were interviewed. Data was collected on demographic characteristics, illness-related and medication-related variables. Illness severity was assessed with the Brief psychiatric rating scale. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire was used to assess for sexual dysfunctions. Results A total of 111 (40.4% respondents had one or more forms of sexual dysfunction. Sexual desire dysfunction was present in 47 (17.1% of respondents, erectile dysfunction in 95 (34.5%, orgasmic dysfunctions in 51 (18.5%, intercourse dissatisfaction in 72 (26.2% and overall dissatisfaction in 64 (23.3%. Sexual dysfunction was significantly associated with employment status, age, marital status, haloperidol use, medication dosage, and presence of psychopathology. Unemployment was the only significant independent correlate of sexual dysfunction, with unemployed respondents twice more likely to have sexual dysfunction compared with those employed (Wald?=?3.865, Odds Ratio?=?2.033, 95% confidence interval?=?1.002 - 4.124, p?=?0.049. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual dysfunction found in this study suggests a need among clinicians for increased awareness and recognition of the sexual side effects in patients taking conventional antipsychotic medications. This knowledge should guide conventional antipsychotic medication prescription in the at-risk population to improve treatment adherence.

  7. Demographics and consumer ethnocentrism in a developing country context: A South African study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chris D, Pentz; Nic S, Terblanche; Christo, Boshoff.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT International trade has grown exponentially since the days of the Cold War, and today consumers in most countries are exposed to a growing range of product offerings from around the world. As the origin of products might have an influence on consumer buying behaviour, many marketers realise [...] that an improved understanding of consumer attitudes towards both domestic and imported products could be useful in formulating more effective marketing strategies. Previous research in the field of international marketing suggests that the concept of consumer ethnocentrism can be an important factor when consumers decide to purchase locally produced rather than imported products. While the concept of consumer ethnocentrism has been actively researched in a number of contexts and countries, research on this phenomenon has been limited to developed countries. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on consumer ethnocentrism in developing markets by investigating the possible relationships between consumer ethnocentrism and a number of demographic variables in South Africa. A unique contribution of this study is that the investigation focused on two different ethnic samples - 'white' respondents and 'black' respondents - to account for the ethnic diversity in South Africa. An online survey was used to collect data on ethnocentristic tendencies in both sub-samples, as well as on their demographic characteristics. The results of the study revealed that for both groups of respondents there was a positive relationship between age and consumer ethnocentrism, while a negative relationship was found for both groups in the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and income. In respect of the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and gender, the results differed between the two groups of respondents.

  8. [Considerations concerning the theory of the demographic revolution. Its development in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Castellon, R

    1983-01-01

    A review of the world's literature on the demographic transition is presented. The author, in his analysis of the non-Marxist literature, suggests that considerable efforts have been made to update demographic transition theory in order to take into account recent demographic trends in developing countries. On the other hand, the Marxist literature is divided into studies in which attempts are made to develop general demographic theories and those in which the value of such theories is questioned. The paper concludes with a description of the demographic transition process as it has been experienced in Cuba, and it is noted that a major feature of this process has been a general trend toward a reduction in demographic differentials. PMID:12279811

  9. Tourist activity among urban singles in view of socio-demographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lubowiecki-vikuk, Adrian Przemys?aw; Biernat, Elz?bieta

    2012-01-01

    Aim of Study: Estimation of urban singles tourism activity in the context of socio-demographic factors. Material and Methods: The study involved 598 randomly selected singles from Warsaw and Poznan. They represented six socio-occupational groups. The relationship between tourist activity and socio-demographic variables characterizing the socio-demographic structure of the respondents was established with the chi-square test. Results: The rate of tourist activity of the respondents in ...

  10. Demografski potencial hribovskih kmetij na Dravskem Pohorju = Demographic potential of mountain farms on Dravsko Pohorje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kefo Kerbler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article is represented and evaluated the demographic potential of mountain farms on Dravsko Pohorje. The characteristics of socio-economic structure, depopulation, deagrarization, demographic vitality, productiveness, and succession continuity of mountain farms are described. The results indicate that demographic vitality is weakened due to permanent emigration of young population, as well as succession continuity on many farms is not assured.

  11. Demographic change and R&D-based economic growth: Reconciling theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Prettner, Klaus; Trimborn, Timo

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, most industrialized countries experienced declining population growth rates caused by declining fertility and associated with rising life expectancy. We analyze the effect of continuing demographic change on medium- and long-run economic growth by setting forth an R&D-based growth model including an analytically tractable demographic structure. Our results show that, in response to demographic change, technological progress and economic growth accelerate in the medium run b...

  12. Evolution of aging through reduced demographic stochasticity – an extension of the pleiotropy theory to finite populations

    OpenAIRE

    Giaimo, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In finite populations, there is selection against demographic stochasticity. In this study, it is shown that an increase in the rate of aging, here defined as an increase in early-life survival at the expense of later survival, may reduce this form of stochasticity. In particular, a trade-off between juvenile and adult survival is highly efficient in reducing demographic stochasticity. Therefore, aging may evolve as a response to selective pressure for reduced demographic stochasticity.

  13. Local Government Units in Indonesia: Demographic Attributes and Differences in Financial Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Rusmin Rusmin; Astami, Emita W.; Glennda Scully

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the outcome of decentralisation reforms in Indonesia, focusing on the association between demographic characteristics and differences in the financial condition of local governments units. It investigates cross-sectional data pertaining to demographic characteristics and financial statements audited by the Supreme Audit Body of 419 Indonesian local government units for the fiscal year 2007. It utilises demographic attributes including scope of entity, location, tenure (dat...

  14. Does Consumers’ Demographic Profile influence Online Shopping?: an Examination using Fishbein’s Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaliah Said; Afizah Hashim; Ghani, Erlane K.

    2009-01-01

    Using questionnaire survey, this study examines whether demographic profile could influence the consumers’ attitude towards online shopping behavior. Five demographic profile variables that could be linked to attitude were chosen: gender, age, job designation, marital status and salary. The results show that all variables are important determinants to online shopping behavior. Such results support Fishbein’s attitude theory that states demographic profile as important variable in influenc...

  15. The early socio-demographic impact of the HIV-1 epidemic in rural Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Gregson, Simon.; Anderson, Roy M.; Roy Anderson

    1996-01-01

    ?Theoretical work indicates that HIV-1 epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa will cause major demographic changes. The current study assesses the extent to which these changes can already be seen in two rural areas of Manicaland, Zimbabwe and investigates the determinants of the epidemic and its demographic impact. The study utilizes demographic survey methods and qualitative sociological techniques. Data analysis is conducted using statistical packages and is guided by insights ge...

  16. Relationship between Socio-Demographic Factors and Eating Practices in a Multicultural Society

    OpenAIRE

    Deerajen Ramasawmy; Subratty, Anwar H.; Mahomoodally, Fawzi M.; Krige, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently a dearth of information pertaining to socio-demographic factors and eating practices in a multicultural country like Mauritius. This study was therefore undertaken to probe the different eating practices among an adult sample population in Mauritius in an endeavor to establish significant relationships, if any, with common socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. A self-designed questionnaire, (randomly distributed to n = 387 adults), pertaining to socio-demographic va...

  17. Demographic Dividends for India: Evidence and Implications Based on National Transfer Accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Ladusingh, Laishram; Narayana, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of verifiable evidence on the period and magnitude of the demographic dividends in India, a gap policy makers must address when setting priorities for human resource and capital investment to harvest the economic benefits of the demographic transition currently under way. This study attempts to fill this gap by quantifying the demographic dividends using National Transfer Accounts framework and by indicating their implications for equity. Our analysis projects that income per ...

  18. Demographic study of parkinson's disease in Iran: Data on 1656 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Miri; Gholam Ali Shahidi; Mohammad Roohani

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is no documented demographical study on Iranian Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, so this study was conducted to identify demographic information about patients with PD in Iran, and to explore demographical differences between PD patients in Iran and other countries.Methods: We reviewed medical records of 1656 patients diagnosed with PD, who referred from all parts of Iran to a referral Parkinson’s disease clinic in Tehran. We collected data about their age, gender, age...

  19. Demographic Trends in the United States: A Review of Research in the 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Demographic trends in the 2000s showed the continuing separation of family and household due to factors such as childbearing among single parents, the dissolution of cohabiting unions, divorce, repartnering, and remarriage. The transnational families of many immigrants also displayed this separation, as families extended across borders. In addition, demographers demonstrated during the decade that trends such as marriage and divorce were diverging according to education. Moreover, demographic...

  20. Getting Current: Recent Demographic Trends in Metropolitan America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, Alan.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our long-time readers (and new arrivals) might be wondering: "What's going on in metropolitan America?" Well, the Brookings Institution has provided some compelling information on that timely subject in their March 2009 report on recent demographic trends across the United States. This 28-page report authored by William H. Frey, Alan Berube, Audrey Singer, and Jill H. Wilson looks into topics such as migration, immigration, aging, educational attainment, and poverty. Visitors with a limited amount of time may wish to turn directly to pages two and three within the report, as they offer a brief summary of their findings. These findings include the observation that migration across states and metro areas has slowed considerably in the past two years due to the housing crisis and that the next decade "promises massive growth of the senior population, especially in suburbs unaccustomed to housing older people."

  1. Demographic, institutional and obstetrical risk factors for postpartum haemorrhage mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, A; Leake, J; Pan, D; Ogunyemi, D

    2010-01-01

    This study, initially presented at the SMFM Annual Conference in San Diego on 29 January 2009, sought to explore the risk factors for mortality from postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). A total of 138,316 cases of PPH from 1991 to 2000 were identified using the California Health Discharge Database. Data analysed included demographic information and clinical risk factors. PPH increased from 1.9% to 2.8%, while mortality rate decreased during the study period (1991-2000). Logistic regression showed that hysterectomy, hypertensive disorders, abruption, transverse caesarean delivery, and classical caesarean delivery, increased risk for PPH mortality, while manual placental extraction, episiotomy, and laceration repairs decreased risk. Two geographical regions, Inland Empire and Orange County, were associated with increased PPH mortality, despite having lower incidence of PPH. Teaching status and investor ownership of hospitals increased the risk of PPH mortality. There was no associated change in mortality based on hospital quality rating. PMID:20604649

  2. Clinical and the demographic characteristics of patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ar?ca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In this study, our aim was to determine clinical and the demographical characteristics of the patients with alopecia areata in our region.Materials and Metods: In the study, 100 patients who received alopecia areata diagnosis with ages raging from 2 to 52 and who applied to the polyclinic of ………… Medical Faculty Dermatology Department between October and November 2009 were evaluated.Results: Of 100 patients included into the study 44 (44% were female and 56 (56% male. The malefemale ratio was 1.2: 1, mean age was 19.19±10.93 years. Alopecia areata was present in 90 (90% of the patients, alopecia totalis in 5 (5%, alopecia universalis in 5 (5%. Sixty four percent of patients, the age of the disease onset was detected below the age of 20 years. In 77.2% of the patients, mild involvement in the scalp hair and in 22.8% of the patients, severe involvement was detected. A significant relationship between the severity of the disease in scalp hair and gender and the disease onset period was not found (p=0.62, p=0.22.The nail involvement was detected to be 43%, mostly as the pitting (39.5% and the longitudinal ridging (39.5%. A significant relationship between the disease severity in scalp hair and the nail involvement was not found (p=0.08. There was family history presence in 22% of the patients. A significant relationship between the family history and the onset period of the disease and the disease severity in scalp hair was not determined (p=0.13, p=0.07. Conclusion: The results of our study were found to be consistent with the clinical and demographic data carried out previously.

  3. The Second Demographic Transition in Israel: One for All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Bystrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores family behaviours and attitudes in Israel over the last decades through the lens of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT. Israel is divided by religious affiliation, the level of religiosity, ethnic origin and timing of immigration. Although fertility transition to replacement level among certain societal groups has been previously shown, the question of how the transition unfolds in other domains remains open. The goal of this paper is to highlight the diversity of marital and fertility transitions and non-transitions among various groups of this heterogeneous society, and to compare Israel's transitions to European ones. The data sources which are used are cross-national large scale surveys, national representative surveys, and Population Register data. The data were disaggregated by religion, religiousness and ethnic origin. Emancipative value change, postponement of marriage, alternative living arrangements and a growing variety of fertility regimes were analyzed. A full range of pre-transitional, transitional, and post-transitional elements was found among the groups. Such sign of the SDT as growing childlessness was not found, and the spread of other features as unmarried cohabitation and non-marital childbearing was found limited. Population composition effects were isolated. It was found that the level of religiosity and the country of origin are important factors which differentiate family behaviours and attitudes. The connection between value orientation of the groups within Israel and their family behaviours is discussed. The socio-structural and institutional constraints that might impede further progression of the Second Demographic Transition in Israel are also discussed. Further research directions are suggested.

  4. Demographics of cattle movements in the United Kingdom

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    Vernon Matthew C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Kingdom (UK government has been recording the births, deaths, and movements of cattle for the last decade. Despite reservations about the accuracy of these data, they represent a large and valuable body of information about the demographics of the UK cattle herd and its contact structure. In this article, a range of demographic data about UK cattle, and particularly their movements, are presented, as well as yearly trends in the patterns of movements. Results A clear seasonal pattern is evident in the number of movements of cattle, as are the reductions in movement volume due to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in 2001 and 2007. The distribution of ages of cattle at their time of death is multimodal, and the impact of the over thirty months rule is marked. Most movements occur between agricultural holdings, markets, and slaughterhouses, and there is a non-random pattern to the types of holdings movements occur between. Most animals move only a short distance and a few times in their life. Most movements between any given pair of holdings only occurred once in the last 10 years, but about a third occurred between 2 and 10 times in that period. There is no clear trend to movement patterns in the UK since 2002. Conclusions Despite a substantial number of regulatory interventions during the last decade, movement patterns show no clear trend since 2002. The observed patterns in the repeatability of movements, the types of holdings involved in movements, the distances and frequencies of cattle movements, and the batch sizes involved give an insight into the structure of the UK cattle industry, and could act as the basis for a predictive model of livestock movements in the UK.

  5. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

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    Braeckman Bart P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria" are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an emerging model for studying the reciprocal influence between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. This species has a median lifespan of 205 ± 13 days (average ± standard deviation [SD] and a 90th percentile lifespan of 373 ± 32 days. The maximum lifespan, however, is more than 745 days, and the average survival curve is characterised by a long tail because a small number of individuals lives twice as long as 90% of the population. Similar to earlier observations in a wide range of animals, in M. lignano the age-specific mortality rate increases exponentially, but levels off at the oldest ages. To compare the senescence of M. lignano with that of other ageing models, we determined the mortality rate doubling time, which is 0.20 ± 0.02 years. As a result, we can conclude that M. lignano shows gradual senescence at a rate similar to the vertebrate ageing models Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. We argue that M. lignano is a suitable model for ageing and rejuvenation research, and especially for the role of stem cells in these processes, due to its accessible stem cell system and regeneration capacity, and the possibility of combining stem cell studies with demographic analyses.

  6. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author)

  7. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2

    2011-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  8. Thermochemical nanolithography components, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, Elisa; Marder, Seth R.; de Heer, Walt A.; Szoskiewicz, Robert J.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Jones, Simon C.; Okada, Takashi; Wang, Debin; Curtis, Jennifer E.; Henderson, Clifford L.; Hua, Yueming

    2013-06-18

    Improved nanolithography components, systems, and methods are described herein. The systems and methods generally employ a resistively heated atomic force microscope tip to thermally induce a chemical change in a surface. In addition, certain polymeric compositions are also disclosed.

  9. Variation in the use of palliative radiotherapy at end of life: Examining demographic, clinical, health service, and geographic factors in a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Lavergne, M. Ruth; Johnston, Grace M.; Gao, Jun; Dummer, Trevor Jb; Rheaume, Dorianne E.

    2010-01-01

    Palliative radiotherapy (PRT) can improve quality of life for people dying of cancer. Variation in the delivery of PRT by factors unrelated to need may indicate that not all patients who may benefit from PRT receive it. In this study, 13,494 adults who died of cancer between 2000 and 2005 in Nova Scotia, Canada, were linked to radiotherapy records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationships among demographic, clinical, service, and geographic variables, and PRT con...

  10. Bridging the Communication Gap: Successes and Challenges of Mobile Phone Technology in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Doctor, Henry V.; Olatunji, Alabi; Jumare, Abdul’azeez

    2012-01-01

    Maternal and child health indicators are generally poor in Nigeria with the northern part of the country having the worst indicators than the southern part. Efforts to address maternal and health challenges in Nigeria include, among others, improvement in health and management information systems. We report on the experience of mobile phone technology in supporting the activities of a health and demographic surveillance system in northern Nigeria. Our experience calls for the need for the Nig...

  11. Key Requirements for Component Configuration Management (CCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Ali Qureshi; Asif Iqbal Paracha; Saqib Afzal; Shahzad Rafiq

    2013-01-01

    Component Configuration Management becamevery important and significant in Software ConfigurationManagement discipline. By the passage of time we have seenthat a lot of work was done for the improvement. During theComponent Configuration Management there are certainproblems faced by stakeholder such as version management,conflict of new and old components, change impact analysis,historical view and ripple impact identificationIn this paper our main focus remains on identification ofrequiremen...

  12. A Type System for Parallel Components

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-junior, Francisco Heron; Lins, Rafael Dueire

    2009-01-01

    The # component model was proposed to improve the practice of parallel programming. This paper introduces a type system for # programming systems, aiming to lift the abstraction and safety of programming for parallel computing architectures by introducing a notion of abstract component based on universal and existential bounded quantification. Issues about the implementation of such type system in HPE, a # programming system, are also discussed.

  13. Socio-demographic factors and substance use in adolescence

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    Mari? Mia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of risky behavior is characteristic in adolescence. Of all forms of risky behavior in adolescence, the use of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances particularly stand out, because of the frequency and degree of prevalence of use, and because of the impact that they have on youth development in this sensitive stage of growing up. Unfortunately, today we are witnessing the fact that such behavior in adolescents has gained an increasingly epidemic character mainly due to the characteristics of the social context in which young people are growing up. The main objective of this research, conducted in the framework of the doctoral dissertation of the author, was determining relations between relevant sociodemographic factors: gender, age, school success, financial status and place of residence of respondents, with the appearance and intensity of use of three types of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances among the general population of adolescents. The sample represents non-clinical young population, and it consists of 529 adolescents, students of the 2nd and 4th class of secondary school (17 and 18 years old. The data was collected by using Scale use of PAS (psychoactive substances in adolescents, which was designed for the purpose of this research, as well as using a set of questions intended for the registration of socio-demographic variables. Respondents filled in questionnaires in groups, during the school lessons. The data show a relationship between the three studied socio-demographic variables with the occurrence and degree of use of psychoactive substances in the adolescence period, such as gender, age and school success of the respondents. As regards gender of respondents associated with the occurrence and degree of alcohol and illegal substance use in adolescents, male adolescents more likely use alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances. Age of respondents associated with the use of all three types of psychoactive substances in adolescence, found that older adolescents were more likely to use cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances. School success of the respondents is associated with the occurrence and degree of use of all three tested categories of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and drugs, and the obtained findings indicate that with the decline in school success, the prevalence of all three types of psychoactive substances increases in adolescence. Besides the theoretical significance, the applicability of the findings is reflected in the field of primary prevention and health protection of youth.

  14. Society of Quality Assurance demographic and salary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodish, D; Bandoli, M; Smith, R

    1997-01-01

    A demographic and salary survey of the Society of Quality Assurance (SQA) was completed in early 1995. This survey was undertaken by the SQA Board of Publications and is the second to be commissioned by the Society. The SQA survey addressed demographic information, employer information, job description, and salary data. A total fo 399 responses were received--60% from women and 40% from men. The median age of respondents was between 36 and 40 years. Most respondents had at least a bachelor's degree and major fields of training were in the areas of biology and chemistry; however, nearly half responding listed other fields of expertise. Approximately 99% of respondents had at least some Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) experience; however, most had little or no Good Clinical Practice (GCP) or current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) experience. A majority of respondents listed pharmaceuticals, contract research, industry, or chemicals/pesticides/petroleum as best describing their facility. Forty-one percent of respondents were auditors or inspectors (approximately half of all respondents did not supervise others) and 34% were managers or directors. Quality assurance (QA) responsibilities included performing inspections/audits, QA program development, reporting to upper management, and hosting outside auditors. Other activities, such as computer validation, budget management, and archive maintenance, were less frequent. Overall, annual salaries were approximately $20,000 or less (3.6%); $20-30,000 (9.8%); $30-40,000 (20.8%); $40-50,000 (22.6%); $50-60,000 (17.3%); $60-70,000 (10.5%); $70-80,000 (6.9%); and $80,000 or more (8.5%). The median annual salary for the survey was $45-50,000 per year. Salaries increased with education and years of experience. For example, annual salaries ranged from $25-30,000 for 2-5 years of experience to $50-60,000 for > 20 years of experience. Median annual salaries were substantially higher for pharmaceutical and chemical/pesticide/petroleum companies ($50-60,000) compared to contract research laboratories ($35-40,000). Salaries for consultants were highly variable, ranging from under $15,000 per year to > $100,000 per year. PMID:9436238

  15. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  16. Assessing the effect of demographic factors on conflict situations in Ghana government hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Dwomoh, Gabriel; Kwarteng, Kofi; Frempong, Evelyn; Frempong, Regina Anima

    2014-01-01

       The   study   seeks   to   examine   the   influence   of   demographic   factors   on   conflict   in  Ghana  government  hospitals.    It  adopted  the  quantitative  approach  which  involves  the  use  of  questionnaires  and  interviews  coupled  with  statistical  analysis  to  assess  the   effect   of   demographic   factors   (age,   educational   level,   gender   and   number   of  years  on  the  job  of  employees)  and ?...

  17. Improving quality of components and protein preparations of blood plasma by introduction of quality management according to the principles of GMP and ISO 9001 in the blood service institutions with benchmarking effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubchack V.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of harmonious introduc¬tion of the new standards of quality management in the institutions of blood service were considered. It was proved that it does not contradict to current legislation and significantly increases pathogenic security of blood components and blood products.

  18. Demographic Diversity in Top Level Management and Its Implications on Firm Financial Performance: An Empirical Discussion

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    Maran Marimuthu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how demographic diversity in top level management affects firm financial performance. Top level management refers to both top management team and board of directors. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effect of demographic diversity on top management team and boards of directors with regard to firm financial performance. This paper uses both financial and non-financial data from top 100 non-financial listed companies over the period 2000 to 2006, using the  non-probability sampling approach. Demographic diversity comprises of ethnic and gender diversity and performance is measured by Return on Equity (ROE. A Pooled Least Square (PLS regression method is used and hierarchical regression analyses are presented accordingly. The results indicate that demographic diversity has some significant impact on boards of directors with regard to firm financial performance. However, demographic diversity in TMTs does not create any significant impact on firm financial performance.

  19. IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON INVESTMENT RISK BEHAVIOUR OF INDIVIDUAL INVESTORS-A STUDY IN PUNJAB

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    Deepak Sood

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the Increasing growth of the Financial Services Sectors, it is also important that the growth in any sector should be the balanced growth. The primary objective of the investor is to earn the regular income and the market knowledge and risk taking ability of the investors make the difference in their expected rate of return. The main factors affecting the balanced growth are the Income and demographic factors. In this paper, we are focusing on the effect of the demographic factors. The psychology of the Investors also differs demographically. As the markets are becoming more dynamic and the risk exposure is also changing and the risk differs among the different demographic profiles. This paper explores relationship between level of risk and demographic factors of investors’ confined to Punjab state.

  20. Clinical, Demographic and Laboratory Features of Children with Alopecia Areata

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    Nursel Dilek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alopecia areata (AA is an inflammatory skin disease with an unknown etiology and characterized by loss of hair without scar formation. In this study we aimed to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics of pediatric patients with AA. Methods: Clinical data of 131 children patients with AA who admitted to Dermatology Department of Recep Tayyip Erdogan University Training and Research Hospital in July 2010-July 2013 period were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Age of patients were between 2-16 years. Seventy four of 131 patients (56.5% were males and 57 (43.5% were females and the mean age was 8.95±3.85 years. 28 of the patients (21.4% had a history of atopy and were highly correlated with the severity of AA (p=0.00. The severity of AA was found to be associated with duration of the disease (p=0.02. A significant correlation was found between the severity of AA and nail involvement (p=0.00. Anemia was detected in 20.5% of the patients but this finding was not related to with severity of AA (p>0.05. Conclusion: In the child who admitted to our clinic with AA, the extensiveness of the lesions were less than 25%. The duration of AA, presence of atopy, and the nail involvement are associated with the severity of AA. There is no relationship between anemia and the severity of AA.