WorldWideScience

Sample records for improving demographic components

  1. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  2. Demographic Component-Support of Regional Economic Development. Case Study: Tecuci Plain

    Iulian Sorcaru

    2012-01-01

    Regional economic development is strongly conditioned by the demographic component, the analysis of demographic trends and demographic projections serving to substantiate proper development plans and strategies. This study aims to determine the demographic trend of human settlements in the Tecuci Plain, a space that can get the future status of micro-region, to identify the favorability and/or restriction factors, to draw up useful demographic projections for policy makers at local and region...

  3. Demographics

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  4. Demographics

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  6. Demographics

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  7. Demographics

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  8. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Christoph A. Rohner; Richardson, Anthony J.; Prebble, Clare E. M.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Michael B Bennett; Scarla J Weeks; Geremy Cliff; Wintner, Sabine P.; Simon J Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 11...

  9. Decomposing demographic change into direct vs. compositional components

    Vaupel, James W.; Romo, Vladimir Canudas

    2002-01-01

    We present and prove a formula for decomposing change in a population average into two components. One component captures the effect of direct change in the characteristic of interest, and the other captures the effect of compositional change. The decomposition is applied to time derivatives of...... also presented. Other examples concern global life expectancy and the growth rate of the population of the world. © 2002 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft....

  10. Demographics

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  11. Cliometrics of the Abiding Nexus Between Demographic Components and Economic Development

    Claude Diebolt; Tapas K. Mishra

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses the nexus between (components of) population and economic development from cliometric perspective. Based on stationary assumption, Kelley and Schmidt (hereafter KS, 1995) while showed that only demographic variables render robust explanation of economic growth, KS(2001) find significance of other non-demographic factors under extended data. Questions may arise therefore on the uniqueness of the model and consistency of the results under extended data and/or addition of r...

  12. Demographics

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  13. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Christoph A. Rohner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122 in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46 in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania, the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania. The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species.

  14. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks.

    Rohner, Christoph A; Richardson, Anthony J; Prebble, Clare E M; Marshall, Andrea D; Bennett, Michael B; Weeks, Scarla J; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Pierce, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432-917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420-990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347-1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species. PMID:25870776

  15. Demographic and Component Allee Effects in Southern Lake Superior Gray Wolves.

    Stenglein, Jennifer L; Van Deelen, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Recovering populations of carnivores suffering Allee effects risk extinction because positive population growth requires a minimum number of cooperating individuals. Conservationists seldom consider these issues in planning for carnivore recovery because of data limitations, but ignoring Allee effects could lead to overly optimistic predictions for growth and underestimates of extinction risk. We used Bayesian splines to document a demographic Allee effect in the time series of gray wolf (Canis lupus) population counts (1980-2011) in the southern Lake Superior region (SLS, Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan, USA) in each of four measures of population growth. We estimated that the population crossed the Allee threshold at roughly 20 wolves in four to five packs. Maximum per-capita population growth occurred in the mid-1990s when there were approximately 135 wolves in the SLS population. To infer mechanisms behind the demographic Allee effect, we evaluated a potential component Allee effect using an individual-based spatially explicit model for gray wolves in the SLS region. Our simulations varied the perception neighborhoods for mate-finding and the mean dispersal distances of wolves. Simulation of wolves with long-distance dispersals and reduced perception neighborhoods were most likely to go extinct or experience Allee effects. These phenomena likely restricted population growth in early years of SLS wolf population recovery. PMID:26930665

  16. Demographic and Component Allee Effects in Southern Lake Superior Gray Wolves.

    Jennifer L Stenglein

    Full Text Available Recovering populations of carnivores suffering Allee effects risk extinction because positive population growth requires a minimum number of cooperating individuals. Conservationists seldom consider these issues in planning for carnivore recovery because of data limitations, but ignoring Allee effects could lead to overly optimistic predictions for growth and underestimates of extinction risk. We used Bayesian splines to document a demographic Allee effect in the time series of gray wolf (Canis lupus population counts (1980-2011 in the southern Lake Superior region (SLS, Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan, USA in each of four measures of population growth. We estimated that the population crossed the Allee threshold at roughly 20 wolves in four to five packs. Maximum per-capita population growth occurred in the mid-1990s when there were approximately 135 wolves in the SLS population. To infer mechanisms behind the demographic Allee effect, we evaluated a potential component Allee effect using an individual-based spatially explicit model for gray wolves in the SLS region. Our simulations varied the perception neighborhoods for mate-finding and the mean dispersal distances of wolves. Simulation of wolves with long-distance dispersals and reduced perception neighborhoods were most likely to go extinct or experience Allee effects. These phenomena likely restricted population growth in early years of SLS wolf population recovery.

  17. Improving component reuse in software development

    Forsell, Marko

    2002-01-01

    This study concerns reuse in the software development process. The focus is in the reuse of components when creating new software. The aim is to improve current software processes to adapt them to the purposes of reuse. The specific research questions are: 1) What are the specific limitations for reuse in the current component-based software development methods? 2) How should reusable components be created and used in software development? 3) How should the components that are created be docu...

  18. Generalisability of The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database: demographics, chronic disease prevalence and mortality rates

    Betina Blak; Mary Thompson; Hassy Dattani; Alison Bourke

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The degree of generalisability of patient databases to the general population is important for interpreting database research. This report describes the representativeness of The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a UK primary care database, of the UK population. Methods Demographics, deprivation (Townsend), Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) condition prevalence and deaths from THIN were compared with national statistical and QOF 2006/ 2007 data. Results Demographics wer...

  19. Improving Human Resource Training Policy for the Balanced Economic and Demographic Development of the Kaliningrad Region

    Klemeshev A.

    2015-01-01

    Balanced economic and demographic development is vital for ensuring the dynamic and proportional development of the regions. However, Russia as a whole and the exclave region of Kaliningrad as its integral part demonstrate significant disproportions between the need for human resources and their availability. This article aims to assess the balance between the components of the regional system of demography, education and economy system. It also explores the possible solutions to the problems...

  20. Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements

    Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

  1. Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements

    Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

  2. Improved component mode synthesis and variants

    Koutsovasilis, Panagiotis, E-mail: PKoutsovasilis@borgwarner.com [BorgWarner Turbo Systems Engineering GmbH, Structural Mechanics/Calculations and Simulations/Turbo Systems (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    This survey focuses on the two known model order reduction schemes being widely integrated in various commercial finite element packages, namely, the static and dynamic condensation methods. The advantages as well as the corresponding drawbacks have been extensively analyzed in several papers throughout the last decades. Based on combining the beneficial properties of the aforementioned methods, several alternative reduction methodologies are outlined in this paper, i.e., the generalized improved reduction system method, the generalized component mode synthesis and the improved component mode synthesis with its generalized version, which incorporate in a more efficient way the system's inertia terms. Therefore, the associated error regarding higher frequency ranges of interest is better controlled. Basis of these methodologies is the so-called master and slave degrees of freedom partitioning, the right selection of which highly influences the reduced order model's dynamics. The methods are tested and verified on a rather small three-dimensional bar structure and on the lever part of a turbocharger's variable turbine geometry. Several reduced order models are generated by varying both the number of Craig-Bampton modes and the selection of the required master degrees of freedom. A comparison is conducted based on the modal criterion of the corresponding eigenvectors and the associated computation time required.

  3. Openness to change: experiential and demographic components of change in in Local Health Department leaders

    Emmanuel D Jadhav

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the 2008-10 economic recession, Kentucky local health department (LHD leaders utilized innovative strategies to maintain their programs. A characteristic of innovative strategy is leader openness to change. Leader demographical research in for-profit organizations has yielded valuable insight into leader openness to change. For LHD leaders the nature of the association between leader demographic and organizational characteristics on leader openness to change is unknown. The objectives of this study are to identify variation in openness to change by leaders’ demographic and organizational characteristics and to characterize the underlying relationships. Material and Methods: The study utilized Spearman rank correlations test to determine relationships between leader openness to change (ACQ and leader and LHD characteristics. To identify differences in the distribution of ACQ scores, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis non-parametric tests were used, and to adjust for potential confounding linear regression analysis was performed.Data: LHD leaders in the Commonwealth of Kentucky were the unit of analysis. Expenditure and revenue data were available from the state health department. National census data was utilized for county level population estimates. A cross-sectional survey was performed of KY LHD leaders’ observable attributes relating to age, gender, race, educational background, leadership experience and openness to change. Results: Leaders had relatively high openness to change scores. Spearman correlations between leader ACQ and departmental 2012-13 revenue and expenditures were statistically significant, as were the differences observed in ACQ by gender and the educational level of the leader. Differences in ACQ score by education level and agency revenue were significant even after adjusting for potential confounders. The analyses imply there are underlying relationships between leader and LHD characteristics

  4. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    Tatem Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing

  5. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation.

    Tatem, Andrew J; Adamo, Susana; Bharti, Nita; Burgert, Clara R; Castro, Marcia; Dorelien, Audrey; Fink, Gunter; Linard, Catherine; John, Mendelsohn; Montana, Livia; Montgomery, Mark R; Nelson, Andrew; Noor, Abdisalan M; Pindolia, Deepa; Yetman, Greg; Balk, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models.Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites.In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and

  6. Improvement of Meat Taste by Dietary Components

    Fujimura, Shinobu; Kadowaki, Motoni

    2006-01-01

    Dietary nutrients play a significant part in determining growth rate and meat yield. It is known that the compositions of protein and total amino acids of meat are invariable by feeding treatments, hence the meat taste is considered to be invariable. However, the relationship of taste components of meat with nutrients is not fully elucidated, and there have been few reports on the effect of feeding treatments on taste-active components of chicken meat. Previously, restricted feeding and dieta...

  7. Improvements of the accelerator components at SACLA

    Since the beginning of XFEL operation in SACLA, various improvements have been demanded in order to increase XFEL intensity and stability. Some of improvement tasks were: (1) Upgrade of the precise temperature regulation system in the injector section to reduce the rf phase drift of cavities and beam orbit fluctuation. (2) Increase of repetition rate and decrease of a trip rate. (3) Extension of an undulator line and tuning of the magnetic field of existing undulators. For the precise temperature regulation system, we replaced a PWM AC heater with a continuously-controllable DC heater. In addition, the precise temperature regulation system was applied to an enclosure for low-level rf electronics. After these upgrades, rf phase drift of acceleration fields in the injector cavities was reduced and the orbit fluctuation due to a leak magnetic field from the AC heater was also eliminated. For decrease of the trip rate, we modified an interlocking logic for the thyratron discharge of the high-voltage pulse modulators and we performed high-voltage conditioning of accelerating structures in parallel with user operation. As a result, the repetition rate was increased from 10 pps to 20 pps without significant growth of the trip rate. For the undulator part, magnetic field errors on some of the undulators were measured and corrected in summer, 2012 and an additional undulator was installed in winter, 2012. In consequence of these improvements mentioned above, the accelerator was considerably stabilized and the average XFEL intensity was increased from 250 μJ (July 2012) to 400 μJ (July 2013) at an X-ray energy of 10 keV. (author)

  8. A Study for Improvement of Power Distribution Component (PDC)

    Kim, Young-Choon; Lee, Sang-Yong; Sohn, Chang-Ho; Kim, Jung-Seon [Samchang Enterprise Co. LTD., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The process control cabinet consists of several subracks. Each sub-rack power delivered by backplane through power distribution component located in each sub-rack from main power. This power distribution component dissipates power like resistor between main power supply and cards. So some voltage drops are occurred. This paper studies power distribution component improvement to reduce damage by over voltage, over current, voltage drop and to keep reverse polarity protection, power switching.

  9. The Effectiveness of Institutional Intervention on Minimizing Demographic Inertia and Improving the Representation of Women Faculty in Higher Education

    Amanda V. Bakian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Women remain under-represented among full time tenured/tenure-track science and engineering faculty at research universities in the United States despite their increasing availability in the employment pool. In response, intervention strategies aimed at boosting their participation have been introduced at university and national levels. Efforts to improve women’s representation may be challenged by demographic inertia, the tendency for the maintenance of the entrenched population structure that favors men despite improvements in women’s vital parameters. Here, we investigate the effectiveness of the U.S. National Science Foundation’s ADVANCE institutional intervention program at curtailing demographic inertia at a research university dubbed ‘Snow State University’ (SSU. We found that demographic inertia’s impact on women’s representation was lessened during ADVANCE. Yet to achieve long-lasting improvements in women’s representation, universities will need to increase their recruitment of women at the associate and full professor ranks while maintaining promotion and retention probabilities favorable to women over the long-term.

  10. Critical Components of Effective School-Based Feeding Improvement Programs

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2004-01-01

    This article identifies critical components of effective school-based feeding improvement programs for students with feeding problems. A distinction is made between typical school-based feeding management and feeding improvement programs, where feeding, independent functioning, and mealtime behaviors are the focus of therapeutic strategies.…

  11. Improved evaluation of optical depth components from Langley plot data

    Biggar, S. F.; Gellman, D. I.; Slater, P. N.

    1990-01-01

    A simple, iterative procedure to determine the optical depth components of the extinction optical depth measured by a solar radiometer is presented. Simulated data show that the iterative procedure improves the determination of the exponent of a Junge law particle size distribution. The determination of the optical depth due to aerosol scattering is improved as compared to a method which uses only two points from the extinction data. The iterative method was used to determine spectral optical depth components for June 11-13, 1988 during the MAC III experiment.

  12. IMHEX fuel cell repeat component manufacturing continuous improvement accomplishments

    Jakaitis, L.A.; Petraglia, V.J.; Bryson, E.S. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power is taking a power generation technology that has been proven in the laboratory and is making it a commercially competitive product. There are many areas in which this technology required scale up and refinement to reach the market entry goals for the IMHEX{reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. One of the primary areas that needed to be addressed was the manufacturing of the fuel cell stack. Up to this point, the fuel cell stack and associated components were virtually hand made for each system to be tested. M-C Power has now continuously manufactured the repeat components for three 250 kW stacks. M-C Power`s manufacturing strategy integrated both evolutionary and revolutionary improvements into its comprehensive commercialization effort. M-C Power`s objectives were to analyze and continuously improve stack component manufacturing and assembly techniques consistent with established specifications and commercial scale production requirements. Evolutionary improvements are those which naturally occur as the production rates are increased and experience is gained. Examples of evolutionary (learning curve) improvements included reducing scrap rates and decreasing raw material costs by buying in large quantities. Revolutionary improvements result in significant design and process changes to meet cost and performance requirements of the market entry system. Revolutionary changes often involve identifying new methods and developing designs to accommodate the new process. Based upon our accomplishments, M-C Power was able to reduce the cost of continuously manufactured fuel cell repeat components from the first to third 250 kW stack by 63%. This paper documents the continuous improvement accomplishments realized by M-C Power during IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell repeat component manufacturing.

  13. Microinjection molding of microsystem components: new aspects in improving performance

    Microinjection molding (µIM) is considered to be one of the most flexible, reliable and cost effective manufacturing routes to form plastic micro-components for microsystems. The molding machine, mold tool fabrication, material selection and process controlling in this specific field have been greatly developed over the past decades. This review aims to present the new trends towards improving micro-component performance by reviewing the latest developments in this area and by considering potential directions. The key concerns in product and mold designing, essential factors in simulation, and micro-morphology and resultant properties are evaluated and discussed. In addition, the applications, variant processes and outlook for µIM are presented. Throughout this review, decisive considerations in seeking improved performance for microsystem components are highlighted. (topical review)

  14. Formal and substantial Internet information skills: The role of socio–demographic differences on the possession of different components of digital literacy

    Gui, M

    2007-01-01

    The literature about digital inequality has pointed out the role of so–called “digital skills” in contributing to a full exploitation of the opportunities of the Web for individuals. Research has started to measure the differences in online skills on a socio–demographic base, finding relevant disparities. Since different components of digital skills have been described in theory, it is not clear which of them are influenced by specific social variables and which are not. This study goes a ste...

  15. Improvement in quantification of urine components: Alternate technique

    Kumar, S

    2014-01-01

    Urea and creatinine are two important diagnostic components of urine. The study of creatinine in liquid phase is difficult due to its feeble concentration in urine. To bring down the detection limit, DCD Raman spectroscopy was employed. Raman studies in association with partial least square algorithm of artificial urine samples gave improved results in dried phase as compared to liquid phase. These findings were further validated on real urine samples.

  16. NASA/General Electric Engine Component Improvement Program

    Albright, A. J.; Lennard, D. J.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Engine Component Improvement (ECI) Program has been initiated in connection with projects designed to reduce the impact of the world-wide energy crisis in the area of aviation. The two parts of the ECI program have the overall objective to identify and quantify the sources and causes of CF6 engine performance deterioration, and to reduce the fuel consumption of CF6 engines through the development and the incorporation of various performance improvement concepts. The CF6 high-bypass turbofan engine was selected as a basis for this effort, since it is expected to be a significant fuel user in commercial revenue service for the next 15 to 20 years. The first part of the ECI program represents the initial step in an effort to achieve a goal of five percent reduction in fuel usage for CF6 engines in the 1979-82 time period. The first performance improvement concept selected is an improved efficiency fan blade. Other improvements are related to a short core exhaust system and an improved high pressure turbine.

  17. Improved temperature regulation of APS linac RF components

    The temperature of the APS S-Band linac's high-power rf components is regulated by water from individual closed-loop deionized (DI) water systems. The rf components are all made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper and respond quickly to temperature changes. The SLED cavities are especially temperature-sensitive and cause beam energy instabilities when the temperature is not well regulated. Temperature regulation better than ± 0.1 F is required to achieve good energy stability. Improvements in the closed-loop water systems have enabled them to achieve a regulation of ± 0.05 F over long periods. Regulation philosophy and equipment are discussed and numerical results are presented

  18. Multi-component, rigidly rotating polytropes: improved and extended theory

    Caimmi, R

    2016-01-01

    With respect to earlier investigations, the theory of multi-component, concentric, copolar, axisymmetric, rigidly rotating polytropes is improved and extended, including subsystems with nonzero density on the boundary and subsystems with intersecting boundaries. The formulation is restricted to two subsystems for simplicity but, in principle, can be extended to $N$ subsystems. Equilibrium configurations are independent of the nature of the fluid i.e. collisional or collisionless, provided the polytropic index lies within the range, $1/2\\le n\\le5$, as in one-component systems. The solution of the equilibrium equations is expanded in power series, which can be continued up to the boundary and outside via starting points placed at increasingly larger distance from the centre of mass. A detailed analysis is devoted to special cases where the solution of the equilibrium equations can be expressed analytically. Finally a guidance example is shown, involving homogeneous subsystems with intersecting boundaries, where...

  19. Codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components to improve Jewett transform

    Jewett Transform is not yet, it is being. First ideas on this metaphor are from 1980 while monitoring cerebral function. It was conceived in contrast with Fourier Transform. Its application is limited to Auditory Brain Stem Responses. It uses a non-orthogonal physiologically rooted basis. Non-orthogonal basis has limited power in front of orthogonal basis: no analytical method exists to evaluate the corresponding transforms and numerical methods are required. In previous works, numerical methods were replaced for by trained artificial neural networks. Jewett transform was applied to increase the training set. Being a physiologically inspired basis, it promises better understanding of analysis of these evoked responses. It is envisioned that diverse new transforms, tailored to different problem specificity are to emerge. Considering the short temporal influence of Jewett components, it is stated that codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components can be used to improve Jewett Transform. Previously used neural network was modified. Output vector codes are built up by grouping components instead of grouping parameters. This allows synaptic pruning in the artificial neural network. Only a fraction (0.49) of the previous network weights is used. Mean square error in fitting signal to model are acceptable (mean ε<0.3%, n= 600). Memorization is eliminated

  20. Managerial improvement efforts after finding unreported cracks in reactor components

    In 2002 TEPCO found that there were unreported cracks in reactor components, of which inspection records had been falsified. Stress Corrosion Cracking indications found in Core Shrouds and Primary Loop Re-circulation pipes at some plants were removed from the inspection records and not reported to the regulators. Top management of TEPCO took the responsibility and resigned, and recovery was started under the leadership of new management team. First of all, behavioral standards were reconstituted to strongly support safety-first value. Ethics education was introduced and corporate ethics committee was organized with participation of external experts. Independent assessment organization was established to enhance quality assurance. Information became more transparent through Non-conformance Control Program. As for the material management, prevention and mitigation programs for the Stress Corrosion Cracking of reactor components were re-established. In addition to the above immediate recovery actions, long term improvement initiatives have also been launched and driven by our aspiration to excellence in safe operation of nuclear power plants. Vision and core values were set to align the people. Organizational learning was enhanced by benchmark studies, better systematic use of operational experience, self-assessment and external assessment. Based on these foundation blocks and with strong sponsorship from the top management, work processes were analyzed and improved by Peer Groups. (author)

  1. Improved Joining of Metal Components to Composite Structures

    Semmes, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Systems requirements for complex spacecraft drive design requirements that lead to structures, components, and/or enclosures of a multi-material and multifunctional design. The varying physical properties of aluminum, tungsten, Invar, or other high-grade aerospace metals when utilized in conjunction with lightweight composites multiply system level solutions. These multi-material designs are largely dependent upon effective joining techAn improved method of joining metal components to matrix/fiber composite material structures has been invented. The method is particularly applicable to equipping such thin-wall polymer-matrix composite (PMC) structures as tanks with flanges, ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liners for high heat engine nozzles, and other metallic-to-composite attachments. The method is oriented toward new architectures and distributing mechanical loads as widely as possible in the vicinities of attachment locations to prevent excessive concentrations of stresses that could give rise to delaminations, debonds, leaks, and other failures. The method in its most basic form can be summarized as follows: A metal component is to be joined to a designated attachment area on a composite-material structure. In preparation for joining, the metal component is fabricated to include multiple studs projecting from the aforementioned face. Also in preparation for joining, holes just wide enough to accept the studs are molded into, drilled, or otherwise formed in the corresponding locations in the designated attachment area of the uncured ("wet') composite structure. The metal component is brought together with the uncured composite structure so that the studs become firmly seated in the holes, thereby causing the composite material to become intertwined with the metal component in the joining area. Alternately, it is proposed to utilize other mechanical attachment schemes whereby the uncured composite and metallic parts are joined with "z-direction" fasteners. The

  2. A comparative method for improving the reliability of brittle components

    Calculating the absolute reliability built in a product is often an extremely difficult task because of the complexity of the physical processes and physical mechanisms underlying the failure modes, the complex influence of the environment and the operational loads, the variability associated with reliability-critical design parameters and the non-robustness of the prediction models. Predicting the probability of failure of loaded components with complex shape for example is associated with uncertainty related to: the type of existing flaws initiating fracture, the size distributions of the flaws, the locations and the orientations of the flaws and the microstructure and its local properties. Capturing these types of uncertainty, necessary for a correct prediction of the reliability of components is a formidable task which does not need to be addressed if a comparative reliability method is employed, especially if the focus is on reliability improvement. The new comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws proposed here is based on an assumed failure criterion, an equation linking the probability that a flaw will be critical with the probability of failure associated with the component and a finite element solution for the distribution of the principal stresses in the loaded component. The probability that a flaw will be critical is determined directly, after a finite number of steps equal to the number of finite elements into which the component is divided. An advantage of the proposed comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws is that it does not rely on a Monte Carlo simulation and does not depend on knowledge of the size distribution of the flaws and the material properties. This essentially eliminates uncertainty associated with the material properties and the population of flaws. On the basis of a theoretical analysis we also show that, contrary to the common belief, in general, for non

  3. Performance improvement of software component with partial evaluation

    MAO Hong-yan; HUANG Lin-peng; LI Ming-lu

    2008-01-01

    To avoid the complexity and inefficiency for specific applications of the current software architecture, a novel approach using partial evaluation is proposed to improve the running performance of components. The generic program was specialized into domain-specific realization for the known knowledge and environments. The syntax and semantic(adj.) were analyzed based on byte code instruction sequences, and partial evaluation rules depicted how to perform the specialization. The partial evaluation for object-oriented programs was imple-mented. The experimental results show that partial evaluation is effective to speed up the running efficiency. The more generality and scalability can be obtained by the integration of partial evaluation with the favorable de-sign mechanisms and compiler optimization technology.

  4. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  5. Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower

    Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

  6. Failure cause analysis and improvement for magnetic component cabinet

    The magnetic component cabinet is an important thermal control device fitted on the nuclear power. Because it used a self-saturation amplifier as a primary component, the magnetic component cabinet has some boundness. For increasing the operation safety on the nuclear power, the author describes a new scheme. In order that the magnetic component cabinet can be replaced, the new type component cabinet is developed. Integrate circuit will replace the magnetic components of every function parts. The author has analyzed overall failure cause for magnetic component cabinet and adopted some measures

  7. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  8. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

    2012-03-26

    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure

  9. Changing demographics

    This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

  10. Georgia - Improving General Education Quality, School Rehabilitation Component

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The school rehabilitation activity seeks to decrease student and teacher absenteeism, increase students’ time on task, and, ultimately, improve learning and labor...

  11. Improved stress prediction in adhesive bonded optical components

    Vreugd, J. de; Voert, M.J.A. te; Nijenhuis, J.R.; Pijnenburg, J.A.C.M.; Tabak, E.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in optomechanical structures for bonding optical components to their mounts. The main advantage of using adhesives is the excellent strength to weight ratio. Adhesive bonding is seen as a desirable joining technique as it allows for greater flexibility in design. A disadvantage of adhesives however is the limited dimensional stability and loadability. To design stable optical mounts, accurate prediction of stresses and deformation is therefore needed. Adhesives show ...

  12. Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

    In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs

  13. Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

    Ware, J.; Ferl, J.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; DeAngelis, G.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.J.

    2002-05-08

    In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs.

  14. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  15. Improved Principal Component Analysis and its Application in the Evaluation of the Industrial Structure

    LI Fen-Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, improved principal component analysis method is put forward to avoid the shortage of comprehensive evaluation dealt with principal component analysis method. When the contribution rate of the first principal components is short of asks, we can choose to rotate factor loading matrix and select multiple main components and synthesize and weigh the variation coefficient and variance contribution as weight coefficient, to set up a comprehensive evaluation model. As an example of th...

  16. Large improvements in application throughput of long-running multi-component applications using batch grids

    Sundari, Sivagama M.; Vadhiyar, Sathish S.; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2012-01-01

    Computational grids with multiple batch systems (batch grids) can be powerful infrastructures for executing long-running multi-component parallel applications. In this paper, we evaluate the potential improvements in throughput of long-running multi-component applications when the different components of the applications are executed on multiple batch systems of batch grids. We compare the multiple batch executions with executions of the components on a single batch system without increasing ...

  17. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Pietersz RNI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  18. Improved Differential Evolution Based on Stochastic Ranking for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS Components

    Fan, Zhun; Liu, Jinchao; Sørensen, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an improved differential evolution (DE) algorithm for robust layout synthesis of microelectromechanical system components subject to inherent geometric uncertainties. A case study of the layout synthesis of a combdriven microresonator shows that the approach proposed in this...

  19. Improved separation of soft and hard components in multiple Coulomb scattering

    Bondarenco, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the angular distribution function of particles scattered in an amorphous medium is improved by deforming the integration path in the Fourier integral representation into the complex plane. That allows us to present the distribution function as a sum of two positive components, soft and hard, the soft component being close to a Gaussian, and the hard component vanishing in the forward direction, while including the Rutherford asymptotics and all the power corrections to it at lar...

  20. Defying Demographics.

    Levine, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    Changing populations will raise new issues for higher education student recruitment. Some changes include population sizes, characteristics, geography, and enrollment patterns. Steps to take include redefine the problem, make more out of less, improve student distribution, learn from the past, understand limitations, and recognize that each…

  1. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.;

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol‐gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental...... evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol‐gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol‐gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol‐gel component in coatings for...

  2. Improved separation of soft and hard components in multiple Coulomb scattering

    Bondarenco, M V

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the angular distribution function of particles scattered in an amorphous medium is improved by deforming the integration path in the Fourier integral representation into the complex plane. That allows us to present the distribution function as a sum of two positive components, soft and hard, the soft component being close to a Gaussian, and the hard component vanishing in the forward direction, while including the Rutherford asymptotics and all the power corrections to it at large scattering angles. Detailed properties of those components, and their interplay at intermediate deflection angles are discussed. Comparison with the Moli\\`{e}re theory is given.

  3. Improved separation of soft and hard components in multiple Coulomb scattering

    Bondarenco, M. V.

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of the angular distribution function of particles scattered in an amorphous medium is improved by deforming the integration path in the Fourier integral representation into the complex plane. That allows us to present the distribution function as a sum of two positive components, soft and hard, the soft component being close to a Gaussian, and the hard component vanishing in the forward direction, while including the Rutherford asymptotics and all the power corrections to it at large scattering angles. Detailed properties of these components, and their interplay at intermediate deflection angles are discussed. Comparison with the Molière theory is given.

  4. INVESTIGATIONS TO IMPROVE THE TRANSFERABILITY OF SPECIMEN RESULTS BY REAL COMPONENT

    Martin Riedler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the improvement of the lifetime calculation of components made of the titanium alloy Ti-6-4, a closed loop methodology from specimen to the component is presented. Based on forged pre-material specimens fatigue tests are done as a basic research, which are presented as S/N-curves. With the determined material data a lifetime calculation with the program FEMFAT is done on a typically fitting element. Finally the results of the lifetime calculation are compared to real component tests, which are done to evaluate the results of the lifetime calculation. The component tests are performed with constant and variable load. Therewith the transferability of specimen results to real components is shown. Additional fracture analysis by light microscope and scanning electron microscope is carried out to give further information of the influence factor of the lifetime and a further description between fracture behaviour of specimen and components.

  5. Supply Chain Performance Improvement Strategy Through Quality of Synergy in The Automotive Components Industry

    Tri Purwani; Lutfi Nurcholis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study were 1) develop a new concept of Bilateral Symmetry, which is the ability of similarity based on transparency and standardization, 2) conduct empirical testing and analyzing the effect of bilateral symmetry to the improved supply chain performance through quality of synergy in industrial automotive components. The study population includes the entire automotive component industry in Indonesia. This study used sample of 105 respondents using purposive sampling method ...

  6. Preliminary analysis of the J-52 aircraft engine Component Improvement Program

    Butler, Randall Scott

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Increasing budgetary constraints have required program managers within the Naval Air Systems Command to justify their programs as never before. This thesis presents a preliminary analysis of the J-52 aircraft engine Component Improvement Program (CIP). The objectives of the research were to scrutinize the association of the CIP with promised improvements and benefits pertaining to the J-52 engine and to determine the obstacles that e...

  7. Methodology for Process Improvement Through Basic Components and Focusing on the Resistance to Change.

    Calvo-Manzano Villalon, Jose Antonio; Cuevas Agustin, Gonzalo; Gómez, Gerzón; Mejia, Jezreel; Muñoz, Mirna; San Feliu Gilabert, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-model methodology that implements a smooth and continuous process improvement, depending on the organization's business goals and allowing users to establish their improvement implementation pace. The methodology focuses on basic process components known as ‘best practices’. Besides, it covers following the topics: knowledge management and change management. The methodology description and the results of a case study on project management process are included.

  8. Demographic Security Trends in Southeastern Europe

    Malnar Dario; Malnar Ana

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have witnessed an evolution of the concept of security in general and of demographic security as a specific field of security studies. The approach to security has been changing both in regards to a widening of subjects and referent objects of security, and a widening of the security domain. Consideration of the demographic component in the security sphere has evolved in accordance with this development; the scope of perspectives through which demographic se...

  9. Improvements in Block-Krylov Ritz Vectors and the Boundary Flexibility Method of Component Synthesis

    Carney, Kelly Scott

    1997-01-01

    A method of dynamic substructuring is presented which utilizes a set of static Ritz vectors as a replacement for normal eigenvectors in component mode synthesis. This set of Ritz vectors is generated in a recurrence relationship, proposed by Wilson, which has the form of a block-Krylov subspace. The initial seed to the recurrence algorithm is based upon the boundary flexibility vectors of the component. Improvements have been made in the formulation of the initial seed to the Krylov sequence, through the use of block-filtering. A method to shift the Krylov sequence to create Ritz vectors that will represent the dynamic behavior of the component at target frequencies, the target frequency being determined by the applied forcing functions, has been developed. A method to terminate the Krylov sequence has also been developed. Various orthonormalization schemes have been developed and evaluated, including the Cholesky/QR method. Several auxiliary theorems and proofs which illustrate issues in component mode synthesis and loss of orthogonality in the Krylov sequence have also been presented. The resulting methodology is applicable to both fixed and free- interface boundary components, and results in a general component model appropriate for any type of dynamic analysis. The accuracy is found to be comparable to that of component synthesis based upon normal modes, using fewer generalized coordinates. In addition, the block-Krylov recurrence algorithm is a series of static solutions and so requires significantly less computation than solving the normal eigenspace problem. The requirement for less vectors to form the component, coupled with the lower computational expense of calculating these Ritz vectors, combine to create a method more efficient than traditional component mode synthesis.

  10. Two-Variance-Component Model Improves Genetic Prediction in Family Datasets.

    Tucker, George; Loh, Po-Ru; MacLeod, Iona M; Hayes, Ben J; Goddard, Michael E; Berger, Bonnie; Price, Alkes L

    2015-11-01

    Genetic prediction based on either identity by state (IBS) sharing or pedigree information has been investigated extensively with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) methods. Such methods were pioneered in plant and animal-breeding literature and have since been applied to predict human traits, with the aim of eventual clinical utility. However, methods to combine IBS sharing and pedigree information for genetic prediction in humans have not been explored. We introduce a two-variance-component model for genetic prediction: one component for IBS sharing and one for approximate pedigree structure, both estimated with genetic markers. In simulations using real genotypes from the Candidate-gene Association Resource (CARe) and Framingham Heart Study (FHS) family cohorts, we demonstrate that the two-variance-component model achieves gains in prediction r(2) over standard BLUP at current sample sizes, and we project, based on simulations, that these gains will continue to hold at larger sample sizes. Accordingly, in analyses of four quantitative phenotypes from CARe and two quantitative phenotypes from FHS, the two-variance-component model significantly improves prediction r(2) in each case, with up to a 20% relative improvement. We also find that standard mixed-model association tests can produce inflated test statistics in datasets with related individuals, whereas the two-variance-component model corrects for inflation. PMID:26544803

  11. Gender inequality, technological progress, and the demographic transition

    DAO, Nguyen Thang; Davila Muro, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new mechanism linking technology, the gender gap in education, and fertility in a growth model in order to explain the long run transition from stagnation to modern sustained growth, through the demographic transition, and the accompanying improvements in gender equality in education and income. The mechanism includes three main components. First, increases in the level of technology not only increase the return to human capital but also reduce women's time in doing hous...

  12. Optimization of sheet components locating scheme based on improved particle swarm optimization

    Zhang, Heng; Xing, Yanfeng

    2015-01-01

    The current sheet components locating scheme optimization needs a great deal of finite element analysis, which limits the fixture design efficiency. To reduce finite element analysis times, this paper proposes a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm based on the inertia weight, and through the secondary development of finite element software, the improved particle swarm optimization is applied to fixture locating scheme design. Taking the front fender of some vehicle as the living ex...

  13. Improved quality control method for Danshen products--consideration of both hydrophilic and lipophilic active components.

    Zhou, Limin; Chow, Moses; Zuo, Zhong

    2006-06-01

    The current study intends to provide an improved quality control analysis for Danshen product-a representative herbal product with known active components that are both hydrophilic and lipophilic in nature. A simple HPLC method with photodiode-array (PDA) ultraviolet detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of three major lipophilic components (cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA) and three major hydrophilic components (danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid B) of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). These six components were successfully separated using Radial-pak C18 cartridge with the elution gradient consisting of 0.5% acetic acid in water and 0.5% acetic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the analysis were within 2.32 and 2.0%, respectively. The detection limits were 0.02, 0.01, 0.01, 0.05, 0.005 and 0.02 microg/ml for cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid B, respectively. The developed method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of above six major components in Fufang Danshen Tablet and Dripping Pill products by extraction with methanol and water. It has been demonstrated that salvianolic acid B and danshensu are the major components among the eight commercial Fufang Danshen products studied. The current developed method with methanol as extraction solvent provides a simple and efficient method for simultaneous detection of both lipophilic and hydrophilic major components in Danshen products. PMID:16458472

  14. Improving land cover classification using input variables derived from a geographically weighted principal components analysis

    Comber, Alexis J.; Harris, Paul; Tsutsumida, Narumasa

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrates the use of a geographically weighted principal components analysis (GWPCA) of remote sensing imagery to improve land cover classification accuracy. A principal components analysis (PCA) is commonly applied in remote sensing but generates global, spatially-invariant results. GWPCA is a local adaptation of PCA that locally transforms the image data, and in doing so, can describe spatial change in the structure of the multi-band imagery, thus directly reflecting that many landscape processes are spatially heterogenic. In this research the GWPCA localised loadings of MODIS data are used as textural inputs, along with GWPCA localised ranked scores and the image bands themselves to three supervised classification algorithms. Using a reference data set for land cover to the west of Jakarta, Indonesia the classification procedure was assessed via training and validation data splits of 80/20, repeated 100 times. For each classification algorithm, the inclusion of the GWPCA loadings data was found to significantly improve classification accuracy. Further, but more moderate improvements in accuracy were found by additionally including GWPCA ranked scores as textural inputs, data that provide information on spatial anomalies in the imagery. The critical importance of considering both spatial structure and spatial anomalies of the imagery in the classification is discussed, together with the transferability of the new method to other studies. Research topics for method refinement are also suggested.

  15. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability Conceptual Design Report

    Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Burress, T.; Fugate, D.; Holcomb, D.; Wilgen, J.; Miller, J.; Wilson, D.; Silva, P.; Whitlow, L.; Peretz, F.

    2012-09-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) components and systems. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration platform. I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the system; treating I&C as an integral part of the system design is innovative and will allow significant improvement in capabilities and performance. As systems become more complex and greater performance is required, traditional I&C design techniques become inadequate and more advanced I&C needs to be applied. New I&C techniques enable optimal and reliable performance and tolerance of noise and uncertainties in the system rather than merely monitoring quasistable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in NPP components after the design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. By incorporating I&C at the beginning of the design phase, the control system can provide superior performance and reliability and enable designs that are otherwise impossible. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the platform to demonstrate the performance and reliability improvements enabled by advanced embedded I&C.

  16. Improvement in the quality factors for photonic crystal nanocavities via visualization of the leaky components.

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2016-05-01

    A method that simply improves the quality (Q) factors of two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities using a three-dimensional finite-difference time domain calculation is described. The leaky area for a high-Q nanocavity mode is visualized in a real cavity structure by extracting the leaky components within a light cone in momentum space and by transferring them back into real space using an inverse Fourier transformation. The Q factor is remarkably improved by appropriately shifting the positions of air holes at the leaky area. We design three-missing-air-hole and zero-cell-defect nanocavities with Q factors of 5,000,000 and 1,700,000, respectively, for demonstration. PMID:27137567

  17. Dancing with Demographers.

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    Demographic projections concerning the shortage of teachers in Canada, their pay scale, the feminization of teaching, the gender gap in salaries, and teacher autonomy have often been incorrect, or correct for the wrong reasons. Instead of relying on demographic predictions, teachers should contemplate who they really want to be professionally,…

  18. Unit 2: Demographic Data

    01, CCTP; Matthews, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    This unit is concerned with the task of locating demographic data, including data describing the socioeconomic characteristics of the population. Information about the age, ethnicity, gender, income, housing condition and other socioeconomic variables is considered. The scope of this unit is to provide guidelines and suggestions to identify demographic datasets and evaluate whether the data set can be used within a GIS effectively.

  19. Supply Chain Performance Improvement Strategy Through Quality of Synergy in The Automotive Components Industry

    Tri Purwani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were 1 develop a new concept of Bilateral Symmetry, which is the ability of similarity based on transparency and standardization, 2 conduct empirical testing and analyzing the effect of bilateral symmetry to the improved supply chain performance through quality of synergy in industrial automotive components. The study population includes the entire automotive component industry in Indonesia. This study used sample of 105 respondents using purposive sampling method to comply with the AMOS program. The study result shows that the ability of similarity standardization and the ability of the similarity of transparency have positive significant impact on the quality of synergy, and quality of synergy have positive significant impact on the supply chain performance. In addition, from the results of hypothesis testing found two strategies that can improve supply chain performance with 1 increasing the ability of similarity standardization and 2 improve transparency through quality of synergy.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengembangkan konsep baru bilateral symmetry, yang merupakan kemampuan kesamaan berdasarkan transparansi dan standarisasi, dan melakukan pengujian empiris dan menganalisis pengaruh simetri bilateral untuk peningkatan kinerja rantai pasokan melalui kualitas sinergi pada komponen otomotif industri. Populasi penelitian meliputi seluruh industri komponen otomotif di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel 105 responden dengan menggunakan metode purposive sampling dan dianalisis dengan program AMOS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan kesamaan standarisasi dan kemampuan kesamaan transparansi berdampak signifikan positif pada kualitas sinergi, dan kualitas sinergi berdampak signifikan positif terhadap kinerja rantai pasokan. Selain itu, dari hasil pengujian hipotesis menemukan dua strategi yang dapat meningkatkan kinerja supply chain dengan meningkatkan kemampuan kesamaan standarisasi dan

  20. Improved Diagnosis of the Polysensitized Allergic Rhinitis Patients Using Component Resolved Diagnosis Method.

    Mohamad Yadzir, Zailatul Hani; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Leecyous, Brenda; Murad, Shahnaz

    2016-04-01

    Allergy diagnosis needs to be improved in polysensitized patients due to the existence of possible confounding factors in this type of patients. Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) is a new concept in the investigation of polysensitized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the utilization of ImmunoCAP ISAC improve the diagnosis of the polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Skin prick test (SPT) to 58 crude allergen extracts and CRD (ImmunoCAP ISAC) were carried out for 5 polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Two patients had a shellfish allergy and avoidance of shellfish was the only way to prevent an allergic reaction. In contrast, although the remaining three patients had low risk for shellfish allergy, but they were the best candidates for immunotherapy using mite extracts. CRD and particularly ImmunoCAP ISAC have proven to be a valuable diagnostic tool in polysensitized patients. ImmunoCAP ISAC helps refine the individual patient's sensitization profile and predict the potential risk of allergic reactions and improve the selection of patients for immunotherapy. PMID:27090369

  1. Exploring environmental literacy through demographic variables

    Öztürk, Gökhan; Tüzün, Özgül Yılmaz; TEKSÖZ, GAYE

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of selected demographic variables on pre-service teachers’ environmental literacy. Although there are several demographic variables to have some degree of relationship with components of environmental literacy, gender, academic major, and grade level are chosen to investigate further in the Turkish context because of their prevalent usage in earlier studies. The sample of the study is comprised of 560 pre-service teachers enrolled in different academi...

  2. Demographic Dividend or Demographic Threat in Pakistan?

    Nayab, Durr-e-

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and size have remained the focus of debate for centuries but the recent demographic transition in developing countries has made social scientists take note of the changing age structure of the population as well. As a result of declining population growth and consequent changes in age structure, the proportion of working-age population is increasing in most developing countries, with an associated decline in the dependent age population, offering a window of opportunity to t...

  3. Simulation of Multi-component Multi-stage Separation Process--An Improved Algorithm and Application

    李春山; 张香平; 张锁江; 谭心舜; 项曙光

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible model and a robust algorithm for simulation of multi-stage multi-component separation processes in which multiple feeds, side streams, strippers and/or side heat exchangers are involved. The improved algorithm effectively accelerates the speed of convergence and offers better stability by introducing a damping factor for updating the stripping factor, and also reduces the requirement on the initial estimates by updating the Joacobian matrix directly with the stripping factor and enthalpy. On the other hand, an efficient algorithm was proposed to solve the approximate tri-diagonal matrix (containing the off-band elements) derived from the material balance equations (Mequations)and phase equilibrium equations (E equations), the advantages and simplicity of the "inside-out" technique of the Russell are retained. The present algorithm was demonstrated to be effective in simulating complex separation columns with typical case studies.

  4. Study and program plan for improved heavy duty gas turbine engine ceramic component development

    Helms, H.E.

    1977-05-01

    A five-year program plan was generated from the study activities with the objectives of demonstrating a fuel economy of 213 mg/W . h (0.35 lb/hp-hr) brake specific fuel consumption by 1981 through use of ceramic materials, with conformance to current and projected Federal noise and emission standards, and to demonstrate a commercially viable engine. Study results show that increased turbine inlet and regenerator inlet temperatures, through the use of ceramic materials, contribute the greatest amount to achieving fuel economy goals. Further, improved component efficiencies (for the compressor, gasifier turbine, power turbine, and regenerator disks show significant additional gains in fuel economy. Fuel saved in a 500,000-mile engine life, risk levels involved in development, and engine-related life cycle costs for fleets (100 units) of trucks and buses were used as criteria to select work goals for the planned program.

  5. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability: Conceptual Design Report

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Silva, Pamela C [ORNL; Whitlow, Lynsie J [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant components. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration vehicle. The project s focus is not primarily on pump design, but instead is on methods to deeply embed I&C within a pump system. However, because the I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the pump, the I&C design cannot proceed in isolation from the other aspects of the pump. The pump will not function if the characteristics of the I&C are not embedded within the design because the I&C enables performance of the basic function rather than merely monitoring quasi-stable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in nuclear power plant (NPP) components after their design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the embedded I&C pump.

  6. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  7. Towards improved hardware component attenuation correction in PET/MR hybrid imaging

    standard deviation inside the phantom in comparison to all other conversions. Simulation of a µ-map misregistration shows acceptable results for shifts below 5 mm for the flexible surface RF coil. The adapted conversion from HUs to LAC at 511 keV within this study can improve hardware component AC in PET/MR hybrid imaging as shown for a flexible RF surface coil. Furthermore, these results have a direct impact on the improvement of the hardware component AC of the examined flexible RF coil in conjunction with position determination. (paper)

  8. Towards improved hardware component attenuation correction in PET/MR hybrid imaging.

    Paulus, D H; Tellmann, L; Quick, H H

    2013-11-21

    standard deviation inside the phantom in comparison to all other conversions. Simulation of a µ-map misregistration shows acceptable results for shifts below 5 mm for the flexible surface RF coil. The adapted conversion from HUs to LAC at 511 keV within this study can improve hardware component AC in PET/MR hybrid imaging as shown for a flexible RF surface coil. Furthermore, these results have a direct impact on the improvement of the hardware component AC of the examined flexible RF coil in conjunction with position determination. PMID:24168832

  9. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  10. The US Demographic Transition

    Jeremy Greenwood; Ananth Seshadri

    2002-01-01

    Between 1800 and 1940 the U.S. went through a dramatic demographic transition. In 1800 the average woman had 7 children, and 94 percent of the population lived in rural areas. By 1940 the average woman birthed just 2 kids, and only 43 percent of populace lived in the country. The question is: What accounted for this shift in the demographic landscape? The answer given here is that technological progress in agriculture and manufacturing explains these facts.

  11. Improving the Effectiveness of the Bio-slurry Extension Component of National Biodigester Program in Cambodia

    Islam, M. F.

    2009-10-15

    This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management. Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth. Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g. monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring)

  12. Site-Directed Mutagenesis to Improve Sensitivity of a Synthetic Two-Component Signaling System.

    Olshefsky, Audrey; Shehata, Laila; Kuldell, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Two-component signaling (2CS) systems enable bacterial cells to respond to changes in their local environment, often using a membrane-bound sensor protein and a cytoplasmic responder protein to regulate gene expression. Previous work has shown that Escherichia coli's natural EnvZ/OmpR 2CS could be modified to construct a light-sensing bacterial photography system. The resulting bacterial photographs, or "coliroids," rely on a phosphotransfer reaction between Cph8, a synthetic version of EnvZ that senses red light, and OmpR. Gene expression changes can be visualized through upregulation of a LacZ reporter gene by phosphorylated OmpR. Unfortunately, basal LacZ expression leads to a detectable reporter signal even when cells are grown in the light, diminishing the contrast of the coliroids. We performed site-directed mutagenesis near the phosphotransfer site of Cph8 to isolate mutants with potentially improved image contrast. Five mutants were examined, but only one of the mutants, T541S, increased the ratio of dark/light gene expression, as measured by β-galactosidase activity. The ratio changed from 2.57 fold in the starting strain to 5.59 in the T541S mutant. The ratio decreased in the four other mutant strains we examined. The phenotype observed in the T541S mutant strain may arise because the serine sidechain is chemically similar but physically smaller than the threonine sidechain. This may minimally change the protein's local structure, but may be less sterically constrained when compared to threonine, resulting in a higher probability of a phosphotransfer event. Our initial success pairing synthetic biology and site-directed mutagenesis to optimize the bacterial photography system's performance encourages us to imagine further improvements to the performance of this and other synthetic systems, especially those based on 2CS signaling. PMID:26799494

  13. [Research on ultrafine grinding technology of improving dissolution rates of effective components in Sanjie Zhentong capsule].

    Xu, Zhong-kun; Gao, Jin; Qin, Jian-ping; Chen, Guang-bo; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The effects of ultrafine grinding on the dissolution rates of the effective components in Sanjie Zhentong capsule (SZC) were studied in this experiment. Fine and ultrafine powder of SZC intermediates were made by ordinary grinding and ultrafine grinding technology, and then granulated by wet granulation. SZC were prepared by fine powder, ultrafine powder and ultrafine granules, respectively. With resveratrol and loureirin B as investigated indexes, dissolution rates of the four intermediates in SZC were determined by cup method and HPLC. The dissolution rates of resveratrol in SZC prepared by fine powder, ultrafine powder and ultrafine granules were 26.11%, 63.27%, 67.49%, respectively; and the dissolution rates of loureirin B were 7.160%, 20.29%, 23.05%, respectively. The dissolution rate of resveratrol and loureirin B in SZC prepared by ultrafine granules was the best. D90 size of ultrafine grinding was 13.221 μm and could improve the dissolution rates of resveratrol and loureirin B in SZC. PMID:26390653

  14. An Improved Adaptive Multi-way Principal Component Analysis for Monitoring Streptomycin Fermentation Process

    何宁; 王树青; 谢磊

    2004-01-01

    Multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) had been successfully applied to monitoring the batch and semi-batch process in most chemical industry. An improved MPCA approach, step-by-step adaptive MPCA (SAMPCA), using the process variable trajectories to monitoring the batch process is presented in this paper. It does not need to estimate or fill in the unknown part of the process variable trajectory deviation from the current time until the end. The approach is based on a MPCA method that processes the data in a sequential and adaptive manner. The adaptive rate is easily controlled through a forgetting factor that controls the weight of past data in a summation. This algorithm is used to evaluate the industrial streptomycin fermentation process data and is compared with the traditional MPCA. The results show that the method is more advantageous than MPCA, especially when monitoring multi-stage batch process where the latent vector structure can change at several points during the batch.

  15. Studies on the improvement of the components of essential oil of genus Mentha by radiation

    M. arvensis L. var. piperascens M sub(AL). (2 n = 96, R sup(a)Rsup(a)SS JJ AA, main component menthol) as the material the elucidation of biosynthetic mechanisms of essential oil was attempted. As the result it has been demonstrated that the biosynthesis is completed between 84 - 86 days after placing individual cells in the culture medium, especially on 85 days. Such an elucidation serves as the criteria of the biosynthetic pathway elucidation and it is the first accomplishment in the world. Next, the irradiation with γ-rays of 55R/min, total dose 19.5 KR gives a marked effect, and by this method a new plant (rose mint) having aroma similar to rose oil has been established, and this new plant has been designated as ''rose mint.'' This new improved plant can yield about 1 Kg of essential oil from 30 Kg of plant, and in comparing to 1 Kg of essential oil obtained from about 106 rose flowers by the conventional method, the yield is enormously greater and its wide application can be expected in the future. This newly developed breeding method can be also applied to other plants where the extraction of the plant compositions is desired, and at present this method is applied to the Perilla by which a new plant having sweet taste has been successfully established. (author)

  16. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets....

  17. Monthly Extended Predicting Experiments with Nonlinear Regional Prediction. Part Ⅱ: Improvement of Wave Component Prediction

    CHEN Bomin; JI Liren; YANG Peicai; ZHANG Daomin

    2006-01-01

    Based on Chen et al. (2006), the scheme of the combination of the pentad-mean zonal height departure nonlinear prediction with the T42L9 model prediction was designed, in which the pentad zonal heights at all the 12-initial-value-input isobar levels from 50 hPa to 1000 hPa except 200, 300, 500, and 700 hPa were derived from nonlinear forecasts of the four levels by means of a good correlation between neighboring levels.Then the above pentad zonal heights at 12 isobar-levels were transformed to the spectrum coefficients of the temperature at each integration step of T42L9 model. At last, the nudging was made. On account of a variety of error accumulation, the pentad zonal components of the monthly height at isobar levels output by T42L9 model were replaced by the corresponding nonlinear results once more when integration was over.Multiple case experiments showed that such combination of two kinds of prediction made an improvement in the wave component as a result of wave-flow nonlinear interaction while reducing the systematical forecast errors. Namely the monthly-mean height anomaly correlation coefficients over the high- and mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, over the Southern Hemisphere and over the globe increased respectively from 0.249 to 0.347, from 0.286 to 0.387, and from 0.343 to 0.414 (relative changes of 31.5%, 41.0%, and 18.3%).The monthly-mean root-mean-square error (RMSE) of T42L9 model over the three areas was considerably decreased, the relative change over the globe reached 44.2%. The monthly-mean anomaly correlation coefficients of wave 4-9 over the areas were up to 0.392, 0.200, and 0.295, with the relative change of 53.8%, 94.1%,and 61.2%, and correspondingly their RMSEs were decreased respectively with the rate of 8.5%, 6.3%, and 8.1%. At the same time the monthly-mean pattern of parts of cases were presented better.

  18. Improving the lifecycle of robotics components using Domain-Specific Languages

    Romero-Garces, A.; Manso, L. J.; Gutierez, Marco A.; Cintas, R.; Bustos, P.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently a large amount of robotics software using the component-oriented programming paradigm. However, the rapid growth in number and complexity of components may compromise the scalability and the whole lifecycle of robotics software systems. Model-Driven Engineering can be used to mitigate these problems. This paper describes how using Domain-Specific Languages to generate and describe critical parts of robotic systems helps developers to perform component managerial tasks such ...

  19. Does improved instrumentation result in better component alignment in total knee arthroplasty?

    Mo Hassaballa; Vijaya Budnar; Herbert Gbejuade; Ian Learmonth

    2011-01-01

    Accurate component alignment and joint line reproduction in total knee replacement (TKR) is crucial for successful clinical outcome. Advances in instrumentation and better understanding of the biomechanics can help to achieve better three dimensional alignments of TKR components and joint line restoration. We compared the accuracy of component alignment and joint line restoration with the use of 2 different TKR instrumentation kits (an older Gobot and a newer Xcelerate). Retrospective study o...

  20. Dual component cracking catalyst with vanadium passivation and improved sulfur tolerance

    Kennedy, J.V.; Jossens, L.W.

    1991-01-29

    This patent describes a dual component catalyst composition for the catalytic cracking of metal-containing hydrocarbonaceous feedstock. It comprises: a first component comprising an active cracking catalyst; and a second component, as a separate and distinct entity. The second component comprises: a calcium and magnesium containing material selected from the group consisting of dolomite, substantially amorphous calcium magnesium silicate, calcium magnesium oxide, calcium magnesium acetate, calcium magnesium carbonate, and calcium magnesium subcarbonate; a magnesium containing material comprising a hydrous magnesium silicate, and a binder selected from the group consisting of kaolin, bentonite, montmorillonite, saponite, hectorite, alumina, silica, titania, zirconia, silica-alumina, and combinations thereof.

  1. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Zhe Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance.

  2. SYNTHESIS OF MULTIPLE DATA STRUCTURES FOR IMPROVED ACCURACY OF ABUNDANCE AND DEMOGRAPHIC ESTIMATES FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE.

    Conroy, Michael J. [MJ CONROY WILDLIFE BIOMETRICS

    2014-12-08

    The goal of this study was to provide a framework for combining existing data (from camera trapping, harvest surveys, and spotlight counts) into an integrated system that produces the most accurate estimates possible for use in setting harvest goals. A summary of the key data components that were available is included.

  3. A Brief Demographic Portrait

    Nieto, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a brief demographic portrait, with particular emphasis on school-related issues, that points to the dire situation of Latino/a education. According to the 2010 Census, the number of Hispanics (the term used in government data) currently was 50,477,594 million, an increase of 43 percent since 2000, making this group the…

  4. Improved CuCrZr / 316L Transition for Plasma Facing Components

    Plasma Facing Components used in all advanced nuclear fusion experiments and in particular for ITER consist of heat sinks made of the precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy. This material has been selected due to the requirements regarding thermal and mechanical properties with and without the presence of neutrons. The divertor parts which are highly heat loaded are actively cooled and are assembled onto weld stainless steel pressure vessels of grade 316L. Therefore these plasma facing parts need a transition in the cooling pipes from CuCrZr to 316L which withstands the internal pressure, the fatigue loads and remains leak tight during operation. As direct fusion welding of CuCrZr with 316L is regarded as critical due to metallurgical issues, the current design uses a transition of Ni - sleeve which is welded onto the CuCrZr and 316L, respectively. However, there is still some concern for the mechanically constraint region of the inlet coolant that this intermediate adapter is the weakest point and could fail due to strongly localised plasticity. The aim of this project is to investigate alternative solutions for the transition of CuCrZr / 316L, to down-select the most promising candidate and finally qualify a new improved tubular transition system. Basic EB welding experiments have been carried out on CuCrZr / 316L tubular samples using different adapter and filler materials. The adapter materials, e.g. Inconel 625 and Monel K500, were chosen due to their high temperature strength and good weldability with respect to Cu - alloys and austenitic steels. In case of the investigated filler metals Ni and Ti the intention was to control the dilution and to produce a fine grained weld zone with no formation of detrimental phases. As a further option the use of an explosively welded CuCrZr/316L adapter was evaluated. The application of such an adapter would simplify the issue to the welding of CuCrZr / CuCrZr and 316L / 316L respectively. In the characterisation programme

  5. Combined principal component preprocessing and n-tuple neural networks for improved classification

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Linneberg, Christian

    2000-01-01

    We present a combined principal component analysis/neural network scheme for classification. The data used to illustrate the method consist of spectral fluorescence recordings from seven different production facilities, and the task is to relate an unknown sample to one of these seven factories...... of two-class problems. For each possible pair of classes we further apply a transformation to the calculated principal components in order to increase the separation between the classes. Finally we apply the so-called n-tuple neural network to the transformed data in order to give the classification....... The data are first preprocessed by performing an individual principal component analysis on each of the seven groups of data. The components found are then used for classifying the data, but instead of making a single multiclass classifier, we follow the ideas of turning a multiclass problem into a number...

  6. Integrating Essential Components of Quality Improvement into a New Paradigm for Continuing Education

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Meehan, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing education (CE) that strives to improve patient care in a complex health care system requires a different paradigm than CE that seeks to improve clinician knowledge and competence in an educational setting. A new paradigm for CE is necessary in order to change clinician behavior and to improve patient outcomes in an increasingly…

  7. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; NISHIJIMA, Wataru; OKADA, Mitsumasa

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  8. Improvements in High Speed, High Resolution Dynamic Digital Image Correlation for Experimental Evaluation of Composite Drive System Components

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Handschuh, Robert Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials have the potential to reduce the weight of rotating drive system components. However, these components are more complex to design and evaluate than static structural components in part because of limited ability to acquire deformation and failure initiation data during dynamic tests. Digital image correlation (DIC) methods have been developed to provide precise measurements of deformation and failure initiation for material test coupons and for structures under quasi-static loading. Attempts to use the same methods for rotating components (presented at the AHS International 68th Annual Forum in 2012) are limited by high speed camera resolution, image blur, and heating of the structure by high intensity lighting. Several improvements have been made to the system resulting in higher spatial resolution, decreased image noise, and elimination of heating effects. These improvements include the use of a high intensity synchronous microsecond pulsed LED lighting system, different lenses, and changes in camera configuration. With these improvements, deformation measurements can be made during rotating component tests with resolution comparable to that which can be achieved in static tests

  9. Does improved instrumentation result in better component alignment in total knee arthroplasty?

    Mo Hassaballa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate component alignment and joint line reproduction in total knee replacement (TKR is crucial for successful clinical outcome. Advances in instrumentation and better understanding of the biomechanics can help to achieve better three dimensional alignments of TKR components and joint line restoration. We compared the accuracy of component alignment and joint line restoration with the use of 2 different TKR instrumentation kits (an older Gobot and a newer Xcelerate. Retrospective study of 150 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKR had their pre and post-operative x-rays reviewed. Seventy-five patients (group A had their TKR using the older instrumentation kit (Gobot and 75 (group B had the newer version (Xcelerate. The positioning of the prosthesis components were assessed using the American Knee society radiographic evaluation method and the joint line position using the Figgie’s method. The results from the two groups were statistically compared. There was a significantly greater elevation of the joint line position in TKRs done with the Gobot instrumentation (mean 4.49 mm vs. 2.71 mm in group B, P=0.03, and significant differences in the mean tibial component angle cTCA (group A 88.6º, group B 90.1º, P=0.04 and the mean Q angle (group A 6.28º valgus, group B 8.45º valgus, P=0.04. Use of the newer Xcelerate instrumentation was associated with better restoration of joint line position, however the femoral component flexion and posterior slope of the tibial component ere found to be above the desired level. Hence the overall differences between the two groups were found to be small.

  10. Demographics in demand systems

    Blow, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Household composition can be expected to affect the allocation of household expenditure among goods, at the very least because of economies of scale as household size increases and because different people have different needs (adults versus children, for example). Specifying demographic effects correctly in demand analysis is important both in order to estimate correct price and expenditure elasticities and for the purpose of making household welfare comparisons. A common way of including de...

  11. An improved algorithm for the normalized elimination of the small-component method

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A new algorithm for the iterative solution of the normalized elimination of the small component (NESC) method is presented that is less costly than previous algorithms and that is based on (1) solving the NESC equations for the uncontracted rather than contracted basis ("First-Diagonalize-then-Contr

  12. Simulation investigation of multipactor in metal components for space application with an improved secondary emission model

    Effects of the secondary electron emission (SEE) phenomenon of metal surface on the multipactor analysis of microwave components are investigated numerically and experimentally in this paper. Both the secondary electron yield (SEY) and the emitted energy spectrum measurements are performed on silver plated samples for accurate description of the SEE phenomenon. A phenomenological probabilistic model based on SEE physics is utilized and fitted accurately to the measured SEY and emitted energy spectrum of the conditioned surface material of microwave components. Specially, the phenomenological probabilistic model is extended to the low primary energy end lower than 20 eV mathematically, since no accurate measurement data can be obtained. Embedding the phenomenological probabilistic model into the Electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (EM-PIC) method, the electronic resonant multipacting in microwave components can be tracked and hence the multipactor threshold can be predicted. The threshold prediction error of the transformer and the coaxial filter is 0.12 dB and 1.5 dB, respectively. Simulation results demonstrate that the discharge threshold is strongly dependent on the SEYs and its energy spectrum in the low energy end (lower than 50 eV). Multipacting simulation results agree quite well with experiments in practical components, while the phenomenological probabilistic model fit both the SEY and the emission energy spectrum better than the traditionally used model and distribution. The EM-PIC simulation method with the phenomenological probabilistic model for the surface collision simulation has been demonstrated for predicting the multipactor threshold in metal components for space application

  13. Simulation investigation of multipactor in metal components for space application with an improved secondary emission model

    Li, Yun; Cui, Wan-Zhao; Wang, Hong-Guang

    2015-05-01

    Effects of the secondary electron emission (SEE) phenomenon of metal surface on the multipactor analysis of microwave components are investigated numerically and experimentally in this paper. Both the secondary electron yield (SEY) and the emitted energy spectrum measurements are performed on silver plated samples for accurate description of the SEE phenomenon. A phenomenological probabilistic model based on SEE physics is utilized and fitted accurately to the measured SEY and emitted energy spectrum of the conditioned surface material of microwave components. Specially, the phenomenological probabilistic model is extended to the low primary energy end lower than 20 eV mathematically, since no accurate measurement data can be obtained. Embedding the phenomenological probabilistic model into the Electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (EM-PIC) method, the electronic resonant multipacting in microwave components can be tracked and hence the multipactor threshold can be predicted. The threshold prediction error of the transformer and the coaxial filter is 0.12 dB and 1.5 dB, respectively. Simulation results demonstrate that the discharge threshold is strongly dependent on the SEYs and its energy spectrum in the low energy end (lower than 50 eV). Multipacting simulation results agree quite well with experiments in practical components, while the phenomenological probabilistic model fit both the SEY and the emission energy spectrum better than the traditionally used model and distribution. The EM-PIC simulation method with the phenomenological probabilistic model for the surface collision simulation has been demonstrated for predicting the multipactor threshold in metal components for space application.

  14. Progress Towards Improved Analysis of TES X-ray Data Using Principal Component Analysis

    Busch, S. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lee, S.-J.; Moseley, S. H.; Porst, J.-P.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    The traditional method of applying a digital optimal filter to measure X-ray pulses from transition-edge sensor (TES) devices does not achieve the best energy resolution when the signals have a highly non-linear response to energy, or the noise is non-stationary during the pulse. We present an implementation of a method to analyze X-ray data from TESs, which is based upon principal component analysis (PCA). Our method separates the X-ray signal pulse into orthogonal components that have the largest variance. We typically recover pulse height, arrival time, differences in pulse shape, and the variation of pulse height with detector temperature. These components can then be combined to form a representation of pulse energy. An added value of this method is that by reporting information on more descriptive parameters (as opposed to a single number representing energy), we generate a much more complete picture of the pulse received. Here we report on progress in developing this technique for future implementation on X-ray telescopes. We used an ^{55}Fe source to characterize Mo/Au TESs. On the same dataset, the PCA method recovers a spectral resolution that is better by a factor of two than achievable with digital optimal filters.

  15. Demographic Change and Transport

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth; Bell, Daniel; Pokriefke, Eike; Alauzet, Aline; Marin-Lamellet, Claude; Armoogum, Jimmy; O'Neill, Desmond

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...... findings from relevant fields of basic research, focusing on the increasingly heterogeneous nature of the ageing population. All CONSOL partners contributed to the report by writing parts of the report (authors), participating in the literature research and/or commenting to earlier versions of this report...

  16. Demographic and Health Changes in Portugal (1900-2013)

    Maria Joao Guardado Moreira; Filipa de Castro Henriques

    2016-01-01

    These paper seeks to improve our knowledge of Portuguese epidemiological and demographic change through the twentieth century up until nowadays. Demographic Transition, as defined by Warren Thompson (1929), occurred in Portugal, much later than in other developed countries. Economic, Political, cultural, religious and social causes delayed the beginning of decline of both mortality and fertility. Our aim is to develop the Demographic change with a focus in mortality. In the beginning of th...

  17. Surface Protection and Improved Performance of Satellite Components as well as Mitigation of Space Environmental Pollution by Plasma Ion Implantation

    Three plasma processing systems based on PII technique have been used in the improvement of surface properties of different materials important for aerospace and space applications. Metal plasma PII of Al and Mg was used for surface protection of polymers used in space such as Kapton, Mylar and polyethylene. Al alloys were treated with nitrogen PII for improved resistance to corrosion aiming at aerospace applications. A rigid polymer UHMWPE was also treated in a nitrogen PII to produce a protective layer with DLC. Although not very light, SS304 stainless steel components are being used in a imaging camera in space, and some components made of this material showed endurance to vibration tests after nitrogen PII, therefore being qualified for on-board application.

  18. Development of improved and corrosion-resistant surfaces for fossil power system components

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop the corrosion-resistant surfaces on a variety of fossil power system components. The Fe-Al alloys ranging in aluminum from 16 to 36 @ % are of interest. The surfaces of Fe-Al alloys can be produced by weld overlay. However, because of their limited room-temperature ductility, the production of weld wire for these compositions is not commercially feasible. The alloying element dilution during weld overlay also makes depositing exact surface composition rather difficult.

  19. Improvement of ultrasonic testing methods of austeno-ferritic steel cast components

    Due to the low signal to noise ratio incountered in cast stainless steel components of P.W.R. reactor cooling system, usual ultrasonic testing aren't efficient. In order to enhance ultrasonics capabilities Electricite de France and C.E.A. have carried out a study main results of which are shown in this paper. These results include: Metallurgical structure effects: very high diffusion noise, beam distortion, low pass filter. Probe parameters that leed to examinations enhancement: focusing, aperture, damper. Efficient signal processing techniques: Split Spectrum, Image processing. Results of enhancement means on actual defects (shrinkage cavities). (authors). 2 refs., 9 figs

  20. Improving the Disaster-Related Component of Secondary School Geography Education in England

    Sharpe, Justin; Kelman, Ilan

    2011-01-01

    Can disaster risk reduction and dealing with disasters be taught in the classroom at the secondary school level? This paper seeks to answer this research question in order to apply and critique pedagogical theories for improving how teachers are trained to teach disaster-related topics and how these topics could be introduced into the classroom.…

  1. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics

    Clanton, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has revealed a large diversity of systems, the majority of which look nothing like our own. On the theoretical side, we are able to make ab initio calculations that make predictions about the properties of exoplanets. However, in order to link these predictions with observations, we must construct a statistical census of exoplanet demographics over as broad a range of parameters as possible. Current constraints on exoplanet demographics are typically constructed using the results of individual surveys using a single detection technique, and thus are incomplete. The only way to derive a statistically-complete census that samples a wide region of exoplanet parameter space is to synthesize the results from surveys employing all of the different discovery methods at our disposal. I present the first studies to demonstrate that this is actually possible, and describe a (mostly) de-biased exoplanet census that is constructed from the synthesis of results from microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging surveys. I will also discuss future work that will include the results of transit surveys (in particular, Kepler discoveries) to complete the census of exoplanets in our Galaxy, and describe the application of this census to develop the most comprehensive, observationally-constrained models of planet formation and evolution that have been derived to date.

  2. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  3. IMPROVED SEARCH OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATABASES FOR SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC INVERSION

    We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 24n bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of ''compatible'' models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 24n as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing

  4. Improved Search of Principal Component Analysis Databases for Spectro-polarimetric Inversion

    Casini, R.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Lites, B. W.; López Ariste, A.

    2013-08-01

    We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 24n bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of "compatible" models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 24n as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing.

  5. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  6. Using plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) to improve the nutritional components of burger

    Daniela Baldeón Clavijo; Francisco Velásquez Rodríguez; Jesús Eligio Castellanos Estupiñán

    2015-01-01

    (Received: 2015/03/18 - Accepted: 2015/05/27)Three levels of paste Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha Inchi) consisting of 10, 15% and 20% were evaluated to replace the weight percent lard conventionally used to improve the nutritional quality of the common hamburger, compared with a reference group. The experimental units were 10 burgers, weighing 100 g. each and a total of 120 were analyzed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The research was conducted in the Universidad Est...

  7. A study to improve the van der Waals component of the interaction in water clusters

    A portable model potential, representing the intermolecular interaction of water as a combination of a few effective components given in terms of the polarizability and dipole moment values of the molecular partners, is here proposed as a building block of the force field of water clusters in molecular dynamics simulations. In this spirit, here, we discuss the key properties of the model potential and its application to water dimers, trimers and tetramers with the purpose of extrapolating the results to very large clusters mimicking the liquid phase. The suitability of the model potential for dynamics investigations is checked by comparing on one hand the value of the second virial coefficient calculated for the gaseous dimer with experimental data measured over a wide range of temperature (273-3000 K) and, on the other hand, the calculated radial distribution functions and density with those obtained from experiments performed using liquid water.

  8. Proportional-hazards models for improving the analysis of light-water-reactor-component failure data

    The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications

  9. Video Image Object Tracking Algorithm based on Improved Principal Component Analysis

    Liping Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the existing object tracking algorithms are very difficult to adapt the object appearance changes caused by illumination changes, large pose variations, and partial or full occlusions, an object tracking algorithm based on two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA and sparse-representation is proposed in this paper. The tracking algorithm adopts 2DPCA and sparse-representation to establish object appearance model. In order to reduce dimension of object template, incremental subspace updating algorithm is introduced to online update the object template, reduce the requirement of memory space and enhance the precision of object appearance description. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm is robust for image illumination variance and object partial occlusion.

  10. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  11. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  12. Moving Focus from Weight to Health. What Are the Components Used in Interventions to Improve Cardiovascular Health in Children?

    Claire Friedemann Smith

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood impacts on many areas of the child's current and future health, including their cardiovascular health. To date many attempts have been made to design interventions to tackle excess childhood weight but with limited success. We aimed to establish the components common to interventions in children that improve cardiovascular health parameters.We searched the following databases: EMBASE 1974-week 3 November 2014, Ovid Medline 1946 Present, and PsychINFO 1967-Present for studies reporting interventions in healthy young people under the age of 18. Included interventions had to contain an education component and have been carried out in a community, school, or clinical setting. Papers had to report on at least one of the pre-specified CVD risk parameters and at least one non-biological outcome from knowledge, attitudes or behaviours.We retrieved 2451 papers, from which 12 studies (18 papers of 3046 participants were included. From the selected papers we identified four component themes; Health Behaviours, Self-Concept, Practical and Cognitive Tools, and Intervention Characteristics. The subcomponents that made up these themes were fairly consistent across the studies analysed although the studies varied in their duration, settings and children with which they were carried out. Nine of the studies were able to bring about positive change in at least one biological and one non-biological aspect of child cardiovascular health.The component themes identified here were common to intervention studies that had success in improving parameters of cardiovascular health. We suggest that the focus of childhood health interventions be moved from weight onto cardiovascular health parameters and that future interventions use the lessons learned by their predecessors to incorporate those components that are associated with successful interventions.

  13. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-23

    ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM Technologies LLC to investigate the use of precision electro-chemical machining technology to polish the surface of parts created by Arcam electron beam melting. The goals for phase one of this project have been met. The project goal was to determine whether electro-chemical machining is a viable method to improve the surface finish of Inconel 718 parts fabricated using the Arcam EBM method. The project partner (ECM) demonstrated viability for parts of both simple and complex geometry. During the course of the project, detailed process knowledge was generated. This project has resulted in the expansion of United States operations for ECM Technologies.

  14. Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Chonan (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herval mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. In addition, these extracts induced the same effects on the peritoneal macrophages. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression - IL-1{beta}, IL-6, LT and iNOS-were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. (author). 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Improved Principal Component Analysis for Anomaly Detection: Application to an Emergency Department

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-07-03

    Monitoring of production systems, such as those in hospitals, is primordial for ensuring the best management and maintenance desired product quality. Detection of emergent abnormalities allows preemptive actions that can prevent more serious consequences. Principal component analysis (PCA)-based anomaly-detection approach has been used successfully for monitoring systems with highly correlated variables. However, conventional PCA-based detection indices, such as the Hotelling’s T2T2 and the Q statistics, are ill suited to detect small abnormalities because they use only information from the most recent observations. Other multivariate statistical metrics, such as the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) control scheme, are more suitable for detection small anomalies. In this paper, a generic anomaly detection scheme based on PCA is proposed to monitor demands to an emergency department. In such a framework, the MCUSUM control chart is applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the PCA model. The proposed PCA-based MCUSUM anomaly detection strategy is successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department in the Lille Regional Hospital Centre, France. The detection results evidence that the proposed method is more effective than the conventional PCA-based anomaly-detection methods.

  16. Multiple components of fitness improved among overweight and obese adolescents following a community-based lifestyle intervention.

    Howie, Erin K; McVeigh, Joanne A; Abbott, Rebecca A; Olds, Tim S; Straker, Leon M

    2016-08-01

    Fitness is an important component of health, and obese adolescents regularly have poor fitness. Unfortunately, few have assessed the impact of community-based lifestyle interventions on multiple components of fitness. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of participation in a community-based intervention involving adolescents and parents on multiple components of fitness of obese adolescents. In a within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months follow-up in Western Australia, participants (n = 56) completed multiple fitness measures at baseline, immediately prior to beginning an 8-week intervention and at 3, 6 and 12 months during a maintenance period. Performance on the shuttle walk was improved immediately post-intervention (increase of 42.8 m, 95% CI: 7.5, 78.2) and at 12 months post-intervention (increase of 44.6 m, 95% CI: 1.3, 87.8) compared with pre-intervention. Muscle performance of quadriceps and deltoids were improved post-intervention (increase of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.1, 2.1) kg · F and 1.0 (0.02, 2.1) kg · F, respectively) and all muscle performance measures were improved at 12 months following the intervention. There were no changes in waist circumference. A community-based lifestyle programme such as Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP) may be a viable strategy for improving fitness in overweight adolescents. PMID:26654751

  17. Improvement of the wear behaviour of highly-loaded components and tools by multi-combined surface treatment

    Gundis Grumbt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel multi-combined surface treatment consisting of the individual treatments of plasma nitriding (PN, physical vapour deposition (PVD and electron beam hardening (EBH. Using graded surface layers produced by such a combined surface treatment, it is possible to withstand the complex load conditions incurred by components and tools. It is shown, that the treatment sequences PN+EBH+PVD and EBH+PN+PVD are suitable for improving material properties. These multi-combined surface treatments lead to a significant improvement in load-supporting capacity. Critical load values of cohesive failure measured by scratch tests are tripled when compared to the individual treatment of PVD, and increased by at least 20% in comparison to the duplex treatments of EBH+PVD or PN+PVD. The metallurgical compatibility of the single treatments is essential for the success of combined treatments. Material-specific limitations are defined, which exclude failure due to crack initiation, the occurrence of retained austenite, and tempering effects. Based on the model wear-test assembly block-on-cylinder, it was proved, that the specific wear rate of multi-combined treated specimens is reduced about 20-50% while wear of counterpart components is decreased as well. The triplex surface heat treatment introduced opens up new prospects for highly-loaded components and tools.

  18. Improvement of the fatigue characteristics of steel components through selective application of surface residual stresses

    Higher pressure residual stresses and therefore improved fatigue strength characteristics can be achieved by an overlaid prestress during surface treatment; the preceding research project has shown this. Shot peening, stress peening, and rolling were the surface treatment techniques used. Between the applied prestress and the achieved pressure residual stress, a relationship had been found that could be described by a formula. On the one hand, a good correspondence resulted between the precalculated pressure residual stresses achieved in the case of shot-peened soft material states and rolled annealed material states; on the other hand, computation and reality in the case of shot peening of annealed steels deviated from each other. To clear up this discrepancy, the superposition of load burden stresses and residual stresses was monitored after the individual treatment steps and during release in the present investigation. (orig./MM)

  19. A technology to improve formability for aluminum alloy thin-wall corrugated sheet component hydroforming

    Lang Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosively forming projectile (EFP had been traditional adopted for the aluminum thin-walled corrugated sheet, whose deformation range is large but the formability is poor, and this process usually has problems of poor surface quality, long manufacturing cycle and high cost. The active hydroforming process was suggested to solve these issues during EFP. A new technology named as blank bulging by turning the upside down active hydroforming technology was proposed to overcome difficulties in non-uniform thickness distribution and cracking failure of corrugated sheet during the conventional hydroforming process. Both numerical simulations and experiments were conducted for this new technology. The result show that the deformation capacity of aluminum alloys can be improved effectively, and the more uniform distribution of wall thickness was obtained by this new method. It is conducted that the new method is universal for thin-walled, shallow drawing parts with complex section.

  20. Using plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi to improve the nutritional components of burger

    Daniela Baldeón Clavijo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/03/18 - Accepted: 2015/05/27Three levels of paste Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha Inchi consisting of 10, 15% and 20% were evaluated to replace the weight percent lard conventionally used to improve the nutritional quality of the common hamburger, compared with a reference group. The experimental units were 10 burgers, weighing 100 g. each and a total of 120 were analyzed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The research was conducted in the Universidad Estatal Amazónica and bromatológics and microbiological analyzes to determine the quality of the raw material and products are made in laboratory of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences of the Universidad Central del Ecuador. As supplements sensory tests and studies Benefit / Cost performed. The results show the variation of 10% pulp Sacha Inchi as the most recommended for use in industry.

  1. Female athlete triad and its components: toward improved screening and management.

    Javed, Asma; Tebben, Peter J; Fischer, Philip R; Lteif, Aida N

    2013-09-01

    As female athletic participation has increased, the positive effects of exercise on health have become evident. However, with this growth in sports activity, a set of health problems unique to the female athlete has emerged. The female athlete triad as first described in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine consisted of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis; the definition was updated in 2007 to include a spectrum of dysfunction related to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. For this review, a comprehensive search of databases-MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus, from earliest inclusive dates to January 2013-was conducted by an experienced librarian with input from the authors. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords such as female athlete triad, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, fracture, osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone disease, anorexia, bulimia, disordered eating, low energy availability was used to search for articles on female athlete triad. Articles addressing the prevalence, screening, and management of the female athlete triad were selected for inclusion in the review. This article reviews the current definitions of the triad components, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and recommended screening and management guidelines. The lack of efficacy of current screening of athletes is highlighted. Low energy availablity, from either dietary restriction or increased expenditure, plays a pivotal role in development of the triad. Athletes involved in "lean sports" (those that emphasize weight categories or aesthetics, such as ballet, gymnastics, or endurance running) are at highest risk. Treatment is centered on restoring energy availability to reverse adverse changes in the metabolic milieu. Prevention and early recognition of triad disorders are crucial to ensure timely intervention

  2. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

  3. Are Demographic Diversity Effects Spurious?

    Stephan Nüesch

    2009-01-01

    The substantial literature on the relationship between demographic diversity and team performance yields weak and/or inconsistent results. Using match-level data of all games played in the German soccer league Bundesliga over six seasons, this paper analyzes age, race and tenure diversity of the fielded team under different model specifications to test the robustness of demographic diversity effects. The empirical results reveal that the correlations between demographic diversity and the outc...

  4. Improvement in the performance of laser based optical rotational sensor by reducing the stress co-efficient of optical component

    Rasheed, I. Abdul; Naidu, V. Atchaiah; Gupta, Mahender Kumar; Chhabra, Inder Mohan; Karthikeyan, B.

    2016-05-01

    Laser based optical rotational sensors are used as an inertial rotation sensor for navigation purpose. The life time of the rotational sensor wholly depend on the type / quality of the optical components that are used. While developing the rotational sensors, based on the total internal reflection techniques, the laser is passing through the glass material. As the glass is having a high verdant constant the laser gets affected and suffers from the rotation of polarization. This phenomenon still gets enhanced if the components which are optically bonded are having a high order of non - uniformity. It creates the stress onto the prism as well on the Optical block and gives rise to a varying amount of stress induced Birefringes. Because of this observation, the performance of the rotational sensor gets deteriorated. This paper will present the techniques used for producing the highly flat surface, which will reduce the stress Birefringes and in turn improve the performance of the rotational sensor.

  5. Identification of Emotional Components to Improve the Motivation for Science Among School Teachers

    E. M. Barros

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Science education has been searching for new strategies to involve students in scientific investigation processes. These strategies should stimulate questioning, predicting results by means of experimentation as well as developing abilities for discussing results. They should also provi de the students with the capacity of understanding how the scientific knowledge is continuously produced rather than transmitting scientific facts  to  them .   Since 1985, the Instituto de BioquímicaMédica,UFRJ , has offered  a  science education   program  consisting in  v acation coursesdirected to students and teachersof  basic education . During the years, the  program  grew and spread through the country becoming a network involving 23 different research group s.   In  the courses ,  the participantsdevelop  practicalactivitiesand  are encouraged to think about a biological topic, to raise question sabout it and propose experiments to answer the ir questions. The course iscoordinated by a  staff  and by graduated students that  act as  instructo rs,  helpingthe participants  to  do  the experiments idealized by them .   In this work weinvestigate dthe  factors that raise the interest and the motivation for science in the participants. For this,  fieldworkand   questionnaire  analyses were performed. The questionnaires were  filled up b y the teachersin the beginning and in the end of the course, and the method of  contentanalysis was used  to  readthe  answers.  The results   show ed  that the motivation for science was raised by a strong emotional component generated by different factors, as  the interaction with the instructors; the availability of resources; and  the fact that they  become more autonomous in the process of reconstruction of their knowledge.

  6. Improving Durability of Turbine Components Through Trenched Film Cooling and Contoured Endwalls

    Bogard, David G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Thole, Karen A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The experimental and computational studies of the turbine endwall and vane models completed in this research program have provided a comprehensive understanding of turbine cooling with combined film cooling and TBC. To correctly simulate the cooling effects of TBC requires the use of matched Biot number models, a technique developed in our laboratories. This technique allows for the measurement of the overall cooling effectiveness which is a measure of the combined internal and external cooling for a turbine component. The overall cooling effectiveness provides an indication of the actual metal temperature that would occur at engine conditions, and is hence a more powerful performance indicator than the film effectiveness parameter that is commonly used for film cooling studies. Furthermore these studies include the effects of contaminant depositions which are expected to occur when gas turbines are operated with syngas fuels. Results from the endwall studies performed at Penn State University and the vane model studies performed at the University of Texas are the first direct measurements of the combined effects of film cooling and TBC. These results show that TBC has a dominating effect on the overall cooling effectiveness, which enhances the importance of the internal cooling mechanisms, and downplays the importance of the film cooling of the external surface. The TBC was found to increase overall cooling effectiveness by a factor of two to four. When combined with TBC, the primary cooling from film cooling holes was found to be due to the convective cooling within the holes, not from the film effectiveness on the surface of the TBC. Simulations of the deposition of contaminants on the endwall and vane surfaces showed that these depositions caused a large increase in surface roughness and significant degradation of film effectiveness. However, despite these negative factors, the depositions caused only a slight decrease in the overall cooling effectiveness on

  7. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  8. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  9. Analysis of Scattering Components from Fully Polarimetric SAR Images for Improving Accuracies of Urban Density Estimation

    Susaki, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze probability density functions (PDFs) of scatterings derived from fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images for improving the accuracies of estimated urban density. We have reported a method for estimating urban density that uses an index Tv+c obtained by normalizing the sum of volume and helix scatterings Pv+c. Validation results showed that estimated urban densities have a high correlation with building-to-land ratios (Kajimoto and Susaki, 2013b; Susaki et al., 2014). While the method is found to be effective for estimating urban density, it is not clear why Tv+c is more effective than indices derived from other scatterings, such as surface or double-bounce scatterings, observed in urban areas. In this research, we focus on PDFs of scatterings derived from fully polarimetric SAR images in terms of scattering normalization. First, we introduce a theoretical PDF that assumes that image pixels have scatterers showing random backscattering. We then generate PDFs of scatterings derived from observations of concrete blocks with different orientation angles, and from a satellite-based fully polarimetric SAR image. The analysis of the PDFs and the derived statistics reveals that the curves of the PDFs of Pv+c are the most similar to the normal distribution among all the scatterings derived from fully polarimetric SAR images. It was found that Tv+c works most effectively because of its similarity to the normal distribution.

  10. Effect of a muscular resistance training program to improve physical fitness components in older females

    José Antonio Gonzalezjurado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of resistance training program in the fitness of untrained older women. Fourteen women in Chile (65,86 ± 6.55 kg, 1.55 ± 0.06 m, 67.71 ± 5.31 years old underwent a program of strength training for 6 weeks, performing Back Test (BT , Leg Press (PS, Bench Press (BP and Knee Extension (ER at 3 sessions per week, recording measurements before and after the period of training on maximal dynamic strength (FDM estimated indirectly by the mass displaced in a maximal repetitions test on those exercises and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2máx estimated by the UKK test. The results show significant differences between the pre-and post-test values (mean ± SD of estimated VO2max (11.02 ± 7.26 and 15.57 ± 5.17 ml kg-1 min-1, P <0.05 and FDM estimated the pre-and post-tests (mean ± SD in LS: 43.09 ± 6.19 and 51.27 ± 9.07 N (p <0.01, PB: 21,12 ± 5.77 and 29.08 ± 7.47 kg (p <0.001, ER: 18.60 ± 5.07 and 21.99 ± 5.21 kg (p <0.05 and PS: 18,60 ± 5.07 and 21.99 ± 5.21 kg (p <0.05. We conclude that the proposed training program improves the FDM in this sample of older adults.

  11. Planet Demographics from Transits

    Howard, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    From the demographics of planets detected by the Kepler mission, we have learned that there exists approximately one planet per star for planets larger than Earth orbiting inside of 1 AU. We have also learned the relative occurrence of these planets as a function of their orbital periods, sizes, and host star masses and metallicities. In this talk I will review the key statistical findings that the planet size distribution peaks in the range 1-3 times Earth-size, the orbital period distribution is characterized by a power-law cut off at short periods, small planets are more prevalent around small stars, and that approximately 20% of Sun-like stars hosts a planet 1-2 times Earth-size in a habitable zone. Looking forward, I will describe analysis of photometry from the K2 mission that is yielding initial planet discoveries and offering the opportunity to measure planet occurrence in widely separated regions of the galaxy. Finally, I will also discuss recent techniques to discover transiting planets in space-based photometry and to infer planet population properties from the ensemble of detected and non-detected transit signals.

  12. Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

  13. Estimation of Variance Components for Litter Size in the First and Later Parities in Improved Jezersko-Solcava Sheep

    Dubravko Škorput

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to estimate variance components for litter size in Improved Jezersko-Solcava sheep. Analysis involved 66,082 records from 12,969 animals, for the number of lambs born in all parities (BA, the first parity (B1, and later parities (B2+. Fixed part of model contained the effects of season and age at lambing within parity. Random part of model contained the effects of herd, permanent effect (for repeatability models, and additive genetic effect. Variance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The average number of lambs born was 1.36 in the first parity, while the average in later parities was 1.59 leading also to about 20% higher variance. Several models were tested in order to accommodate markedly different variability in litter size between the first and later parities: single trait model (for BA, B1, and B2+, two-trait model (for B1 and B2+, and single trait model with heterogeneous residual variance (for BA. Comparison of variance components between models showed largest differences for the residual variance, resulting in parsimonious fit for a single trait model for BA with heterogeneous residual variance. Correlations among breeding values from different models were high and showed remarkable performance of the standard single trait repeatability model for BA.

  14. On an efficient modification of singular value decomposition using independent component analysis for improved MRS denoising and quantification

    An efficient modification of singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed in this paper aiming at denoising and more importantly at quantifying more accurately the statistically independent spectra of metabolite sources in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Although SVD is known in MRS applications and several efficient algorithms exist for estimating SVD summation terms in which the raw MRS data are analyzed, however, it would be more beneficial for such an analysis if techniques with the ability to estimate statistically independent spectra could be employed. SVD is known to separate signal and noise subspaces but it assumes orthogonal properties for the components comprising signal subspace, which is not always the case, and might impose heavy constraints for the MRS case. A much more relaxing constraint would be to assume statistically independent components. Therefore, a modification of the main methodology incorporating techniques for calculating the assumed statistically independent spectra is proposed by applying SVD on the MRS spectrogram through application of the short time Fourier transform (STFT). This approach is based on combining SVD on STFT spectrogram followed by an iterative application of independent component analysis (ICA). Moreover, it is shown that the proposed methodology combined with a regression analysis would lead to improved quantification of the MRS signals. An experimental study based on synthetic MRS signals has been conducted to evaluate the herein proposed methodologies. The results obtained have been discussed and it is shown to be quite promising

  15. Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry.

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-10-01

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places. PMID:24129115

  16. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    Mari-Ann Flyvholm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  17. Demographics and remote locations

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Improving the Prompt Electromagnetic Energy Component of Jet Energy Resolution with pi0 Fitting in High Granularity Electromagnetic Calorimeters

    van Doren, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate improving the hadronic jet energy resolution using mass-constrained fits of pi0 decays using high granularity electromagnetic calorimeters. Single pi0 studies have indicated a large potential for improvement in the energy resolution of pi0's, typically reducing the average energy resolution by a factor of two for 4 GeV pi0's. We apply this method to fully simulated multi-hadronic events with multiple pi0's with widely varying energies using the ILD00 detector model. Several methods for identifying the correct pairings of photons with parent pi0's were explored. The combinatorics become challenging as the number of pi0's increases and we employ the Blossom V implementation of Edmonds' matching algorithm for handling this. For events where both photons of the pi0 are detected, the resulting solutions lead to an improvement in the pi0 component of the event energy resolution for 91.2 GeV Z0 events from 18.0%/sqrt(E) to 13.9%/sqrt(E) using the ILD00 detector and its reconstruction algorithms. This ...

  19. Potential improvements in horizontal very broadband seismic data in the IRIS/USGS component of the Global Seismic Network

    Ringler, Adam; Steim, J.M.; Zandt, T; Hutt, Charles R.; Wilson, David; Storm, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The Streckeisen STS‐1 has been the primary vault‐type seismometer used in the over‐150‐station Global Seismographic Network (GSN). This sensor has long been known for its outstanding vertical, very long‐period (e.g., >100  s period), and low‐noise performance, although the horizontal long‐period noise performance is less well known. The STS‐1 is a limited, important resource, because it is no longer made or supported by the original manufacturer. We investigate the incoherent noise of horizontal‐component sensors, where coherent signals among sensors have been removed, giving an upper bound on the self‐noise of both the STS‐1 and STS‐2 horizontal components. Our findings suggest that a well‐installed STS‐2 could potentially produce data with similar or better incoherent noise levels to that of a horizontal‐component STS‐1. Along with our experimental investigation, we compare background noise levels for a calendar year at Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology/U.S. Geological Survey network stations, which comprise approximately two‐thirds of the GSN, with collocated STS‐1 and STS‐2 seismometers. The use of an STS‐2‐class of sensor (flat to velocity to 120 s period) to acquire low‐frequency data in surface‐vault installations would allow network operators to focus more attention on improving vertical data. In order to deal with the difference in instrument response shapes between the two instruments, we detail two different time‐domain filters that would allow users to convert broadband STS‐2 data into very broadband data with a response similar to that of an STS‐1 (flat to velocity to 360 s period). We conclude that the complexity of the current primary horizontal vault sensors in the GSN may not be necessary until we are better able to isolate surface horizontal sensors from various noise sources.

  20. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m−2, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material

  1. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  2. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  3. Demographics and the Rural Ethos.

    Ward, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the meaning of "rural" and identifies 31 states having a significant rural character. Discusses certain generalizations about rural America. Provides a demographic analysis with school finance implications. Draws implications for rural school finance policy. (Contains 3 tables.)(PKP)

  4. Demographic factors of economic growth

    Fabiánová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Development of the economic situation in recent years raises number of issues, including defining what are the factors of this development and whether it is possible to affect them. This thesis deals with the demographic factors of economic growth; those are factors associated with general population and factors which may have an impact on the country's economy. The main aim of this work is to precisely identify the demographic factor and analyze their development in the Czech Republic since ...

  5. Improvement of nuclear reactor component materials by application of hot isostatic processing (HIP). Survey report on Phase 1

    The report summarizes the results of an EPRI-sponsored state-of-the-art survey of hot isostatic processing (HIP). The purpose of the study was to identify potential nuclear plant applications of HIP with high pay-off through improvement in component quality and reliability. The survey shows that HIP will reduce cost and manufacturing time and improve quality and ease of nondestructive examination of all castings for which porosity is a problem. Nuclear valves are a prime example. Tubing, pipe, and sheet and bar present other possibilities of somewhat less immediate promise. This report includes a review of some of the EPRI motivations for undertaking this research; a brief explanation of HIP, the survey methodology exployed; the basic operations in the processes studied; a review of the historical applications of HIP to problem areas consistent with those addressed in the survey; the results of the survey and associated analyses of the problems; and the recommendations and justifications for the Phase II program

  6. A life-history perspective on the demographic drivers of structured population dynamics in changing environments.

    Koons, David N; Iles, David T; Schaub, Michael; Caswell, Hal

    2016-09-01

    Current understanding of life-history evolution and how demographic parameters contribute to population dynamics across species is largely based on assumptions of either constant environments or stationary environmental variation. Meanwhile, species are faced with non-stationary environmental conditions (changing mean, variance, or both) created by climate and landscape change. To close the gap between contemporary reality and demographic theory, we develop a set of transient life table response experiments (LTREs) for decomposing realised population growth rates into contributions from specific vital rates and components of population structure. Using transient LTREs in a theoretical framework, we reveal that established concepts in population biology will require revision because of reliance on approaches that do not address the influence of unstable population structure on population growth and mean fitness. Going forward, transient LTREs will enhance understanding of demography and improve the explanatory power of models used to understand ecological and evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27401966

  7. Sonication cultures of explanted components as an add-on test to routinely conducted microbiological diagnostics improve pathogen detection.

    Holinka, Johannes; Bauer, Leonhard; Hirschl, Alexander M; Graninger, Wolfgang; Windhager, Reinhard; Presterl, Elisabeth

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the pathogen detection in prosthetic joint infections, particularly to evaluate the feasibility of the sonication culture method in the clinical routine. Explanted components of all patients with presumptive prosthetic or implant infection were sonicated separately in sterile containers to dislodge the adherent bacteria from the surfaces and cultured. The results of sonication culture were compared to the conventional tissue culture. We investigated 60 consecutive patients with loosening of the prostheses or implants Forty patients had septic and 20 aseptic loosening (24 knee prostheses, 21 hip prostheses, 6 mega-prostheses, 2 shoulder prostheses, 6 osteosynthesis, 1 spinal instrumentation). The sensitivity of sonication fluid culture was 83.3%, of single positive tissue culture was 72.2% and 61.1% when two or more cultures yielded the same microorganism. In patients receiving antibiotic therapy the sensitivity was 65.9%, 57.5%, and 42.5%, respectively. Pathogens detected in a single tissue culture as well as in sonication culture yielded a significantly higher rate of prosthetic infection than conventional tissue culture alone (p = 0.008), even in patients receiving continuous antibiotic therapy before explantation (p = 0.016). The sonication method represents an essential add-on in pathogen detection compared to conventional tissue culture. PMID:21337398

  8. Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and In-vessel components towards ITER construction

    There have been several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints and revised VV support system to gain a more comfortable margin in the structural performance. The blanket design has been updated; an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet-outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and non destructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. With regard to the R and D for the FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block and the divertor components have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

  9. Managing demographic risk.

    Strack, Rainer; Baier, Jens; Fahlander, Anders

    2008-02-01

    In developed nations, the workforce is aging rapidly. That trend has serious implications. Companies could face severe labor shortages in a few years as workers retire, taking critical knowledge with them. Businesses may also see productivity decline among older employees, especially in physically demanding jobs. The authors, partners at Boston Consulting Group, offer managers a systematic way to assess these dual threats--capacity risk and productivity risk--at their companies. It involves studying the age distribution of their employees to see if large percentages fall within high age brackets and then projecting--by location, unit, and job category--how the distribution will change over the next 15 years. Managers must also factor in both the impact of strategic moves on personnel needs and the future supply of workers in the market. When RWE Power analyzed its trends, the company learned that in 2018 almost 80% of its workers would be over 50. What's more, in certain critical areas its labor surplus was about to become a sizable shortfall. For instance, a shortage of specialized engineers would develop in the company just as their ranks in the job market thinned and competition to hire them intensified. Reversing its downsizing course, RWE Power took steps to increase its supply of workers in those key positions. The authors show how companies that face talent gaps, as RWE Power did, can close them through training, transfers, recruitment, retention, productivity improvements, and outsourcing. They also describe measures that companies can take to keep older workers productive, including workplace accommodations, revised compensation structures, performance incentives, and targeted health care management. The key is to identify and address potential problems early. Firms that do so will gain an edge on rivals that are still relentlessly focused on reducing head count. PMID:18314640

  10. Achieving a demographic breakthrough.

    Taniguchi, H

    1994-09-01

    President Hosni Mubarak received the United Nations Population Award on June 14, 1994, because of his contribution to the promotion of the national population program in Egypt. Egypt has been tackling the population problem on three fronts: high rate of natural increase (2.3% in 1994), unbalanced population distribution along the Nile Valley and the Mediterranean coast that account for just 4% of the land, and insufficient educational and health levels. At present seven major programs are being implemented throughout the country to curb population increase involving information, education and communication; family planning; human resource development; improving maternal and child health, and educational level; increasing employment; the empowerment of women; and systematic land development. The total fertility rate dropped to 3.9 during 1990-1992 from 5.3 during 1979-1980. The crude birth rate dropped to 29.2/1000 population in 1992 from 38.7/1000 in 1986. The crude death rate also decreased to 7.4/1000 in 1992 from 9.2/1000 in 1986. The infant mortality rate decreased to 62 during 1988-1992 from 132 during 1975-1979. The contraceptive prevalence rate climbed from 24.25 in 1980 to 47.1% in 1992. The strong endorsement by the Grand Mufti that Islam supports family planning made many people change their traditional view that family planning was forbidden by the Koran. The political commitment from the President led to the provision of large budgets for the national population program. Technical and program assistance provided by donors including the United States Agency for International Development has greatly contributed to mass media campaigns and service delivery. 63.4% of acceptors received family planning services or contraceptives from the private sector. Egypt is willing to share its population and family planning experience with other developing countries that have similar economic and social conditions particularly if financial assistance by industrialized

  11. Development and validation of an improved creep-fatigue interaction rule for lifetime determination of high temperature components

    For design purposes and for lifetime assessments of components operating at elevated temperatures the creep-fatigue interaction rule is widely used. Although this rule - because of its shortcomings - does not provide sufficient results, the world-wide use is due to the simplicity of its application in connection with inelastic lifetime analyses. In view of this, the creep-fatigue interaction rule was improved. A significant shortcoming is the missing strain rate dependence on creep damage during a relaxation phase. The influence of the strain rate on the creep damage in a material is caused by different deformation modes. At high strain rates the motion and formation of dislocation dominates, whereas grain boundary sliding increases with decreasing strain rate. These basic deformation modes cause different creep damage. Since the strain rate during a relaxation phase correlates with holdtime, an interaction term c(t) was introduced, describing the fractional change of creep damage in dependence of timedependent damage due to fatigue, with time as variable. The interaction term c(t) represents a weight function for the differential creep damage dt/t and varies between zero and unity, nonlinear with respect to holdtime. The effect of the interaction term c(t) consist in a lower accumulated creep damage in comparison with the unmodified rule in the region of fast strain rates. This fact is an agreement with the experience, that dislocation controlled deformation is less damaging than grain boundary sliding. With increasing holdtime corresponding with decreasing interaction between creep and fatigue the term c(t) tends to unity. In case of pure creep the improved rule turns over to the modified one. The improved rule has been validated by evaluation of uniaxial low-cycle fatigue holdtime experiments. The following materials have been investigated: Inconel 617 (NiCr22Co12Mo); AISI 304ss (X6CrNi1811); 12%Cr-Mo-V-steel (X20CrMoV121). A comparison with the results of the

  12. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics. PMID:25912920

  13. Enrollment Management: Demographic Changes. Report.

    Gribbons, Barry C.; Meuschke, Daylene M.

    The Office of Institutional Development and Technology and the Public Information Office created this report that identifies several topics of research in order to inform marketing efforts associated with enrollment management. The report is based upon demographic studies done at the College of Canyons to measure things such as changes in the size…

  14. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... the workforce, particularly in loud professions such as manufacturing, construction, and military service. Men are also more ... United States. Workers involved in agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, and transportation are particularly at-risk because of ...

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    Full Text Available ... condition in 2012. People Employed in Loud Workplace Environments For nearly 30 years, noise-induced hearing loss has been one of the most prevalent occupational health problems in the United States. Workers involved in ...

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    Full Text Available ... loud professions such as manufacturing, construction, and military service. Men are also more likely to participate in ... can last a lifetime. Tinnitus is the leading service-related disability among U.S. veterans, with 9.7% ...

  9. Demographics

    Full Text Available ... originally published in the American Journal of Medicine. Males get tinnitus more often than females This disparity may be attributable to males being more represented in the workforce, particularly in ...

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    Full Text Available ... more likely to participate in high hearing-risk behavior, such as hunting and motorsports. Tinnitus is more ... and Veterans Tinnitus is a huge (and growing) problem for America's military personnel. Exposure to gunfire, explosives ...

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    Full Text Available ... in the United States. Workers involved in agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, and transportation are particularly at-risk ... list ATA never sells, shares, or rents personal data Patient Stories There are as many experiences of ...

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    Full Text Available ... more likely to have tinnitus For an unknown reason, white, non-hispanics report a higher prevalence of tinnitus than other racial and ethnic groups. High-Risk Groups While anyone, at any time, can develop ...

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    Full Text Available ... 2012 Survey (the most recent year from which data is available) the CDC included several questions on ... chronic tinnitus on the population level. The following data is derived from Shargorodsky, Curhan, and Farwell’s 2010 ...

  17. Demographics

    Full Text Available ... to “very big” problem in their life Extrapolating these findings to the national population suggests that nearly ... repeated exposure to loud engines and firearms make these activities particularly risky for future development of tinnitus ...

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    Full Text Available ... than other racial and ethnic groups. High-Risk Groups While anyone, at any time, can develop tinnitus, there are some groups that are more vulnerable to acquiring the condition. ...

  19. Demographics

    Full Text Available ... suffered permanent hearing loss since 2004. Musicians and Music Lovers Professional musicians, who spend their working life playing loud, amplified music are in particular danger of developing tinnitus. (Many ...

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    Full Text Available ... among U.S. Adults , originally published in the American Journal of Medicine. Males get tinnitus more often than ... Behavioral Health Issues Patients with a history of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder may be particularly ...

  1. Demographics

    Full Text Available ... 7% of all vets receiving service-related disability compensation for the condition in 2012. People Employed in ... a Prior Behavioral Health Issues Patients with a history of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder may ...

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    Full Text Available ... tinnitus than other racial and ethnic groups. High-Risk Groups While anyone, at any time, can develop ... some of the groups that are at particular risk of developing tinnitus. Senior Citizens The primary catalyst ...

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    Full Text Available ... primarily caused by environmental and behavioral factors, with noise exposure and hearing loss being the main catalysts ... to both age-related hearing loss and accumulative noise-induced hearing loss. It is unclear why incidents ...

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    Full Text Available ... tinnitus, making it one of the most common health conditions in the United States. Each year, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control conducts its National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey , a longitudinal study of ...

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    Full Text Available ... Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & Events ... particularly prone to developing tinnitus as they age. Research suggests that roughly 30% of seniors experience tinnitus ...

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    Full Text Available ... of the most common health conditions in the United States. Each year, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control conducts its National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey , ...

  11. Demographics

    Full Text Available ... Control conducts its National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey , a longitudinal study of the health of the American population. In the 2011-2012 Survey (the most recent year from which data is ...

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  13. Demographics

    Full Text Available ... 9.7% of all vets receiving service-related disability compensation for the condition in 2012. People Employed in Loud Workplace Environments For nearly 30 years, noise-induced hearing loss has been one of the most prevalent ...

  14. Demographics

    Full Text Available ... a higher risk of exposure due to age, occupational hazards, and/or recreational ... year, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control conducts its National Health and Nutritional Examinations ...

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    Full Text Available ... firearms make these activities particularly risky for future development of tinnitus symptoms. People with a Prior Behavioral ... rents personal data About Us Initiatives News & Events Professional Resources Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Contact us: 800- ...

  16. Demographics

    Full Text Available ... Proximity and repeated exposure to loud engines and firearms make these activities particularly risky for future development ... never sells, shares, or rents personal data About Us Initiatives News & Events Professional Resources Facebook Twitter Instagram ...

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    Full Text Available ... Manage Your Tinnitus Discover the proven tools and therapies that can minimize ... its National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey , a longitudinal study of the health ...

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  19. IQ-test-improving quality in testing and evaluation of solar and thermal characteristics of building components

    Baker, P. [BRE Scotland, East Kilbride (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    IQ-test is a Thematic Network supported by the European Community under the EESD Programme. The objective of IQ-test is to further the development of common quality procedures at the PASLINK test cell facilities in 12 European countries, for the assessment of the thermal characteristics of building components. This should consolidate the network, integrate the newer test sites and strengthen its common approach of support for new product developments in the field of innovative building components. Round robin tests are underway to assess both the inter-site quality of testing and analytical procedures of the participants. Two components were designed: (1) an opaque, well insulated, homogeneous panel and (2) a window, which is used to replace the central section of the first component. Common test and quality procedures have been implemented at each test site. The data sets generated by each team have been made available for cross-analysis by another team. The results available so far on the first component indicate good agreement between sites. This paper summarises the progress to date. Results are also presented from a training exercise which asked participants to identify the performance characteristics of an unknown component without providing any physical description of the component. (author)

  20. Migration transition in Serbia: demographic perspective

    Nikitović Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From the demographic point of view, the future of Serbia's population is relatively certain at least in the next three to four decades. However, the decreasing and ageing of the population are considered to be very certain processes in the much longer term. Although replacement fertility is an essential condition for long-term survival of any population, it is shown that only an immigration impulse could enable desired effects of the potential fertility recovery in Serbia in the longer perspective. Such a migration transition (from net emigration to net immigration would inevitably lead to increased socio-cultural diversity and require the development of integration strategies. If successful, policies to stimulate an increase in net migration provide an almost instant result. Apart from old immigration countries from Western Europe, this was the case with new immigration destinations located in Mediteranean and Central Europe, including some former socialist countries. When evaluating the future trend of international migration balance of Serbia, the experiences of the latter countries is used. The population dynamics model created for the purpose of the paper is based upon the probabilistic concept of projecting vital components. The main conclusion is that there is no demographic alternative to the migration transition in Serbia when it comes to sustainability of the social security systems in the coming decades, but the realization of such a scenario is still not clear from today's perspective, given the existing limitations of the socio-economic nature.

  1. Estimation of Properties of Pure Components Using Improved Group-Contribution+ (GC+) Based Models and Uncertainty Analysis

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components are needed to carry out tasks such as process design and computer aided molecular/mixture design among others. The experimental values of properties of many important pure components have not been measured due to many reasons, and hence they must be estimated. Predictive methods such as the group-contribution+ (GC+) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) are generally suitable to estimat...

  2. Demographic Trends in Jaina Monasticism

    Flügel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study of Jainism as a lived religion is still hampered by a lack of reliable sociological and demographic information both on the Jain laity and Jain mendicants. Most empirical studies to date have been thematically oriented or were of an exploratory nature, based on the methods advanced by the classical anthropological village studies or on small surveys of a non-representative nature. In both cases, the units of investigation were defined in terms of observer categories which were often...

  3. Severe hyperkalaemia: demographics and outcome

    Phillips, B. M.; Milner, S.; Zouwail, S.; Roberts, G.; Cowan, M; Riley, S.G.; Phillips, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of severe hyperkalaemia in unselected patient populations. We identified all episodes of severe hyperkalaemia occurring in 1 year, and described patient demographics, clinical response and outcome. We also assessed junior doctor knowledge of its causes and significance. Materials and methods A retrospective interrogation of the database of the regional biochemical laboratory identified all episodes of severe hyperkalaemia (K≥ 6.5 mmol/L) oc...

  4. The Demographics of Expropriation Risk

    Harms, Philipp; an de Meulen, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    It is often argued that capital should flow from aging industrialized economies to countries with fast-growing populations. However, institutional failures and the risk of expropriation substantially reduce developing economies' attractiveness for foreign investors. We analyze the influence of a country's demographic structure on international investment, using a political-economy model in which population growth potentially affects the risk of expropriation. We first explore how redistributi...

  5. Demographics, Redistribution, and Optimal Inflation

    James Bullard; Carlos Garriga; Waller, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between population demographics, the desire for redistribution in the economy, and the optimal inflation rate in a deterministic economy with capital. The intergenerational redistribution tension is intrinsic in the general equilibrium life-cycle models we use. Young cohorts do not initially have any assets and wages are the main source of income; they prefer relatively low real interest rates, relatively high wages, and relatively high rates of inflation. Older gener...

  6. The Use of Probabilistic Methods to Evaluate the Systems Impact of Component Design Improvements on Large Turbofan Engines

    Packard, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    Probabilistic Structural Analysis (PSA) is now commonly used for predicting the distribution of time/cycles to failure of turbine blades and other engine components. These distributions are typically based on fatigue/fracture and creep failure modes of these components. Additionally, reliability analysis is used for taking test data related to particular failure modes and calculating failure rate distributions of electronic and electromechanical components. How can these individual failure time distributions of structural, electronic and electromechanical component failure modes be effectively combined into a top level model for overall system evaluation of component upgrades, changes in maintenance intervals, or line replaceable unit (LRU) redesign? This paper shows an example of how various probabilistic failure predictions for turbine engine components can be evaluated and combined to show their effect on overall engine performance. A generic model of a turbofan engine was modeled using various Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) tools (Quantitative Risk Assessment Software (QRAS) etc.). Hypothetical PSA results for a number of structural components along with mitigation factors that would restrict the failure mode from propagating to a Loss of Mission (LOM) failure were used in the models. The output of this program includes an overall failure distribution for LOM of the system. The rank and contribution to the overall Mission Success (MS) is also given for each failure mode and each subsystem. This application methodology demonstrates the effectiveness of PRA for assessing the performance of large turbine engines. Additionally, the effects of system changes and upgrades, the application of different maintenance intervals, inclusion of new sensor detection of faults and other upgrades were evaluated in determining overall turbine engine reliability.

  7. Turning around, Transforming, and Continuously Improving Schools: Policy Proposals Are Still Based on a Two- Rather than a Three-Component Blueprint

    Adelman, Howard; Taylor, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Clearly, low performing, and especially failing schools, are a high priority concern for policy makers. And it is evident that fundamental systemic changes are necessary. The authors contend that it is essential that policy makers move to a three-component framework for turning around, transforming, and continuously improving schools. The third…

  8. Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Improving Quality of Design in Femoral Component of Knee Prostheses: Influence of Interface Geometry and Material

    Ali Jahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee prostheses as medical products require careful application of quality and design tool to ensure the best performance. Therefore, quality function deployment (QFD was proposed as a quality tool to systematically integrate consumer’s expectation to perceived needs by medical and design team and to explicitly address the translation of customer needs into engineering characteristics. In this study, full factorial design of experiment (DOE method was accompanied by finite element analysis (FEA to evaluate the effect of inner contours of femoral component on mechanical stability of the implant and biomechanical stresses within the implant components and adjacent bone areas with preservation of the outer contours for standard Co-Cr alloy and a promising functionally graded material (FGM. The ANOVA revealed that the inner shape of femoral component influenced the performance measures in which the angle between the distal and anterior cuts and the angle between the distal and posterior cuts were greatly influential. In the final ranking of alternatives, using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, the designs with FGM was ranked first over the Co-Cr femoral component, but the original design with Co-Cr material was not the best choice femoral component, among the top ranked design with the same material.

  9. Demographics, Affect, and Adolescents' Health Behaviors.

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships…

  10. Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy

    Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Seko, Noriaki; Hasegawa, Shin; Takeda, Hayato; Katakai, Akio; Sugo, Takanobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kawabata, Yukiya [Ebara Reseach Co., Ltd., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Onuma, Kenji [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

  11. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Frans J. Willekens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  12. Economic Effects of Demographic Ageing

    Litra A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania goes through profound changes due to unprecedented demographic developments. As a result of declining birth rates and emigration after 1990, by the year 2060 is looming a possible doubling of the percentage of the population 65 years and over, from 15 to 30%, and the working age population to fall by about 30 percent. Deterioration of the relationship between labour force and inactive population leads to pressure on the public budget and tax system, strains on pension and social security systems, redefining consumer preferences, type and size of the saved or spent amounts, higher demand for healthcare services, increasing poverty risk for elderly households.

  13. Using variance components to estimate power in a hierarchically nested sampling design improving monitoring of larval Devils Hole pupfish

    Dzul, Maria C.; Dixon, Philip M.; Quist, Michael C.; Dinsomore, Stephen J.; Bower, Michael R.; Wilson, Kevin P.; Gaines, D. Bailey

    2013-01-01

    We used variance components to assess allocation of sampling effort in a hierarchically nested sampling design for ongoing monitoring of early life history stages of the federally endangered Devils Hole pupfish (DHP) (Cyprinodon diabolis). Sampling design for larval DHP included surveys (5 days each spring 2007–2009), events, and plots. Each survey was comprised of three counting events, where DHP larvae on nine plots were counted plot by plot. Statistical analysis of larval abundance included three components: (1) evaluation of power from various sample size combinations, (2) comparison of power in fixed and random plot designs, and (3) assessment of yearly differences in the power of the survey. Results indicated that increasing the sample size at the lowest level of sampling represented the most realistic option to increase the survey's power, fixed plot designs had greater power than random plot designs, and the power of the larval survey varied by year. This study provides an example of how monitoring efforts may benefit from coupling variance components estimation with power analysis to assess sampling design.

  14. Improved mathematical model of the wear of the cup articular surface in hip joint prostheses and comparison with retrieved components.

    Raimondi, M T; Santambrogio, C; Pietrabissa, R; Raffelini, F; Molfetta, L

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model of the cobalt-based alloy-ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear coupling. Based on a previous model in which the cup wear volume over a gait cycle (WG) was calculated under the simplifying assumption of an ideal rigid coupling, the current version proposes a more realistic wear simulation. All three components of the hip loading force were considered for the contact pressure calculation and all three components of the hip motion were taken into account for the sliding distance calculation. The contact pressure distribution was calculated on the basis of the Hertzian theory for the elastic contact of two bodies with non-conforming geometrical shapes. The wear factor was taken from hip simulator wear tests. The calculated WG is 67 x 10(-6) mm3 for a standard reference patient. The parametric model simulations show that WG increases linearly with the patient weight, femoral head diameter and surface roughness. It increases non-linearly to a maximum and decreases to an asymptotic value with increasing cup/head clearance and with cup isotropic elastic modulus. The cup orientation in the pelvis affects only slightly the total amount of WG whereas it is the dominant factor affecting the shape of the wear distribution. The iso-wear maps show paracentral patterns at low cup inclination angles and marginal patterns at higher inclination angles. The maximum wear depth is supero-posterior when the cup is in neutral alignment and supero-anterior at increasing anteversion angles. Complex patterns with a combination of paracentral and marginal wear were obtained at specific clearance values and cup orientations. The results of the simulations are discussed in relation to the wear distribution measured on the articular surface of 12 UHMWPE components retrieved from failed hip joint prostheses, after a period of in situ functioning. PMID:11521761

  15. IMPROVED REAL-TIME FACE RECOGNITION BASED ON THREE LEVEL WAVELET DECOMPOSITION-PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND MAHALANOBIS DISTANCE

    Edy Winarno; Agus Harjoko; Aniati Murni Arymurthy; Edi Winarko

    2014-01-01

    The development of research in the field of real-time face recognition is a study that is being developed in the last decade. Face recognition is used to identify person from an image or video. Recognition rate and computation time of real-time face recognition is one of the big challenges that must be developed. This study proposes a model of face recognition using the method of feature extraction by combining three level wavelet decomposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and using...

  16. An efficient method to improve the clustering performance for high dimensional data by Principal Component Analysis and modified K-means

    Tajunisha; Saravanan

    2011-01-01

    Clustering analysis is one of the main analytical methods in data mining. K-means is the most popular andpartition based clustering algorithm. But it is computationally expensive and the quality of resultingclusters heavily depends on the selection of initial centroid and the dimension of the data. Several methodshave been proposed in the literature for improving performance of the k-means clustering algorithm.Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is an important approach to unsupervised dimensi...

  17. Recent improvements in the CUPID code for a multi-dimensional two-phase flow analysis of nuclear reactor components

    Yoon, Han Young; Lee, Jae Ryong; Kim, Hyung Rae; Park, Ik Kyu; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Jun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The CUPID code has been developed at KAERI for a transient, three-dimensional analysis of a two-phase flow in light water nuclear reactor components. It can provide both a component-scale and a CFD-scale simulation by using a porous media or an open media model for a two-phase flow. In this paper, recent advances in the CUPID code are presented in three sections. First, the domain decomposition parallel method implemented in the CUPID code is described with the parallel efficiency test for multiple processors. Then, the coupling of CUPID-MARS via heat structure is introduced, where CUPID has been coupled with a system-scale thermal-hydraulics code, MARS, through the heat structure. The coupled code has been applied to a multi-scale thermal-hydraulic analysis of a pool mixing test. Finally, CUPID-SG is developed for analyzing two-phase flows in PWR steam generators. Physical models and validation results of CUPID-SG are discussed.

  18. Improved decoding of attentional selection in a cocktail party environment with EEG via automatic selection of relevant independent components.

    O'Sullivan, James A; Reilly, Richard B; Lalor, Edmund C

    2015-08-01

    Recently it has been shown to be possible to ascertain which speaker a subject is attending to in a cocktail party environment from single-trial (~60s) electroencephalography (EEG) data. The attentional selection of most of subjects could be decoded with a very high accuracy (>90%). However, the performance of many subjects fell below what would be required for a potential brain computer interface (BCI). One potential reason for this is that activity related to the stimuli may have a lower signal-to-noise ratio on the scalp for some subjects than others. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a commonly used method for denoising EEG data. However, its effective use often requires the subjective choice of the experimenter to determine which independent components (ICs) to retain and which to reject. Algorithms do exist to automatically determine the reliability of ICs, however they provide no information as to their relevance for the task at hand. Here we introduce a novel method for automatically selecting ICs which are relevant for decoding attentional selection. In doing so, we show a significant increase in classification accuracy at all test data durations from 60s to 10s. These findings have implications for the future development of naturalistic and user-friendly BCIs, as well as for smart hearing aids. PMID:26737596

  19. Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components

    Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

  20. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method

    Cherie Mastronardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC, and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yield, pH, CD62P expression and morphology for platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, hemolysis, and supernatant K+ for RBCs, and volume and factor VIII activity levels for plasma. All components, produced using either method, met CBS quality control criteria. There were no significant differences in platelet yield between components produced with and without mixing. A significant difference was seen for RBC hemolysis at expiry (P=0.03, but for both groups, levels met quality control requirements. Noninferiority of components produced without mixing was confirmed for all parameters. Manual mixing is laborious and has a risk of repetitive strain for production staff and its significance is unclear. Elimination of this step will improve process efficiencies without compromising quality.

  1. Improvements in Low-Frequency, Ultrasonic Phased-Array Evaluation for Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Components

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This particular study focused on the evaluation of custom-designed, low-frequency (500 kHz) phased-array (PA) probes for examining welds in thick-section cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping. In addition, research was conducted to observe ultrasonic sound field propagation effects from known coarse-grained microstructures found in parent CASS material. The study was conducted on a variety of thick-wall, coarse-grained CASS specimens that were previously inspected by an older generation 500-kHz PA-UT probe and acquisition instrument configuration. This comparative study describes the impact of the new PA probe design on flaw detection and sizing in a low signal-to-noise environment. The set of Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) CASS specimens examined in this study are greater than 50.8-mm (2.0-in.) thick with documented flaws and microstructures. These specimens are on loan to PNNL from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. The flaws contained within these specimens are thermal fatigue cracks (TFC) or mechanical fatigue cracks (MFC) and range from 13% to 42% in through-wall extent. In addition, ultrasonic signal continuity was evaluated on two CASS parent material ring sections by examining the edge-of-pipe response (corner geometry) for regions of signal loss.

  2. Improved source parameter constraints for five undersea earthquakes from north component of GRACE gravity and gravity gradient change measurements

    Dai, Chunli; Shum, C. K.; Guo, Junyi; Shang, Kun; Tapley, Byron; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-06-01

    The innovative processing of Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) data using only the north component of gravity change and its corresponding gravity gradient changes allows the enhancement of the spatial resolution for coseismic deformation signals. Here, we report the study of five undersea earthquakes using this technique: the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake, the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, and the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes. By using the high spherical harmonic degree (up to degree 96) data products and the associated GRACE data processing techniques, the retrieved north component of gravity change is up to - 34 ± 1.4 μGal for the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, which illustrates by far the highest amplitude of the coseismic signal retrieved from satellite gravimetry among previous studies. We creatively apply the localized spectral analysis as an efficient method to empirically determine the practical spherical harmonic truncation degree. By combining least squares adjustment with the simulated annealing algorithm, point source parameters are estimated, which demonstrates the unique constraint on source model from GRACE data compared to other data sources. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, GRACE data produce a shallower centroid depth (9.1 km), as compared to the depth (28.3 km) from GPS data. For the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the GRACE-estimated centroid location is southwest of the GPS/seismic solutions, and the slip orientation is about 10° clockwise from the published GPS/seismic slip models. We concluded that these differences demonstrate the additional and critical offshore constraint by GRACE on source parameters, as compared to GPS/seismic data.

  3. Improvement of effectiveness of finishing process of component parts made of gte of hard-to-cut materials

    Коваль, Вячеслав Алексеевич; Федорович, Владимир Алексеевич; Пыжов, Иван Николаевич; Клименко, Виталий Григорьевич

    2013-01-01

    The results of studies aimed at finding ways of improving the effectiveness of the combined process of grinding of products from composite materials due to creation of conditions for the most complete use of the cutting of the resource diamond grains of the circle. It is shown, that at processing of materials, microhardness, which is located within a 20…100 ГПа, the best performance is to be expected from such combined methods of grinding, based on the simultaneous use of different types of e...

  4. Demographic Transition and Youth Employment in Pakistan

    G. M. Arif; Nusrat Chaudhry

    2008-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that Pakistan has entered the demographic bonus phase; child dependency is declining and youth share in the total population is rising. This paper has examined youth employment in the context of demographic transition evidenced since the early 1990s. Changes in the level of educational attainment have also been analysed. The study has used the data from Pakistan Demographic Surveys and Labour Force Surveys carried out between 1990 and 2005. Findings of the study s...

  5. Dialog System for Modeling Multidimensional Demographic Processes

    Scherbov, S.; A.I. Yashin; Grechucha, V.

    1986-01-01

    A growing understanding of the importance of demographic processes in social and economic development places greater demands on the quality of demographic research and on the adequacy and convenience of tools used in the analysis of a population's characteristics. Multistate population models recently became popular in the study of many aspects of demographic transitions, such as migration, marriage, changes of health status, social status, occupation, etc.. Computer programs and so...

  6. Demographic changes and international factor mobility

    Helliwell, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  7. Public Pension Reform, Demographics, and Inequality

    von Weizsäcker, Robert K

    1994-01-01

    Starting from a simple, descriptive model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system is introduced. The resulting government budget constraint entails interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown ...

  8. Improving Regional Dynamic Downscaling with Multiple Linear Regression Model Using Components Principal Analysis: Precipitation over Amazon and Northeast Brazil

    Aline Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of climate change discussions, predictions of future scenarios of weather and climate are crucial for the generation of information of interest to the global community. Due to the atmosphere being a chaotic system, errors in predictions of future scenarios are systematically observed. Therefore, numerous techniques have been tested in order to generate more reliable predictions, and two techniques have excelled in science: dynamic downscaling, through regional models, and ensemble prediction, combining different outputs of climate models through the arithmetic average, in other words, a postprocessing of the output data species. Thus, this paper proposes a method of postprocessing outputs of regional climate models. This method consists in using the statistical tool multiple linear regression by principal components for combining different simulations obtained by dynamic downscaling with the regional climate model (RegCM4. Tests for the Amazon and Northeast region of Brazil (South America showed that the method provided a more realistic prediction in terms of average daily rainfall for the analyzed period prescribed, after comparing with the prediction made by set through the arithmetic averages of the simulations. This method photographed the extreme events (outlier that the prediction by averaging failed. Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM were used to evaluate the method.

  9. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability - System Dynamics Modeling and Control System Design

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report documents the current status of the modeling, control design, and embedded control research for the magnetic bearing canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating instrumentation and controls (I{\\&}C) into nuclear power plant components. This pump is a highly inter-connected thermo/electro/mechanical system that requires an active control system to operate. Magnetic bearings are inherently unstable system and without active, moment by moment control, the rotor would contact fixed surfaces in the pump causing physical damage. This report details the modeling of the pump rotordynamics, fluid forces, electromagnetic properties of the protective cans, active magnetic bearings, power electronics, and interactions between different dynamical models. The system stability of the unforced and controlled rotor are investigated analytically. Additionally, controllers are designed using proportional derivative (PD) control, proportional integral derivative (PID) control, voltage control, and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Finally, a design optimization problem that joins the electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and control system design into one problem to balance the opposing needs of various design criteria using the embedded system approach is presented.

  10. The Importance of Demographic Data in Astronomy

    Elmegreen, Debra M.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective astronomical workforce will be one that comprises a diverse and inclusive community. The “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” Decadal Survey, with input from its Infrastructure Study Group on Demographics, provided an overview of recent demographic trends. Demographics in astronomy have undergone significant changes over the past two generations in several, but not all, categories. Maintaining records of demographics regarding age, gender, and minority status, as well as trends by discipline and career choices, is vital in planning for the future training and employment of astronomers.

  11. Rational engineering of Geobacter sulfurreducens electron transfer components: a foundation for building improved Geobacter-based bioelectrochemical technologies

    Joana M Dantas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiheme cytochromes have been implicated in Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs extracellular electron transfer (EET. These proteins are potential targets to improve EET and enhance bioremediation and electrical current production by Gs. However, the functional characterization of multiheme cytochromes is particularly complex due to the co-existence of several microstates in solution, connecting the fully reduced and fully oxidized states. Over the last decade, new strategies have been developed to characterize multiheme redox proteins functionally and structurally. These strategies were used to reveal the functional mechanism of Gs multiheme cytochromes and also to identify key residues in these proteins for EET. In previous studies, we set the foundations for enhancement of the EET abilities of Gs by characterizing a family of five triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E. These periplasmic cytochromes are implicated in electron transfer between the oxidative reactions of metabolism in the cytoplasm and the reduction of extracellular terminal electron acceptors at the cell’s outer surface. The results obtained suggested that PpcA can couple e-/H+ transfer, a property that might contribute to the proton electrochemical gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane for metabolic energy production. The structural and functional properties of PpcA were characterized in detail and used for rational design of a family of 23 single site PpcA mutants. In this review, we summarize the functional characterization of the native and mutant proteins. Mutants that retain the mechanistic features of PpcA and adopt preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values compared to the wild-type protein were selected for in vivo studies as the best candidates to increase the electron transfer rate of Gs. For the first time Gs strains have been manipulated by the introduction of mutant forms of essential proteins with the aim to develop and improve

  12. A nutrition intervention is effective in improving dietary components linked to cardiometabolic risk in youth with first-episode psychosis.

    Teasdale, Scott B; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Kalucy, Megan; Samaras, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Severe mental illness is characterised by a 20-year mortality gap due to cardiometabolic disease. Poor diet in those with severe mental illness is an important and modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to (i) examine baseline nutritional intake in youth with first-episode psychosis (FEP), (ii) evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of nutritional intervention early in FEP and (iii) to evaluate the effectiveness of early dietary intervention on key nutritional end points. Participants were recruited over a 12-month period from a community-based programme specifically targeting young people aged 15-25 years with newly diagnosed FEP. Individual dietetic consultations and practical group sessions were offered as part of a broader lifestyle programme. Dietary assessments were conducted before and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Participants exceeded recommended energy and Na intakes at baseline. Retention within the nutrition intervention was 67 %, consistent with other interventions offered to FEP clients. There was a 47 % reduction in discretionary food intake (-94 g/d, P<0·001) and reductions in daily energy (-24 %, P<0·001) and Na (-26 %, P<0·001) intakes. Diet quality significantly improved, and the mean change was 3·6 (95 % CI 0·2, 6·9, P<0·05), although this finding was not significant after Bonferroni's correction. Increased vegetable intake was the main factor contributing to improved diet quality. Nutrition intervention delivered shortly after initiation of antipsychotic medication is feasible, acceptable and effective in youth with FEP. Strategies to prevent weight gain and metabolic decline will contribute to prevent premature cardiometabolic disease in this vulnerable population. PMID:27153205

  13. Verifying with tests the improved dynamic and passive damping behavior of components: structural optimization based on bionic principles

    Weiss, Johannes; Maier, Martin; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Steibler, Philipp

    2004-07-01

    In the automotive industry, the need for affordable lightweight structures rises as new fuel consumption regulations tighten and customers demand for performance increases. One way of achieving a cost-effective and weight-optimal design is by means of structural optimization. In 1991, A. Baumgartner, S. Burkhardt and C. Mattheck published their first paper on topology optimization based on bionic principles. Nature is inevitably dependent on the most efficient use of the body's mass. Using a fully-stressed-method, the original SKO-method is able to optimize engineering components with regard to maximum strength and stiffness. For several years now, the SKO-method has been successfully applied and enhanced for complex structural optimization at the Research & Technology Division of DaimlerChrysler AG. The subject presented in this paper was investigated in cooperation with the Institut fur Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The aim is to present the new developments concerning the SKO-method. Starting with a short introduction to the original SKO-method, the newly implemented FreedOpt (Frequency and Damping Optimization) module is explained afterwards. FreedOpt can tune natural frequencies to a desired level. In cases were the tuning of frequencies is not sufficient, damping is needed. The new module is able to optimize the utilization of damping material with a new approach based on maximizing the dissipated vibration energy. The main focus of the paper is on the verification of the simulation results with physical tests. Finally, the new tool is applied to automotive parts. Concluding, the authors give an outlook for future work.

  14. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer [Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkmenistan)

    2010-06-15

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  15. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  16. Development and improvement of synthetic imaging methods for non-destructive ultrasonic testing of complex industrial components

    The goal of this thesis was, initially, to evaluate phased array methods for ultrasonic Non Destructive Testing (NDT) in order to propose optimizations, or to develop new alternative methods. In particular, this works deals with the detection of defects in complex geometries and/or materials parts. The TFM (Total Focusing Method) algorithm provides high resolution images and several representations of a same defect thanks to different reconstruction modes. These properties have been exploited judiciously in order to propose an adaptive imaging method in immersion configuration. We showed that TFM imaging can be used to characterize more precisely the defects. However, this method presents two major drawbacks: the large amount of data to be processed and a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially in noisy materials. We developed solutions to these two problems. To overcome the limitation caused by the large number of signals to be processed, we propose an algorithm that defines the sparse array to activate. As for the low SNR, it can be now improved by use of virtual sources and a new filtering method based on the DORT method (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator). (author)

  17. Green Component Procurement Collaboration for Improving Supply Chain Management in the High Technology Industries: A Case Study from the Systems Perspective

    Min-Ren Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of high technology industries have been growing increasingly to technological innovations and global economic developments, while the concerns in sustainability are calling for facilitating green materials and cleaner production in the industrial value chains. Today’s manufacturing companies are not striving for individual capacities but for the effective working with green supply chains. However, in addition to environmental and social objectives, cost and economic feasibility has become one of the most critical success factors for improving supply chain management with green component procurement collaboration, especially for the electronics OEM (original equipment manufacturing companies whose procurement costs often make up a very high proportion of final product prices. This paper presents a case study from the systems perspective by using System Dynamics simulation analysis and statistical validations with empirical data. Empirical data were collected from Taiwanese manufacturing chains—among the world’s largest manufacturing clusters of high technology components and products—and their global green suppliers to examine the benefits of green component procurement collaborations in terms of shared costs and improved shipping time performance. Two different supply chain collaboration models, from multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC and universal serial bus 3.0 (USB 3.0 cable procurements, were benchmarked and statistically validated. The results suggest that the practices of collaborative planning for procurement quantity and accurate fulfillment by suppliers are significantly related to cost effectiveness and shipping time efficiency. Although the price negotiation of upstream raw materials for the collaborative suppliers has no statistically significant benefit to the shipping time efficiency, the shared cost reduction of component procurement is significantly positive for supply chain collaboration among green

  18. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  19. Public health and demographic statistics

    The purpose of this program is to assess the methodology and available data sources appropriate for use in analytical studies and environmental impact statements concerning the health effects of nuclear power plants. The techniques developed should be applicable as well to evaluation of the known risks of high levels of radiation exposure and of conflicting evidence on low-level effects, such as those associated with the normal operations of nuclear power plants. To accomplish this purpose, a two-pronged approach has been developed. The first involves a determination of the public health and demographic data sources of local, state, and federal origin that are available for use in analyses of health effects and environmental impact statements. The second part involves assessment of the methods used by epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other scientists as found in the literature on health effects. This two-pronged approach provides a means of assessing the strength and shortcomings of studies of the impact of nuclear facilities on the health of the general population in a given locality

  20. Blazar Demographics Using Multiwavelength Data

    Mao, Peiyuan; Massaro, F.; Urry, C. Megan

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are ideal laboratories to study relativistic jets in AGN, which are thought to be an important channel for feeding energy into galaxies and clusters. We present multi-wavelength SEDs of 2214 blazars with known redshifts, based on the Roma-BZCAT data across 12 frequency bands ranging from radio to gamma-ray. We confirm the anti-correlation between radio luminosity and synchrotron peak frequency, (part of what defines the "blazar sequence"), although with greater scatter than seen previously in studies of far fewer blazars. We describe an empirical estimator of luminosities in those 12 frequency bands using only the radio luminosity at 1.4 GHz and the redshift as inputs. Using this estimator, we study the demographics of blazars by comparing Monte-Carlo simulations to blazar surveys at several different frequencies and flux limits. We recover the observed evolutionary parameter for both low-frequency peaked (V/Vmax≈0.6) and high-frequency peaked (V/Vmax≈0.4) blazars, proving that selection effects cause the high-frequency-peaked sources to appear to anti-evolve even though the same underlying evolution was assumed in the simulation. We also show that the if instead we randomly assign fluxes independent of radio luminosity, the simulated blazar samples disagree strongly with the observed ones. These simulations confirm that luminosity and SED shape must indeed be linked in a physical blazar sequence.

  1. Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Seth Owusu-Agyei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.

  2. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  3. THE PENSIONS AND DEMOGRAPHIC IMBALANCES IN ROMANIA

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-demographic and economic processes that characterize the last period (aging population, reducing the working population, mainly macroeconomic problems of countries in transition, and so on and will increase in the coming decades transform the problem of social protection for the elderly and special management problem better pension systems a fundamental challenge for both developed countries and those in transition. We can say that for Romania the problem is aggravadet by the alarming delay reform of wrong decisions, lack of vision and coherent strategy in the field. In this context, in addition to the major problems of all former communist countries that have experienced economic decline and a reduction in the number of employees (those who support pension contributions Romania faces and incompleteness pension system that summarizes the pillar, voluntary and privately managed occupational components are still in draft form and require years to implement and the appearance of effects. Also, phenomena encountered in other transition countries (and even in Western developed countries in recent decades and early retirements and lower average real retirement age or Pillar I support budget funds were more apparent to us and led an excessive increase in the number of retirees and fewer alarming average real retirement age

  4. Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components

    Blau, Peter J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Melanie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bansal, Dinesh G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    2012-09-20

    This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

  5. The effect of compressed demographic transition and demographic gift on economic growth

    Shin, Inyong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the demographic transition and its effect on economic growth using a cross-country data. We use a threshold regression model to verify the transition and to confirm whether the demographic transitions are compressed or not in developing countries. We found out that in general, the demographic transitions, including the decreasing birth and death rate, in developing countries start in an earlier development stage compared to the demographic transitions in developed co...

  6. Variations in consumer sentiment across demographic groups

    Leslie McGranahan; Maude Toussaint-Comeau

    2006-01-01

    Consumer sentiment is one of the many macroeconomic indicators tracked by policymakers and the public. The aggregate numbers in consumer sentiment indexes, such as the University of Michigan's Index of Consumer Sentiment, conceal a wealth of demographic-specific information. The authors' findings suggest that index disaggregation by group matters because consumer sentiment varies systematically by demographic group.

  7. Demographics and Education: The 20 Richest Countries

    Marchant, Gregory J.; Johnson, Jessica J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the PISA [Programme for International Student Assessment] achievement of twenty countries in light of some of their demographic differences. SES [student socioeconomic status], nuclear family, gender, home language, and native status were predictive of achievement for every country. Demographics accounted for as little as 8…

  8. Is there a Demographic Time-bomb?

    Greve, Bent

    The article discuss whether the demographic transition in Europe will have any impact on the future of the European welfare states......The article discuss whether the demographic transition in Europe will have any impact on the future of the European welfare states...

  9. The Unaddressed Costs of Changing Student Demographics

    Kaplan, Leslie S.; Owings, William A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of changing student demographics on financing education and on our national wellbeing. We begin by examining the research of current student demographics and their relationship to learning and education costs. We then calculate a 1% cost factor from the average per-pupil expenditure based on the 2011 "Digest…

  10. Demographic and clinical features of neuromyelitis optica

    Pandit, L.; Asgari, Nasrin; Apiwattanakul, M.;

    2015-01-01

    The comparative clinical and demographic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are not well known. In this review we analyzed peer-reviewed publications for incidence and prevalence, clinical phenotypes, and demographic features of NMO. Population-based studies from Europe, South East and Southern...

  11. Demographics and the Long-Horizon Returns of Dividend-Yield Strategies in the US

    Lee, King Fuei

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between demographic changes and the long-run returns of dividend-yield investment strategies in the US. We hypothesise that in a world where components of wealth are mentally treated as being non-fungible, the preference for high dividend-paying stocks by older investors means that the excess returns of high dividend-yielding stocks, relative to other stocks, should be positively related to demographic clientele variation. In particular, we find that, ...

  12. Demographic dynamics and environmental change in Brazil

    Hogan Daniel Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, the text examines the evolution of research on demographic dynamics and environmental change in Brazil. While concern for the deforestation of the Amazon region was an important starting point for the concerns of demographers, the first systematic studies dealt with the "brown agenda." It was a question of urban environmental quality which motivated specialists to enter this field. In the second part, the text presents a preliminary analysis of demographic dynamics in the principal ecological formations of Brazil, with considerations on the relationships between processes of population distribution and environmental sustainability.

  13. Time-frequency component detection based on improved TFD-Hough transformation%基于改进TFD-Hough变换的时频分量检测

    章季阳; 王伦文

    2013-01-01

    To solve the problem that the existing methods cannot effectively extract time-frequency component in the real com-munication monitoring environment, a novel method for the time-frequency component detection is proposed on the basis of the improved TFD-Hough transformation. Under the circumstance that the number of detected component is unknown, the proposed method can take full advantage of the linearity clustering trait of the magnitude of component in time-frequency distribution, and combine the covering clustering algorithm with perceptual organization to implement the procedure of extracting and detecting parameters of signal component one by one, avoiding the flaws brought by the energy difference and the lack of the location information of the target in global detection. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, which can meet the requirement of actively identifying the abnormity of communication signal.%针对通信监测实际环境中现有方法难以有效提取时频分量的问题,提出一种基于改进TFD-Hough变换的时频分量检测算法。在信号分量数目未知的条件下,该方法能充分利用时频分布面各分量的幅值具有线性聚集的特点,通过覆盖聚类和感知编组实现信号分量的逐次提取和参数估计,避免了全局检测中因分量能量差异导致的误检且无法获取目标位置信息的缺陷。实验结果验证了所提方法的有效性,可满足于异常通信信号的主动识别。

  14. [Demographic processes and world population numbers].

    Donkov, K

    1986-01-01

    Recent global population trends are reviewed. The author notes the growing divergence in demographic trends between the developed and developing regions. These differences are analyzed in the light of Marxist population theory. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12280530

  15. Demographic Data, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Demographic Data dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list)...

  16. Socio-demographic impacts on lane-changing response time and distance in work zone with Drivers' Smart Advisory System

    Qing Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lane-changing behavior is an important component of traffic simulation. A lane-changing action is normally confined to a decision-making process of the task, and the action itself is sometimes assumed as an instantaneous event. Besides, the lane-changing behavior is based mostly on observable positions and speeds of other vehicles, rather than on vehicles' intentions. In practice, changing one lane requires about 5–6 s to complete. Existing lane-changing models do not comprehensively consider drivers' response to work zone lane-changing signs (or other related messages, if any. Furthermore, drivers' socio-demographics are normally not taken into account. With regard to this, fuzzy logic-based lane-changing models that consider drivers' socio-demographics were developed to improve the realism of lane-changing maneuvers in work zones. Drivers' Smart Advisory System (DSAS messages were provided as one of the scenarios. Drivers' responses, including reactions to work zone signs and DSAS messages, and actions to change lane, were investigated. Drivers' socio-demographic factors were primary independent variables, while Lane-Changing Response Time (LCRT and Distance (LCRD were defined as output variables. The model validation process yielded acceptable error ranges. To illustrate how these models can be used in traffic simulation, the LCRT and LCRD in work zones were estimated for five geo-locations with different socio-demographic specifications. Results show that the DSAS is able to instruct all drivers to prepare and change lanes earlier, thereby shortening the duration of changing lanes. Educational background and age are essential variables, whereas the impacts of gender on the output variables are indistinctive.

  17. Principles of Principal Component Analysis

    Durham, Catherine A.; King, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing frequency consumer studies are supplementing demographic and price variables with responses to an extended set of Likert-scale questions to elicit information on consumer motivations and attitudes. Principal compo­nent analysis (PCA) is a statistical tool that reduces a large number of variables to a smaller set of "components" that describe as much as possible of the variation in the original variables. Attitudinal responses can then be represented by component scores in sta...

  18. Human capital, Demographic Transition and Economic Growth

    Haitham Issa

    2003-01-01

    This paper extends the literature on economic growth and demographic change by developing a neo-classical model of endogenous growth in which both economic and demographic outcomes are jointly determined. The key point in this model is the endogenisation of child mortality rate by linking it to parents¡¯ human capital, defined in a broad sense to include both education and health. The numerical simulation of this model confirms that as economic development takes place there will be a decline ...

  19. Characterizing food usage by demographic variables.

    Cronin, F J; Krebs-Smith, S M; Wyse, B W; Light, L

    1982-12-01

    On the basis of an analysis of three-day food records, food comsumption by major segments of the U.S. population was examined for 65 food groups and subgroups. This study indicates that demographic factors, particularly age, race, and region, can affect both the percentage of persons using certain foods and the mean frequency of their use. Both the similarities and the differences on these parameters are of interest when food usage is examined by demographic variables. PMID:7142608

  20. Consumer Price Formation with Demographic Translating

    Piggott, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate how to theoretically and empirically incorporate demographic translating in consumer distance functions. Consumer distance functions yield inverse demand systems that are of interest when attempting to better understand questions of price formation. Translating procedures are important when incorporating pre-committed quantities, pre-allocated factors, or demographic variables (e.g., advertising, health or food safety information) in the inverse demand system. Examples are incl...

  1. Population and demographic development in community Bogomila

    Mijalov, Risto; Temjanovski, Riste

    2000-01-01

    The intensive processes of the industrialization, depopulation and migration movement had reflection on the demographic structure of the population. The Rural settlements had decreasing level with populations where population changes have occurred in all structure: age structure, the economic structure, the education etc. This process is actual in new community Bogomila. Here is given a synthetic survey on intensive occurs in this Community. It is necessary adequate demographic policy to stop...

  2. Demographic Characteristics of Strokes Types in Sanliurfa

    Yusuf Inanc

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment of patients with stroke admitted demographic features planned. We aimed to study demographic feature of stroke patient who admitted to Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment. Material and Method: 01/10/2011 and 01/9/2012, ischemic and hemorrhagic brain training and research hospital in Sanliurfa vascular disease diagnosis and treatment without any exclusion criteria, patient sequential 454 ...

  3. The demographics of global corporate champions

    Véron, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    This Working Paper presents a novel dataset documenting the demographics of the world’s 500 largest companies by market capitalisation, as of 30 September 2007. Assigning a birth date to a large company is not a straightforward exercise and involves a measure of judgment, which possibly explains why data on corporate demographics have not been more widely researched in spite of their potential interest to policymakers. However, our methodology, based on the collection of narrative data which ...

  4. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    Rachael Irving; Vilma Charlton; Errol Morrison; Aldeam Facey; Oral Buchanan

    2013-01-01

    The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided...

  5. The Influence of Demographics on Job Burnout

    Abdul Haque; Muhammad Shakeel Aslam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of demographics and job burnout. Association of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, lack of accomplishment and overall job burnout with different demographics such as gender, age, marital status, qualification, work experience, salary structure and working hours was investigated in this study. A well-structured questionnaire was administered and data was collected from 406 bankers working in local private, local nationalized and foreign banks located ...

  6. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  7. Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth

    Kendall, Bruce E.; Fox, Gordon A; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic heterogeneity—variation among individuals in survival and reproduction—is ubiquitous in natural populations. Structured population models address heterogeneity due to age, size, or major developmental stages. However, other important sources of demographic heterogeneity, such as genetic variation, spatial heterogeneity in the environment, maternal effects, and differential exposure to stressors, are often not easily measured and hence are modeled as stochasticity. Recent research ...

  8. Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance

    A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials on materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a power feeding system for the primary system. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phase of the clad. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clad. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR. (author)

  9. Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance

    A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR

  10. Process evaluation of a multi-component intervention to reduce infectious diseases and improve hygiene and well-being among school children

    Bonnesen, C T; Plauborg, R; Denbæk, A M;

    2015-01-01

    The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial designed to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among pupils. Participating schools (n = 43) were randomized into either control (n = 15) or one of two intervention groups (n = 28). The intervention consisted...... of three components: (i) a curriculum (ii) mandatory daily hand washing before lunch (iii) extra cleaning of school toilets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation and to identify challenges to program implementation. Several data sources were used, including observations of school...... toilets, semi-structured interviews with school coordinators (n = 4), focus groups with pupils (n = 6) and teachers (n = 5), and questionnaires among pupils (n = 5440), teachers (n = 387) and school coordinators (n = 28). This study indicates that the curriculum was successfully implemented at most...

  11. Improving the Long-Lead Predictability of El Niño Using a Novel Forecasting Scheme Based on a Dynamic Components Model

    Petrova, Desislava; Koopman, Siem Jan; Ballester, Joan; Garcia, Markel; Rodo, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a dominant feature of climate variability on inter-annual time scales and predictions for it are issued on a regular basis by a wide array of prediction schemes and climate centres around the world. We have explored a novel method for ENSO forecasting. In the state-of-the-art the advantageous statistical technique of Structural (Unobserved Components) Time Series has not been applied. Therefore, we have developed such a model with regression parameters obtained by a State Space approach. Its distinguishing feature is that observations consist of several unobserved components - trend, seasonality, cycles, disturbance, and explanatory regression covariates. These components are modeled separately and ultimately combined in a single forecasting scheme. We introduce a new domain of predictor regression variables accounting for the state of the subsurface ocean temperature in the western and central equatorial Pacific as it has been shown by previous studies that subsurface processes and heat accumulation there are fundamental for the genesis of El Niño. An important feature of the scheme is that different regression predictors are used at different lead months, thus capturing the dynamical evolution of the system and rendering more efficient forecasts. The new model has been tested with the prediction of all warm events that occurred in the period 1980-2015. Retrospective forecasts of these events were successfully made for long lead times of at least two years. Hence, we demonstrate that the theoretical limit of ENSO prediction should be sought much longer than the commonly accepted "Spring Barrier". Our statistical approach is found to exhibit similar skill to the best dynamical forecasting models for ENSO. Thus, the novel way in which the proposed modeling scheme has been structured could also be used for improving other statistical and dynamical prediction systems.

  12. A Two-Component Alkyne Metathesis Catalyst System with an Improved Substrate Scope and Functional Group Tolerance: Development and Applications to Natural Product Synthesis.

    Schaubach, Sebastian; Gebauer, Konrad; Ungeheuer, Felix; Hoffmeister, Laura; Ilg, Marina K; Wirtz, Conny; Fürstner, Alois

    2016-06-13

    Although molybdenum alkylidyne complexes such as 1 endowed with triarylsilanolate ligands are excellent catalysts for alkyne metathesis, they can encounter limitations when (multiple) protic sites are present in a given substrate and/or when forcing conditions are necessary. In such cases, a catalyst formed in situ upon mixing of the trisamidomolybenum alkylidyne complex 3 and the readily available trisilanol derivatives 8 or 11 shows significantly better performance. This two-component system worked well for a series of model compounds comprising primary, secondary or phenolic -OH groups, as well as for a set of challenging (bis)propargylic substrates. Its remarkable efficiency is also evident from applications to the total syntheses of manshurolide, a highly strained sesquiterpene lactone with kinase inhibitory activity, and the structurally demanding immunosuppressive cyclodiyne ivorenolide A; in either case, the standard catalyst 1 largely failed to effect the critical macrocyclization, whereas the two-component system was fully operative. A study directed toward the quinolizidine alkaloid lythrancepine I features yet another instructive example, in that a triyne substrate was metathesized with the help of 3/11 such that two of the triple bonds participated in ring closure, while the third one passed uncompromised. As a spin-off of this project, a much improved ruthenium catalyst for the redox isomerization of propargyl alcohols to the corresponding enones was developed. PMID:27203803

  13. Comparing Simple Quasar Demographics Models

    Veale, Melanie; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores several simple model variations for the connections among quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos for redshifts 1 < z < 6. A key component of these models is that we enforce a self-consistent black hole (BH) history by tracking both BH mass and BH growth rate at all redshifts. We connect objects across redshift with a simple constant-number-density procedure, and choose a fiducial model with a relationship between BH and galaxy growth rates that is linear and evolves in a simple way with redshift. Within this fiducial model, we find the quasar luminosity function (QLF) by calculating an "intrinsic" luminosity based on either the BH mass or BH growth rate, and then choosing a model of quasar variability with either a lognormal or truncated power-law distribution of instantaneous luminosities. This gives four model variations, which we fit to the observed QLF at each redshift. With the best-fit models in hand, we undertake a detailed comparison of the four fiducial models, and explore...

  14. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Rašević Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  15. Demographics, energy and our homes

    The projected growth in households in the UK is a key factor in future domestic energy consumption, particularly electricity consumption. While every household needs a home and its heating, lighting and appliances, increasing incomes have historically led to significantly higher appliance ownership, higher expectations of levels of energy service and greater usage. In the past this trend was combined with increasing household numbers to drive growth in domestic electricity demand. Official projections for population growth and household composition indicate significant drivers for future growth in energy demand. Curbing this will require policies to reverse the tendency for energy-efficiency improvements to be overwhelmed by growing numbers of households, more widespread appliance ownership and increased service expectations

  16. A dismal future? Towards a new model of labor market dynamics based on evolving demographic variables

    Poblete Cazenave, M.; W.C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    Standard labor market models assume that individuals work between ages 15-64 and then retire. Forecasted improvements in demographic variables such as life expectancy and health level of the population question the validity of those assumptions. Here we develop a model in which individuals decide optimally their retirement age according to changes in demographic and economic variables. Under this framework, individuals should naturally delay their retirement in the following decades. This imp...

  17. Education, Elderly Health, and Differential Population Aging in South Korea: A Demographic Approach

    Bongoh Kye; Erika Arenas; Graciela Teruel; Luis Rubalcava

    2014-01-01

    Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Ma...

  18. [Thoughts on demographic optimization in contemporary Poland].

    Oledzki, M

    1980-01-01

    This article presents the viewpoint of the Polish school of social policy of the Institute of Social Economy concerning the problem of optimization of demographic structures and processes in contemporary Poland. This school was created under the leadership of the outstanding sociologist Ludwik Krzywicki (1859-1941). The reasoning concerns, first of all, the scientific premises of the choice of criteria of demographic optimization examined and then there is a critical assessment of modern simplified approaches to the definition of optimum population. It also shows actual possibilities of demographic optimization and the complexity of analytical categories of socioeconomic processes which determine the development of the population in specific time and space. In conclusion, the theory of demographic optimization is regarded as a task too ambitious and perhaps even utopian in view of the assumptions needed for its satisfactory realization. This conclusion confirms the thesis contained in the handbook of demography by J.Z. Holzer published in 1970. The author considers, however, that the search for a theory of demographic optimization is still a task which mobilizes social sciences to an integration centered on demography and social policy. (author's) PMID:12338379

  19. On the Statistical Dependency of Identity Theft on Demographics

    di Crescenzo, Giovanni

    An improved understanding of the identity theft problem is widely agreed to be necessary to succeed in counter-theft efforts in legislative, financial and research institutions. In this paper we report on a statistical study about the existence of relationships between identity theft and area demographics in the US. The identity theft data chosen was the number of citizen complaints to the Federal Trade Commission in a large number of US municipalities. The list of demographics used for any such municipality included: estimated population, median resident age, estimated median household income, percentage of citizens with a high school or higher degree, percentage of unemployed residents, percentage of married residents, percentage of foreign born residents, percentage of residents living in poverty, density of law enforcement employees, crime index, and political orientation according to the 2004 presidential election. Our study findings, based on linear regression techniques, include statistically significant relationships between the number of identity theft complaints and a non-trivial subset of these demographics.

  20. Improving the long-lead predictability of El Niño using a novel forecasting scheme based on a dynamic components model

    Petrova, Desislava; Koopman, Siem Jan; Ballester, Joan; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    El Niño (EN) is a dominant feature of climate variability on inter-annual time scales driving changes in the climate throughout the globe, and having wide-spread natural and socio-economic consequences. In this sense, its forecast is an important task, and predictions are issued on a regular basis by a wide array of prediction schemes and climate centres around the world. This study explores a novel method for EN forecasting. In the state-of-the-art the advantageous statistical technique of unobserved components time series modeling, also known as structural time series modeling, has not been applied. Therefore, we have developed such a model where the statistical analysis, including parameter estimation and forecasting, is based on state space methods, and includes the celebrated Kalman filter. The distinguishing feature of this dynamic model is the decomposition of a time series into a range of stochastically time-varying components such as level (or trend), seasonal, cycles of different frequencies, irregular, and regression effects incorporated as explanatory covariates. These components are modeled separately and ultimately combined in a single forecasting scheme. Customary statistical models for EN prediction essentially use SST and wind stress in the equatorial Pacific. In addition to these, we introduce a new domain of regression variables accounting for the state of the subsurface ocean temperature in the western and central equatorial Pacific, motivated by our analysis, as well as by recent and classical research, showing that subsurface processes and heat accumulation there are fundamental for the genesis of EN. An important feature of the scheme is that different regression predictors are used at different lead months, thus capturing the dynamical evolution of the system and rendering more efficient forecasts. The new model has been tested with the prediction of all warm events that occurred in the period 1996-2015. Retrospective forecasts of these

  1. Ethiopia - Capturing the Demographic Bonus in Ethiopia : Gender, Development, and Demographic Actions

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This is a sector report on demographics in Ethiopia. The first part of this study puts the population issue in Ethiopia in perspective. Chapter 1 updates Ethiopia's demographic profile, looking in particular at the size of its population, its age structure, the speed at which it grows and its distribution across space. Chapter 2 explores the relationships between population growth, economi...

  2. [Population and crisis. Economic inflexibility or demographic subordination].

    Morelos, J B

    1989-01-01

    Much speculation, fact-based and subjective, has centered on the links between population and economic crisis, and between population and progress. In the past, famines directly affected the size and dynamics of population in affected regions, and such cycles inspired theories that regarded subsistence as the adjustment mechanism for demographic regimes. Population has alternatively been viewed as a crucial factor of production and a force for modernization and progress. After World War I and the Great Depression, many economists believed that population growth would be indispensable for renewing economic expansion. The favorable view of population growth in Mexico led to measures to repatriate emigrants, attract immigrants, and improve health conditions. The gross national product grew by around 6.0% annually on average between 1940 and 1960, and the per capita GNP by about 3%. Demographic dynamics acquired momentum by the 1960s, with high growth rates, a young age structure, considerable demographic inertia, and relative predominance of the urban population. Indications began to appear that a primarily economic solution to achieving full development would be unlikely. The polarization of development, distributive insufficiency, distortions in exchange relations for agricultural products, and incorporation of inappropriate technologies were factors decreasing the ability of the economy to respond adequately to population demands. National development was insufficient to meet growing demographic pressures in the labor market, educational system, housing, and urban services. The adjustment programs reduced even further the flexibility of the government to respond to pressures. Expectations for the future have been seriously compromised by the fall of real incomes. PMID:12158103

  3. Demographic safety of region as object of a state policy

    Robert Akyulov

    2008-01-01

    In article the concept of demographic safety of region is considered, the urgency of the given problem is proved, factors influencing it are investigated, its interrelation with economic safety reveals, are considered demographic threats and indicators reflecting them, is offered system of the measures including prominent aspects demographic, of social policy, called to provide demographic safety of region.

  4. Principal Components of Superhigh-Dimensional Statistical Features and Support Vector Machine for Improving Identification Accuracies of Different Gear Crack Levels under Different Working Conditions

    Dong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gears are widely used in gearbox to transmit power from one shaft to another. Gear crack is one of the most frequent gear fault modes found in industry. Identification of different gear crack levels is beneficial in preventing any unexpected machine breakdown and reducing economic loss because gear crack leads to gear tooth breakage. In this paper, an intelligent fault diagnosis method for identification of different gear crack levels under different working conditions is proposed. First, superhigh-dimensional statistical features are extracted from continuous wavelet transform at different scales. The number of the statistical features extracted by using the proposed method is 920 so that the extracted statistical features are superhigh dimensional. To reduce the dimensionality of the extracted statistical features and generate new significant low-dimensional statistical features, a simple and effective method called principal component analysis is used. To further improve identification accuracies of different gear crack levels under different working conditions, support vector machine is employed. Three experiments are investigated to show the superiority of the proposed method. Comparisons with other existing gear crack level identification methods are conducted. The results show that the proposed method has the highest identification accuracies among all existing methods.

  5. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  6. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  7. [Demographic transition at the epoch of industrialization].

    Billig, W

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between the early stages of industrialization and population factors in the United Kingdom, France, and the United States is analyzed from a Marxist perspective. The author attempts to associate successive phases of industrialization with phases of the demographic transition. He concludes that no comprehensive general theory concerning this relationship has been established. (summary in ENG, RUS) PMID:12266382

  8. Changing demographics and shrinking engineering enrollments

    This paper reports that changing U.S. population demographics, poor academic preparation, and a decreasing interest in engineering among college student indicate possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. If we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S., the engineering talent pool must be enlarged to include women and minority men

  9. Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

  10. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  11. Demographic characteristics of nuclear installations sites

    The selection of a nuclear installations sites can not be conceived without a deep analysis of demographic context. This analysis permits to define the critical populations around the installation and is an essential element of emergency plans. 1 tab., 2 refs. (F.M.)

  12. On modern demographic transition in China.

    1991-12-01

    The theory of demographic transition traditionally indicates 3 historical stages. The limitations of the theory are: 1)studies are confined to phenomenal descriptions which means that China is exempt, 2) it focuses too much on productive forces and ignores the factor of the relation between production and other non-economic factors. There is more to transition theories than birth rate, death rate of natural increase. In 1971 China began the process of modern demographic transition with a death rate of 0.7% and a drop in the birth rate. In 1976 China began the 2nd stage where birth rates doubled which made China a unique case because it fell outside the conventional model. The primary factor for this was the change in the fertility rate. The effects of population policy on fertility will be less if economic development and cultural development do not keep pace. The fact that rural people were reluctant to accept the population policy was a strong factor. The 2nd rise is attributed to the "flexible minor policies". This 2nd rise will be a significant factor in future population development. The key to modern demographic transition in China is to lower the birth rate by: 1) developing economic policies that will increase the quality of social and economic backgrounds, 2) the interference of the policy in demographic transition should follow the medium principle, 3) communication and education should be increased to help people set up the value of less births, better births. PMID:12284673

  13. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  14. Second demographic transition de-blocked?

    Bobić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

  15. The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both p

  16. The second demographic transition and the development level of Colombia departments, 2005

    Isabel C. Grajales A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the behavior of some demographic characteristics for each department to identify the state of demographic transition and its relationship to the development level. Methodology: descriptive study based on secondary information sources published by the National Statistics Department and the National Planning Department. Results: the global fertility rate of the country was 2.5 in 2005. Chocó reported the highest rate whereas Bogotá reported the lowest. A total of 67% of Colombian states registered higher rates than the average rate in the country. Mortality rate of children in the country was 24.5, with the lowest rates registered in El Valle, Caldas, and Bogotá. The highest rates were registered in Arauca and Chocó. 26.6% of Colombian states show some advance in the demographic transition process. By contrast, 67% of the states are classified as lagged behind. There is a relation between the demographic transition index and the development indicators. Conclusion: Although some departments reach an advanced level of demographic transition, most of them still show high rates of infant mortality or fecundity which keep them behind in this process. Inequalities in living conditions of the country’s departments could be influencing the behavior of the demographic components analyzed.

  17. Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this

  18. Demographic situation and development in Nepal.

    Pradhanang, A L

    1983-01-01

    In Nepal economic development has not kept pace with population growth. The government must develop a vigorous dual program to promote economic development and to reduce population growth. Previous efforts to promote economic development, using a macrolevel approach, failed to improve the economic conditions for the majority of Nepal's citizens. The macrolevel approach required large capital outlays and resulted in an influx of foreign investors and the importation of inappropriate technologies from the developed countries. As a result, urbanization and pollution increased, and both the proportion and the absolute number of poor persons increased. A microlevel approach is now being instituted by the government, and an emphasis is being placed on meeting the basic needs of the poor and on promoting economic self-sufficiency. The country has extensive water resources which can be tapped for irrigation purposes. Nepal also has rich mineral deposits which should be exploited in such a way as to ensure that the profits accrue to the Nepalese. The country has an abundance of manpower resources, but there is a dearth of skilled workers. Unemployment, especially in rural areas, is a serious problem, and efforts should be made to either develop the agricultural sector or create new jobs in other sectors. Nepal's demographic problems include rapid population growth, the influx of a large number of migrants from India, and a high rural to urban migration rate. In 1981, the population size was 15 million, the annual growth rate was 2.6%, the crude birth rate was 38.5, the crude death rate was 18.4, and life expectancy was 47.5 years. The government is currently developing plans 1) to promote the development of core sectors of the economy, 2) to provide family planning services for the poor, 3) to meet the basic needs of rural residents in order to stem the flow of migration to urban areas, 4) to mobilize women to play an active role in the country's development and population

  19. Demographic influences on the behavior of chimpanzees.

    Mitani, John C

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has revealed substantial diversity in the behavior of wild chimpanzees. Understanding the sources of this variation has become a central focus of investigation. While genetic, ecological, and cultural factors are often invoked to explain behavioral variation in chimpanzees, the demographic context is sometimes overlooked as a contributing factor. Observations of chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, reveal that the size and structure of the unit group or community can both facilitate and constrain the manifestation of behavior. With approximately 150 individuals, the Ngogo community is much larger than others that have been studied in the wild. We have taken advantage of the unusual demographic structure of this community to document new and intriguing patterns of chimpanzee behavior with respect to hunting, territoriality, and male social relationships. Chimpanzees at Ngogo hunt often and with a considerable degree of success. In addition, male chimpanzees there frequently patrol the boundary of their territory and engage in repeated bouts of lethal intergroup aggression. By forming two distinct subgroups, male chimpanzees at Ngogo also develop social bonds above the level of dyadic pairs. While the sheer number of chimpanzees contributes to differences in hunting, patrolling, mating, and subgrouping at Ngogo, the demographic situation may also constrain behavioral interactions. At Ngogo, male chimpanzees who are closely related genetically through the maternal line do not appear to affiliate or cooperate with each other. Demographic constraints may be responsible for this finding. In this paper, I use these examples to illustrate how the demographic context affects the possible range of behavioral options open to individuals and ultimately contributes to the explanation of behavioral diversity in chimpanzees. PMID:16283424

  20. Group-contribution+ (GC+) based estimation of properties of pure components: Improved property estimation and uncertainty analysis

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent; Ten Kate, Antoon;

    2012-01-01

    consistency of the predicted properties (such as, relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature) are also analyzed and discussed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only the estimated pure component property values but also the uncertainties (e...... of pure components of various classes (hydrocarbons, oxygenated components, nitrogenated components, poly-functional components, etc.) taken from the CAPEC database are used. In total 18 pure component properties are analyzed, namely normal boiling point, critical temperature, critical pressure, critical...... volume, normal melting point, standard Gibbs energy of formation, standard enthalpy of formation, normal enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization at 298 K, enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, flash point, auto ignition temperature...

  1. Development of a software for computer-linguistic verification of socio-demographic profile of web-community member

    Solomia Fedushko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the current important scientific and applied problem of socio-demographic characteristics validation of virtual community members by computer-linguistic analysis of web-community members' information track. A systematic analysis of the web-members information content and the research of the web-communication specificity of each socio-demographic characteristics value by virtual community content validation for further modeling socio-demographic profiles of web-members are realized. Mathematical models of basic virtual community member socio-demographic characteristics for creating a socio-demographic profile of virtual community member are generated. The method of registration and validation of virtual community member's personal data by checking the maximum amount of virtual community member's data for improving the quality of content and methods of virtual community management is developed. The software for socio-demographic characteristics verification of web-community member, "Socio-demographic profile verifier", is developed, by forming socio-demographic profile of virtual community member that is based on the system building information model of socio-demographic profile of virtual community member for the automation of the verification process of web-custom content.

  2. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  3. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  4. The Roepke Lecture in Economic Geography: urban restructuring from a demographic perspective.

    Clark, W A

    1987-04-01

    "The central argument of this paper is that recent research has overemphasized the notions of urban restructuring and undervalued the role of spatial demographics in understanding urban and [regional] spatial patterns. The paper examines the notions embedded in urban restructuring and suggests that a focus on several elements of demographic processes is an equally important component of understanding urban and [regional] spatial structure. A specific discussion of the Los Angeles region indicates that there is a high level of complexity in social-spatial change. Social-spatial change is not simply explained by reference to an unspecified urban restructuring." PMID:12268704

  5. New Approaches to Demographic Data Collection

    Treiman, Donald J.; Lu, Yao; Qi, Yaqiang

    2012-01-01

    As population scientists have expanded the range of topics they study, increasingly considering the interrelationship between population phenomena and social, economic, and health conditions, they have expanded the kinds of data collected and have brought to bear new data collection techniques and procedures, often borrowed from other fields. These new approaches to demographic data collection are the concern of this essay. We consider three main topics: new developments in sampling procedure...

  6. Culture, nationality and demographics in ultimatum games

    Botelho, Anabela; Mark A. Hirsch; Rutström, Elisabet E.

    2000-01-01

    We use experimental data collected in Russia and in the United States using a simple ultimatum game to evaluate two alternative hypotheses that may account for previously observed behavior in multinational experiments. One hypothesis postulates that behavioral differences observed in bargaining experiments arise from country-specific cultural environments. We submit the alternative hypothesis that different behavior in such experiments stems from differences in the demographic characteristics...

  7. Complexity and Demographic Explanations of Cumulative Culture

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing— while favoured by increasing—population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limite...

  8. DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS WITHIN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Bente Florina Maria

    2014-12-01

    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  9. Demographic processes and ethnic residential segregation

    Itzhak Omer

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of demographic processes in the residential segregation of ethnic groups in an urban area. For this purpose, a two-part methodology has been employed. The first part comprises a conceptual framework which uses the concept of time–space resources as an analytical tool to clarify the structural constraints embedded in the changes in ethnic residential distribution. The second part comprises a simulation model of ethnic residential segregation. The model, whic...

  10. Demographics of South African Households - 1995

    Rantho, Lillian

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the demographics of the South African population based on the October Household Survey (OHS) and the Income and Expenditure Survey (IES), both conducted by Statistics South Africa in 1995. Figures and tables are used throughout to paint a picture of the structure of the South African population, both at household level (IES data) and individual level (OHS data). Specific reference is made to the racial and spatial composition of households and individuals, t...

  11. Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity

    Cohen, Joel E.

    2008-01-01

    To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global) is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global) is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global) is the populat...

  12. Demographics of Population Ageing in Hungary

    Hablicsek, László

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with population ageing from demographic aspects. It is a general trend in human development. A new accelerated stage with shrinking labour force has commenced. There is a redefinition of the young, working-age and old-age groups. Trends in schooling, postponement in family formation and childbearing are also connected with ageing in this respect. The cohort ageing can also be defined. Here the basic inequality between the cohort and period burdens of support is presented and t...

  13. Role of Demographic Characteristics on Job Satisfaction

    Muhamamd Mudasar Ghafoor

    2012-01-01

    The cross-sectional study attempts to examine the relationship between Demographic Characteristics and job satisfaction among academic staff of public and private sectors universities in Pakistan. There were 132 universities in Pakistan, in which 73 public sectors and 59 from private sectors. This study was conducted in Punjab Province in which total number of universities was 40 which includes 22 public and 18 private sectors. This study considered all public and private sector universities ...

  14. THE PENSIONS AND DEMOGRAPHIC IMBALANCES IN ROMANIA

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2013-01-01

    Socio-demographic and economic processes that characterize the last period (aging population, reducing the working population, mainly macroeconomic problems of countries in transition, and so on) and will increase in the coming decades transform the problem of social protection for the elderly and special management problem better pension systems a fundamental challenge for both developed countries and those in transition. We can say that for Romania the problem is aggravadet by the alarming ...

  15. Socio-demographic Factors of Geriatric Depression

    Barua Ankur; Ghosh M; Kar N; Basilio M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common mental health problem in geriatric population and the overall prevalence rate of depression in this age group varies between 10 and 20%. Objective: To study the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in geriatric population. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done on 74 community-based mental health surveys on depression in geriatric population, which were conducted in the continents of Asia, Europe, Australia, North America,...

  16. Demographic determinants of formation and use of human capital in Ukraine: differential analysis and forecast

    Melnychuk, Dmytro Petrovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem that is little investigated in domestic economics. It assesses the impact of demographic processes on the prospects of accumulation and productivity of human capital. The author argues that focusing only in the quality of education and training that is inherent in most modern research, minimizes the effectiveness of human capital management as an economic asset. A man is a demographic basis of human capital accumulation. Accordingly, the particular demographic processes such as fertility, mortality, migration, development and disintegration of families, require careful analysis. The main objectives of the study related to the specification of the impact of demographic situation on the effectiveness of formation and use of human capital. It was found that due to the increasing demographic crisis in Ukraine initial conditions of accumulation of human capital at all levels of the economic system deteriorated significantly. It was substantiated that the renovation of demographic policy is a key factor for improving the efficiency of social investment; it also causes optimization of relations in various spheres of social interaction.

  17. Stochastic game dynamics under demographic fluctuations.

    Huang, Weini; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne

    2015-07-21

    Frequency-dependent selection and demographic fluctuations play important roles in evolutionary and ecological processes. Under frequency-dependent selection, the average fitness of the population may increase or decrease based on interactions between individuals within the population. This should be reflected in fluctuations of the population size even in constant environments. Here, we propose a stochastic model that naturally combines these two evolutionary ingredients by assuming frequency-dependent competition between different types in an individual-based model. In contrast to previous game theoretic models, the carrying capacity of the population, and thus the population size, is determined by pairwise competition of individuals mediated by evolutionary games and demographic stochasticity. In the limit of infinite population size, the averaged stochastic dynamics is captured by deterministic competitive Lotka-Volterra equations. In small populations, demographic stochasticity may instead lead to the extinction of the entire population. Because the population size is driven by fitness in evolutionary games, a population of cooperators is less prone to go extinct than a population of defectors, whereas in the usual systems of fixed size the population would thrive regardless of its average payoff. PMID:26150518

  18. Exile and demographic population growth in Serbia

    Stevanović Radoslav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of the 2002 population census on refugee population are analyzed in this paper with a basic aim to determine the significance (contribution of refugee corpus in demographic development of the Republic of Serbia. By analyzing the data, it has been determined that the refugee corpus does not significantly differ from the domicile population in the basic, above all demographic and other qualitative characteristics. The differences which can be noticed with certain (primarily socio-economic characteristics, due to the proportionally small participation of refugee persons in relation to the total (domicile population, could not significantly influence the total demographic, socio-economic and other characteristics of the population of central Serbia and Vojvodina. The most significant contribution of refugee (classifying the refugee corpus in the country's total population is reflected in the mitigation of the depopulation trend, namely population growth, not only both micro-entities, but also lower administrative-territorial entities (districts depending on the enumerated refugee population in them. However, population projections indicate that by the middle of this century (2050 the positive effects of the basically larger number of inhabitants will be lost caused by the inflow of refugee population.

  19. Demographic factors predict magnitude of conditioned fear.

    Rosenbaum, Blake L; Bui, Eric; Marin, Marie-France; Holt, Daphne J; Lasko, Natasha B; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-10-01

    There is substantial variability across individuals in the magnitudes of their skin conductance (SC) responses during the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. To manage this variability, subjects may be matched for demographic variables, such as age, gender and education. However, limited data exist addressing how much variability in conditioned SC responses is actually explained by these variables. The present study assessed the influence of age, gender and education on the SC responses of 222 subjects who underwent the same differential conditioning paradigm. The demographic variables were found to predict a small but significant amount of variability in conditioned responding during fear acquisition, but not fear extinction learning or extinction recall. A larger differential change in SC during acquisition was associated with more education. Older participants and women showed smaller differential SC during acquisition. Our findings support the need to consider age, gender and education when studying fear acquisition but not necessarily when examining fear extinction learning and recall. Variability in demographic factors across studies may partially explain the difficulty in reproducing some SC findings. PMID:26151498

  20. An analysis of single-engine rate-of-climb capabilities and thrust requirements of the S-3 and ES-3 aircraft in support of the TF34 Engine Component Improvement Program

    Micklewright, Alan J.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis provides an analytical look at the performance of the TF34 engine installed on the Navy's 5-3 and ES-3 aircraft. The objective of the thesis is to provide information to assist in the effective management of proposals and improvements being considered under the TF34 Engine Component Improvement Program (CIP). Historical flight data, simulator flight and thrust data, historical operational engine data, and data from aircrew surveys were all analyzed to determine the significance of...

  1. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an exercise programme to improve wellbeing outcomes in women with depression: findings from the qualitative component

    Khalil, Elizabeth; Callaghan, Patrick; Carter, Tim; Morres, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the qualitative component from a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (PRCT), the quantitative component is reported in Callaghan, Khalil, Morres and Carter (2011). Exercise may be effective in treating depression, but trials testing its effect in depressed women are rare. Our previous research found that standard exercise programmes, prescribed by General Practitioners and based on national guidelines of intensity levels thought to produce health benefits, are not suitabl...

  2. Electronic components

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  3. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Harmful drinking: Demographic differences

    ... To Your Health: NLM update Transcript Harmful drinking: Demographic differences : 04/04/2016 To use the sharing ... the 'alcohol harm paradox' that suggests there are demographic differences in the impact of drinking upon health. ...

  4. Demographic differences in inflation expectations: what do they really mean?

    Meyer, Brent; Venkatu, Guhan

    2011-01-01

    It has often been reported that different demographic groups show persistent differences in their inflation expectations. Some reasonable explanations have been suggested, but most have failed to fully explain these apparent differences. We argue that the demographic differences have been overstated by using the mean to describe differences across demographic groups. When we use the median to describe inflation expectations, we find little meaningful difference across demographic groups.

  5. Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit

    Harper, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions.

  6. Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit

    Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions. (letter)

  7. Demographic Surprises Foreshadow Change in Neoliberal Egypt

    Denis, Eric

    2008-01-01

    in the Egypt of 2008, half the population has known only one president, Husni Mubarak. And the rate of population growth, at its peak when Mubarak assumed office in 1981, has stopped declining as it had been in the 1990s. A new kind of population increase has begun. Such are the lessons of the provisional results of the Egyptian general population and housing census, conducted in November 2006 in accordance with the regular ten-year cycle. These demographic surprises have important implicatio...

  8. Demographic patterns and outcomes of patients in level I trauma centers in three international trauma systems

    Gunning, Amy C.; Lansink, K. W. W.; van Wessem, Karlijn J. P.; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Maier, Ronald V.; Leenen, Luke P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Trauma systems were developed to improve the care for the injured. The designation and elements comprising these systems vary across countries. In this study, we have compared the demographic patterns and patient outcomes of Level I trauma centers in three international trauma systems.

  9. Demographic Factors and Communal Mastery as Predictors of Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…

  10. Nuclear components

    The main features of the EPR concerning the fabrication of the reactor are: -) the size of the components, -) the modification of the design compared with classical PWR, and -) an intensive use of forging (in particular the cold and hot legs of the primary circuit are forged). This series of slides overviews the fabrication of the components for the EPR by highlighting the differences with the previous generation of reactors. 4 types of components are reviewed: the reactor vessel and internals, steam generators, primary circuit pipes, and primary coolant pumps. (A.C.)

  11. DEMOGRAPHICAL AND MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY RESEARCHES IN BUCOWINA

    Dorin DUMITRAS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the ecology factors of environment and medicaldemographycal situations of sickness rate and populations’mortality demonstrated with an example of urbanized landscapes of Bucowina. A greater corrective connection is revealed among cancer apathy (r=0.5-0.6, general dent rate (r=0.5, and an integral index of ecological safety of city’s landscape environment. The authors revealed backward (negative dependency among the increased harshness of drinking water and cancer pathology of digestion organs and abdominal cavity.This article deals with synthesis of medical-demographic study results of anthropic landscapes under the aspect of their utilization in order to increase human ecological conditions. One of the problems that authors tried to solve in the process of research lies indeveloping of theoretical and methodological thesis (based on combined analysis ofecological factors and demographical status in order to determine ecological situation inthe region and to evaluate life and activity conditions of population.

  12. Profile: Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Derra, Karim; Rouamba, Eli; Kazienga, Adama; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Tahita, Marc C; Sorgho, Hermann; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou

    2012-10-01

    The Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), located in the rural centre of Burkina Faso, was established in 2009 by the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro with the aim of providing a core framework for clinical trials and also to support the Burkina Faso health authorities in generating epidemiological data that can contribute to the setup and assessment of health interventions. In the baseline of initial census, 54 781 individuals were recorded of whom 56.1% are female. After the initial census, vital events such as pregnancies, births, migrations and deaths have been monitored, and data on individuals and household characteristics are updated during regular 4-monthly household visits. The available data are categorized into demographic, cultural, socio-economic and health information, and are used for monitoring and evaluation of population development issues. As a young site, our objective has been to strengthen our skills and knowledge and share new scientific experiences with INDEPTH and HDSS sites in Burkina Faso. In addition, all data produced by the Nanoro HDSS will be made publicly available through the INDEPTH data sharing system. PMID:23045201

  13. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    Objective: To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. Methodology: A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Results were expressed as percentages. Results: Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. Conclusion: SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions. (author)

  14. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable

  15. The SDSS-IV in 2014: A Demographic Snapshot

    Lundgren, Britt; Kinemuchi, Karen; Zasowski, Gail; Lucatello, Sara; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Myers, Adam D.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gillespie, Bruce; Ho, Shirley; Gallagher, John S.

    2015-08-01

    Many astronomers now participate in large international scientific collaborations, and it is important to examine whether these structures foster a healthy scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the demographics and gender climate within SDSS-IV, one of the largest and most geographically distributed astronomical collaborations. In 2014 April, the CPWS administered a voluntary demographic survey to establish a baseline for the incipient SDSS-IV, which began observations in 2014 July. We received responses from 250 participants (46% of the active membership). Half of the survey respondents were located in the United States or Canada and 30% were based in Europe. Approximately 65% were faculty or research scientists and 31% were postdocs or graduate students. Eleven percent of survey respondents considered themselves to be an ethnic minority at their current institution. Twenty-five percent of the SDSS-IV collaboration members are women, a fraction that is consistent with the U.S. astronomical community, but substantially higher than the fraction of women in the International Astronomical Union (16%). Approximately equal fractions of men and women report holding positions of leadership in the collaboration. When binned by academic age and career level, men and women also assume leadership roles at approximately equal rates, in a way that increases steadily for both genders with increasing seniority. In this sense, SDSS-IV has been successful in recruiting leaders that are representative of the collaboration. That said, it is clear that more progress needs to be made toward achieving gender balance and increasing diversity in the field of astronomy, and there is still room for improvement in the membership and leadership of SDSS-IV. For example, at the highest level of SDSS-IV leadership, women disproportionately assume roles related to education and

  16. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    Naruo Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan.

  17. Improving the analysis of social component of flash-floods risk assessment: Application to urban areas of Castilla y León (Spain)

    Aroca Jimenez, Estefanía; Bodoque del Pozo, Jose Maria; Garcia Martin, Juan Antonio; Diez Herrero, Andres

    2016-04-01

    The increasing evidence of anthropogenic climate change, the respective intensification of extreme events as well as the increase in human exposure to natural hazards and their vulnerability show that the enhancement of strategies on how to reduce disaster risk and promote adaptation to extreme events is critical to increase resilience. Growing economic losses, high numbers of casualties and the disruption of livelihoods in various places of the world, at an even higher rate than the increase of magnitude and frequency of extreme events, underline that the vulnerability of societies exposed is a key aspect to be considered. Social vulnerability characterizes the predisposition of society to be afflicted by hazards such as floods, being flash floods one of the hazards with the greatest capacity to generate risk. Despite its importance, social vulnerability is often a neglected aspect of traditional risk assessments which mainly focus on economic and structural measures. The aim of this research is to identify those social characteristics which render people vulnerable to flash flood hazards, and consider whether these characteristics are identifiable as local patterns at regional level. The result of this task is a Social Susceptibility Index (SSI) based on susceptibility profiles of the population per township. These profiles are obtained by Hierarchical Segmentation and Latent Class Analysis of demographic and socio-economic information provided by different public organisms. By adding exposure information to SSI, a Social and Infraestructure Flood Vulnerability Index (SIFVI) is created. The methodology proposed here is implemented in the region of Castilla y León (94,226 km2). Townships that are included in this study meet two requirements: i) city centres are affected by an area where potential significant flash-flood risk exists (i.e. villages are crossed by rivers with a longitudinal slope higher than 0.01); ii) city centres are affected by an area with low

  18. Distributed and Parallel Component Library

    XU Zheng-quan; XU Yang; YAN Ai-ping

    2005-01-01

    Software component library is the essential part of reuse-based software development. It is shown that making use of a single component library to store all kinds of components and from which components are searched is very inefficient. We construct multi-libraries to support software reuse and use PVM as development environments to imitate largescale computer, which is expected to fulfill distributed storage and parallel search of components efficiently and improve software reuse.

  19. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  20. Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Li Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from

  1. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

  2. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  3. Demographic processes and ethnic residential segregation

    Itzhak Omer

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the involvement of demographic processes in the residential segregation of ethnic groups in an urban area. For this purpose, a two-part methodology has been employed. The first part comprises a conceptual framework which uses the concept of time–space resources as an analytical tool to clarify the structural constraints embedded in the changes in ethnic residential distribution. The second part comprises a simulation model of ethnic residential segregation. The model, which fits into the category of agent-based simulation models, serves as a tool for heuristic study. The methodology has been applied to examine the implications of fluctuations in ethnic group diffusion and the residential mobility rate on the majority–minority residential segregation, and on the internal ethnic segregation within the minority group.

  4. Land use and demographic grids in Cosyma

    The spatial distribution of the population, agricultural production, economic activity, and the position of land and sea, are important elements of accident consequence codes. These data are necessary in evaluating the health effects within the population arising from the external dose, inhalation and ingestion pathways. These distributions are also essential in calculating the economic impact of implementing countermeasures, such as relocation and food bans. This paper includes a discussion of the agricultural production and population distribution information available for EC countries, their resolution, availability and sources. The gridded data included in the COSYMA system are described. Particular aspects, such as the difficulties involved with using economic land use information, are also explained. Future developments, and their effect on the requirements for land use and demographic grids, are outlined

  5. Globally coupled chaotic maps and demographic stochasticity

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2010-03-01

    The effect of noise on a system of globally coupled chaotic maps is considered. Demographic stochasticity is studied since it provides both noise and a natural definition for extinction. A two-step model is presented, where the intrapatch chaotic dynamics is followed by a migration step with global dispersal. The addition of noise to the already chaotic system is shown to dramatically change its behavior. The level of migration in which the system attains maximal sustainability is identified. This determines the optimal way to manipulate a fragmented habitat in order to conserve endangered species. The quasideterministic dynamics that appears in the large N limit of the stochastic system is analyzed. In the clustering phase, the infinite degeneracy of deterministic solutions emerges from the single steady state of the stochastic system via a mechanism that involves an almost defective Markov matrix.

  6. Medical demographic consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    A demographic study was made of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone around the nuclear power plant and of the population living in areas over which the radioactive cloud passed and over which the plume was formed. For the farmers evacuated from 11,655 homes in the Chernobyl region, 7,000 new houses, built in the Kiev region, had already been provided within 5 months of the accident, and by the summer of 1987 another 5,000 houses were available. A study of the resettlement of the population carried out a year after the accident showed that more than 60% of those evacuated continued to live in the regions from which the evacuation had taken place; about 5% were resettled in other republics, and 20% within their own republic. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Demographic and occupational correlates of workaholism.

    Taris, Toon W; Van Beek, Ilona; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2012-04-01

    Drawing on a convenience sample of 9,160 Dutch employees, the present study examined whether commonly held ideas about the associations between demographic, professional, and occupational characteristics and workaholism would be observed. For example, it is sometimes assumed that managers are more likely to display workaholic tendencies than others. Analysis of variance was used to relate workaholism scores (measured as the combination of working excessively and working compulsively) to participant age, sex, employment status (self-employed or not), profession, and occupational sector. Relatively high average scores on workaholism were obtained by workers in the agriculture, construction, communication, consultancy, and commerce/trade sectors, as well as managers and higher professionals. Low scores were found for those in the public administration and services industry sectors, and for nurses, social workers, and paramedics. The other characteristics were not or only weakly related to workaholism. PMID:22662409

  8. Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity

    Joel E. Cohen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global is the population-weighted mean of the life expectancy at birth of all countries, then B(global x e(global always exceeds P(global unless all countries have the same life expectancy at birth.

  9. Socio-investment, Cultural and Demographic qualities influencing Fertility Behavior in Shiekhupura, Pakistan

    Shahid Qayyum; Tehmina Ikram Ullah; Fazeelat Naz; Amber Ayub

    2013-01-01

    This study is archived for the acknowledgment of the socio-budgetary, social and demographic components influencing ripeness conduct. The universe for the present study comprised of provincial and urban ranges of Shiekhupura. In testing system 180 respondents were distinguished and gathered data keeping in perspective the fruitfulness conduct of the individuals, from provincial and urban ranges by utilizing advantageous examining method. An overall organized Interview Schedu...

  10. Types of Demographic and Economic Development of Russian Cities in Post-Soviet Period

    Limonov, Leonid; Kauffmann, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Types of Demographic and Economic Development of Russian Cities in Post-Soviet Period Albrecht Kauffmann, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), Germany Leonid Limonov, Higher School of Economics-St.Petersburg, International Centre for Social and Economic Research «Leontief Centre», Russia Key-words: Urban Systems, Typology, Cluster Analysis, City Size, Balance of Migration, Labor Market, Economic Activity, Poverty Trap, Principle Components. JEL codes: R12, R15, R23 For long time, th...

  11. Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy

    Kéry, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic studies in plants appear simple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastic tags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperate latitudes have a pronounced seasonal life–cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots once a year often during or shortly after flowering. Life–states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of a demographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as 0VFVVF000. A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it was seen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities of survival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting. Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, i.e., when plants may stay belowground for one or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as 0VF00F000 may then occur where the meaning of zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methods in wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equated to a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and in Kéry et al. (submitted, we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival and should not be used. In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capturerecapture (CR models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state–transitions and the fraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrial orchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kéry et al., submitted and Cypripedium reginae (Kéry & Gregg, submitted in West Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a

  12. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Asghar Mirfardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is “the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms”. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  13. Sechium edule Shoot Extracts and Active Components Improve Obesity and a Fatty Liver That Involved Reducing Hepatic Lipogenesis and Adipogenesis in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Yang, Mon-Yuan; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Lee, Yi-Ju; Chang, Xiao-Zong; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2015-05-13

    Excess fat accumulation in the liver increases the risk of developing progressive liver injuries ranging from a fatty liver to hepatocarcinoma. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the polyphenol components of Sechium edule shoots attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of the extract of S. edule shoots (SWE) to modulate fat accumulation in a high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced animal model. In this study, we found that the SWE can reduce the body weight, adipose tissue fat, and regulate hepatic lipid contents (e.g., triglyceride and cholesterol). Additionally, treatment of caffeic acid (CA) and hesperetin (HPT), the main ingredients of SWE, also inhibited oleic acid (OA)-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. SWE enhanced the activation of AMP-activating protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased numerous lipogenic-related enzymes, such as sterol regulator element-binding proteins (SREBPs), e.g., SREBP-1 and SREBP-2, and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCoR) proteins, which are critical regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Taken together, the results demonstrated that SWE can prevent a fatty liver and attenuate adipose tissue fat by inhibiting lipogenic enzymes and stimulating lipolysis via upregulating AMPK. It was also demonstrated that the main activation components of SWE are both CA and HPT. PMID:25912298

  14. Quality of demographic data in GGS Wave 1

    Jorik Vergauwen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key feature of the Generations & Gender Programme (GGP is that longitudinal micro-data from the Generations and Gender Surveys (GGS can be combined with indicators from the Contextual Database (CDB that provide information on the macro-level context in which people live. This allows researchers to consider the impact of socio-cultural, economic, and policy contexts on changing demographic behaviour since the 1970s. The validity of longitudinal analyses combining individual-level and contextual data depends, however, on whether the micro-data give a correct account of demographic trends after 1970. Objective: This article provides information on the quality of retrospective longitudinal data on first marriage and fertility in the first wave of the GGS. Methods: Using the union and fertility histories recorded in the GGS, we compare period indicators of women's nuptiality and fertility behaviour for the period 1970-2005 and cohort indicators of nuptiality and fertility for women born after 1925 to population statistics. Results: Results suggest that, in general, period indicators estimated retrospectively from the GGS are fairly accurate from the 1970s onwards, allowing exceptions for specific indicators in specific countries. Cohort indicators, however, were found to be less accurate for cohorts born before 1945, suggesting caution when using the GGS to study patterns of union and family formation in these older cohorts. Conclusions: The assessment of the validity of demographic data in the GGS provides country-specific information on time periods and birth cohorts for which GGS estimates deviate from population statistics. Researchers may use this information to decide on the observation period or cohorts to include in their analysis, or use the results as a starting point for a more detailed analysis of item nonresponse in union and fertility histories, which may further improve the quality of GGS estimates, particularly for these

  15. [Demographic information in crisis: one point of view].

    Morelos, J B

    1990-01-01

    This work argues that doubts concerning the reliability of demographic information in Mexico from censuses and other sources should prompt a search for ways of improving existing data rather than developing new data sources and measurement techniques. The example of labor force data is used to illustrate the achievements of past data collection efforts and to suggest a framework for reconciling statistics from diverse sources and exploiting existing sources more fully. From a practical perspective, it would be difficult to identify a nontraditional source of information, statistical procedure, or conceptual framework for collection of labor force and other demographic data that has not been tried somewhere, at some time. Economists and other social scientists who have analyzed the adequacy of existing data sources have pointed to the financial implications of extensive alterations in them and have suggested new questions to be added to censuses and surveys to fill gaps in information. Studies based on census data have been particularly effective in furthering understanding of the supply of labor in Mexico and the factors affecting behavior of the economically active population. Economic surveys have contributed to analysis of employment in the different sectors and the characteristics of workers in different types of establishments and activities. Surveys, both specialized and multipurpose, have also contributed to knowledge of employment and the labor market, especially in urban areas and in aspects related to migration. To classify the different potential sources of labor force data, 2 tables are presented. The 1st lists continuous, periodic, and sporadic sources of data produced in the public, social, and private sectors. The listing of different data sources suggests the rich potential for combining findings from different sources, e.g., correlating deaths occurring in a certain time period to working age adults with information derived from the census to

  16. India’s demographic dividend: opportunities and threats

    Majumder, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    Demographic transition creates a small window for countries to leverage their demographic dividend and leapfrog to a higher level of income-employment situation. This opportunity comes in the middle stage of demographic transition when the population pyramid shows signs of maturity and bulges in the middle, indicating a relatively larger share of youth or working age persons in total population, and hence a low dependency ratio. Consequently, countries can engage this human resource to augmen...

  17. Demographic Dividends, Dependencies and Economic Growth in China and India

    2012-01-01

    The world's two population giants have undergone significant, and significantly different, demographic transitions since the 1950s. The demographic dividends associated with these transitions during the first three decades of this century are examined using a global economic model that incorporates full demographic behavior and measures of dependency that reflect the actual number of workers to non-workers, rather than the number of working aged to non-working aged. While much of China's demo...

  18. PREDICTING COUPON USE FROM SHOPPER DEMOGRAPHIC AND BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Park, Kristen; Gomez, Miguel I.

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed of grocery shoppers in the Northeast United States to measure how demographic characteristics and consumer behavior affect the use of four coupon types (paper, in-store, checkout, and online). We employ logit models to estimate the probability that a consumer is a regular coupon user conditioned to his/her demographic and behavioral characteristics. Readership and economizing-behavior variables have a larger impact on the probability of being a coupon user than do demographic vari...

  19. Mining The Relationship Between Demographic Variables And Brand Associations

    Dabbes, Ajayeb Abu; Kharbat, Faten

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to mine the relationship between demographic variables and brand associations, and study the relative importance of these variables. The study is conducted on fast-food restaurant brands chains in Jordan. The result ranks and evaluates the demographic variables in relation with the brand associations for the selected sample. Discovering brand associations according to demographic variables reveals many facts and linkages in the context of Jordanian culture. Suggestions are ...

  20. Do Demographic Changes Affect Risk Premiums? Evidence from International Data

    Ang, Andrew; Maddaloni, Angela

    2003-01-01

    We examine the link between equity risk premiums and demographic changes using a very long sample over the whole twentieth century for the US, Japan, UK, Germany and France, and a shorter sample covering the last third of the twentieth century for fifteen countries. We find that demographic variables significantly predict excess returns internationally. However, the demographic predictability found in the US by past studies for the average age of the population does not extend to other countr...

  1. The Nexus Between Macroeconomics and Demographics: Implications for Sustainable Development

    Ngozi M. Nwakeze

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the interlinkage effects of macroeconomic variables on the demographic dynamics of Nigeria. This topic is important because available evidence still suggests that Nigeria has a very young population and that the country is not likely to experience demographic transition in the near future. Using the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation technique, a regression model is developed. The model is used to explore the links between demographic variables and macroeconomic variab...

  2. Impact of Demographic Changes on Inflation and the Macroeconomy

    Jong-Won Yoon; Jinill Kim; Jungjin Lee

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing demographic changes will bring about a substantial shift in the size and the age composition of the population, which will have significant impact on the global economy. Despite potentially grave consequences, demographic changes usually do not take center stage in many macroeconomic policy discussions or debates. This paper illustrates how demographic variables move over time and analyzes how they influence macroeconomic variables such as economic growth, inflation, savings and i...

  3. The Effect Demographics Have On The Demand For Orange Juice

    Davis, Andrew; Gunderson, Michael A.; Brown, Mark G.; House, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates how the demand for orange juice is affected by the demographics of consumers. There are many variables in the orange juice demand equation and demographics are only one. Demographic variables are important in determining the tastes and preferences of different regions. The data that has been collected is weekly data over a two year period of time. The seemingly unrelated regression method will be used to examine the data. This project will be beneficial to orange juice...

  4. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited

    Thomas, Nicole R.; Poole, Daniel J.; Herbers, Joan M.

    2015-01-01

    The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gen...

  5. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-01-01

    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...

  6. Demographic Complementarities and Outsourcing : Implications and Challenges for India

    Mukul G. Asher; Amarendu Nandy

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the implications of differing global demographic trends for Indias competitiveness in outsourcing and offshoring. It also briefly notes the implications of differing demographic trends among the Indian states. The paper argues that demographic complementarities with high-income countries provide India with one-time opportunity to sustain its growth rate and occupy all segments of global outsourcing and offshoring activities. India has used the labor cost advantage to gain ...

  7. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers. PMID:27209129

  8. An approach to improve direct runoff estimates and reduce uncertainty in the calculated groundwater component in water balances of large lakes

    Wiebe, Andrew J.; Conant, Brewster; Rudolph, David L.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is important in the overall water budget of a lake because it affects the quantity and quality of surface water and the ecological health of the lake. The water balance equation is frequently used to estimate the net groundwater flow for small lakes but is seldom used to determine net groundwater flow components for large lakes because: (1) errors accumulate in the calculated groundwater term, and (2) there is an inability to accurately quantify the direct runoff component. In this water balance study of Lake Pyhäjärvi (155 km2) in Finland, it was hypothesized a hydrograph separation model could be used to estimate direct runoff to the lake and, when combined with a rigorous uncertainty analyses, would provide reliable net groundwater flow estimates. The PART hydrograph separation model was used to estimate annual per unit area direct runoff values for the watershed of the inflowing Yläneenjoki River (a subwatershed of the lake) which were then applied to other physically similar subwatersheds of the lake to estimate total direct runoff to the lake. The hydrograph separation method provided superior results and had lower uncertainty than the common approach of using a runoff coefficient based method. The average net groundwater flow into the lake was calculated to be +43 mm per year (+3.0% of average total inflow) for the 38 water years 1971-2008. It varied from -197 mm to 284 mm over that time, and had a magnitude greater than the uncertainty for 17 of the 38 years. The average indirect groundwater contribution to the lake (i.e., the groundwater part of the inflowing rivers) was 454 mm per year (+32% of average total inflow) and demonstrates the overall importance of groundwater. The techniques in this study are applicable to other large lakes and may allow small net groundwater flows to be reliably quantified in settings that might otherwise be unquantifiable or completely lost in large uncertainties.

  9. Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy

    Kery, M.; Gregg, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    Demographic studies in plants appear simple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastic tags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperate latitudes have a pronounced seasonal life-cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots once a year often during or shortly after flowering. Life-states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of a demographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as OVFVVF000. A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it was seen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities of survival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting. Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, I.e., when plants may stay belowground for one or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as OVFOOF000 may then occur where the meaning of zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methods in wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equated to a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and in Kery et al. (submitted), we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival and should not be used. In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capture-recapture (CR) models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state-transitions and the fraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrial orchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kery et aI., submitted) and Cypripedium reginae (Kery & Gregg, submitted) in West Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a total of 620 marked

  10. Component Rhinoplasty

    Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to statistics of American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic rhinoplasty was the second most frequently performed cosmetic surgery. This study shares the experiences with component rhinoplasty. METHODS From 2004 to 2010, all patients underwent aesthetic nasal surgery were enrolled. The patients requiring only correction of septal deviation and those presenting with cleft lip nasal deformity were excluded. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with ope...

  11. Component Separations

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H.; Ramirez, Oscar M.

    2012-01-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-...

  12. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS).

    Kishamawe, C; Isingo, R; Mtenga, B; Zaba, B; Todd, J.; Clark, B.; Changalucha, J.; Urassa, M

    2015-01-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2-3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HI...

  13. Component separations.

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

  14. Relationship Between Dietary Patterns and Socio- Demographic or Lifestyle Factors in Urban School- Aged Children

    Huan WANG; Yun CHEN; Wei CHEN; Ai ZHAO; Yu-mei ZHANG; Zhi-shen MU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the dietary patterns in urban school-aged children in China and determine the relations with socio-demographic or lifestyle factors.MethodsA total of 620 school-aged children from 7 cities in China were recruited in a cross-sectional study and their dietary data over the preceding 6 months were recorded via questionnaire between 2011-2012. The dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Walis H test was preformed to reveal the relationship between dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified. The traditional pattern had high positive relationships with grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, vegetables and soybeans/soybean products. The high-protein pattern was characterized by large positive coefficient for fruits, fish/shrimps, eggs, milk/milk products, soybeans/soybean products and salt. The oil/fat and beverage pattern with highly related with grains, meat/poultry, eggs, oil/fat, salt and beverages. The relationships between the dietary patterns and various socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics were analyzed.Conclusion Three dietary patterns were identified. A clear association was found between the dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics.

  15. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Podyashchikh, P

    1968-01-01

    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative

  16. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herbal mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts (Him-I, Him-II) which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Some fractions of Him-I and Him-II increased the proliferation of bone marrow cells irradiated {gamma}-ray(4Gray). Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. 20 refs., 23 figs. (Author)

  17. Improving the low-temperature capacitance of CoNiAl three-component layered double hydroxide in a redox electrolyte

    Graphical abstract: The specific capacitance of CoNiAl layered double hydroxide in 6 M KOH reduces sharply from room temperature to −20 °C, which is effectively enhanced by adding redox pair Fe(CN)63−/Fe(CN)64− in the electrolyte. - Highlights: • CoNiAl layered double hydroxide is synthesized by homogeneous precipitation. • The specific capacitance reduces sharply with the decrease of temperature. • At −20 °C the specific capacitance is increased by 178% in a redox electrolyte. - Abstract: CoNiAl three-component layered double hydroxide with a lamellar structure similar to hydrotalcite-like compounds is synthesized via homogeneous precipitation and the effect of temperature on its capacitive performances in 6 M KOH is investigated. Electrochemical tests show its specific capacitance reduces sharply with the decrease of temperature from 18 to −20 °C. At −20 °C an increase of specific capacitance by 178% is achieved by adding redox pair Fe(CN)63−/Fe(CN)64− as the electron shuttle in the electrolyte due to their cooperation with the electrode reaction during the charge/discharge processes

  18. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.

    Mitteldorf, J J

    2012-07-01

    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program. PMID:22817535

  19. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.  References: Huang MC, Huang CC, Thomas K. Febrile convulsions: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure

  20. The improved Hydrogen Storage Performances of the Multi-Component Composite: 2Mg(NH22–3LiH–LiBH4

    Han Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 2Mg(NH22–3LiH–LiBH4 composite exhibits an improved kinetic and thermodynamic properties in hydrogen storage in comparison with 2Mg(NH22–3LiH. The peak temperature of hydrogen desorption drops about 10 K and the peak width shrinks about 50 K compared with the neat 2Mg(NH22–3LiH. Its isothermal dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation rates are respectively 2 times and 18 times as fast as those of 2Mg(NH22–3LiH. A slope desorption region with higher equilibrium pressure is observed. By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analyses, the existence of Li2BNH6 is identified and its roles in kinetic and thermodynamic enhancement are discussed.

  1. On-Line Monitoring and Dynamic Feature Trending as a Means to Improve In-Service Inspection, Maintenance, and Long-Term Assessment of Systems and Components

    The recent publication of an international standard on vibration monitoring of reactor internal structures (IEC 61502, standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission) concludes a long-standing development of methods for a new type of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control system. This new system differs from traditional monitoring systems, as it is aimed primarily at early failure detection. Useful information is provided to plant operators, but in particular to the inspection/maintenance personnel. Powerful modern computer technology allows - in an effective manner - correlation and spectral analysis, feature extraction and trending, alert level monitoring, and remote data/signature transmission of dynamic process signals such as neutron noise, vibration signals, pressure noise, etc. The signature and feature trends are stored in a central databank and form a useful reference for assessment of components and systems in case of actual incipient failure development or at the estimated end of the plant lifetime as part of the aging condition assessment measures.The standard IEC 61502 is used as an example for early failure detection and on-line condition monitoring methods based on signature analysis and feature vector monitoring in general. The reasons/background for structuring this particular standard in a mandatory and an optional part as well as the resulting consequences are explained. But emphasis is also placed on demonstration of the principles, i.e., measurement analysis and usefulness of such methods for maintenance and refurbishment strategies. The transferability of the methods is discussed when applied for other tasks, for instance, for condition/aging assessment of process instrumentation

  2. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study.

    Arciero, Paul J; Ives, Stephen J; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O'Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5-6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. -5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (-5 ± 9 vs. -11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  3. Demographics, Velocity Distributions, and Impact Type as Predictors of AIS 4+ Head Injuries in Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Fitzharris, Michael; Pintar, Frank A; Stemper, Brian D; Rinaldi, James; Maiman, Dennis J; Fildes, Brian N

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine differences between the United States-based NASS and CIREN and Australia-based ANCIS databases in occupant-, crash-, and vehicle-related parameters for AIS 4+ head injuries in motor vehicle crashes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine roles of the change in velocity (DV), crash type (frontal, far-side, nearside, rear impact), seatbelt use, and occupant position, gender, age, stature, and body mass in cranial traumas. Belted and unbelted non-ejected occupant (age >16 years) data from 1997-2006 were used for the NASS and CIREN datasets, and 2000-2010 for ANCIS. Vehicle model year, and occupant position and demographics including body mass index (BMI) data were obtained. Injuries were coded using AIS 1990-1998 update. Similarities were apparent across all databases: mean demographics were close to the mid-size anthropometry, mean BMI was in the normal to overweight range, and representations of extreme variations were uncommon. Side impacts contributed to over one-half of the ensemble, implying susceptibility to head trauma in this mode. Odds of sustaining head injury increased by 4% per unit increase in DV (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03-1.04, poccupants (OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.37-0.61, poccupant-related outcomes from the two continents indicate a worldwide need to revise the translation acceleration-based head injury criterion to include the angular component in an appropriate format for improved injury assessment and mitigation. PMID:22105402

  4. China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

  5. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  6. Exploring the Demographic Factors Affecting Passage of Living Wage Ordinances

    Oren M. Levin-Waldman

    2004-01-01

    An analysis based on data from the Current Population Survey suggests that cities with certain demographics, particularly higher concentrations of immigrants from south of the American border, lower levels of educational attainment, more people in low wage industries, and higher rates of income inequality, appear to be more likely to pass living wage ordinances than those cities that do not have these demographics.

  7. Demographic Faultlines: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    Thatcher, Sherry M. B.; Patel, Pankaj C.

    2011-01-01

    We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting…

  8. Family practice in Ontario: How physician demographics affect practice patterns

    Norton, Peter G.; Dunn, Earl V.; Bed, Liane Soberman

    1994-01-01

    As the demographics of practising physicians change, especially as the number of women doctors in an area increases, it is important that those planning for the provision of medical care in the future understand the relationships between the demographics and changes in practice patterns.

  9. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  10. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    Poon, Kirsten Achilles, E-mail: achilles.kirsten@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Tibbitts, Jay [UCB, Brussels (Belgium); Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (∼ 4400 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) and 30 mg/kg (∼ 6000 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 μg DM1/m{sup 2}). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic

  11. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (∼ 4400 μg DM1/m2) and 30 mg/kg (∼ 6000 μg DM1/m2) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 μg DM1/m2). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic activity. • When

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF THE MAIN DEMOGRAPHIC PHENOMENA IN ROMANIA

    MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the main demographic phenomena provide useful information about the future evolution of the number and age structure of Romania’s population. The mutations in the social-economic structure of the country have led to a dynamic territorial mobility of the population; at the same time, they have direct consequences upon the socio-demographic structure of the population. In the past years, demographic migration has become a common fact. The young and mature population migrates from the rural to the urban environment, motivated by the living and working conditions in the urban centers. Consequently, the remaining rural inhabitants are mostly old-aged. The aging of the rural population is also caused by a series of demographic and social-economic factors. The economic effects of the demographic evolution will be seen in time and will bring about changes in the various subpopulations (school children, fertile population, inhabitants able to work.

  13. A dynamic multilevel model of demographic diversity and misfit effects.

    Sacco, Joshua M; Schmitt, Neal

    2005-03-01

    In this study, the authors proposed and evaluated the linkages of a dynamic multilevel model of demographic diversity and misfit effects in a large sample of quick-service restaurants. Using a cross-level approach, the authors studied an employee's demographic misfit in relation to coworkers' demographics as a predictor of turnover risk over time. At the business-unit level, they studied changes in restaurant demographic diversity in relation to changes in profitability over time and unit turnover rates in relation to profitability. The authors also studied the impact of the match between the racial compositions of the restaurants and their communities on profitability. The results supported linkages between demographic misfit and turnover and partially supported a negative association between racial diversity and changes in profitability. PMID:15769233

  14. Estimating components of variance in demographic parameters of Tawny Owls, Strix aluco

    Francis, C. M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival rates of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco were estimated using recapture and recovery data from approximately 20,000 nestling and adult owls ringed between 1980 and 1999 in southern Finland. Survival rates averaged 33% in the first year of life, 64% in the second, and 73% in subsequent years, but varied dramatically among years. Approximately 50% of annual variation in survival could be explained by stage of the vole cycle and severity of winter weather. Capture probabilities, an index of breeding propensity, varied dramatically among years, and could almost entirely be explained by the vole cycle, superimposed on a long-term increase in capture effort. Matrix models based on mean values in each year of the vole cycle, predict that in 2 out of 3 years, the population would decline by 13%-15% per year, offset by a large increase in the 3rd year. Numbers of nesting pairs are predicted to be low in one of three years, with no long-term trend, consistent with observed estimates of active nests.

  15. How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?

    Derya KARA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation, t-test, Anova and Tukey analysis. As a result of this research; it has been seen that, there is no statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees work at hotel establishments considering their gender and marital status. Besides, it has been understood that, there is a statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees considering their ages, education levels, incomes, and length of time in tourism sector.

  16. Graphite components

    The reflector of the AVR reactor consists of needle coke graphite ARS/AMT made by the firm of Sigri GmbH. Although its orientation anisotropy is greater than those of materials developed in the last few years, the reflector graphite shows comparatively good dimensional stability in the conditions prevailing in the AVR reactor, as shown by tests on irradiation samples. It was also found that the strength increased. No damage was found during inspections in 1984 of the upper side and ceiling reflector. After a 20 year operating period, the graphite components of the AVR reactor should be in an excellent state. This will be possible to prove when samples are taken from the graphite reflector and examined in the context of a dismantling program. (orig.)

  17. Changing demographics in patients with vascular disease.

    Kwolek, Christopher J; Clagett, G Patrick

    2009-02-01

    The United States population with vascular disease has changed dramatically during the past 2 decades, with large increases in the proportion of Hispanic, African American, and other minority patients. Not only has the number of these patients increased, but the types and distribution of vascular disease in minority populations is also different from that encountered in non-Hispanic whites. Although genetic makeup accounts for some of these differences, access to vascular care is also an important determinant, with many minority patients presenting late in the course of the disease process. These factors create significant challenges for the vascular specialists caring for these patients. The vascular surgery workforce is composed of >90% white men and does not currently represent the changes in the population of patients with vascular disease. In addition, women with vascular disease comprise up to 50% of many vascular surgery practices. In many parts of the country, Hispanics and African Americans outnumber non-Hispanic whites with vascular disease. Yet, women and minority physicians are still significantly under-represented in the field of vascular surgery. This year's E. Stanley Crawford Critical Issues Forum at the Society for Vascular Surgery meeting addressed the disconnect between the vascular surgery workforce and the patients whom we serve. This article reviews the projected demographic changes in the population of the United States, which supports the need for training a vascular surgery workforce that is more diverse. This article also reviews the current status of minority and female representation in medical schools, surgical training programs, and vascular surgery programs in the United States. PMID:19216973

  18. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES OF SEPTIC ABORTION

    Manoj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Septic abortion is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. Termination of pregnancy, although a safe and easy procedure in trained hands, can produce catastrophic outcomes when performed by unauthorized or untrained people and in improper settings. OBJECTIVE: To find out the association of various socio-demographic factors with septic abortion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a longitudinal study, conducted in the indoor of obstetrics & gynaecology department of R.M.C.H & R.C, Ghaziabad district of Uttar Pradesh from the period of Feb-2013 to April-2013, after selecting 100 septic abortion cases by simple randomization, who were admitted during the study period. Information of all these cases regarding their age, marital status, socio-economic status, literacy, parity and gestational age was obtained, and their association with septic abortion was studied accordingly. OBSERVATION: Out of the 100 cases of septic abortion studied, maximum percentage (66% of the cases was seen from the age group of 26 to 35 years. Most of the cases (97% were married, maximum (40% were belonging from low socio-economic status group (Group-IV, maximum (60% number of cases were illiterate, maximum (53% number of cases belonged to women group having parity five and above, and maximum (86% number of women were in the 1st trimester of pregnancy at the time of abortion. CONCLUSION: Present study confirms that unsafe abortion is one of the greatest neglected healthcare problems in India and more so in rural India. So, there is the need to strengthen quality abortion services to reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality due to septic abortion

  19. Risk society and the second demographic transition

    Hall, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishProminent "risk society" theorists such as Giddens and Beck have identifiedrisk as a fundamental organizing principle of contemporary society. Importantly, a major cause of riskawareness and anxiety in modern society is individualism . . a concept Lesthaeghe linked to changes infamily formation. In this regard, of the types of risk discussed in the sociological literature,"interpersonal risks" associated with cohabitation, marriage, and parenting are of obvious salience.This paper explores how the modern "risk society" thesis, and the concept of interpersonal risk couldmaterially contribute to understanding the second demographic transition.FrenchDes theorists connu tells que Giddens et Beck qui promeuvent "la société de risqué" ont identifié le risqué comme un principe fundamental de l'organisation de la société contemporaine. De l'importance est que l'individualisme, … un concept que Lesthaeghe a relié aux changements dans la formation de la famille, est une cause majeuire de la reconnaissance du risqué et de l'anxiété dans la société moderne. En ce qui concerne le risqué, de tous les genres de risqué discutés dans la literature sociologique, les risques "interpersonnels" associés à la cohabitation, le marriage et l'élevement des enfants sont plus communs. Ce papier examine la possibilité que l'idée d'une "société de risqué" moderne, et le concept du risqué interpersonnel pourraient contribuer à la comprehension de la deuxiéme transition démographique.

  20. Demographic characteristics of elite Kenyan endurance runners.

    Onywera, Vincent O; Scott, Robert A; Boit, Michael K; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2006-04-01

    Kenyan athletes have dominated international distance running in recent years. Explanations for their success include favourable physiological characteristics, which could include favourable genetic endowment, and advantageous environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the demographic characteristics of elite Kenyan runners with those of the general Kenyan population. Questionnaires, administered to 404 elite Kenyan runners specializing in distances ranging from the 800 m to the marathon and 87 Kenyan controls, obtained information on place of birth, language, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were separated into two groups according to athletic success: those who competed in international competition and those who competed in national competition. The athletes differed from controls in regional distribution, language, and distance and method of travel to school; athletes also differed from each other with the exception of method of travel to school. Most national and international athletes came from the Rift Valley province (controls 20%, national athletes 65%, international athletes 81%), belonged to the Kalenjin ethnic group (controls 8%, national athletes 49%, international athletes 76%) and Nandi sub-tribe (controls 5%, national athletes 25%, international athletes 44%), and spoke languages of Nilotic origin (controls 21%, national athletes 60%, international athletes 79%). A higher proportion of all athletes ran to school each day (controls 22%, national athletes 73%, international athletes 81%) and covered greater distances. In conclusion, Kenyan runners are from a distinctive environmental background in terms of geographical distribution, ethnicity and travelled further to school, mostly by running. These findings highlight the importance of environmental and social factors in the success of Kenyan runners. PMID:16492605

  1. The demographics of military children and families.

    Clever, Molly; Segal, David R

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of the all-volunteer force in the 1970s, marriage, parenthood, and family life have become commonplace in the U.S. military among enlisted personnel and officers alike, and military spouses and children now outnumber service members by a ratio of 1.4 to 1. Reviewing data from the government and from academic and nonacademic research, Molly Clever and David R. Segal find several trends that distinguish today's military families. Compared with civilians, for example, service members marry younger and start families earlier. Because of the requirements of their jobs, they move much more frequently than civilians do, and they are often separated from their families for months at a time. And despite steady increases since the 1970s in the percentage of women who serve, the armed forces are still overwhelmingly male, meaning that the majority of military parents are fathers. Despite these distinguishing trends, Clever and Segal's chief finding is that military families cannot be neatly pigeonholed. Instead, they are a strikingly diverse population with diverse needs. Within the military, demographic groups differ in important ways, and the service branches differ from one another as well. Military families themselves come in many forms, including not only the categories familiar from civilian life--two-parent, single-parent, and so on--but also, unique to the military, dual-service families in which both parents are service members. Moreover, military families' needs change over time as they move through personal and military transitions. Thus the best policies and programs to help military families and children are flexible and adaptable rather than rigidly structured. PMID:25518690

  2. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Marie-Pierre Chauzat

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera. Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities. The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations. This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding

  3. Propuesta para el perfeccionamiento del componente investigativo de la carrera de Estomatología Improvement of the Researching Component in Dentistry

    Lizette Albertí Vázquez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye el resultado de la fase final de una investigación, dirigida a elaborar una propuesta basada en acciones que contribuyan a perfeccionar el diseño de la carrera en cuanto a la actividad investigativa a partir del perfeccionamiento de los programas de las asignaturas que tienen posibilidades de dar tratamiento a la actividad científica investigativa y de la capacitación de los profesores, de manera que el egresado pueda dar respuestas a los problemas de salud de Estomatología a través de la investigación científica. Se diseñó una propuesta basadas en tres acciones, donde la 1ra y 2da acción están dirigidas a explicitar y precisar al nivel de objetivos y contenidos lo referido a la actividad investigativa y la 3ra acción dirigida a la capacitación de los profesoresThe present work constitutes the result of the final phase of an investigation, directed to elaborate a proposal based on actions that contribute to perfect the design of the career as for the investigative activity starting from the improvement of the programs of those subjects with possibilities to give treatment to the investigative activity and that contribute to the training of professors, so that the graduate can cope effectively with health problems through scientific investigation. A proposal was designed based on three actions. The 1ra and 2da action are directed to specify investigative activity to the level of objectives and contents. The 3ra action is directed to the training of professors

  4. Experience and further improvement of ISI on steam generator tubing and RPVs with equipment and software developed by Siemens, applicable to all types of LWR components

    Field experience with mechanized in-service inspections of light water reactors in Germany, along with that with in-service inspections abroad following different code requirements, has been encompassing the past 16 years. New experience and results were obtained recently by the implementation of advanced inspection systems for LWR pressure vessel and primary circuits. The system comprises a streamlined manipulating concept, e.g. for RPV inspection, such as the central mast manipulator, which proves to be easily adaptable to different RPV types and geometries along with that with the WWER type. The so-called ALOK technique has also been put into practice providing complete A-scan information and allowing sensitive detection of defects and clear discrimination of background noise. Other problem areas are associated with complex geometries such as those of the nozzles or with materials which do not lend themselves easily to a standard inspection such as trimetal welds. The solution to these problems is offered by the phased array technique with UT tomography as the signal processing technique. Another significant area of PWR-ISI is the inspection of SG tubing. An automated defect detection system has been developed and field-proven for further reliability and performance improvement or optimization. This system is based on a specifically developed multifrequency mixing method which has demonstrated high capacity for signal to noise ratio enhancement (e.g., by suppression of tube sheet and roller expansion signals) as well as for close-margin determination of tube wall degradation. The automated system also helps to eliminate the influence of the human factor in the tedious scanning through all the tube data available. The modular design of the channel head manipulator also allows for tube repair and UT inspection of welds. (author). 20 figs

  5. [Doctoral thesis: Demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali].

    Dabo, K

    1999-12-01

    A doctoral thesis is described analyzing the relationships between demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali. The hypothesis is stated that demographic growth impedes economic development and any improvement in populations¿ standards of living. The hypothesis was verified using data for the period from 1960 to the present. Over that period, Mali conducted two general population censuses in 1976 and 1987, as well as several demographic research studies. The thesis is comprised of 4 parts, of which the first generally describes Mali. The second part analyzes the relationship between population growth and economic and social development in Mali. Study results are presented, followed by an analysis of the effects of economic and social development upon population growth in Mali through factors such as urbanization, education level, literacy, income, employment, occupation, gross domestic or gross national product by inhabitant, infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, contraceptive practice, fertility opinions and desires, women¿s status, and migration in Mali. Analysis indicates that Mali has not completely begun its demographic transition, but that traditional pronatalist behaviors are changing. Population policies and programs are explored in the third part of the thesis, followed by the fourth part which focuses upon methodological questions. PMID:12296197

  6. The Impact of Job Satisfaction and Some Demographic Variables on Employee Turnover Intentions

    2013-01-01

    Due to competition for scarce skills, the attraction and retention of teachers in rural schools is probably the biggest challenge in the education sector today. It is imperative for the education department to have knowledge of the impact of job satisfaction and some demographic variables on employee turnover intentions to improve the attraction and retention of teachers especially those with scarce skills. Self administered questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 300 teachers. A strat...

  7. Influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the quality of life

    Grbić Gordana; Đokić Dragoljub; Kocić Sanja; Mitrašinović Dejan; Rakić Ljiljana; Prelević Rade; Krivokapić Žarko; Miljković Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The quality of life is a multidimensional concept, which is best expressed by the subjective well-being. Evaluation of the quality of life is the basis for measuring the well-being, and the determination of factors that determine the quality of life quality is the basis for its improvement Objective. To evaluate and assess the determinants of the perceived quality of life of group distinguishing features which characterize demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods. Th...

  8. Demographics, management, and welfare of nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island

    Christie, Julie L.; Hewson, Caroline J.; Riley, Christopher B.; McNiven, Mary A.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Bate, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    There are no detailed, representative, horse-level data about equine management practices in different parts of Canada. To help address this, the demographics, management, and welfare of 312 nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island were examined in a randomized, horse-level survey during summer 2002. Owners completed a pretested questionnaire, and a veterinarian examined each horse. Owners were experienced caregivers and the horses were generally in good condition. Areas for improvement inclu...

  9. The industrial revolution and the demographic transition

    Aubhik Khan

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, the United Kingdom began a period of economic transformation known as the Industrial Revolution. It’s commonly believed that this era opened as new inventions improved the technologies used to produce goods and provide services. However, we now know that such improvements affected only a relatively small part of the economy. Nonetheless, output rose during the first stage of the Industrial Revolution because of capital accumulation. One explanation for this increase in ca...

  10. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS).

    Kishamawe, Coleman; Isingo, Raphael; Mtenga, Baltazar; Zaba, Basia; Todd, Jim; Clark, Benjamin; Changalucha, John; Urassa, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2-3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HIV sero status and health knowledge attitude and behaviour in adults aged 15 years or more living in the area; verbal autopsy (VA) interviews conducted to establish cause of death in all deaths encountered in the area; Llnking data collected at health facilities to community-based data; monitoring voluntary counselling and testing (VCT); and assessing uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART). In addition, within the community, qualitative studies have been conducted to address issues linked to HIV stigma, the perception of ART access and adherence.In 2014, the population was over 35 000 individuals. Magu HDSS has contributed to Tanzanian estimates of fertility and mortality, and is a member of the INDEPTH network. Demographic data for Magu HDSS are available via the INDEPTH Network's Sharing and Accessing Repository (iSHARE) and applications to access HDSS data for collaborative analysis are encouraged. PMID:26403815

  11. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  12. Discussion on an informative system set-up for the registration and processing of reliability data on FBR components in view of its application to design and safety studies and plant exploitation improvement

    This report describes the set-up and management activities carried-out by ENEA-VEL in collaboration with NIER in the development of a reliability data bank on fast reactor components; this data bank consists of an informative system implemented on the IBM 3090 computer of the ENEA centre of Bologna starting from the software of the CEDB, set-up by CCR Euratom of Ispra for the registration of reliability data on thermal reactor components. This report will contain a detailed description of all the modules (engineering, operating, etc.) provided in the informative system and of the modifications introduced by ENEA in order to adapt them to the peculiarities of the fast reactors and to increase its flexibility; a short description of the available data processing methods will be also included. It will be followed by a comparison between the results obtained applying the classical methods and the particular ones set-up by ENEA: this comparison will be useful to demonstrate the importance of the method applied in order to obtain significative reliability processed data. This report will be also useful to show the importance of the set-up data bank in the improvement of the component design and of the plant safety and exploitation with particular reference to the research of the critical areas and to the definition of the best inspection and maintenance programs

  13. Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion

    To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

  14. Lab experiments in demographic fieldwork: Understanding gender dynamics in Africa

    F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropological literature has long linked bridewealth payments to decision-making about fertility. Recent research underscores the significance of men's preferences regarding women's reproductive behavior, and suggests that bridewealth payments place constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. Yet because survey data on bridewealth are rare, and the collection of new survey data on bridewealth presents serious challenges, this explanation could not be tested. Objective: Our objective in this paper is to highlight the potential utility of lab experiments (in particular, vignette experiments for improving our understanding of gender relations in Africa, using the hypothesized effect of bridewealth on normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy as an illustration. Methods: We discuss our reasons for turning to lab experiments, and to vignette experiments in particular. We also summarize a series of studies (Horne, Dodoo, and Dodoo 2013; Dodoo, Horne, and Biney 2014 which have implemented our experimental approach. Results: Our experimental evidence shows that bridewealth payments are associated with greater normative constraints on women's reproductive autonomy. We also find that these negative effects of bridewealth are consistent across participant ages, and do not appear to be ameliorated by female schooling. Conclusions: We conclude that lab experiments in general (and vignette experiments in particular are underutilized methodological tools that may be useful for helping us gain a better understanding of the cultural context of gender relations in Africa; and that demographic research more generally may benefit from taking advantage of the strengths of experimental methods.

  15. Population demographics of two local South Carolina mourning dove populations

    McGowan, D.P., Jr.; Otis, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count index had a significant (P 2,300 doves and examined >6,000 individuals during harvest bag checks. An age-specific band recovery model with time- and area-specific recovery rates, and constant survival rates, was chosen for estimation via Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), likelihood ratio, and goodness-of-fit criteria. After-hatching-year (AHY) annual survival rate was 0.359 (SE = 0.056), and hatching-year (HY) annual survival rate was 0.118 (SE = 0.042). Average estimated recruitment per adult female into the prehunting season population was 3.40 (SE = 1.25) and 2.32 (SE = 0.46) for the 2 study areas. Our movement data support earlier hypotheses of nonmigratory breeding and harvested populations in South Carolina. Low survival rates and estimated population growth rate in the study areas may be representative only of small-scale areas that are heavily managed for dove hunting. Source-sink theory was used to develop a model of region-wide populations that is composed of source areas with positive growth rates and sink areas of declining growth. We suggest management of mourning doves in the Southeast might benefit from improved understanding of local population dynamics, as opposed to regional-scale population demographics.

  16. Component Compatibility in Component Based Development

    Dr. Hardeep Singh; Anitpal Kaur

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a research on component compatibility in component based development. Component-based software engineering is a process that emphasizes the design and construction of computer-based systems using reusable software components. Commercial components repositories contain hundred thousand components that make component selection an extremely difficult and time expensive task. Often component selected by functional features are incompatible or the integration effort...

  17. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  18. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Dejan Marčić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it

  19. The mechanical components market

    Evolution of CANDU power station design is described and installed nuclear power in Canada to 2000 is forecast. The predicted value of various mechanical components is depicted. Improvements are being made in reliability and speed of repair, which reduce man-rem expenditure in concert with radiation field reduction. Actual reactor operating performance is very good; a significant portion of power plant downtime is associated with steam turbine and generator unreliability. Heavy water upkeep has been reduced by improved equipment layout, live loading of valve stem packing, improved flange seals, and improved leak detection techniques. Steam generator tube reliability is 1000 times better than that of light water reactors. Pump seal reliability has progressed to the point that current station design eliminates pump redundancy. Fuel bundle defect rates are now less than 0.03%. (E.C.B.)

  20. Demographic profile of the girl child in India.

    Unisa, S

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a statistical profile of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of female children in India during 1951-91. The population 0-14 years old increased during 1951-81. In 1991, there were 52-55 million children 0-4 years old. 40% of all women were 0-14 years old, 19% of the total population in 1991. Boys outnumbered girls at all childhood ages. Males gained more in mortality improvements than girls did over time. The decline in the 1991 sex ratio is attributed to female amniocentesis and differences in undercounts. Infant mortality was high and fluctuated prior to 1941. Rates thereafter declined below 200. Infant mortality improved considerably after the 1950s. The 1988 infant mortality rate (IMR) was 95 for males and 93 for females per 1000 live births. A higher female IMR during 1972-87 is attributed to low female status, sex bias in health care, and higher female rates of common childhood diseases. Boys are breast fed longer. Child marriage below the age of 14 years declined over time. In 1981, 93% of girls 0-14 years old were unmarried. The singulate mean age of marriage increased from 15.59 years in 1951 to 18.32 years in 1981. Literacy rates increased for both males and females during 1961-81 and increased rapidly during 1981-91. The gap between male educational levels and female educational levels was narrowing. School attendance was 62.07% among 10-14 year old boys and 37.47% among 10-14 year old girls. Kerala state was the only state where girls have very high attendance rates. School attendance among 10-14 year old children was positively correlated with higher budget allocations and the average cost per student. School attendance was negatively correlated with illiteracy among household members. In rural areas, girl's attendance was related to access to primary school facilities and roads. PMID:12158014

  1. Demographic Trends in Texas Bond Elections

    Hickey, Wesley D.; Bingham Linn, Genie; Vaughn, Vance

    2008-01-01

    The ability to hold a successful bond election is a vital part of the superintendency in Texas. Aging facilities, increasing student enrollments, and technological needs exacerbate the need to gain community support for capital improvement projects. Appropriate facilities are needed not only for the physical space they provide, but also because…

  2. Demographics of Investigators Involved in OSSA-Funded Research

    Stern, S. Alan; Konkel, Ronald; Habegger, Jay; Byerly, Radford, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The birth of the U.S. civil space program and the subsequent, dramatic growth in the ranks of the space science research population occurred in the 1950s and 1960s'. The large, post- Sputnik/ Apollo buildup in space program manpower is now approximately one career-lifetime in the past. It is therefore natural to anticipate that a large fraction of the space program engineers, scientists, and managers who pioneered the early exploration of space are approaching retirement. Such a "retirement wave" bodes both a loss of manpower and, more fundamentally, a loss of experience from the civil-space manpower base. Such losses could play a critical role constraining in NASA's ability to expand or maintain its technical capabilities. If this indeed applies to the NASA space science research population, then the potential for problems is exacerbated by the anticipated growth in flight rates, data volume, and data-set diversity which will accompany the planned expansion in the OSSA science effort during the 1990s and 2000s. The purpose of this study was to describe the OSSA PI/Co-I population and to determine the degree to which the OSSA space science investigator population faces a retirement wave, and to estimate the future population of PIs in the 1990-2010 era. To conduct such a study, we investigated the present demographics of the PI and Co-1 population contained in the NASA/OSSA Announcement of Opportunity (AO) mailing list. PIs represent the "leadership" class of the OSSA scientific researcher population, and Co-Is represent one important, oncoming component of the "replacement" generation. Using the PI population data, we then make projection estimates of the future PI population from 1991 through 2010, under various NASA growth/PI demand scenarios.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  4. China’s grave demographic challenges in coming decades

    任强; 郑晓瑛

    2009-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzes the uncertainties of major demographic indicators from China’s 2000 census,such as fertility,gender ratio at birth,and age structure,and through a probability demographic forecast gives an assessment of the situation facing the country.Research outcomes suggest that great differences exist in the estimate of China’s fertility,gender ratio at birth and low-age child population.These differences directly affect China’s current and future demographic uncertainties,and have implications for policy and future research.The demographic uncertainties caused by current conditions are of great value to decision-makers and the public alike.

  5. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  6. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Nicole R Thomas

    Full Text Available The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  7. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Thomas, Nicole R; Poole, Daniel J; Herbers, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia. PMID:26488899

  8. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  9. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  10. Assessing patterns of fish demographics and habitat in stream networks

    Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Demographics by Block Group

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  12. Demographic Change, Economic Growth and Social Welfare in Europe

    Ermisch, John F; Joshi, Heather

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the economic rationale for concern about the falling rate of growth of Europe's population. It also assembles demographic and economic time-series data for the countries of Eastern and Western Europe during the postwar period. The consequences of demographic developments for social welfare, broadly defined, are felt over a very long term. Issues discussed include the contribution of increases in life expectancy to social welfare; the potential effects of population growth ...

  13. Finding a Way Out of America's Demographic Dilemma

    Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Kent Smetters; Jan Walliser

    2001-01-01

    Notwithstanding the rosy short-term fiscal scenarios being advanced in Washington, the demographic transition presents the United States with a very serious fiscal crisis. In 30 years there will be twice the number of elderly, but only 15 percent more workers to help pay Social Security and Medicare benefits. A realistic reading of the government demographic projections suggests a two thirds increase in payroll tax rates over the next three to five decades. However, these forecasts ignore mac...

  14. Early and Late Demographic Transitions: the Role of Urbanization

    Cuberes, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses new estimates of the dates on which different countries have experienced their demographic transition to address two empirical questions. First, I study the importance of different socioeconomic variables on the timing of these transitions. Second, I distinguish between countries that have experienced early and late demographic transitions and compare their relative income around the transition date. My results indicate that the size of a country’s urban population plays a cru...

  15. Spatial correlation and demography. : Exploring India's demographic patterns.

    Sébastien OLIVEAU; Guilmoto, Christophe,

    2005-01-01

    Demographers often use maps and regional tabulations to evidence the spatial dimension of population characteristics. While they display considerable ability to test the strength of statistical links between phenomena, they rarely attempt to use similar tools to investigate the nature and extent of spatial correlation between demographic variables. This paper examines this question by combining theoretical and practical issues in the measurement of spatial autocorrelation, using recent Indian...

  16. China's Regional Disparity in Demographic Transition: A Spatial Analysis

    Wang, Jiamin

    2008-01-01

    China's regional income gap has given rise to different socio-economic characteristics of its core and periphery, leading to different expressions in demographic transition. This paper explores the spatial pattern of China's fertility, age, migration, and household transition and finds that the regional pattern of demographic transition roughly follows a gradient of provinces' economic status. Further analysis indicates that this pattern is more sensitive to economic conditions in rural areas...

  17. The verification of virtual community members socio-demographic profile

    Fedushko, Solomia; Peleschyshyn, Oksana; Peleschyshyn , Andriy; Syerov, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the current problem of investigation and development of the method of web-members' socio-demographic characteristics' profile validation based on analysis of socio-demographic characteristics. The topicality of the paper is determined by the necessity to identify the web-community member by means of computer-linguistic analysis of their information track (all information about web-community members, which posted on the Internet). The formal model of basic socio-demograp...

  18. The Impact of Demographic and Academic Characteristics on Academic Performance

    Nout M. Alhajraf; Aishah M. Alasfour

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students’ demographic and academic characteristics that are associatedwith students’ academic performance during their undergraduate studies. Demographic and academiccharacteristic such as age, gender, nationality, high school major and high school GPA were studied as potentialdeterminants of academic performance. A sample of 700 students from the College of Business Studies at thePublic Authority for Applied Education was examined. Descriptive statisti...

  19. Regional and demographic determinants of poverty in Brazil

    Azzoni, Carlos; Souza, Andre; Nogueira, Veridiana

    2004-01-01

    The paper identifies the role of regional and demographic determinants of poverty in Brazil. We first estimate the probability of a household being classified as poor or indigent. We then apply decomposition techniques to identify the role of demographic variables (family size, parent’s education, etc.) and of regional variables in explaining those probabilities. We found out that parent’s education is the most important determinant, but regional aspects also play a role in determining povert...

  20. Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Demographic Determinants of Hypertension Disease

    Mushtaq, Mamoona; Najam, Najma

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective : Research evidence supports the relationship of psychological and demographic factors with hypertension and these variables are strongest predictors of hypertension which are scarcely studied in Pakistan. The present study was carried out to explore the correlation of depression, anxiety, stress and demographic factors with hypertension. Method: We used correlation research design and a sample of (N = 237), hypertensive patients (N = 137) and their age matched health...

  1. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Russell Dowling; Bret Ericson; Jack Caravanos; Patrick Grigsby; Yaw Amoyaw-Osei

    2015-01-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations...

  2. The Impact of Demographic Change on Intergenerational Transfers via Bequests

    Emilio Zagheni; Brittney Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transfers in the form of bequests have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. Demographic change has relevant consequences for the timing and size of bequests. For example, longer life implies that people receive bequests when they are older. Conversely, increasing generational length reduces the average age at which people are given bequests. Objective: We analyze the consequences of demographic change in the United States on timing over t...

  3. Demographic history and gene flow during silkworm domestication

    Yang, Shao-Yu; Han, Min-Jin; Kang, Li-Fang; Li, Zi-Wen; Shen, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Ze

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene flow plays an important role in domestication history of domesticated species. However, little is known about the demographic history of domesticated silkworm involving gene flow with its wild relative. Results In this study, four model-based evolutionary scenarios to describe the demographic history of B. mori were hypothesized. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation method and DNA sequence data from 29 nuclear loci, we found that the gene flow at bottleneck model is the most...

  4. LGBT Demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys

    Gates, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    This report uses four large, national, population-based surveys to consider the ways in which LGBT populations are demographically similar to or distinct from their non-LGBT counterparts in the United States. Comparisons of demographic characteristics are made among the surveys and, when possible, among sexual orientation identities to consider differences between those who identify as lesbian or gay and those who identify as bisexual (none of the surveys allow for separate identification of ...

  5. DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN

    Huma Ali; Hina Ali

    2011-01-01

    Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spiritualit...

  6. Demographic corrections for the modified Telephone Screening for Cognitive Status

    Dennett, Kathryn; Tometich, Danielle; Duff, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted m...

  7. Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences

    Guan, Yanjun; Bond, Michael Harris; Dinca, Margareta; Iliescu, Dragos

    2010-01-01

    Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS), and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results...

  8. Analysis of the demographic potential in function of tourism

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-01-01

    Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features. In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc.) for the tourism economy. We know that the ...

  9. Demographic increase in the context of divorce and extramarital partnership

    Polovina Nada

    2006-01-01

    The basic goal of this paper is to point to the scope and significance of the share of divorce and extramarital partnership in the issues related to demographic increase. The paper consists of three parts. The first part discusses the relevant demographic data which - through the increase of the divorce rates and the rates of children born extramaritally, as well as through the specification of general indicators within these categories of population (age, marriage length, education, job) - i...

  10. Measuring patients’ perceptions of communication with healthcare providers: Do differences in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics matter?

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Wallace, Lorraine S.; Fryer, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Background National governments across the globe have set goals to improve healthcare delivery. Understanding patient–provider communication is essential for the development of policies that measure how well a healthcare system delivers care. Objectives This study was designed to determine which, if any, demographic factors were independently associated with how US patients perceive various aspects of communication with their healthcare providers. Design and methods The study was a secondary, cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative data from the 2002 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Among US adults with a healthcare visit in the past year (n = approximately 16 700), we assessed the association between several covariate demographic and socioeconomic factors and four dependent measures of patient perceptions of communication with their healthcare providers. Results Across all four measures of communication, older patients were more likely to report positively. Having health insurance and a usual source of care were consistent predictors of positive perceptions of communication. Hispanic patients also reported better perceptions of communication across all four measures. The most economically disadvantaged patients were less likely to report that providers always explained things so that they understood. Male patients were more likely to report that providers always spent enough time with them. Conclusions This study suggests that patient perceptions of communication in healthcare settings vary widely by demographics and other individual patient characteristics. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of these communication disparities to design policies to improve healthcare systems, both at the individual practice level and the national level. PMID:19250153

  11. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. PMID:26516882

  12. Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, and Savings

    Bloom, David E; David Canning; Rick Mansfield; Michael Moore

    2006-01-01

    In theory, improvements in healthy life expectancy should generate increases in the average age of retirement, with little effect on savings rates. In many countries, however, retirement incentives in social security programs prevent retirement ages from keeping pace with changes in life expectancy, leading to an increased need for life-cycle savings. Analyzing a cross-country panel of macroeconomic data, we find that increased longevity raises aggregate savings rates in countries with univer...

  13. Features of demographic development of rural Ukraine in the context of the definition of depression.

    Baranovs'kyj M.O.

    2009-01-01

    The features of the demographic situation in regions of Ukraine, formed types of areas by a combined indicator of demographic development, established relationship between demographic indicators and the level of depression in rural areas.

  14. Developing Arizona Turnaround Leaders to Build High-Capacity Schools in the Midst of Accountability Pressures and Changing Demographics

    Ylimaki, Rose M.; Brunderman, Lynnette; Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Dugan, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Today's accountability policies and changing demographics have created conditions in which leaders must rapidly build school capacity and improve outcomes in culturally diverse schools. This article presents findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of an Arizona Turnaround Leadership Development Project. The project drew on studies of…

  15. Correlation between perception of quality of life and social/demographic/medical variables as well as anti-health behaviours among alcohol-dependent individuals

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The level of life quality of people with alcohol dependence is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as: gender, marital status and having a family. Additionally promoting anti-health behaviors such as smoking or using psychoactive substances among those with alcohol dependence also reduces the quality of life in this population. Aim of the research: The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of selected psycho-social and medical factors on the quality of life in alcohol-dependent patients in relation to the duration of abstinence. Study data served to determine whether there is a correlation between the presence of selected psycho-social and medical factors and a patient’s subjective perception of his/her quality of life. Material and methods: The study involved alcohol-dependent patients undergoing treatment in the Residential Alcohol Addiction Therapy Department of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lublin. In the first stage of the study, the severity of the alcohol problem was assessed with the MAST and CAGE tests and quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. An Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. In the second stage of the study, the SF-36 scale was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. Results : The socio-economic factors that had a statistically significant impact on the quality of life of the alcohol-dependent individuals comprised sex, marital status and having a family. Marital status was shown to be one of the most important family-related factors significantly influencing the quality of life. Having a family was not a factor associated with subjective improvement of the quality of life during abstinence for alcohol-dependent individuals. Awareness of socio-economic and medical factors influencing quality of life in individuals addicted to alcohol and gambling is an important

  16. Which transition comes first? Urban and demographic transitions in Belgium and Sweden

    Philippe Bocquier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several theories compete to explain the main drivers of urbanisation, past and present, in relation to both demographic transition and economic development. One hypothesis is that rural-to-urban migration is the driver of urbanisation; another is that urban mortality decline actually triggered urban transition. Objective: This paper reconsiders the relationship between demographic (vital migration and urban transitions by analysing the long-term contribution of natural and migratory movements to urban transition. The respective contributions of birth, death, and migration and their timing will indicate whether economic development, through labour force migration, or vital transition mainly determines urban transition. Methods: After examining the spatial dimension of the demographic transition theory, we use 19th and 20th century series on Sweden and Belgium to better identify the migration component of urban transition through the computation of growth difference between urban and rural areas, accounting for the often neglected reclassification effect. Results: In both Sweden and Belgium, migration is the direct or indirect (through reclassification engine of urban transition and its contribution precedes the onset of vital transition, while the vital transition has a secondary, unstable, and negative role in the urban transition. Conclusions: Changes in the economic sphere are reinstated as the underlying cause of population change, acting through the shift of human capital in space. Methodological consequences are then drawn for analysing vital and urban transitions in an increasingly interdependent world. Contribution: The paper contributes to the theoretical literature on urban and demographic transitions in relation to economic development. The proposed method evaluates migration contribution without having to measure it.

  17. The correlation between effective factors of e-learning and demographic variables in a post-graduate program of virtual medical education in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Farnoosh Golband

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60; a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test by using SPSS (V.16. The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05; whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (P<0.05. Knowing the extent to which these factors can influence effective e-learning can help managers and designers to make the right decisions about educational components of e-learning, i.e. content, educator, system and learner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners.

  18. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  19. Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of USDA quality and yield grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef chuck.

    West, S E; Harris, K B; Haneklaus, A N; Savell, J W; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C; Pool, J K; Luna, A M; Engle, T E; Schutz, J S; Woerner, D R; Arcibeque, S L; Belk, K E; Douglass, L; Leheska, J M; McNeill, S; Howe, J C; Holden, J M; Duvall, M; Patterson, K

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Additionally, the impact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Quality and Yield Grade may have on such factors was investigated. Ultimately, these data will be used in the USDA - Nutrient Data Laboratory's (NDL) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). To represent the current United States beef supply, seventy-two carcasses were selected from six regions of the country based on USDA Yield Grade, USDA Quality Grade, gender, and genetic type. Whole beef chuck primals from selected carcasses were shipped to three university laboratories for subsequent retail cut fabrication, raw and cooked cut dissection, and proximate analyses. The incorporation of these data into the SR will improve dietary education, product labeling, and other applications both domestically and abroad, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate and relevant beef nutrient data. PMID:24769877

  20. Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania

    the management of resources both at global and local levels. We found out empirically that despite the dwindling natural resource base, the people in Arumeru still maintain their demographic dynamism. For them, it is a rational thing to do. The explanation for this phenomenon is not discrete, but spans the whole range of the population-resource continuum. From the demographic transition point of view, the society has not reached the threshold where child labour is valueless. In Arumeru, the children are still valued for their labour as they participate in both agro-pastoral related income generating activities. Further, children are still old age insurers. Thus, the age long traditions which favour the persistence of high fertility regimes are still in force. Having children is still a pleasure which costs nothing and hence the family size is rarely determined by the household's income. The interplay of proximate determinants of fertility is found to have an effect on the population increase in the district. People enter into marriage unions at very young ages, while the breastfeeding duration has drastically decreased in recent years. Furthermore, postpartum abstinence is no longer observed and incidences of pathological infertility have been tremendously reduced, thanks to modern medicine. All these factors support high fertility regimes. The argument that rapid population growth always leads to environmental decline and thus forces rural economies into diminishing returns, over-utilisation of resource and pauperisation is rejected. Despite the population increase and dwindling resource base in Arumeru, food security, rural incomes and standard of living have consistently improved throughout the century. The situation in the study area somehow accommodate the Boserupian model, where population growth triggers agricultural intensification, but in this case, the forces which triggers change did not emanate from within, but were externally generated. Institutional

  1. The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle

    Vreni Jean-Richard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. Objective: To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Design: Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. Results: The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Conclusion: Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care.

  2. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Patrik Galeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  3. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  4. [Demographic transition or revolution? The weaknesses and implications of the theory of the demographic transition. Part 2: the consequences].

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1998-01-01

    In 1929, Warren S. Thompson published a three-part classification of world populations according to their fertility levels and growth rates that explained the progressive passage from one group to another in terms of economic and social factors. American demographers, preoccupied by the Great Depression, paid insufficient attention to this early formulation of demographic transition theory. During 1928-31, Robert Kuckzinsky systematically analyzed the historical evolution of mortality and fertility in Europe and introduced the term "transition" in reference to eastern Europe. In 1944-45, Frank Notestein and Kingsley Davis presented the theory of demographic transition in the form that came to be nearly universally accepted. All societies, it was believed, would pass through the three stages, from a preindustrial to a postindustrial demographic equilibrium. Mortality was presented as a dependent variable under economic control, while fertility was a dependent variable under social control. Demographic transition theory would provide the conceptual framework for UN demographic projections and the justification for family planning programs for the massive agricultural populations of Asia. As the theory developed, the relationship between development and demographic transition was inverted; it was argued that rapid growth constituted an insurmountable obstacle to industrialization or any kind of modernization. Fertility had to be reduced in poor countries by any means possible to permit their economic advancement. Family planning programs in developing countries were supported, and major resources were devoted to KAP studies and the World Fertility Survey. The struggle to control fertility became the most urgent objective. It was not until the 1974 UN World Population Conference in Bucharest that the American delegation abandoned the extremist position of the preceding decade and acknowledged that population policies are not substitutes for development policies. PMID

  5. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  6. Mapping the environmental and socioeconomic coverage of the INDEPTH international health and demographic surveillance system network.

    Jia, Peng; Sankoh, Osman; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    The International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) has produced reliable longitudinal data about the lives of people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through a global network of health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) sites. Since reliable demographic data are scarce across many LMICs, we examine the environmental and socioeconomic (ES) similarities between existing HDSS sites and the rest of the LMICs. The HDSS sites were hierarchically grouped by the similarity of their ES conditions to quantify the ES variability between sites. The entire Africa and Asia region was classified to identify which regions were most similar to existing sites, based on available ES data. Results show that the current INDEPTH network architecture does a good job in representing ES conditions, but that great heterogeneities exist, even within individual countries. The results provide valuable information in determining the confidence with which relationships derived from present HDSS sites can be broadly extended to other areas, and to highlight areas where the new HDSS sites would improve significantly the ES coverage of the network. PMID:26454610

  7. A demographic model for small area population projections: an application to the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton in Ontario, Canada

    Pavlos S. Kanaroglou; Hanna F Maoh; Bruce Newbold; Scott, Darren M; Antonio Paez

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a demographic model capable of projecting the spatial distribution of population by age and sex for small areas such as census tracts. The proposed modeling framework makes use of two components: the Rogers multiregional population projection model and the aggregate spatial multinomial logit (ASMNL) model. The Rogers model utilizes cohort vital statistics on fertility, mortality, and migration to project the progression of population by age and sex at ...

  8. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Wall, Clare R; Cheryl S. Gammon; Dinusha K. Bandara; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E.; Morton, Susan M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and mult...

  9. Successful workforce planning : aligning recruitment strategies with changing demographics

    Bodnar, B. [Duke Energy Gas Transmission, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described how demographic trends are changing the energy industry. Duke Energy acquired Westcoast Energy in March 2002 and must attract and retain a skilled workforce to maintain its newly acquired and very large infrastructure. Duke Energy has committed $1.88 million over 3 years to northern opportunities through partnerships with educators, community organizations, government agencies and industry. This paper emphasizes the need for a new focus on workforce planning to ensure that staffing needs are met. It described how to use demographics to identify recruitment needs within a company, and what to look for in data. It also described how to make sure that a recruitment strategy is tailored to various demographic groups. Energy companies are attracting young workers through apprenticeship programs, training and development programs, and other incentives. figs.

  10. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  11. Survey of western Canadian veterinary practices: A demographic profile.

    Jelinski, Murray D; Barth, Katrina K

    2015-12-01

    A mixed-mode survey was used to describe the demographics of the veterinary profession in western Canada and to assess the demand for veterinary practitioners. Data were received from 655 practices (response rate = 52%), providing demographic data on 1636 individual practitioners. Most (60%) respondents self-classified their practices as exclusively small animal, while 25% and 4% were mixed animal or exclusively food animal practices, respectively. Across all practices, 77% of practitioners' time was devoted to small animals and the average mixed animal practice devoted 60% of practitioners' time to small animals. After accounting for practices that did not respond, there were ~300 full-time equivalent (FTE) vacant positions for veterinary associates; however, only 12% of practices were in urgent need of hiring an associate veterinarian. This report informs both prospective employees and employers on the state of the marketplace for veterinary associates, and provides an overview of the demographics of the veterinary profession in western Canada. PMID:26663919

  12. Demographic marginalization, social integration, and adolescents' educational success.

    Benner, Aprile D; Wang, Yijie

    2014-10-01

    Links between schools' demographic composition and students' achievement have been a major policy interest for decades. Using a racially/ethnically diverse sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,302; 54% females; 53% White, 21% African American, 15% Latino, 8% Asian American, 2% other race/ethnicity), we examined the associations between demographic marginalization, students' later social integration (loneliness at school, school attachment), and educational performance and attainment. Adolescents who were socioeconomically marginalized at school [i.e., having socioeconomic status (SES) peers] had lower cumulative grade point averages across high school and lower educational attainment. A similar disadvantage was observed among students who were both socioeconomically and racially/ethnically marginalized at school (i.e., having academic performance. These results highlight the educational barriers associated with demographic marginalization and suggest potential targets for future intervention efforts. PMID:25034249

  13. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  14. Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions

    Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  16. Demographic variation in how the social brain processes news messages.

    Irene Ingeborg van Driel, M A; Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Ozen Bas, M A; Kleemans, Mariska

    2016-01-01

    A high capacity for visual perception distinguishes Homo sapiens from other primates. This human ability to detect social cues and retain visual records of social networks has been tested mostly with static facial images in laboratory settings. However, media consumption has become closely entangled with the way social life is navigated. Therefore, the study reported here tested demographic differences (gender and education) in visual information processing of social and nonsocial objects featured in audiovisual news content. Women recognized (accuracy) and recalled (salience) social images better than men. On the other hand, men were more skilled at recognizing, but not recalling, nonsocial images. Participants with lower educational levels recognized and recalled fewer images than individuals with higher educational levels. Interactions between demographic variables and time suggest that memory records for social images are more stable than those for nonsocial images. Memory may have survival-relevant importance, serving navigational functions that vary across environmental demands, resulting in differences across demographic groups. PMID:27378023

  17. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  18. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

    Diaz-Gloster Marleny

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs. Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications, psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%, middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years, high school educated (62.4%, low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income, and received Medicaid (35.9% or Medicare (12.6%. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. One-quarter (25.6% of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7% reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7% reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ≥ 2. Diabetes

  19. Correlation between demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning and functional independence in stroke patients

    Arsić Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been assumed that there is causality of the achieved level of functional independence with the degree of preservation of cognitive function in stroke patients. Demographic characteristics may be important for monitoring the achieved level of functional independence. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of demographic characteristics and functional independence in regard to the level of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Methods. The study included 50 stroke patients after rehabilitation, as well as age- and gender-matched 50 subjects selected randomly, according to the demographic characteristics of the studied sample, who in their medical history had no neurological disorders. For the assessment of functional independence, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM test was used. The general cognition was estimated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test. The statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, for two independent samples, measures of canonical correlation, and χ2 test. Results. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II (p<0.001; There was a statistically significant difference within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment in all the examined demographic characteristics (p<0.001; the differences within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment are present on all subscales of the FIM test (p<0.05; the differences within the groups in relation to handedness, hemiparesis, show that mild cognitive impairment is more common among left hemiparesis, while a more severe one is more common among right-sided hemiparesis (p<0.05; More severe cognitive impairment is common among women, the elderly and in persons with lower education (p<0.05. Conclusion. By prevention of risk factors, and prevention of possible cognitive impairment, consequences of stroke can be

  20. Autonomous component carrier selection

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...