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Sample records for improving demographic components

  1. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  2. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cure About Us Initiatives News & Events Professional Resources Demographics Millions of Americans experience tinnitus. While anyone can ... people are struggling with severe, sometimes debilitating, tinnitus. Demographic Trends with Tinnitus Tinnitus is primarily caused by ...

  3. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exacerbate symptoms. Symptoms Causes Related Conditions Measuring Tinnitus Impact of Tinnitus Demographics Subscribe to Tinnitus Today Tinnitus ... The Facts Symptoms Causes Related Conditions Measuring Tinnitus Impact of Tinnitus Demographics Managing Your Tinnitus Patient Roadmap ...

  4. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Demographics Millions of Americans experience tinnitus. While anyone can develop tinnitus, some populations have a higher risk of exposure due to age, occupational hazards, and/ ...

  5. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... among U.S. Adults , originally published in the American Journal of Medicine. Males get tinnitus more often than ... exacerbate symptoms. Symptoms Causes Related Conditions Measuring Tinnitus Impact of Tinnitus Demographics Subscribe to Tinnitus Today Tinnitus ...

  6. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Conditions Measuring Tinnitus Impact of Tinnitus Demographics Managing Your Tinnitus Patient Roadmap Treatment Options Support Network Patient Stories Research Toward A Cure ATA’s Research ...

  7. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with severe, sometimes debilitating, tinnitus. Demographic Trends with Tinnitus Tinnitus is primarily caused by environmental and behavioral ... in the American Journal of Medicine. Males get tinnitus more often than females This disparity may be ...

  8. Automated Improvement for Component Reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, M

    2005-01-01

    Software component reuse is the key to significant gains in productivity. However, the major problem is the lack of identifying and developing potentially reusable components. This paper concentrates on our approach to the development of reusable software components. A prototype tool has been developed, known as the Reuse Assessor and Improver System (RAIS) which can interactively identify, analyse, assess, and modify abstractions, attributes and architectures that support reuse. Practical and objective reuse guidelines are used to represent reuse knowledge and to do domain analysis. It takes existing components, provides systematic reuse assessment which is based on reuse advice and analysis, and produces components that are improved for reuse. Our work on guidelines has been extended to a large scale industrial application.

  9. Decomposing demographic change into direct vs. compositional components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We present and prove a formula for decomposing change in a population average into two components. One component captures the effect of direct change in the characteristic of interest, and the other captures the effect of compositional change. The decomposition is applied to time derivatives of averages over age and over subpopulations. Examples include decomposition of the change over time in the average age at childbearing and in the general fertility rate for China, Denmark and Mexico. A decomposition of the change over time in the crude death rate in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands is also presented. Other examples concern global life expectancy and the growth rate of the population of the world.

  10. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can minimize the burden of your tinnitus and improve your quality of ... Nutritional Examinations Survey , a longitudinal study of the health of the American population. In ...

  11. Demographics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the burden of your tinnitus and improve your quality of life. Learn More Over 45 million Americans struggle with ... are particularly at-risk because of their loud work environments; but tinnitus ... their working life playing loud, amplified music are in particular danger ...

  12. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Rohner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122 in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46 in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania, the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania. The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species.

  13. Improved components for engine fuel savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antl, R. J.; Mcaulay, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    NASA programs for developing fuel saving technology include the Engine Component Improvement Project for short term improvements in existing air engines. The Performance Improvement section is to define component technologies for improving fuel efficiency for CF6, JT9D and JT8D turbofan engines. Sixteen concepts were developed and nine were tested while four are already in use by airlines. If all sixteen concepts are successfully introduced the gain will be fuel savings of more than 6 billion gallons over the lifetime of the engines. The improvements include modifications in fans, mounts, exhaust nozzles, turbine clearance and turbine blades.

  14. Improving the Components of Speaking Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Taher Bahrani; Rahmatollah Soltani

    2011-01-01

    One of the main concerns of language learners is how to improve their speaking proficiency in general and different components of speaking proficiency such as fluency, accuracy, accent, vocabulary, comprehension, and communication in particular. Accordingly, the present research attempts to investigate the effect of listening to different TV programs on improving different components of speaking proficiency. To achieve this purpose, a sample speaking test was given to twenty language learners...

  15. Progress in photovoltaic system and component improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H.P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Witt, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bower, W.; Bonn, R.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a partnership between the US government (through the US Department of Energy [DOE]) and the PV industry. Part of its purpose is to conduct manufacturing technology research and development to address the issues and opportunities identified by industry to advance photovoltaic (PV) systems and components. The project was initiated in 1990 and has been conducted in several phases to support the evolution of PV industrial manufacturing technology. Early phases of the project stressed PV module manufacturing. Starting with Phase 4A and continuing in Phase 5A, the goals were broadened to include improvement of component efficiency, energy storage and manufacturing and system or component integration to bring together all elements for a PV product. This paper summarizes PV manufacturers` accomplishments in components, system integration, and alternative manufacturing methods. Their approaches have resulted in improved hardware and PV system performance, better system compatibility, and new system capabilities. Results include new products such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)-listed AC PV modules, modular inverters, and advanced inverter designs that use readily available and standard components. Work planned in Phase 5A1 includes integrated residential and commercial roof-top systems, PV systems with energy storage, and 300-Wac to 4-kWac inverters.

  16. Improving the Components of Speaking Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Bahrani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of language learners is how to improve their speaking proficiency in general and different components of speaking proficiency such as fluency, accuracy, accent, vocabulary, comprehension, and communication in particular. Accordingly, the present research attempts to investigate the effect of listening to different TV programs on improving different components of speaking proficiency. To achieve this purpose, a sample speaking test was given to twenty language learners as a pre-test. During the study, the participants had exposure to different programs from TV. After a period of three months, a post-test was administered. Then, the scores of each component in the pre-test were compared with that of the post-test. The result showed that the use of vocabulary as a component of speaking proficiency improves more. On the contrary, accuracy improves less than the other components.
    Key words: Speaking proficiency; Improve; Vocabulary; Accuracy

    Résumé: L'une des préoccupations principales des apprenants de langue est de savoir comment améliorer l'expression orale en général et maîtriser de différents composants de la compétence de l’expression orale comme la fluidité, la précision, l'accent, le vocabulaire, la compréhension et la communication en particulier. En conséquence, la présente recherche tente d'étudier l'effet d'écouter des émissions de différents programmes à la télé sur l'amélioration de la maîtrise de différents éléments de l'expression orale. Pour atteindre ce but, un test de langue a été donnée à vingt apprenants de langue comme un pré-test. Au cours de l'étude, les participants ont été exposés à de différents programmes de la télévision. Après une période de trois mois, un post-test a été donné. Ensuite, les scores de chaque composant dans le pré-test ont été comparés avec ceux du post-test. Le résultat a montré que l’un des éléments de compétence orale, l'utilisation du vocabulaire, s'améliore le plus. Au contraire, la précision s'améliore moins que les autres composants.
    Mots-clés: Compétence de l’expression orale; Améliorer; Vocabulaire; Précision

  17. The Demographic Component in the Development of a Metropolis. Case-Study: Ia?i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several peculiarities make Ia?i an outstanding city: it is a first-rank city in the national settlement system and the capital of the historical province of Moldova, numbers over 300,000 inhabitants and holds the 2nd position in the national urban hierarchy by demographic size, and a national growth pole since 2008 (Government Decision 998/2008. In view of the above, Ia?i has a significant demographic potential, also discharging complex functions and polarizing a large influence area, being one of the pillars of urban development in Romania. The aim of this paper is to outline the urban development strategy in the light of demographic structures and evolution. The demography today in the peri-urban space shows two characteristic features, namely the urban–rural migration, on the one hand, and the dominant agricultural functionality, on the other hand, as mirrored by the structure of employment. The development–related factors are the positive natural demographic balance, low level of population ageing and supply of a large workforce, a potential well-balanced local labour market. Concluding, the provision of Ia?i integrated urban and peri-urban strategy are pointed out.

  18. Improved component mode synthesis and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsovasilis, Panagiotis, E-mail: PKoutsovasilis@borgwarner.com [BorgWarner Turbo Systems Engineering GmbH, Structural Mechanics/Calculations and Simulations/Turbo Systems (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    This survey focuses on the two known model order reduction schemes being widely integrated in various commercial finite element packages, namely, the static and dynamic condensation methods. The advantages as well as the corresponding drawbacks have been extensively analyzed in several papers throughout the last decades. Based on combining the beneficial properties of the aforementioned methods, several alternative reduction methodologies are outlined in this paper, i.e., the generalized improved reduction system method, the generalized component mode synthesis and the improved component mode synthesis with its generalized version, which incorporate in a more efficient way the system's inertia terms. Therefore, the associated error regarding higher frequency ranges of interest is better controlled. Basis of these methodologies is the so-called master and slave degrees of freedom partitioning, the right selection of which highly influences the reduced order model's dynamics. The methods are tested and verified on a rather small three-dimensional bar structure and on the lever part of a turbocharger's variable turbine geometry. Several reduced order models are generated by varying both the number of Craig-Bampton modes and the selection of the required master degrees of freedom. A comparison is conducted based on the modal criterion of the corresponding eigenvectors and the associated computation time required.

  19. Improved component mode synthesis and variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey focuses on the two known model order reduction schemes being widely integrated in various commercial finite element packages, namely, the static and dynamic condensation methods. The advantages as well as the corresponding drawbacks have been extensively analyzed in several papers throughout the last decades. Based on combining the beneficial properties of the aforementioned methods, several alternative reduction methodologies are outlined in this paper, i.e., the generalized improved reduction system method, the generalized component mode synthesis and the improved component mode synthesis with its generalized version, which incorporate in a more efficient way the system’s inertia terms. Therefore, the associated error regarding higher frequency ranges of interest is better controlled. Basis of these methodologies is the so-called master and slave degrees of freedom partitioning, the right selection of which highly influences the reduced order model’s dynamics. The methods are tested and verified on a rather small three-dimensional bar structure and on the lever part of a turbocharger’s variable turbine geometry. Several reduced order models are generated by varying both the number of Craig–Bampton modes and the selection of the required master degrees of freedom. A comparison is conducted based on the modal criterion of the corresponding eigenvectors and the associated computation time required.

  20. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatem Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing spatial population datasets and their limitations on epidemiological analyses. We review sources of detailed, contemporary, freely available and relevant spatial demographic data focusing on low income regions where such data are often sparse and highlight the value of incorporating these through a set of examples of their application in disease studies. Moreover, the importance of acknowledging, measuring, and accounting for uncertainty in spatial demographic datasets is outlined. Finally, a strategy for building an open-access database of spatial demographic data that is tailored to epidemiological applications is put forward.

  1. The influence of migration component on demographic potentials in some Serbian rural settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šanti? Danica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Period after Second World War was a time well known after the very large population movement from rural to urban areas which cause depopulation in numerous rural settlements in Serbia. Emigration from villages to towns decimated, in demographic sense, small settlements in the first place, and urban areas became bearers of the population growth. Some of the rural settlements had privilege of their geographic position and certain functions and that's why they attracted population from other places. In those settlements number of people who moved in (was not born there was more than 50% of total population. In this paper this rural settlements will be discussed about.

  2. Impact of the demographic component on the market of educational services of Astrakhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romantsova Elena Victorovna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present development stage of higher education system is characterized by keen interest in it, but thus demand from year to year falls in connection with an adverse demographic situation. The number of graduates of schools in the city of Astrakhan for the last five years was cut off by half; the system of the unified state examination led to increase of mobility of graduates and their outflow to the capital region, and higher educational institutions, having lost demand for paid edu-cational service as the main source of the income, are compelled to fill up the budget at the expense of the income bringing activity.

  3. SOCIAL/DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND VITAL EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CLINICAL IMPROVEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERBESI FERNANDEZ, Dedsy Yajaira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: depression is the most frequent disabling mental disorder: the present study strives to analyze the social/demographic factors and vital events associated to depression in patients in 14 hospitals in the State of Antioquia. Methods: a study of cases and controls in a population of 204 patients in hospitals of first level of attention was designed. The sample was selected by convenience. The patients diagnosed with depression were evaluated within three months of having started treatment and were classified: no improvement (case and with clinical improvement (control. Results: there was an association found between no improvement of the depressive symptoms after three months of starting anti-depressive treatment and the social/ demographic background, financial problems and vital events. Conclusion: the main factors associated with depression that were found are: not having an affiliation regime to the social security and health system; financial problems, death of a son/daughter and psychological and physical domestic violence, which point to the need to explore these variables.

  4. A Singular Value Decomposition-based Factorization and Parsimonious Component Model of Demographic Quantities Correlated by Age: Predicting Complete Demographic Age Schedules with Few Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Formal demography has a long history of building simple models of age schedules of demographic quantities, e.g. mortality and fertility rates. These are widely used in demographic methods to manipulate whole age schedules using few parameters. OBJECTIVE. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) factorizes a matrix into three matrices with useful properties including the ability to reconstruct the original matrix using many fewer, simple matrices. This work demons...

  5. Improvements of the accelerator components at SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of XFEL operation in SACLA, various improvements have been demanded in order to increase XFEL intensity and stability. Some of improvement tasks were: (1) Upgrade of the precise temperature regulation system in the injector section to reduce the rf phase drift of cavities and beam orbit fluctuation. (2) Increase of repetition rate and decrease of a trip rate. (3) Extension of an undulator line and tuning of the magnetic field of existing undulators. For the precise temperature regulation system, we replaced a PWM AC heater with a continuously-controllable DC heater. In addition, the precise temperature regulation system was applied to an enclosure for low-level rf electronics. After these upgrades, rf phase drift of acceleration fields in the injector cavities was reduced and the orbit fluctuation due to a leak magnetic field from the AC heater was also eliminated. For decrease of the trip rate, we modified an interlocking logic for the thyratron discharge of the high-voltage pulse modulators and we performed high-voltage conditioning of accelerating structures in parallel with user operation. As a result, the repetition rate was increased from 10 pps to 20 pps without significant growth of the trip rate. For the undulator part, magnetic field errors on some of the undulators were measured and corrected in summer, 2012 and an additional undulator was installed in winter, 2012. In consequence of these improvements mentioned above, the accelerator was considerably stabilized and the average XFEL intensity was increased from 250 ?J (July 2012) to 400 ?J (July 2013) at an X-ray energy of 10 keV. (author)

  6. When Celibacy Matters: Incorporating Non-Breeders Improves Demographic Parameter Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Deborah; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exula...

  7. The Effectiveness of Institutional Intervention on Minimizing Demographic Inertia and Improving the Representation of Women Faculty in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V. Bakian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Women remain under-represented among full time tenured/tenure-track science and engineering faculty at research universities in the United States despite their increasing availability in the employment pool. In response, intervention strategies aimed at boosting their participation have been introduced at university and national levels. Efforts to improve women’s representation may be challenged by demographic inertia, the tendency for the maintenance of the entrenched population structure that favors men despite improvements in women’s vital parameters. Here, we investigate the effectiveness of the U.S. National Science Foundation’s ADVANCE institutional intervention program at curtailing demographic inertia at a research university dubbed ‘Snow State University’ (SSU. We found that demographic inertia’s impact on women’s representation was lessened during ADVANCE. Yet to achieve long-lasting improvements in women’s representation, universities will need to increase their recruitment of women at the associate and full professor ranks while maintaining promotion and retention probabilities favorable to women over the long-term.

  8. Component Improvements in the Electrification of Passenger Vehicles Drivetrains

    OpenAIRE

    Devloo, Thomas; Leemput, Niels; Van Roy, Juan; Geth, Frederik; Driesen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, possible efficiency improvements of electric components used in drivetrain technologies for passenger vehicles are examined. The fuel consumption is determined for drivetrains with various degrees of electrification, combined with a set of combustion engine technologies. The simulations underline the importance of the energy efficiency of the electric drivetrain to obtain low CO2 emissions. The results help in deciding for which components the research has to focus on regarding...

  9. Improved evaluation of optical depth components from Langley plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggar, S. F.; Gellman, D. I.; Slater, P. N.

    1990-01-01

    A simple, iterative procedure to determine the optical depth components of the extinction optical depth measured by a solar radiometer is presented. Simulated data show that the iterative procedure improves the determination of the exponent of a Junge law particle size distribution. The determination of the optical depth due to aerosol scattering is improved as compared to a method which uses only two points from the extinction data. The iterative method was used to determine spectral optical depth components for June 11-13, 1988 during the MAC III experiment.

  10. IMHEX fuel cell repeat component manufacturing continuous improvement accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakaitis, L.A.; Petraglia, V.J.; Bryson, E.S. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power is taking a power generation technology that has been proven in the laboratory and is making it a commercially competitive product. There are many areas in which this technology required scale up and refinement to reach the market entry goals for the IMHEX{reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. One of the primary areas that needed to be addressed was the manufacturing of the fuel cell stack. Up to this point, the fuel cell stack and associated components were virtually hand made for each system to be tested. M-C Power has now continuously manufactured the repeat components for three 250 kW stacks. M-C Power`s manufacturing strategy integrated both evolutionary and revolutionary improvements into its comprehensive commercialization effort. M-C Power`s objectives were to analyze and continuously improve stack component manufacturing and assembly techniques consistent with established specifications and commercial scale production requirements. Evolutionary improvements are those which naturally occur as the production rates are increased and experience is gained. Examples of evolutionary (learning curve) improvements included reducing scrap rates and decreasing raw material costs by buying in large quantities. Revolutionary improvements result in significant design and process changes to meet cost and performance requirements of the market entry system. Revolutionary changes often involve identifying new methods and developing designs to accommodate the new process. Based upon our accomplishments, M-C Power was able to reduce the cost of continuously manufactured fuel cell repeat components from the first to third 250 kW stack by 63%. This paper documents the continuous improvement accomplishments realized by M-C Power during IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell repeat component manufacturing.

  11. Microinjection molding of microsystem components: new aspects in improving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Can; Yin, Xiao-Hong; Cheng, Guang-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Microinjection molding (µIM) is considered to be one of the most flexible, reliable and cost effective manufacturing routes to form plastic micro-components for microsystems. The molding machine, mold tool fabrication, material selection and process controlling in this specific field have been greatly developed over the past decades. This review aims to present the new trends towards improving micro-component performance by reviewing the latest developments in this area and by considering potential directions. The key concerns in product and mold designing, essential factors in simulation, and micro-morphology and resultant properties are evaluated and discussed. In addition, the applications, variant processes and outlook for µIM are presented. Throughout this review, decisive considerations in seeking improved performance for microsystem components are highlighted.

  12. Improvements for Image Compression Using Adaptive Principal Component Extraction (APEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyad, Nigel A.; Gilmore, Erwin T.; Chouikha, Mohamed F.

    1997-01-01

    The issues of image compression and pattern classification have been a primary focus of researchers among a variety of fields including signal and image processing, pattern recognition, data classification, etc. These issues depend on finding an efficient representation of the source data. In this paper we collate our earlier results where we introduced the application of the. Hilbe.rt scan to a principal component algorithm (PCA) with Adaptive Principal Component Extraction (APEX) neural network model. We apply these technique to medical imaging, particularly image representation and compression. We apply the Hilbert scan to the APEX algorithm to improve results

  13. Testing to Support Improvements to PV Components and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMAS,H.; KROPOSKI,B.; WITT,C.; BOWER,WARD I.; BONN,RUSSELL H.; GINN,JERRY W.; GONZALEZ,SIGIFREDO

    2000-07-15

    The National Photovoltaic (PV) Program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy and includes a PV Manufacturing Research and Development (R and D) project conducted with industry. This project includes advancements in PV components to improve reliability, reduce costs, and develop integrated PV systems. Participants submit prototypes, pre-production hardware products, and examples of the resulting final products for a range of tests conducted at several national laboratories, independent testing laboratories, and recognized listing agencies. The purpose of this testing is to use the results to assist industry in determining a product's performance and reliability, and to identify areas for potential improvement. This paper briefly describes the PV Manufacturing R and D project, participants in the area of PV systems, balance of systems, and components, and several examples of the different types of product and performance testing used to support and confirm product performance.

  14. Improvement in quantification of urine components: Alternate technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S

    2014-01-01

    Urea and creatinine are two important diagnostic components of urine. The study of creatinine in liquid phase is difficult due to its feeble concentration in urine. To bring down the detection limit, DCD Raman spectroscopy was employed. Raman studies in association with partial least square algorithm of artificial urine samples gave improved results in dried phase as compared to liquid phase. These findings were further validated on real urine samples.

  15. Improvement in quantification of urine components: Alternate technique

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S.(Panjab University, 160014, Chandigarh, India); S. K. Majumdar

    2014-01-01

    Urea and creatinine are two important diagnostic components of urine. The study of creatinine in liquid phase is difficult due to its feeble concentration in urine. To bring down the detection limit, Raman spectroscopy of dried urine samples was employed. Raman studies in association with partial least square algorithm of artificial urine samples gave improved results in dried phase as compared to liquid phase. These findings were further validated on real urine samples.

  16. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    OpenAIRE

    Tatem Andrew J; Adamo Susana; Bharti Nita; Burgert Clara R; de Castro Marcia; Dorelien Audrey; Fink Gunter; Linard Catherine; John Mendelsohn; Montana Livia; Montgomery Mark R; Nelson Andrew; Noor Abdisalan M; Pindolia Deepa; Yetman Greg

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated,...

  17. Codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components to improve Jewett transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, G; Glaria, A [Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad de Valparaiso, 13 Norte 766, Vina del Mar (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    Jewett Transform is not yet, it is being. First ideas on this metaphor are from 1980 while monitoring cerebral function. It was conceived in contrast with Fourier Transform. Its application is limited to Auditory Brain Stem Responses. It uses a non-orthogonal physiologically rooted basis. Non-orthogonal basis has limited power in front of orthogonal basis: no analytical method exists to evaluate the corresponding transforms and numerical methods are required. In previous works, numerical methods were replaced for by trained artificial neural networks. Jewett transform was applied to increase the training set. Being a physiologically inspired basis, it promises better understanding of analysis of these evoked responses. It is envisioned that diverse new transforms, tailored to different problem specificity are to emerge. Considering the short temporal influence of Jewett components, it is stated that codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components can be used to improve Jewett Transform. Previously used neural network was modified. Output vector codes are built up by grouping components instead of grouping parameters. This allows synaptic pruning in the artificial neural network. Only a fraction (0.49) of the previous network weights is used. Mean square error in fitting signal to model are acceptable (mean {epsilon}<0.3%, n= 600). Memorization is eliminated.

  18. Codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components to improve Jewett transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett Transform is not yet, it is being. First ideas on this metaphor are from 1980 while monitoring cerebral function. It was conceived in contrast with Fourier Transform. Its application is limited to Auditory Brain Stem Responses. It uses a non-orthogonal physiologically rooted basis. Non-orthogonal basis has limited power in front of orthogonal basis: no analytical method exists to evaluate the corresponding transforms and numerical methods are required. In previous works, numerical methods were replaced for by trained artificial neural networks. Jewett transform was applied to increase the training set. Being a physiologically inspired basis, it promises better understanding of analysis of these evoked responses. It is envisioned that diverse new transforms, tailored to different problem specificity are to emerge. Considering the short temporal influence of Jewett components, it is stated that codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components can be used to improve Jewett Transform. Previously used neural network was modified. Output vector codes are built up by grouping components instead of grouping parameters. This allows synaptic pruning in the artificial neural network. Only a fraction (0.49) of the previous network weights is used. Mean square error in fitting signal to model are acceptable (mean ε<0.3%, n= 600). Memorization is eliminated

  19. Managerial improvement efforts after finding unreported cracks in reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002 TEPCO found that there were unreported cracks in reactor components, of which inspection records had been falsified. Stress Corrosion Cracking indications found in Core Shrouds and Primary Loop Re-circulation pipes at some plants were removed from the inspection records and not reported to the regulators. Top management of TEPCO took the responsibility and resigned, and recovery was started under the leadership of new management team. First of all, behavioral standards were reconstituted to strongly support safety-first value. Ethics education was introduced and corporate ethics committee was organized with participation of external experts. Independent assessment organization was established to enhance quality assurance. Information became more transparent through Non-conformance Control Program. As for the material management, prevention and mitigation programs for the Stress Corrosion Cracking of reactor components were re-established. In addition to the above immediate recovery actions, long term improvement initiatives have also been launched and driven by our aspiration to excellence in safe operation of nuclear power plants. Vision and core values were set to align the people. Organizational learning was enhanced by benchmark studies, better systematic use of operational experience, self-assessment and external assessment. Based on these foundation blocks and with strong sponsorship from the top management, work processes were analyzed and improved by Peer Groups. (author)

  20. Could non-grade based selection improve medical student socio-demographic diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Students with lower socioeconomic backgrounds have been found to be underrepresented in medical education. There is little evidence as to whether the type of student admission strategy used could make a difference to diversity of medical students. The aim of this paper was to examine if selection strategy made a difference to the diversity of admitted medical students. Method: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The population was 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 at one medical school. Of these, 454 was admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected with a non-grade-based or ’non-cognitive’ admission program. The two admission groups were compared on seven social indices (doctor parent, ethnic origin, father’s education, mother’s education, parenthood, parents live together, parent on benefit). Result: Selection strategy made no difference to the social diversity of admitted medical students. The non-cognitive admission program studied was nota useful initiative for improving medical student diversity nor did it further disadvantaged educationally vulnerable population groups in these cohorts. Discussion: The social heritage and general intelligence of potential applicants from underrepresented groups may be far more influential on diversity in medical school than the choice of medical school selection strategy.

  1. A comparative method for improving the reliability of brittle components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculating the absolute reliability built in a product is often an extremely difficult task because of the complexity of the physical processes and physical mechanisms underlying the failure modes, the complex influence of the environment and the operational loads, the variability associated with reliability-critical design parameters and the non-robustness of the prediction models. Predicting the probability of failure of loaded components with complex shape for example is associated with uncertainty related to: the type of existing flaws initiating fracture, the size distributions of the flaws, the locations and the orientations of the flaws and the microstructure and its local properties. Capturing these types of uncertainty, necessary for a correct prediction of the reliability of components is a formidable task which does not need to be addressed if a comparative reliability method is employed, especially if the focus is on reliability improvement. The new comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws proposed here is based on an assumed failure criterion, an equation linking the probability that a flaw will be critical with the probability of failure associated with the component and a finite element solution for the distribution of the principal stresses in the loaded component. The probability that a flaw will be critical is determined directly, after a finite number of steps equal to the number of finite elements into which the component is divided. An advantage of the proposed comparative method for improving the resistance to failure initiated by flaws is that it does not rely on a Monte Carlo simulation and does not depend on knowledge of the size distribution of the flaws and the material properties. This essentially eliminates uncertainty associated with the material properties and the population of flaws. On the basis of a theoretical analysis we also show that, contrary to the common belief, in general, for non-interacting flaws randomly located in a stressed volume, the distribution of the minimum failure stress is not necessarily described by a Weibull distribution. For the simple case of a single group of flaws all of which become critical beyond a particular threshold value for example, the Weibull distribution fails to predict correctly the probability of failure. If in a particular load range, no new critical flaws are created by increasing the applied stress, the Weibull distribution also fails to predict correctly the probability of failure of the component. In these cases however, the probability of failure is correctly predicted by the suggested alternative equation. The suggested equation is the correct mathematical formulation of the weakest-link concept related to random flaws in a stressed volume. The equation does not require any assumption concerning the physical nature of the flaws and the physical mechanism of failure and can be applied in any situation of locally initiated failure by non-interacting entities

  2. Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

  3. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  4. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  5. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

    2012-03-26

    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure crisis that U.S. industry is ill prepared to handle which could further challenge U.S. competitiveness.

  6. Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jill R.; Enid J. Schatz; Clark, Benjamin D; Collinson, Mark A.; Clark, Samuel J.; Jane Menken; Kathleen Kahn; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of...

  7. Georgia - Improving General Education Quality, School Rehabilitation Component

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The school rehabilitation activity seeks to decrease student and teacher absenteeism, increase students’ time on task, and, ultimately, improve learning and labor...

  8. Some design considerations for improved reliability of nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High system reliability has to be aimed at in the design of nuclear reactor components to ensure safety of the public and workers as well as to ensure minimum energy cost. This is of particular importance in nuclear reactors because of their high capital cost and high hazard potential. A number of general principles for achieving high reliability can be very effectively put to use in the design of reactor components. Some of the important ones are fail-safe design, use of assessed quality components, fault indicators, routine diagnostic inspection, good repairability and redundancy. While it is true that this type of provisions along with a detailed systematic design leads to high costs, the reliability gained in this manner pays off much larger dividends. In this paper various such considerations have been highlighted in the context of reactors being designed in India. (author)

  9. Changing demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

  10. A components paint facility upgrade to improve production efficiency, quality and working conditions at UCW Company

    OpenAIRE

    Masombuka, Willy Sizo

    2011-01-01

    A design of an improved facilities plan for Components Paint Shop, with appropriate and efficient material flow and handling system. The facility should optimise production efficiency throughout Components Paint Shop.

  11. Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, J.; Ferl, J.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; DeAngelis, G.; Tweed, J.; Zeitlin, C.J.

    2002-05-08

    In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs.

  12. Improvement of BCI Performance Through Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjon Turnip

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG recordings provide an important means of brain-computer communication, but their classification accuracy and transfer rate are limited by unexpected signal variations due to artifacts and noises. In this paper, a nonlinear independent component analysis (NICA extraction method for brain signal based EEG-P300 are proposed. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through a comparison of well known extraction methods (i.e., AAR, JADE, and SOBI algorithms. Finally, the promising results reported here reflect the considerable potential of EEG for the continuous classification of mental states.

  13. Design and Testing of Improved Spacesuit Shielding Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In prior studies of the current Shuttle Spacesuit (SSA), where basic fabric lay-ups were tested for shielding capabilities, it was found that the fabric portions of the suit give far less protection than previously estimated due to porosity and non-uniformity of fabric and LCVG components. In addition, overall material transmission properties were less than optimum. A number of alternate approaches are being tested to provide more uniform coverage and to use more efficient materials. We will discuss in this paper, recent testing of new material lay-ups/configurations for possible use in future spacesuit designs

  14. Improving tag/seal technologies: the vulnerability assessment component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, has sponsored the development of numerous tag and seal technologies for high-security/high-valued applications. One important component in this technology development effort has been the continuous integration of vulnerability assessments. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been the lead laboratory for vulnerability assessments of fiber-optic-based tag/seal technologies. This paper presents a brief historical overview and the current status of the DOE high-security tag/seal development program and discusses INEL`s adversarial role and assessment philosophy. Verification testing criteria used to define ``successful`` tampering attempts/attacks are discussed. Finally, the advantages of integrating a vulnerability assessment into the development of commercial security tag/seals are presented.

  15. Joining of components of complex structures for improved dynamic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Kwon; Epureanu, Bogdan I.; Castanier, Matthew P.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this work is to provide a method for choosing joining (e.g., bolt) locations for attaching structural reinforcements onto complex structures. The joining locations affect structural performance criteria such as the frequency response and the static compliance of the modified structure. One approach to finding improved/optimal joining locations is to place the joints such that the total amount of energy input into the structure (from external forces) is lowered/minimized, thus ensuring that the performance of the structure is least affected by the structural modifications. However, such an approach does not account for the stresses in the joints. Therefore, in this work, the amount of strain energy concentrated in the joints is also considered. The cost function for this optimization problem is then composed of two energies. These energies are different for the undamped and damped cases. Herein, the focus is on the (more realistic) damped case. The cost function is minimized by a modified optimality criteria method. This process is time consuming because it requires the calculation of sensitivities of the joint strain energy, which in turn requires the calculation of the displacements of all candidate joint locations by using the system-level mass and stiffness matrices and force vector (at each frequency in the range of interest). To address this issue, a series of complex algebraic manipulations and approximations are used to significantly reduce the computational cost. In addition, for the case where structural and geometrical variations are necessary, parametric reduced-order models are used to compute the cost function with further significant gains in computational speed. Numerical results for improved/optimal joining are presented for representative complex structures with structural variabilities.

  16. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.B. Elsner; J.C. Bass; S. Ghamaty; D. Krommenhoek; A. Kushch; D. Snowden; S. Marchetti

    2005-03-31

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCARâ??s test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of imported oil, that much less air pollution, and an equivalent reduction in the trade deficit, which is expected to lower the inflation rate.

  17. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietersz RNI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  18. Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E.

    2013-01-01

    In Malawi, net forest cover loss over time is associated with reduced dietary diversity and consumption of vitamin A-rich foods among children. Greater forest cover is associated with reduced risk of diarrheal disease. These preliminary findings suggest that protection of natural ecosystems could play an important role in improving health outcomes.

  19. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol‐gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental...... evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol‐gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol‐gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol‐gel component in coatings for...

  20. Improved separation of soft and hard components in multiple Coulomb scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenco, M V

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the angular distribution function of particles scattered in an amorphous medium is improved by deforming the integration path in the Fourier integral representation into the complex plane. That allows us to present the distribution function as a sum of two positive components, soft and hard, the soft component being close to a Gaussian, and the hard component vanishing in the forward direction, while including the Rutherford asymptotics and all the power corrections to it at large scattering angles. Detailed properties of those components, and their interplay at intermediate deflection angles are discussed. Comparison with the Moli\\`{e}re theory is given.

  1. INVESTIGATIONS TO IMPROVE THE TRANSFERABILITY OF SPECIMEN RESULTS BY REAL COMPONENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Riedler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the improvement of the lifetime calculation of components made of the titanium alloy Ti-6-4, a closed loop methodology from specimen to the component is presented. Based on forged pre-material specimens fatigue tests are done as a basic research, which are presented as S/N-curves. With the determined material data a lifetime calculation with the program FEMFAT is done on a typically fitting element. Finally the results of the lifetime calculation are compared to real component tests, which are done to evaluate the results of the lifetime calculation. The component tests are performed with constant and variable load. Therewith the transferability of specimen results to real components is shown. Additional fracture analysis by light microscope and scanning electron microscope is carried out to give further information of the influence factor of the lifetime and a further description between fracture behaviour of specimen and components.

  2. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles ...

  3. Methodology for Process Improvement Through Basic Components and Focusing on the Resistance to Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Manzano Villalon, Jose Antonio; Cuevas Agustin, Gonzalo; Gómez, Gerzón; Mejia, Jezreel; Muñoz, Mirna; San Feliu Gilabert, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-model methodology that implements a smooth and continuous process improvement, depending on the organization's business goals and allowing users to establish their improvement implementation pace. The methodology focuses on basic process components known as ‘best practices’. Besides, it covers following the topics: knowledge management and change management. The methodology description and the results of a case study on project management process are included.

  4. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

  5. Improving the voltage quality of an inverter via by-passing the harmonic current components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Qing-Chang; Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.; Hornik, Tomas

    In this paper, a control strategy is proposed to improve the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage of an inverter. The physical interpretation of the control strategy is to connect shunt resonant filters at harmonic frequencies to the output so that the harmonic current components...

  6. Improvements in Block-Krylov Ritz Vectors and the Boundary Flexibility Method of Component Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly Scott

    1997-01-01

    A method of dynamic substructuring is presented which utilizes a set of static Ritz vectors as a replacement for normal eigenvectors in component mode synthesis. This set of Ritz vectors is generated in a recurrence relationship, proposed by Wilson, which has the form of a block-Krylov subspace. The initial seed to the recurrence algorithm is based upon the boundary flexibility vectors of the component. Improvements have been made in the formulation of the initial seed to the Krylov sequence, through the use of block-filtering. A method to shift the Krylov sequence to create Ritz vectors that will represent the dynamic behavior of the component at target frequencies, the target frequency being determined by the applied forcing functions, has been developed. A method to terminate the Krylov sequence has also been developed. Various orthonormalization schemes have been developed and evaluated, including the Cholesky/QR method. Several auxiliary theorems and proofs which illustrate issues in component mode synthesis and loss of orthogonality in the Krylov sequence have also been presented. The resulting methodology is applicable to both fixed and free- interface boundary components, and results in a general component model appropriate for any type of dynamic analysis. The accuracy is found to be comparable to that of component synthesis based upon normal modes, using fewer generalized coordinates. In addition, the block-Krylov recurrence algorithm is a series of static solutions and so requires significantly less computation than solving the normal eigenspace problem. The requirement for less vectors to form the component, coupled with the lower computational expense of calculating these Ritz vectors, combine to create a method more efficient than traditional component mode synthesis.

  7. Improving accuracy of total knee component cementation: description of a simple technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayton Michael R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty represents a common orthopedic surgical procedure. Achieving proper alignment of its components with the predrilled patellar and tibial peg holes prior to polymerization of the bone cement can be challenging. Technique After establishing the femoral, patellar and tibial bone cuts, the cancellous bone around the tibial keel, as well as the peg holes for the patella and femoral components are marked with methylene blue using a cotton swab stick. If bone cement is then placed onto the cut and marked bone edges, the methylene blue leaches through the bone cement and clearly outlines the tibial keel and predrilled femoral and patellar peg holes. This allows excellent visualization of the bone preparations for each component, ensuring safe and prompt positioning of TKA components while minimizing intraoperative difficulties with component alignment while the cement hardens. Conclusion The presented technical note helps to improve the accuracy and ease of insertion when the components of total knee arthroplasty are impacted to their final position.

  8. Acetabular imprinting device (AID) improves acetabular component positioning: a Sawbones® study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Anas; Gad, Bishoy V; Higuera, Carlos A; Klika, Alison K; Iannotti, Joseph P; Barsoum, Wael K

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the ability of a novel acetabular positioning device with 3D preoperative planning (AID) to improve acetabular component placement in total hip arthroplasty. Four surgeons placed the acetabular component in two Sawbones® models using three different methods: standard method, 3D planning method, and the AID method. The AID significantly decreased the mean deviation of actual acetabular component inclination from the preoperative plan when compared with standard and 3D planning methods (p = 0.003). Overall, AID reduced the number of malpositioned implants to 12.5%, compared with 87.5% in the standard method and 75% in the 3D planning method without use of the AID (p = 0.005). A clinical trial is needed to compare AID to standard surgical techniques. PMID:24526421

  9. Introduction of cooperating conductive components into the phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the electric conductivity of Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor with the least amount of conductive component so as to maximize the improvement in low voltage cathodoluminescence, In2O3 and Cu nanowires (NWs) were simultaneously introduced to form Cu NWs/In2O3-attached Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor. In2O3 and Cu NWs play different roles in the formation of electrically conductive network, i.e., Cu NWs are suitable as conductive channels for charge transmission due to their one-dimensional morphology with large slenderness ratios, while the island-like In2O3 condensates form local conductive contacts joining the adjacent Cu NWs. Meanwhile, In2O3 forms attachment between Cu NWs and the phosphor. Owing to the cooperating effects between Cu NWs/In2O3 conductive components in the phosphor, the efficiency in low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved. -- Highlights: ? In2O3/Cu NWs were introduced in Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence. ? In2O3/Cu NWs play different key roles in the formation of electrically conductive network. ? The cooperating effect was proved by comparing the experimental data and the calculated results. ? The low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved

  10. Improved Differential Evolution Based on Stochastic Ranking for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Liu, Jinchao; Sørensen, Torben; Wang, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an improved differential evolution (DE) algorithm for robust layout synthesis of microelectromechanical system components subject to inherent geometric uncertainties. A case study of the layout synthesis of a combdriven microresonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less sensitive to geometric uncertainties than the typical designs. It is also demonstrated that the algorithm proposed in this ...

  11. Improved E-ELT subsystem and component specifications, thanks to M1 test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmler, M.; Marrero, J.; Leveque, S.; Barriga, Pablo; Sedghi, B.; Kornweibel, N.

    2014-07-01

    During the last 2 years ESO has operated the "M1 Test Facility", a test stand consisting of a representative section of the E-ELT primary mirror equipped with 4 complete prototype segment subunits including sensors, actuators and control system. The purpose of the test facility is twofold: it serves to study and get familiar with component and system aspects like calibration, alignment and handling procedures and suitable control strategies on real hardware long before the primary mirror (hereafter M1) components are commissioned. Secondly, and of major benefit to the project, it offered the possibility to evaluate component and subsystem performance and interface issues in a system context in such detail, that issues could be identified early enough to feed back into the subsystem and component specifications. This considerably reduces risk and cost of the production units and allows refocusing the project team on important issues for the follow-up of the production contracts. Experiences are presented in which areas the results of the M1 Test Facility particularly helped to improve subsystem specifications and areas, where additional tests were adopted independent of the main test facility. Presented are the key experiences of the M1 Test Facility which lead to improved specifications or identified the need for additional testing outside of the M1 Test Facility.

  12. Wave-shaping of pulse tube cryocooler components for improved performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Dion Savio; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2014-11-01

    The method of wave-shaping acoustic resonators is applied to an inertance type cryogenic pulse tube refrigerator (IPTR) to improve its performance. A detailed time-dependent axisymmetric experimentally validated computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the PTR is used to predict its performance. The continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved for both the refrigerant gas (helium) and the porous media regions (the regenerator and the three heat-exchangers) in the PTR. An improved representation of heat transfer in the porous media is achieved by employing a thermal non-equilibrium model to couple the gas and solid (porous media) energy equations. The wave-shaped regenerator and pulse tube studied have cone geometries and the effects of different cone angles and the orientation (nozzle v/s diffuser mode) on the system performance are investigated. The resultant spatio-temporal pressure, temperature and velocity fields in the regenerator and pulse tube components are evaluated. The performance of these wave-shaped PTRs is compared to the performance of a non wave-shaped system with cylindrical components. Better cooling is predicted for the cryocooler using wave-shaped components oriented in the diffuser mode.

  13. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Burress, T.; Fugate, D.; Holcomb, D.; Wilgen, J.; Miller, J.; Wilson, D.; Silva, P.; Whitlow, L.; Peretz, F.

    2012-09-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) components and systems. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration platform. I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the system; treating I&C as an integral part of the system design is innovative and will allow significant improvement in capabilities and performance. As systems become more complex and greater performance is required, traditional I&C design techniques become inadequate and more advanced I&C needs to be applied. New I&C techniques enable optimal and reliable performance and tolerance of noise and uncertainties in the system rather than merely monitoring quasistable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in NPP components after the design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. By incorporating I&C at the beginning of the design phase, the control system can provide superior performance and reliability and enable designs that are otherwise impossible. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the platform to demonstrate the performance and reliability improvements enabled by advanced embedded I&C.

  14. Introduction of cooperating conductive components into the phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Chun Yu, E-mail: shang.chun.yu@163.com [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China); JiangSu Province Web TV Research and Development Center for Engineering Technology, Suzhou 215104 (China); Kang, Hui; Jiang, Hong Bo [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China); Bu, Shu Po [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Suzhou Institute of Industrial Technology, Suzhou 215104 (China); Shang, Xiao Hong; Wu, Yan [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin 150027 (China)

    2013-06-15

    In order to improve the electric conductivity of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor with the least amount of conductive component so as to maximize the improvement in low voltage cathodoluminescence, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu nanowires (NWs) were simultaneously introduced to form Cu NWs/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-attached Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor. In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu NWs play different roles in the formation of electrically conductive network, i.e., Cu NWs are suitable as conductive channels for charge transmission due to their one-dimensional morphology with large slenderness ratios, while the island-like In{sub 2}O{sub 3} condensates form local conductive contacts joining the adjacent Cu NWs. Meanwhile, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} forms attachment between Cu NWs and the phosphor. Owing to the cooperating effects between Cu NWs/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} conductive components in the phosphor, the efficiency in low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved. -- Highlights: ? In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu NWs were introduced in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor to improve the low voltage cathodoluminescence. ? In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu NWs play different key roles in the formation of electrically conductive network. ? The cooperating effect was proved by comparing the experimental data and the calculated results. ? The low voltage cathodoluminescence was significantly improved.

  15. Improving the accuracy: volatility modeling and forecasting using high-frequency data and the variational component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we predict the daily volatility of the S&P CNX NIFTY market index of India using the basic ‘heterogeneous autoregressive’ (HAR and its variant. In doing so, we estimated several HAR and Log form of HAR models using different regressor. The different regressors were obtained by extracting the jump and continuous component and the threshold jump and continuous component from the realized volatility. We also tried to investigate whether dividing volatility into simple and threshold jumps and continuous variation yields a substantial improvement in volatility forecasting or not. The results provide the evidence that inclusion of realized bipower variance in the HAR models helps in predicting future volatility.

  16. Improvement of the two steps HIP diffusion welding process for fusion blanket sub-components manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Hot Isostatic Pressing - Diffusion Welding is a preferred process for the fabrication of fusion blanket sub-components. The structural material is a ferritic-martensitic steel, Eurofer 97 (X10CrWTaV9-1). Several options can be envisaged depending on the kind of parts used to obtain the final structure. More precisely, flat sub-components such like caps, stiffening plates and cooling plates can in principle be manufactured using two mirror-like grooved plates joined together. The main problem is to avoid groove deformation during bonding. A process allowing achieving minimum deformation has been defined at CEA, but the joint mechanical properties are not satisfactory. The objective of the work is to improve the process performance in view of improving joint mechanical properties. The two steps HIP process consists in joining pairs of grooved plates in two steps: a low pressure HIP cycle with encapsulated channels to ensure joining with minimum groove deformation, and a high pressure HIP cycle with opened channels to achieve full bonding. Joints obtained by this process have degraded mechanical properties with regard to those obtained for plain samples with a single high pressure HIP cycle, and microstructure analyses reveal inclusions at the joint line. It seems that the two steps HIP process requires specific outgassing procedures. The main objective of this study is to optimise the current outgassing process. A first experiment which consists in heating under vacuum Eurofer samples inserted in a quartz tube is led to precisely analyse the desorption phenomenon in order to find appropriate improved solutions. A series of experiments are then realised with an optimised outgassing device, new encapsulation methods and with several specimen designs (plain or grooved) to evaluate the effect of outgassing conditions on joints quality. The definition of an outgassing procedure that leads to acceptable joint qualities would enable the use of the 2 steps HIP process for the conception of fusion blanket sub-components. (authors)

  17. Improvement of the two steps HIP diffusion welding process for fusion blanket sub-components manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elie, M.; Vidotto, F. [CEA Grenoble (DRT/LlTEN/DTH), 38 (France); Rigal, E. [CEA Grenoble (DRT/LlTEN/), 38 (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Hot Isostatic Pressing - Diffusion Welding is a preferred process for the fabrication of fusion blanket sub-components. The structural material is a ferritic-martensitic steel, Eurofer 97 (X10CrWTaV9-1). Several options can be envisaged depending on the kind of parts used to obtain the final structure. More precisely, flat sub-components such like caps, stiffening plates and cooling plates can in principle be manufactured using two mirror-like grooved plates joined together. The main problem is to avoid groove deformation during bonding. A process allowing achieving minimum deformation has been defined at CEA, but the joint mechanical properties are not satisfactory. The objective of the work is to improve the process performance in view of improving joint mechanical properties. The two steps HIP process consists in joining pairs of grooved plates in two steps: a low pressure HIP cycle with encapsulated channels to ensure joining with minimum groove deformation, and a high pressure HIP cycle with opened channels to achieve full bonding. Joints obtained by this process have degraded mechanical properties with regard to those obtained for plain samples with a single high pressure HIP cycle, and microstructure analyses reveal inclusions at the joint line. It seems that the two steps HIP process requires specific outgassing procedures. The main objective of this study is to optimise the current outgassing process. A first experiment which consists in heating under vacuum Eurofer samples inserted in a quartz tube is led to precisely analyse the desorption phenomenon in order to find appropriate improved solutions. A series of experiments are then realised with an optimised outgassing device, new encapsulation methods and with several specimen designs (plain or grooved) to evaluate the effect of outgassing conditions on joints quality. The definition of an outgassing procedure that leads to acceptable joint qualities would enable the use of the 2 steps HIP process for the conception of fusion blanket sub-components. (authors)

  18. Improved Differential Evolution Based on Stochastic Ranking for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Liu, Jinchao

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an improved differential evolution (DE) algorithm for robust layout synthesis of microelectromechanical system components subject to inherent geometric uncertainties. A case study of the layout synthesis of a combdriven microresonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less sensitive to geometric uncertainties than the typical designs. It is also demonstrated that the algorithm proposed in this paper cannot only obtain better results than the standard DE algorithm but also outperform some other state-of-art algorithms in constrained optimization.

  19. Infrared non destructive test of plasma facing components. Defect detection improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to control actively water cooled plasma facing components before their installation in Tore Supra, an infrared test bed called SATIR has been developed since 1994 by CEA. In 1998, the test bed was used industrially to test 60 High Heat Flux (HHF) elements for antenna limiters, designed to sustain an incident flux of 10 MW/m2. In the future, approximately 1000 HHF elements will be controlled on SATIR. Since the beginning, some technical improvements have been performed on SATIR: increase of the temperature gradient, development of a new software for infrared data analysis, increase of control capacity. This paper points out the facility improvement and the application to HHF elements testing. Experimental results have been compared with a 3-D Finite Element calculation and show a good correlation. (author)

  20. Towards improved hardware component attenuation correction in PET/MR hybrid imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, D. H.; Tellmann, L.; Quick, H. H.

    2013-11-01

    In positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging attenuation correction (AC) of the patient tissue and patient table is performed by converting the CT-based Hounsfield units (HU) to linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of PET. When applied to the new field of hardware component AC in PET/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid imaging, this conversion method may result in local overcorrection of PET activity values. The aim of this study thus was to optimize the conversion parameters for CT-based AC of hardware components in PET/MR. Systematic evaluation and optimization of the HU to LAC conversion parameters has been performed for the hardware component attenuation map (µ-map) of a flexible radiofrequency (RF) coil used in PET/MR imaging. Furthermore, spatial misregistration of this RF coil to its µ-map was simulated by shifting the µ-map in different directions and the effect on PET quantification was evaluated. Measurements of a PET NEMA standard emission phantom were performed on an integrated hybrid PET/MR system. Various CT parameters were used to calculate different µ-maps for the flexible RF coil and to evaluate the impact on the PET activity concentration. A 511 keV transmission scan of the local RF coil was used as standard of reference to adapt the slope of the conversion from HUs to LACs at 511 keV. The average underestimation of the PET activity concentration due to the non-attenuation corrected RF coil in place was calculated to be 5.0% in the overall phantom. When considering attenuation only in the upper volume of the phantom, the average difference to the reference scan without RF coil is 11.0%. When the PET/CT conversion is applied, an average overestimation of 3.1% (without extended CT scale) and 4.2% (with extended CT scale) is observed in the top volume of the NEMA phantom. Using the adapted conversion resulting from this study, the deviation in the top volume of the phantom is reduced to -0.5% and shows the lowest standard deviation inside the phantom in comparison to all other conversions. Simulation of a µ-map misregistration shows acceptable results for shifts below 5 mm for the flexible surface RF coil. The adapted conversion from HUs to LAC at 511 keV within this study can improve hardware component AC in PET/MR hybrid imaging as shown for a flexible RF surface coil. Furthermore, these results have a direct impact on the improvement of the hardware component AC of the examined flexible RF coil in conjunction with position determination.

  1. Developments in ultrasonic instrumentation to improve the reliability of NDE of pressurized components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent Babcock developments in instrumentation will improve the reliability of ultrasonic examination of pressurised components. These developments - which are relevant both to periodic inspection and to inspection at the manufacture stage -include: (a) an electronically-controlled, curved-array, variable-angle probe which has the potential for allowing more beam angles than normal to be applied in a shorter overall time, (b) new standards (ESI) for fitness for purpose of ultrasonic equipment, (c) a microprocessor aid to flaw plotting and sizing - Microsize - which has been designed as a portable tool to complement the experience and skills of present ultrasonic technicians in applying conventional British Standard methods of flaw assessment, (d) an automated ultrasonic examination system utilising a programmable ultrasonic flaw detector - Micropulse -under computer-control via a highly flexible software package which allows rapid reprogramming for new geometries or ultrasonic techniques. (author)

  2. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining

  3. Demographic Dividend or Demographic Threat in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nayab, Durr-e-

    2006-01-01

    Population growth and size have remained the focus of debate for centuries but the recent demographic transition in developing countries has made social scientists take note of the changing age structure of the population as well. As a result of declining population growth and consequent changes in age structure, the proportion of working-age population is increasing in most developing countries, with an associated decline in the dependent age population, offering a window of opportunity to t...

  4. Improvement of a simple evaluation method for duct streaming by taking account of the deep penetration component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified formula for radiation streaming through bent ducts was previously derived by optics analogy, considering only components passing through the duct and without enormous preparatory calculations. Now, by taking account of deep penetrating component, the streaming formula is improved in order to estimate not only ?-ray flux but also neutron flux with accuracy, factor 2-3, applicable to preliminary shielding designs. Dose rates at the exit estimated by the improved formula are compared with experimental values. As for ?-ray evaluated values become conservative by improvement, while evaluated values were underestimated before improvement. Also for neutron, the discrepancy between the calculated values by the present formula and observed ones becomes within factor 2 after improvement from factor 3 before improvement. From these results, it is concluded that the improved formula is applicable to preliminary shielding designs. (author)

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF THE FISCAL COMPONENT OF THE MECHANISM OF INCOME POPULATION STATE REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhebchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of the country development it is important to create such a tax system that would positively affected the economic growth. Under conditions of restructuring the national economy and state budget deficit it is important that the fiscal component of the relationship between the state and taxpayers should contribute to the development of partner relationships between the two parties and not hinder their development and self-realization. The objective of this study is to identify 'bottlenecks' of the mechanism of taxing population incomes and find ways to resolve them. As practice of European countries shows, the main role in eliminating inequality in the distribution of income and assets is progressive taxation and social costs of the state. Having researched the current mechanism of personal income tax in Ukraine (especially wages through using scientific methods of research, including analysis and synthesis, analogy and modeling, grouping and gene­ralization, induction and deduction, scientific abstraction, the author found a number of problems and regularities that exist in the current mechanism of taxation, which were the main reason for constructing five models of improving the current mechanism of taxation of income from wages. Each model has its anticipated positive socioeconomic effects from the introduction and from application of an adjustment factor to the basic tax rate of 15 %. Its use aims to "smooth out" the instability of the tax burden in the current tax mechanisms and balance tax contribution of every citizen according to the level of earnings. A stepwise progression model of taxation provides compliance with the principle of vertical equity in taxation and has clear economic explanation. From the point of view of fair taxation, the stepwise progression will be most fair in the case, where the tax rate will continuously increase with every additional hryvnia of the taxable income (this provision is taken into account in the construction of the five proposed models. Based on the research, the total tax effect of using each model was calculated, which shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the introduction of the proposed models. The ways of improvement of the fiscal component of state regulation of incomes from wages in Ukraine in the long run were identified.

  6. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  7. A method for socially evaluating the effects of long-run demographic paths on living standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Parr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper is motivated by the need for improved social evaluation of prospective demographic change in order to better inform policies that are designed to reduce the very long-run costs of population ageing and to achieve sustainable economic development. Objective: What is the very long-run social value of a given demographic path? What is the value of changes in mortality, immigration, fertility, and labour force participation? How important are shorter-term demographic changes relative to very long-term effects in determining the social value of the demographic path? Methods: A new simulation method is applied for socially evaluating demographic paths, by separating a demographic path into a stable population component and a transition path component. Sensitivity analyses are conducted with respect to demographic assumptions, labour force participation assumptions, and consumption needs by age, returns to scale, and intergenerational value judgements. Results: The application to Australia shows the considerable social cost, in terms of the loss of discounted consumption per capita, of improvements in mortality and gains from higher immigration and increased participation. The effect of fertility, however, is very sensitive to assumptions about the age-specific consumption needs of the population and social value judgements about intergenerational equity. Conclusions: Our method socially evaluates the very long-run implications of specified constant fertility, mortality, and migration, giving consideration to both the transition path and the ultimate stable state. Mortality improvement is costly and higher immigration is beneficial. The impact of higher fertility is sensitive to assumptions about consumption needs and intergenerational equity.

  8. Site-Directed Mutagenesis to Improve Sensitivity of a Synthetic Two-Component Signaling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldell, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Two-component signaling (2CS) systems enable bacterial cells to respond to changes in their local environment, often using a membrane-bound sensor protein and a cytoplasmic responder protein to regulate gene expression. Previous work has shown that Escherichia coli’s natural EnvZ/OmpR 2CS could be modified to construct a light-sensing bacterial photography system. The resulting bacterial photographs, or “coliroids,” rely on a phosphotransfer reaction between Cph8, a synthetic version of EnvZ that senses red light, and OmpR. Gene expression changes can be visualized through upregulation of a LacZ reporter gene by phosphorylated OmpR. Unfortunately, basal LacZ expression leads to a detectable reporter signal even when cells are grown in the light, diminishing the contrast of the coliroids. We performed site-directed mutagenesis near the phosphotransfer site of Cph8 to isolate mutants with potentially improved image contrast. Five mutants were examined, but only one of the mutants, T541S, increased the ratio of dark/light gene expression, as measured by ?-galactosidase activity. The ratio changed from 2.57 fold in the starting strain to 5.59 in the T541S mutant. The ratio decreased in the four other mutant strains we examined. The phenotype observed in the T541S mutant strain may arise because the serine sidechain is chemically similar but physically smaller than the threonine sidechain. This may minimally change the protein’s local structure, but may be less sterically constrained when compared to threonine, resulting in a higher probability of a phosphotransfer event. Our initial success pairing synthetic biology and site-directed mutagenesis to optimize the bacterial photography system’s performance encourages us to imagine further improvements to the performance of this and other synthetic systems, especially those based on 2CS signaling. PMID:26799494

  9. Improving the Effectiveness of the Bio-slurry Extension Component of National Biodigester Program in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. F.

    2009-10-15

    This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management. Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth. Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g. monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring)

  10. Multi-component diffusion analysis and assessment of GAMMA code and improved RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been considered a critical event for very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without any mitigating features, a LOCA will lead to an air ingress event, which will lead to exothermic chemical reactions of graphite with oxygen, potentially resulting in significant increases of the core temperature. New and safer nuclear reactors (Generation IV) are now in the early planning stages in many countries throughout the world. One of the reactor concepts being seriously considered is the VHTR. To achieve public acceptance, these reactor concepts must show an increased level of inherent safety over current reactor designs (i.e., a system must be designed to eliminate any concerns of large radiological releases outside the site boundary). A computer code developed from this study, gas multi-component mixture analysis (GAMMA) code, was assessed using a two-bulb experiment and in addition the molecular diffusion behavior in the prismatic-core gas-cooled reactor was investigated following the guillotine break of the main pipe between the reactor vessel and the power conversion unit. The RELAP5 code was improved for the VHTR air ingress analysis and was assessed using inverse U-tube and NACOK natural circulation data

  11. Wear Resistance Improvement of Small Dimension Invar Massive Molds for CFRP Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giolli, C.; Turbil, M.; Rizzi, G.; Rosso, M.; Scrivani, A.

    2009-12-01

    Invar alloy (Fe-36%Ni) is used in industrial applications that require high dimensional stability because of its exceptionally low thermal expansion coefficient. The purpose of this work is to improve the wear resistance of the molds in the production of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components applying thermal spray coatings. Four different kinds of commercial powders were coated on an Invar substrate: ZrO2-8Y2O3, Al2O3-13TiO2, and Cr2O3 by air plasma spray (APS) and WC-CoCr by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF). Metallographic microscopy observation and scanning electron microscopic analysis were carried out, microhardness and fracture toughness were evaluated using the microindentation method. Friction behavior and wear resistance were evaluated with pin-on-disk apparatus. Tungsten carbide coating had the lowest average coefficient of friction. Cermet and alumina-titania coatings showed the lowest wear mass loss. Among the APS ceramic coatings, alumina-titania exhibited the best wear behavior and the HVOF cermet coating exhibited the best behavior among all the coatings.

  12. Studies on the improvement of the components of essential oil of genus Mentha by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. arvensis L. var. piperascens M sub(AL). (2 n = 96, R sup(a)Rsup(a)SS JJ AA, main component menthol) as the material the elucidation of biosynthetic mechanisms of essential oil was attempted. As the result it has been demonstrated that the biosynthesis is completed between 84 - 86 days after placing individual cells in the culture medium, especially on 85 days. Such an elucidation serves as the criteria of the biosynthetic pathway elucidation and it is the first accomplishment in the world. Next, the irradiation with ?-rays of 55R/min, total dose 19.5 KR gives a marked effect, and by this method a new plant (rose mint) having aroma similar to rose oil has been established, and this new plant has been designated as ''rose mint.'' This new improved plant can yield about 1 Kg of essential oil from 30 Kg of plant, and in comparing to 1 Kg of essential oil obtained from about 106 rose flowers by the conventional method, the yield is enormously greater and its wide application can be expected in the future. This newly developed breeding method can be also applied to other plants where the extraction of the plant compositions is desired, and at present this method is applied to the Perilla by which a new plant having sweet taste has been successfully established. (author)

  13. SYNTHESIS OF MULTIPLE DATA STRUCTURES FOR IMPROVED ACCURACY OF ABUNDANCE AND DEMOGRAPHIC ESTIMATES FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Michael J. [MJ CONROY WILDLIFE BIOMETRICS

    2014-12-08

    The goal of this study was to provide a framework for combining existing data (from camera trapping, harvest surveys, and spotlight counts) into an integrated system that produces the most accurate estimates possible for use in setting harvest goals. A summary of the key data components that were available is included.

  14. Improved CuCrZr / 316L Transition for Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma Facing Components used in all advanced nuclear fusion experiments and in particular for ITER consist of heat sinks made of the precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy. This material has been selected due to the requirements regarding thermal and mechanical properties with and without the presence of neutrons. The divertor parts which are highly heat loaded are actively cooled and are assembled onto weld stainless steel pressure vessels of grade 316L. Therefore these plasma facing parts need a transition in the cooling pipes from CuCrZr to 316L which withstands the internal pressure, the fatigue loads and remains leak tight during operation. As direct fusion welding of CuCrZr with 316L is regarded as critical due to metallurgical issues, the current design uses a transition of Ni - sleeve which is welded onto the CuCrZr and 316L, respectively. However, there is still some concern for the mechanically constraint region of the inlet coolant that this intermediate adapter is the weakest point and could fail due to strongly localised plasticity. The aim of this project is to investigate alternative solutions for the transition of CuCrZr / 316L, to down-select the most promising candidate and finally qualify a new improved tubular transition system. Basic EB welding experiments have been carried out on CuCrZr / 316L tubular samples using different adapter and filler materials. The adapter materials, e.g. Inconel 625 and Monel K500, were chosen due to their high temperature strength and good weldability with respect to Cu - alloys and austenitic steels. In case of the investigated filler metals Ni and Ti the intention was to control the dilution and to produce a fine grained weld zone with no formation of detrimental phases. As a further option the use of an explosively welded CuCrZr/316L adapter was evaluated. The application of such an adapter would simplify the issue to the welding of CuCrZr / CuCrZr and 316L / 316L respectively. In the characterisation programme the samples were first characterised by non destructive testing and metallographic examination. An indication on the mechanical properties was gained by tensile testing of welded samples at RT and 400oC. After the down-selection of the most promising candidate test samples were manufactured for the qualification programme. Besides the general requirements for the application as cooling system the qualification programme considered tensile testing at different temperatures, fatigue and torsion testing as well as inspection regarding leak tightness. (author)

  15. Combined principal component preprocessing and n-tuple neural networks for improved classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Linneberg, Christian

    We present a combined principal component analysis/neural network scheme for classification. The data used to illustrate the method consist of spectral fluorescence recordings from seven different production facilities, and the task is to relate an unknown sample to one of these seven factories....... The data are first preprocessed by performing an individual principal component analysis on each of the seven groups of data. The components found are then used for classifying the data, but instead of making a single multiclass classifier, we follow the ideas of turning a multiclass problem into a...

  16. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth; Bell, Daniel; Pokriefke, Eike; Alauzet, Aline; Marin-Lamellet, Claude; Armoogum, Jimmy; O'Neill, Desmond

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  17. Improving the accuracy: volatility modeling and forecasting using high-frequency data and the variational component

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Kumar

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we predict the daily volatility of the S&P CNX NIFTY market index of India using the basic ‘heterogeneous autoregressive’ (HAR) and its variant. In doing so, we estimated several HAR and Log form of HAR models using different regressor. The different regressors were obtained by extracting the jump and continuous component and the threshold jump and continuous component from the realized volatility. We also tried to investigate whether dividing volatility into si...

  18. Improving accuracy of total knee component cementation: description of a simple technique

    OpenAIRE

    Dayton Michael R; Flierl Michael A; Lutes William B; Morgan Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Total knee arthroplasty represents a common orthopedic surgical procedure. Achieving proper alignment of its components with the predrilled patellar and tibial peg holes prior to polymerization of the bone cement can be challenging. Technique After establishing the femoral, patellar and tibial bone cuts, the cancellous bone around the tibial keel, as well as the peg holes for the patella and femoral components are marked with methylene blue using a cotton swab stick. If bo...

  19. Improvements in High Speed, High Resolution Dynamic Digital Image Correlation for Experimental Evaluation of Composite Drive System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Handschuh, Robert Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials have the potential to reduce the weight of rotating drive system components. However, these components are more complex to design and evaluate than static structural components in part because of limited ability to acquire deformation and failure initiation data during dynamic tests. Digital image correlation (DIC) methods have been developed to provide precise measurements of deformation and failure initiation for material test coupons and for structures under quasi-static loading. Attempts to use the same methods for rotating components (presented at the AHS International 68th Annual Forum in 2012) are limited by high speed camera resolution, image blur, and heating of the structure by high intensity lighting. Several improvements have been made to the system resulting in higher spatial resolution, decreased image noise, and elimination of heating effects. These improvements include the use of a high intensity synchronous microsecond pulsed LED lighting system, different lenses, and changes in camera configuration. With these improvements, deformation measurements can be made during rotating component tests with resolution comparable to that which can be achieved in static tests

  20. Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in forensic blood samples using UV-visible spectrometry and improved principal component regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, William; Morgan, Stephen L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)] Brewer, William E. [Toxicology Department, South Carolina Law Enforcement Division, 4416 Broad River Road, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The forensic determination of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in blood was performed by using an improved principal component regression (PCR) technique applied to UV-visible spectra. Calibration data were decomposed into principal components, and the principal components useful for prediction were selected by their correlation with calibration spectra. Cross-validation of prediction results was done by leverage-corrected residuals. Confidence and prediction intervals derived from classical regression theory were found to be reasonable in size. The results compared favorably to a comparison study conducted by using a CO Oximeter method. In analysis of forensic case study samples, the improved PCR method allowed detection of abnormal samples and successfully predicted percentages of COHb and methemoglobin (MetHb), and provided error estimates for those predictions. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  1. Demographic consequences of defeating aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion of this study is that population changes are surprisingly slow in their response to a dramatic life extension. For example, we applied the cohort-component method of population projections to 2005 Swedish population for several scenarios of life extension and a fertility schedule observed in 2005. Even for very long 100-year projection horizon, with the most radical life extension scenario (assuming no aging at all after age 60), the total population increases by 22% only (from 9.1 to 11.0 million). Moreover, if some members of society reject to use new anti-aging technologies for some religious or any other reasons (inconvenience, non-compliance, fear of side effects, costs, etc.), then the total population size may even decrease over time. Thus, even in the case of the most radical life extension scenario, population growth could be relatively slow and may not necessarily lead to overpopulation. Therefore, the real concerns should be placed not on the threat of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation), but rather on such potential obstacles to a success of biomedical war on aging, as scientific, organizational, and financial limitations. PMID:20426616

  2. Demographics in demand systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Household composition can be expected to affect the allocation of household expenditure among goods, at the very least because of economies of scale as household size increases and because different people have different needs (adults versus children, for example). Specifying demographic effects correctly in demand analysis is important both in order to estimate correct price and expenditure elasticities and for the purpose of making household welfare comparisons. A common way of including de...

  3. Simulation investigation of multipactor in metal components for space application with an improved secondary emission model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of the secondary electron emission (SEE) phenomenon of metal surface on the multipactor analysis of microwave components are investigated numerically and experimentally in this paper. Both the secondary electron yield (SEY) and the emitted energy spectrum measurements are performed on silver plated samples for accurate description of the SEE phenomenon. A phenomenological probabilistic model based on SEE physics is utilized and fitted accurately to the measured SEY and emitted energy spectrum of the conditioned surface material of microwave components. Specially, the phenomenological probabilistic model is extended to the low primary energy end lower than 20 eV mathematically, since no accurate measurement data can be obtained. Embedding the phenomenological probabilistic model into the Electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (EM-PIC) method, the electronic resonant multipacting in microwave components can be tracked and hence the multipactor threshold can be predicted. The threshold prediction error of the transformer and the coaxial filter is 0.12 dB and 1.5 dB, respectively. Simulation results demonstrate that the discharge threshold is strongly dependent on the SEYs and its energy spectrum in the low energy end (lower than 50 eV). Multipacting simulation results agree quite well with experiments in practical components, while the phenomenological probabilistic model fit both the SEY and the emission energy spectrum better than the traditionally used model and distribution. The EM-PIC simulation method with the phenomenological probabilistic model for the surface collision simulation has been demonstrated for predicting the multipactor threshold in metal components for space application

  4. Simulation investigation of multipactor in metal components for space application with an improved secondary emission model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun, E-mail: genliyun@126.com, E-mail: cuiwanzhao@126.com; Cui, Wan-Zhao, E-mail: genliyun@126.com, E-mail: cuiwanzhao@126.com [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Space Science, China Academy of Space Technology (Xi' an), Xi' an 710100 (China); Wang, Hong-Guang [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Effects of the secondary electron emission (SEE) phenomenon of metal surface on the multipactor analysis of microwave components are investigated numerically and experimentally in this paper. Both the secondary electron yield (SEY) and the emitted energy spectrum measurements are performed on silver plated samples for accurate description of the SEE phenomenon. A phenomenological probabilistic model based on SEE physics is utilized and fitted accurately to the measured SEY and emitted energy spectrum of the conditioned surface material of microwave components. Specially, the phenomenological probabilistic model is extended to the low primary energy end lower than 20?eV mathematically, since no accurate measurement data can be obtained. Embedding the phenomenological probabilistic model into the Electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (EM-PIC) method, the electronic resonant multipacting in microwave components can be tracked and hence the multipactor threshold can be predicted. The threshold prediction error of the transformer and the coaxial filter is 0.12?dB and 1.5?dB, respectively. Simulation results demonstrate that the discharge threshold is strongly dependent on the SEYs and its energy spectrum in the low energy end (lower than 50?eV). Multipacting simulation results agree quite well with experiments in practical components, while the phenomenological probabilistic model fit both the SEY and the emission energy spectrum better than the traditionally used model and distribution. The EM-PIC simulation method with the phenomenological probabilistic model for the surface collision simulation has been demonstrated for predicting the multipactor threshold in metal components for space application.

  5. China's demographic dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H Y; Zhang, T; Ping, Y; Li, J; Liang, Z

    1992-06-01

    China's demographic dilemmas are discussed as the demographic surge during the 20th century, the demographic transition, the struggle to regulate fertility, population and development, and prospects for the future. Brief accounts are given of China's household registration system and the efforts in entry into the global economy. There are references, suggested readings, and discussion questions. Ample figures and tables express population growth, birth and death rates, fertility, sex ratios, population projections for these older than 65 and total population, contraception (IUDs, sterilizations, and abortions), abortion ratios, ethnic minority groups, provincial population data for 1990, schools and enrollment, health care resources, selected economic indicators, and availability of selected consumer items (sewing machines, watches, bicycles, electric fans, washers, refrigerators, televisions, radios, and cameras). Population planning has been successful in reducing the birth rate from 35/1000 in the 1950s to 20/1000 in the 1990s. 17 million persons are added annually. The projection for 2000 is 1.3 billion persons. The emphasis of the discussion is on the development and consequences of strict population planning control measures instituted in the 1970s and strengthened in the 1980s. In addition to curbing numbers, the measures have also led to a rapid aging of the population, a marriage squeeze, charges of female infanticide, and international censure. Population pressure is felt in urban areas, and in the labor force, education, and health systems. Industrialization has led to serious deterioration of natural resources. The gap between rural and urban population has widened. PMID:12286597

  6. How to Achieve a More Efficient Component Development at St. Jude Medical AB - Survey and Improvement Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Ehn, Louise; Eklöf, Malin

    2005-01-01

    The component development within the product development projects at St. Jude Medical AB (SJM AB*) is considered to be inefficient and is in need for improvements. This master thesis was initiated by the Material Supply and Mechanical and Leads Development departments at SJM AB and it has been carried out between January and June, 2005. The purpose for this master thesis is to try to find what is negatively affecting the component development at SJM AB and what needs to be done in order to ma...

  7. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  8. Progress Towards Improved Analysis of TES X-ray Data Using Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, S. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lee, S.-J.; Moseley, S. H.; Porst, J.-P.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.

    2015-11-01

    The traditional method of applying a digital optimal filter to measure X-ray pulses from transition-edge sensor (TES) devices does not achieve the best energy resolution when the signals have a highly non-linear response to energy, or the noise is non-stationary during the pulse. We present an implementation of a method to analyze X-ray data from TESs, which is based upon principal component analysis (PCA). Our method separates the X-ray signal pulse into orthogonal components that have the largest variance. We typically recover pulse height, arrival time, differences in pulse shape, and the variation of pulse height with detector temperature. These components can then be combined to form a representation of pulse energy. An added value of this method is that by reporting information on more descriptive parameters (as opposed to a single number representing energy), we generate a much more complete picture of the pulse received. Here we report on progress in developing this technique for future implementation on X-ray telescopes. We used an ^{55} Fe source to characterize Mo/Au TESs. On the same dataset, the PCA method recovers a spectral resolution that is better by a factor of two than achievable with digital optimal filters.

  9. Surface Protection and Improved Performance of Satellite Components as well as Mitigation of Space Environmental Pollution by Plasma Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three plasma processing systems based on PII technique have been used in the improvement of surface properties of different materials important for aerospace and space applications. Metal plasma PII of Al and Mg was used for surface protection of polymers used in space such as Kapton, Mylar and polyethylene. Al alloys were treated with nitrogen PII for improved resistance to corrosion aiming at aerospace applications. A rigid polymer UHMWPE was also treated in a nitrogen PII to produce a protective layer with DLC. Although not very light, SS304 stainless steel components are being used in a imaging camera in space, and some components made of this material showed endurance to vibration tests after nitrogen PII, therefore being qualified for on-board application.

  10. Improving the Disaster-Related Component of Secondary School Geography Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Justin; Kelman, Ilan

    2011-01-01

    Can disaster risk reduction and dealing with disasters be taught in the classroom at the secondary school level? This paper seeks to answer this research question in order to apply and critique pedagogical theories for improving how teachers are trained to teach disaster-related topics and how these topics could be introduced into the classroom.…

  11. Development of improved and corrosion-resistant surfaces for fossil power system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop the corrosion-resistant surfaces on a variety of fossil power system components. The Fe-Al alloys ranging in aluminum from 16 to 36 @ % are of interest. The surfaces of Fe-Al alloys can be produced by weld overlay. However, because of their limited room-temperature ductility, the production of weld wire for these compositions is not commercially feasible. The alloying element dilution during weld overlay also makes depositing exact surface composition rather difficult.

  12. Improving PET receptor binding estimates from Logan plots using principal component analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Aniket D; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Koeppe, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This work reports a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach for reducing bias in distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimates from Logan plots in positron emission tomography (PET). Comparison has been made of all existing bias-removal methods with the proposed PCA method, for both single-estimate PET studies and intervention studies where pre- and post-intervention estimates are made. Bias in Logan-based DVR estimates is because of the noise in the PET time-activity curves (TACs) that...

  13. Demographic and Health Changes in Portugal (1900-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Joao Guardado Moreira; Filipa de Castro Henriques

    2016-01-01

    These paper seeks to improve our knowledge of Portuguese epidemiological and demographic change through the twentieth century up until nowadays. Demographic Transition, as defined by Warren Thompson (1929), occurred in Portugal, much later than in other developed countries. Economic, Political, cultural, religious and social causes delayed the beginning of decline of both mortality and fertility. Our aim is to develop the Demographic change with a focus in mortality. In the beginning of th...

  14. Demographic aspects of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkulov Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The contemporary world is undergoing demographic transition not only due to a decreased population growth, but also due to change in age-structure. The aging process is most prominent in the developed countries, while it is yet expected to commence in the European developing countries. The aging process is characterized by participation of persons older than 60 or 65 years in the overall population. USA Persons older than 65 make up 13 % of the US population. It is expected that their share will increase to 30% during the next 30 years. Europe European population in the world is systematically declining. By the year 2050, the population aged 65 and over will exhibit an increase of 60%. A nonlinear, ever increasing depopulation is expected to occur in Croatia, while FYR Macedonia has already been classified as a country in an advanced stage of population aging. Serbia During the second half of the 20th century, on average, the Serbian population was younger than the European, but aging was more prominent. Today, Serbia is among ten countries with the oldest population in the world. Vojvodina The worst demographic situation is found in Vojvodina. According to an assessment, its population has been among the world’s oldest for more than 30 years. The latest census shows a shift in the most numerous age group: from 35-39 to 40-45. Conclusion: Population aging is a worldwide reality. Differences among developed, developing and undeveloped countries are diminishing. Our population is among the oldest. Unless the state takes appropriate measures, we are heading towards a demographic catastrophe.

  15. Improved gene prediction by principal component analysis based autoregressive Yule-Walker method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Manidipa; Barman, Soma

    2016-01-10

    Spectral analysis using Fourier techniques is popular with gene prediction because of its simplicity. Model-based autoregressive (AR) spectral estimation gives better resolution even for small DNA segments but selection of appropriate model order is a critical issue. In this article a technique has been proposed where Yule-Walker autoregressive (YW-AR) process is combined with principal component analysis (PCA) for reduction in dimensionality. The spectral peaks of DNA signal are used to detect protein-coding regions based on the 1/3 frequency component. Here optimal model order selection is no more critical as noise is removed by PCA prior to power spectral density (PSD) estimation. Eigenvalue-ratio is used to find the threshold between signal and noise subspaces for data reduction. Superiority of proposed method over fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and autoregressive method combined with wavelet packet transform (WPT) is established with the help of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and discrimination measure (DM) respectively. PMID:26385320

  16. IMPROVED SEARCH OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS DATABASES FOR SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC INVERSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 24n bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of ''compatible'' models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 24n as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing

  17. New Design of Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System to Improve the Performance and Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, SeongTae; Lee, SungJin [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, DongHoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho [BNF Technology Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System(ESF-CCS) is to control the engineered safety features of NPP like SOVs, MOVs, pumps, and dampers etc, for the purpose of mitigating the effects of DBA(Design Basis Accident) or abnormal operation. ESF-CCS is designed to be composed of fault tolerant GCs(Group Controller), LCs(Loop Controller), ETIP(ESF-CCS Test and Interface Processor), COM(Cabinet Operator Module), and so on. For the increase of safety, reliability and availability compared to an existing system, in the first place, GCs in each division are designed to be fully independent triple configuration so that it can make possible to be tested one by one for GCs during normal operation. Secondly, the design change is made for the safety related plant component control part to be included in LCs, and to be developed according to the safety critical system development procedures. And lastly, the test and diagnosis capabilities of ETIP and COM are reinforced. ESF-CCS consists of four independent divisions(A, B, C, and D) in APR1400, but one division as the prototype is being designed and will be tested in this stage.

  18. Component selection, accelerated testing, and improved modeling of AMTEC systems for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likely selection of a remote condensed design for initial flight test and probably use with a radioisotope heat source in AMTEC powered planet probes requires the device to be constructed to tolerate operating T > 1,150 K, as well as exposure to Na(g), and Na(liq) on the high pressure side. The temperatures involved make the characterization of high strength and chemical resistance to Na containing Na2O critical. Selection among materials which can be worked should not be driven by ease of fabricability, as high temperature stability is the critical issue. This paper will provide an assessment of some of the materials and components required for high performance AMTEC devices for space applications. Basic models for AMTEC cell operation include a fundamental electrode performance model and an electrode life model which have been compared to experimental performance results. Recent work indicates that several AMTEC electrode have the potential for high performance and long life. Other AMTEC components still present problems, although some issues have little experimental or fundamental basis. The status of these problems will be discussed in this paper, with the goal of focusing attention on critical problems, and correcting some mis-impressions about other issues

  19. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  20. A Study on Selected Hot-Metal and Slag Components for Improved Blast Furnace Control

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Annika

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to gain an increasedunderstanding of selected blast furnace phenomena which couldbe utilized for an improved blast furnace process control. Thisthesis contributes with both a model study and an experimentalstudy on blast furnace tapping, and results from these findingscan be used to enhance the control of the blast furnace. The work was divided in two parts. The first part dealt witha model study for optimisation of the blast furnace burdencalculation. Duri...

  1. The Study on Network Intrusion Detection Technology Based on Improved Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ting Lu

    2013-01-01

    Targeting at various defects of the current intrusion detection technologies, such as the high omission ratio, poor self-learning ability and the relatively high error alarming rate, the paper proposed a intrusion detection algorithm based on improved neural network. According to the experimental results, the intrusion detection result makes full use of the advantages of KPCA and ICA and it boasts ideal intrusion detection performance and the fine learning ...

  2. Improvement of mechanical properties and life extension of high reliability structural components by laser shock processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, J. L.; Morales, M.; Porro, J. A.; Iordachescu, D.; Díaz, M.; Ruiz de Lara, L.; Correa, C.

    2011-05-01

    Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is being consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals and is being developed as a practical process amenable to production engineering. The main acknowledged advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Following a short description of the theoretical/computational and experimental methods developed by the authors for the predictive assessment and experimental implementation of LSP treatments, experimental results on the residual stress profiles and associated surface properties modification successfully reached in typical materials (specifically Al and Ti alloys) under different LSP irradiation conditions are presented. In particular, the analysis of the residual stress profiles obtained under different irradiation parameters and the evaluation of the corresponding induced surface properties as roughness and wear resistance are presented.

  3. Proportional-hazards models for improving the analysis of light-water-reactor-component failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of a power plant component may depend on a variety of factors (or covariates). If a single regression model can be specified to relate these factors to the failure rate, then all available data can be used to estimate and test for the effects of these covariates. One such model is a proportional hazards function that is specified as a product of two terms: a nominal hazard rate that is a function of time and a second term that is a function of the covariates. The purpose of this paper is to adapt two such models to LWR valve failure rate analysis, to compare the results, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these applications

  4. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. PMID:25926277

  5. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  6. Improved quality of heavy steels and their welds as related to the integrity of reactor pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvements of heavy structural steels and their welds for reactor pressure components (RPCs) of LWRs achieved in the past decade are reviewed. These included the steady improvement of the quality of specific properties of heavy structural steels for RPCs: uniformity and isotropy of mechanical properties, including less mass effect in the mid-section: fracture toughness; internal defects; weldability; degradation by neutron irradiation. Further, requirements of the easier execution of inspections such as: fewer weld seams in RPCs; larger and more integral design of component materials; change of cast steels to forged steels. As regards main welds, the experience of underclad cracking (UCC) and high levels of Cu content in the weld of some RPCs were two of the incentives for reviewing the welding techniques for RPCs. This has led to a change of SA508, Cl.2 steel to Cl.3 and a change of welding wire coating from Cu to Al or Cr. Recent progress was the application of narrow gap welding processes and control of welding residual stresses. UCCs of two different origins were basically solved by the improvement of base materials and proper welding sequences. The inspectability of RPCs was further secured by the improved internal quality of steels and welds. (orig./HP)

  7. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has revealed a large diversity of systems, the majority of which look nothing like our own. On the theoretical side, we are able to make ab initio calculations that make predictions about the properties of exoplanets. However, in order to link these predictions with observations, we must construct a statistical census of exoplanet demographics over as broad a range of parameters as possible. Current constraints on exoplanet demographics are typically constructed using the results of individual surveys using a single detection technique, and thus are incomplete. The only way to derive a statistically-complete census that samples a wide region of exoplanet parameter space is to synthesize the results from surveys employing all of the different discovery methods at our disposal. I present the first studies to demonstrate that this is actually possible, and describe a (mostly) de-biased exoplanet census that is constructed from the synthesis of results from microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging surveys. I will also discuss future work that will include the results of transit surveys (in particular, Kepler discoveries) to complete the census of exoplanets in our Galaxy, and describe the application of this census to develop the most comprehensive, observationally-constrained models of planet formation and evolution that have been derived to date.

  8. An improved method to determine vibration damping of materials and structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mohan D.; Crocker, Malcolm J.; Zhu, G. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present, improved frequency-domain technique for vibration-damping estimation involves the fitting of a 'best curve' for the measured frequency-response data near a resonance by means of a least-squares error criterion. The damping ratio and the undamped natural frequency are then computed using the coefficients of the rational fraction polynomial that had been determined on the basis of the curve-fitting technique. Attention is given to the results of this method's application to damping measurements for graphite-reinforced epoxy composites. The results obtained are superior to those of the 'half-power points' method.

  9. Improvement of vanadium alloys by precipitate control for structural components of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential enhancement of mechanical properties of V-4Cr-4Ti by controlling precipitates of interstitial impurities (C, O and N) was investigated by means of various thermal and mechanical treatments. The increase in the cold working degree resulted in band structure of coarse Ti-CON precipitates having enhanced impact properties. Solid solution heat treatment followed by re-heating resulted in the formation of high density Ti-O-C precipitates enhancing high temperature strength. Combination of re-heating and cold rolling enhanced further the strength. Improvements in thermal and mechanical treatments are discussed for application of V-4Cr-4Ti to fusion structural materials. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-23

    ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM Technologies LLC to investigate the use of precision electro-chemical machining technology to polish the surface of parts created by Arcam electron beam melting. The goals for phase one of this project have been met. The project goal was to determine whether electro-chemical machining is a viable method to improve the surface finish of Inconel 718 parts fabricated using the Arcam EBM method. The project partner (ECM) demonstrated viability for parts of both simple and complex geometry. During the course of the project, detailed process knowledge was generated. This project has resulted in the expansion of United States operations for ECM Technologies.

  11. Improvement of the detectability of near surface cracks in cladded components by combined NDT-methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience in the use of eddy current testing as a selected compliment to a sensitive ultrasonic test confirm the physically justified expectation that the total efficiency of the non-destructive test can be increased for detection of flaws near the surface and near the plating by the fact that this approach very reliably guarantees that a component is free of cracks in the area monitored by both of these methods. Using the eddy current test to check ligaments under practical conditions makes it possible to use an ultrasonic test with SEL 70 technique adjusted for high sensitivity for the reliable detection of cracks. The SEL technique lacks precision as far as the depth and depth extension is concerned. Therefore, this technique supplies many indications when adjusted for sensitivity in detecting cracks below plating without countertesting by means of eddy current which would have to be interpreted as cracks if this could not be unambiguously ruled out for each position with the eddy current test. It was possible to show how effective this combination is at many places during our work in summer 1995. Checking the entire plating for potential cracks using the combination of eddy current testing to monitor ligaments, and surface crack testing with an ultrasonic test set with high sensitivity guarantees detection of faults. (orig.)

  12. Improved Principal Component Analysis for Anomaly Detection: Application to an Emergency Department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-07-03

    Monitoring of production systems, such as those in hospitals, is primordial for ensuring the best management and maintenance desired product quality. Detection of emergent abnormalities allows preemptive actions that can prevent more serious consequences. Principal component analysis (PCA)-based anomaly-detection approach has been used successfully for monitoring systems with highly correlated variables. However, conventional PCA-based detection indices, such as the Hotelling’s T2T2 and the Q statistics, are ill suited to detect small abnormalities because they use only information from the most recent observations. Other multivariate statistical metrics, such as the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) control scheme, are more suitable for detection small anomalies. In this paper, a generic anomaly detection scheme based on PCA is proposed to monitor demands to an emergency department. In such a framework, the MCUSUM control chart is applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the PCA model. The proposed PCA-based MCUSUM anomaly detection strategy is successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department in the Lille Regional Hospital Centre, France. The detection results evidence that the proposed method is more effective than the conventional PCA-based anomaly-detection methods.

  13. Using plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi to improve the nutritional components of burger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Baldeón Clavijo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/03/18 - Accepted: 2015/05/27Three levels of paste Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha Inchi consisting of 10, 15% and 20% were evaluated to replace the weight percent lard conventionally used to improve the nutritional quality of the common hamburger, compared with a reference group. The experimental units were 10 burgers, weighing 100 g. each and a total of 120 were analyzed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The research was conducted in the Universidad Estatal Amazónica and bromatológics and microbiological analyzes to determine the quality of the raw material and products are made in laboratory of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences of the Universidad Central del Ecuador. As supplements sensory tests and studies Benefit / Cost performed. The results show the variation of 10% pulp Sacha Inchi as the most recommended for use in industry.

  14. A technology to improve formability for aluminum alloy thin-wall corrugated sheet component hydroforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosively forming projectile (EFP had been traditional adopted for the aluminum thin-walled corrugated sheet, whose deformation range is large but the formability is poor, and this process usually has problems of poor surface quality, long manufacturing cycle and high cost. The active hydroforming process was suggested to solve these issues during EFP. A new technology named as blank bulging by turning the upside down active hydroforming technology was proposed to overcome difficulties in non-uniform thickness distribution and cracking failure of corrugated sheet during the conventional hydroforming process. Both numerical simulations and experiments were conducted for this new technology. The result show that the deformation capacity of aluminum alloys can be improved effectively, and the more uniform distribution of wall thickness was obtained by this new method. It is conducted that the new method is universal for thin-walled, shallow drawing parts with complex section.

  15. Improvement of the fatigue characteristics of steel components through selective application of surface residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higher pressure residual stresses and therefore improved fatigue strength characteristics can be achieved by an overlaid prestress during surface treatment; the preceding research project has shown this. Shot peening, stress peening, and rolling were the surface treatment techniques used. Between the applied prestress and the achieved pressure residual stress, a relationship had been found that could be described by a formula. On the one hand, a good correspondence resulted between the precalculated pressure residual stresses achieved in the case of shot-peened soft material states and rolled annealed material states; on the other hand, computation and reality in the case of shot peening of annealed steels deviated from each other. To clear up this discrepancy, the superposition of load burden stresses and residual stresses was monitored after the individual treatment steps and during release in the present investigation. (orig./MM)

  16. Identification of Emotional Components to Improve the Motivation for Science Among School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Barros

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Science education has been searching for new strategies to involve students in scientific investigation processes. These strategies should stimulate questioning, predicting results by means of experimentation as well as developing abilities for discussing results. They should also provi de the students with the capacity of understanding how the scientific knowledge is continuously produced rather than transmitting scientific facts  to  them .   Since 1985, the Instituto de BioquímicaMédica,UFRJ , has offered  a  science education   program  consisting in  v acation coursesdirected to students and teachersof  basic education . During the years, the  program  grew and spread through the country becoming a network involving 23 different research group s.   In  the courses ,  the participantsdevelop  practicalactivitiesand  are encouraged to think about a biological topic, to raise question sabout it and propose experiments to answer the ir questions. The course iscoordinated by a  staff  and by graduated students that  act as  instructo rs,  helpingthe participants  to  do  the experiments idealized by them .   In this work weinvestigate dthe  factors that raise the interest and the motivation for science in the participants. For this,  fieldworkand   questionnaire  analyses were performed. The questionnaires were  filled up b y the teachersin the beginning and in the end of the course, and the method of  contentanalysis was used  to  readthe  answers.  The results   show ed  that the motivation for science was raised by a strong emotional component generated by different factors, as  the interaction with the instructors; the availability of resources; and  the fact that they  become more autonomous in the process of reconstruction of their knowledge.

  17. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  18. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findings from relevant fields of basic research, focusing on the increasingly heterogeneous nature of the ageing population. All CONSOL partners contributed to the report by writing parts of the report (authors), participating in the literature research and/or commenting to earlier versions of this report. We would like to give special thanks to Heather Ward for constructive suggestions and inspiring comments to an earlier version of this report.

  19. Socio-demographic analysis in spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Petre

    2014-01-01

    An absolutely essential component of any process developed to achieve social development is the spatial development planning. The population is the generating element of the initial pulse in the system of planning and the reason for being of the whole process. It is the element through which and for which the system works. The analysis of population issues must lead to specific conclusions and the formulation of scenarios with specific demographic forecast methods. Knowing the probable develo...

  20. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  1. Improving Durability of Turbine Components Through Trenched Film Cooling and Contoured Endwalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, David G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Thole, Karen A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The experimental and computational studies of the turbine endwall and vane models completed in this research program have provided a comprehensive understanding of turbine cooling with combined film cooling and TBC. To correctly simulate the cooling effects of TBC requires the use of matched Biot number models, a technique developed in our laboratories. This technique allows for the measurement of the overall cooling effectiveness which is a measure of the combined internal and external cooling for a turbine component. The overall cooling effectiveness provides an indication of the actual metal temperature that would occur at engine conditions, and is hence a more powerful performance indicator than the film effectiveness parameter that is commonly used for film cooling studies. Furthermore these studies include the effects of contaminant depositions which are expected to occur when gas turbines are operated with syngas fuels. Results from the endwall studies performed at Penn State University and the vane model studies performed at the University of Texas are the first direct measurements of the combined effects of film cooling and TBC. These results show that TBC has a dominating effect on the overall cooling effectiveness, which enhances the importance of the internal cooling mechanisms, and downplays the importance of the film cooling of the external surface. The TBC was found to increase overall cooling effectiveness by a factor of two to four. When combined with TBC, the primary cooling from film cooling holes was found to be due to the convective cooling within the holes, not from the film effectiveness on the surface of the TBC. Simulations of the deposition of contaminants on the endwall and vane surfaces showed that these depositions caused a large increase in surface roughness and significant degradation of film effectiveness. However, despite these negative factors, the depositions caused only a slight decrease in the overall cooling effectiveness on the endwall, and in some cases a slight increase in overall cooling effectiveness on the vane model. This was attributed to the insulating effects of the depositions which compensated for the negative factors.

  2. Are Demographic Diversity Effects Spurious?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Nüesch

    2009-01-01

    The substantial literature on the relationship between demographic diversity and team performance yields weak and/or inconsistent results. Using match-level data of all games played in the German soccer league Bundesliga over six seasons, this paper analyzes age, race and tenure diversity of the fielded team under different model specifications to test the robustness of demographic diversity effects. The empirical results reveal that the correlations between demographic diversity and the outc...

  3. Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

  4. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Ann Flyvholm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  5. Astronomy 101 Student Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, G. L.; Hufnagel, B.; Snyder, K. L.; Miller, E. A.

    2001-05-01

    From 1999 to 2001, the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2.0 (ADT 2.0) was administered to undergraduates taking introductory astronomy for non-science majors (Astronomy 101) across the United States. A national database has been established using the results from the ADT 2.0 taken as a pretest by more than 5000 students. The 33-question multiple choice test contains 12 student background questions that can be used to create a profile of student enrollments in Astronomy 101. Students who take introductory astronomy reflect undergraduate national trends of gender, choice of major, and ethnic background. Specific questions on course expectations reveal that these students are less confident of their abilities in science than in mathematics. Mathematics background is evenly split between those who have completed only high school level topics (algebra and geometry) and those who have completed college level topics (pre-calculus and calculus). Class demographics aid in the design of effective teaching strategies for successful learning. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation through grants REC-0089239 and DGE-9714489.

  6. An Example of Demographic Snooping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Cynthia B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a demographic exercise intended for use by undergraduate students in courses on population problems. The exercise, involving demographic events in Japan in 1966, requests students to write a paper on Japan after answering 15 questions. Findings indicate that the exercise facilitates interdisciplinary thinking among students…

  7. Wear mechanisms and improvements of wear resistance in cobalt-chromium alloy femoral components in artificial total knee joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Like

    Wear is one of the major causes of artificial total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. Wear debris can cause adverse reactions to the surrounding tissue which can ultimately lead to loosening of the prosthesis. The wear behavior of UHMWPE tibial components have been studied extensively, but relatively little attention has been paid to the CoCrMo femoral component. The goal of the present study was to investigate the wear mechanisms of CoCrMo femoral components, to study the effect of CoCrMo alloy surface roughness on the wear of UHMWPE, and to determine the effect of heat treatments on the wear resistance of the CoCrMo implant alloys. The surface roughness of twenty-seven retrieved CoCrMo femoral components was analyzed. A multiple station wear testing machine and a wear fixture attached to an MTS 858 bionix system were built and used for in vitro wear studies of the CoCrMo/UHMWPE bearing couple. Solution and aging treatments were applied to the CoCrMo alloys. A white light interference surface profilometer (WLISP) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to measure the surface roughness and to study wear mechanisms of CoCrMo alloy. An optical microscope was used for alloy microstructure study. X-ray diffraction tests were performed to identify alloy phase transformation after aging. The micro-structure, hardness, and wear resistance of the alloys were studied. Surface roughness was used to quantify alloy wear, and the minimum number of surface roughness measurements required to obtain a reliable and repeatable characterization of surface roughness for a worn alloy surface was determined. The surfaces of the retrieved CoCrMo femoral components appeared to be damaged by metal particles embedded in the UHMWPE tibial component and metal-on-metal wear due to UHMWPE tibial component through-wear. Surface roughness of the femoral components was not correlated with patient age, weight, sex, or length of implantation. In vitro wear tests showed that when the CoCrMo alloy surface roughness was higher than 0.022 mum Ra (surface roughness average), UHMWPE wear increased with increasing CoCrMo alloy surface roughness. Bone and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement abrasive particles created scratches on the alloy via a ploughing mechanism, and resulted in significantly rougher surfaces than controls without particles (P < 0.01). Solution treatments at 1230sp°C and 1245sp°C reduced the hardness and wear resistance of the as-cast F75 CoCrMo alloy. Aging at 700sp°C caused recrystallization of the forged F799 alloy and improved wear resistance. Thermo-mechanical treatments have the potential to increase the lifetime of artificial joints by increasing the wear resistance of CoCrMo components.

  8. Mortality versus Morbidity in the Demographic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Aksan, Anna-Maria; Chakraborty, Shankha

    2014-01-01

    The link between the mortality and epidemiological transitions is used to identify the effect of the former on the fertility transition: a mortality transition that is not accompanied by improving morbidity causes slower demographic and economic change. In a model where children may die from infectious disease, childhood health affects human capital and noninfectious-disease-related adult mortality. When child mortality falls from lower prevalence, as it did in western Europe, labor productiv...

  9. A countermeasure for external stress corrosion cracking in piping components by means of residual stress improvement on the outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many techniques have been proposed as countermeasures for the External Stress Corrosion Cracking (ESCC) on austenitic stainless steel piping caused by sea salt particles. However, not one seems perfect. The method proposed here is an expansion of IHSI (Induction Heating Stress Improvement) which has been successfully implemented in many nuclear power plants as a remedy for Intergranular Stress Corrossion Cracking. The proposed method named EIHSI (External IHSI) can make the residual stress compressive on the outer surface of the piping components. In order to confirm the effectiveness of EIHSI, one series of tests were conducted on a weld joint between the pipe flange and the straight pipe. The measured residual stresses and also the results of the cracking test revealed that EIHSI is a superior method to suppress the ESCC. The outline of EIHSI and the verification tests are presented in this paper. (author)

  10. Estimation of Properties of Pure Components Using Improved Group-Contribution+ (GC+) Based Models and Uncertainty Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    must be estimated. Predictive methods such as the group-contribution+ (GC+) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) are generally suitable to estimate the needed property values. For assessing the quality and reliability of the selected property...... of properties and uncertainties in the property estimates in the engineering calculations, this work aims to revise and improve GC+ method based estimation of properties as well as to estimate the confidence intervals of estimated property values. To this end, a systematic methodology for property...... modeling and uncertainty analysis, in general, is developed and used. In total 21 properties of pure components, which include normal boiling point, critical constants, normal melting point among others have been analysed. The statistical analysis of the model performance for these properties is...

  11. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m?2, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material

  12. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignal, N., E-mail: nicolas.vignal@cea.fr; Desgranges, C.; Cantone, V.; Richou, M.; Courtois, X.; Missirlian, M.; Magaud, Ph.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m{sup ?2}, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material.

  13. Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and in-vessel components towards ITER construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the preparation of the procurement specifications for long lead-time items, several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements are being pursued, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, adding a separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints, and revising the VV support system to gain a more comfortable structural performance margin. Improvements to the blanket design are also under investigation, an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and nondestructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. In FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block, and the divertor components, have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

  14. Component test results from the bearing life improvement program for the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxidizer turbopumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E.

    Interim results from a component test program to improve ball bearing life in the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxygen turbopumps are presented. Two specific bearing applications, using liquid oxygen as the bearing coolant, are addressed. The first, the thrust bearing of the low pressure pump, operates at relatively slow speed with predominantly axial load and little temperature rise in the bulk coolant. Testing has demonstrated a very significant reduction in bearing wear by increasing the bearing internal clearance. Heat generation data was obtained that indicates heavy, intermittent cage-to-ball contact occurs, providing a possible explanation for the observed wear. The second application is the turbine end bearings of the high pressure pump. These bearings operate at high speed and load with the possibility of significant coolant vaporization. Tests on production bearings and bearings having modified internal clearance and curvature yielded scattered but generally poor lives. A dramatic improvement was achieved by coating the standard cage with a thin film of fluorinated ethylene propylene and 15 percent molybdenum disulfide. Very promising results have also been obtained by replacing the standard balls with ones made of silicon nitride, especially in combination with the coated cage.

  15. Two-dimensional retention indices improve component identification in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming; Kulsing, Chadin; Nolvachai, Yada; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-06-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography hyphenated with accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-accTOFMS) was applied for improved analytical accuracy of saffron analysis, by using retention indices in the two-dimensional separation. This constitutes 3 dimensions of identification. In addition to accTOFMS specificity, and first dimension retention indices ((1)I), a simple method involving direct multiple injections with stepwise isothermal temperature programming is described for construction of isovolatility curves for reference alkane series in GC × GC. This gives access to calculated second dimension retention indices ((2)I). Reliability of the calculated (2)I was evaluated by using a Grob test mixture, and saturated alkanes, revealing good correlation between previously reported I values from the literature, with R(2) correlation being 0.9997. This essentially recognizes the retention property of peaks in the GC × GC 2D space as being reducible to a retention index in each dimension, which should be a valuable tool supporting identification. The benefit of (2)I data, in supplementing (1)I and MS library matching, was clearly demonstrated by the progressive reduction of the number of possible compound matches for peaks observed in saffron. 114 analytes were assessed according to (1)I and (2)I values within ±20 index unit of reference values, and by MS spectrum matching above a match statistic of 750 (including mass accuracy of the molecular ion library matching in complex sample analysis, to provide improved component identification. PMID:25936794

  16. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  17. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensio...

  18. Australia's uncertain demographic future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of probabilistic population forecasting are increasingly being recognised as a profitable means of overcoming many of the limitations of conventional deterministic variant population forecasts. This paper applies these techniques to present the first comprehensive set of probabilistic population forecasts for Australia. We stress the disadvantages of directly inputting net migration into the cohort component model in probabilistic forecasting, and propose a gross migration flows model which distinguishes between permanent and non-permanent immigration and emigration. Our forecasts suggest that there is a two thirds probability of Australia?s population being between 23.0 and 25.8 million by 2026 and between 24.4 and 31.8 million by 2051. Comparisons with the latest official population projections of the Australian Bureau of Statistics are made.

  19. Geo-Demographic Risks in the Apuseni Mountains. Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA MURE?AN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The territorial system of the Apuseni Mountains can be considered a critical region from a geo-demographic viewpoint. This is due to two major geo-demographic risks that affect it at present, namely the massive migration, mainly of the young and adult population, and the severe decrease in birth rate, also as a consequence of migration. These two processes determine the main two geo-demographic risks within the Apuseni Mountains: on the one hand, depopulation and the geo-demographic decline of the settlements and, on the other hand, population ageing. The present study aims to analyse the latter by focussing on the Land of the Mo?i. Conclusions emphasise a rather severe process of demographic ageing. The rate of the old age group increased from 17.9% in 1992 to 25.2% in 2011. All the 16 administrative-territorial units under analysis recorded an increase in the rate of the old age group. In 2011, the ratio of the extreme age groups (young population/old age group is above the unit (1 both in the region as a whole and in the majority of its administrative units.

  20. Design Improvements of the Capsule Components and the Handling Tools for an Effective Utilization of the Capsule Assembly Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various in-pile test programs for the development of new fuels and materials are planned for the HANARO reactor. To meet the demands for the required tests in the HANARO reactor, new capsule assembling technology is required in the HANARO reactor. For this reason, a series of analyses and experiments was performed in 2005. For the assembly workability tests of the capsule components, three different kinds of protection tubes and two different shapes of the locking bolt heads were proposed and tested. It was confirmed that the newly designed protection tube and bolts worked quite well without any problems. Since the new structure is quite similar to that of the currently used capsule, it was assumed that an additional vibration tests and seismic analysis would not be needed. Through the stress analysis of the three proposed structures by using ANSYS code, it showed that the maximum displacement and stress intensity for the tube reducer were 1.57mm and 21MPa, respectively. To improve the workability and handling capability of the bolting and clamping tools of stainless steel 304, Al6061/T6 was selected as one of the candidates and thus new tools were manufactured and tested. The assembly test results showed that the new tools were found to be useful for executing key tasks such as a bolting and a clamping and they were much faster than the old tools made of stainless steel, thereby increasing the workability rate and lowering the manufacturing costs

  1. Design improvements and R and D achievements for VV and In-vessel components towards ITER construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been several detailed vacuum vessel (VV) design improvements, such as elimination of the inboard triangular support, separate interspace between inner and outer shells for independent leak detection of field joints and revised VV support system to gain a more comfortable margin in the structural performance. The blanket design has been updated; an inter-modular key instead of two prismatic keys and a co-axial inlet-outlet cooling connection instead of two parallel pipes. One of the most important achievements in the VV R and D has been demonstration of the necessary assembly tolerances. Further development of cutting, welding and non destructive tests (NDT) for the VV has been continued, and thermal and hydraulic tests have been performed to simulate the VV cooling conditions. With regard to the R and D for the FW/blanket and divertor, full-scale prototypical mock-ups of the FW panel, the blanket shield block and the divertor components have been successfully fabricated. These results make us confident in the validity of our design and give us possibilities of alternate fabrication methods. (author)

  2. Experiences using a component-oriented architectural framework for robots and its improvement with a MDE approach. Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Zaragoza, Francisco José; Pastor Franco, Juan Ángel; Alonso Cáceres, Diego; Álvarez Torres, María Bárbara; Sánchez Palma, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of the DSIE research group in the developing of the EFTCoR family of robots using an abstract architectural framework ACRoSeT, following the component-based paradigm. Using abstract components allow us to define very different architectures in a platform independent way. The translation of the abstract components to platform specific code is a hard and difficult task that can be partially automated with the help of the model transformation...

  3. Decomposing demographic change into direct vs. compositional components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Romo, Vladimir Canudas

    2002-01-01

    averages over age and over subpopulations. Examples include decomposition of the change over time in the average age at childbearing and in the general fertility rate for China, Denmark and Mexico. A decomposition of the change over time in the crude death rate in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands is...

  4. Demographic Challenges in America's Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, William P.; And Others

    This document examines trends in the United States population since World War II, and projects a scenario of how demographic and economic phenomena may evolve over the next several decades. The report is divided into five sections. Section 1 introduces the volume and discusses generally some of the effects of the nation's transition to zero…

  5. Rural Elderly in Demographic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nina; Beale, Calvin L.

    1985-01-01

    Examines general demographic, social, and economic situation of older rural people and how their conditons do or do not differ from those of older urbanites. Contrasts migration trends, living arrangements, income, housing, transportation, communication, and health. Figures and tables provide population, residency, living arrangement, and poverty…

  6. [The keys to the western demographic "miracle"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguiere, A

    1991-09-01

    Unlike most historical disciplines which had access to copious sources of data before refining their analytical methods, historical demography has almost simultaneously acquired data and developed rigorous analytical methods. French parish records did not attract detailed scrutiny until after World War II, but family reconstitution and other methods of exploitation were soon perfected. The continuing paradox of historical demography is that its statistical methods are rigorous but data remain sparse. Several dozen villages and a few cities have emerged from a vast obscurity but entire regions remain unexplored. Nonetheless, the study of preindustrial populations has progressed more in the past 20 years than has study of populations in the industrial era. Complex phenomena such as the fertility decline and incipient control of birth rates in late 18th century Europe have been studied or explained more adequately than has the inverse phenomenon, the baby boom of the 1940s. A major impetus to historical demography in Europe was the desire of demographers at the National Institute of Demographic Studies to understand Europe's fertility decline through knowledge of the mechanisms that initially caused it to occur. The diversity of apparent demographic models that have resulted from the works of historical demographers has caused various regional models to be proposed for France in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is clear from statistical analysis of available data that by the 18th century, fertility control was practiced by the mass of the French population, but the interpretation of this fact is problematic. The change in fertility behavior must reflect a deeper change in mentalities. The diffusion of contraception in the 18th century did not represent a transgression of the teachings of the Catholic Church as much as a change in attitudes toward life in which the future security of children was increasingly sought in education and improved living standards, and in which the spouse was more highly valued and conjugal relations more amicable. The change in attitude was noted and deplored in contemporary Church writings. It is difficult to believe that ideological or religious currents of thought were solely responsible for the profound modification of France's demographic behavior, but ideology may have been an intervening factor in the postponement of marriage that became an important fertility determinant in much of Western Europe. The relationships between ownership of land and property, inheritance and succession, and marriage and household formation were at the heart of continuing struggles during the period under study. The austerity of late marriage undoubtedly was a reflection of the mental changes involved in early industrialization and capital formation. PMID:12343351

  7. IQ-test-improving quality in testing and evaluation of solar and thermal characteristics of building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [BRE Scotland, East Kilbride (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    IQ-test is a Thematic Network supported by the European Community under the EESD Programme. The objective of IQ-test is to further the development of common quality procedures at the PASLINK test cell facilities in 12 European countries, for the assessment of the thermal characteristics of building components. This should consolidate the network, integrate the newer test sites and strengthen its common approach of support for new product developments in the field of innovative building components. Round robin tests are underway to assess both the inter-site quality of testing and analytical procedures of the participants. Two components were designed: (1) an opaque, well insulated, homogeneous panel and (2) a window, which is used to replace the central section of the first component. Common test and quality procedures have been implemented at each test site. The data sets generated by each team have been made available for cross-analysis by another team. The results available so far on the first component indicate good agreement between sites. This paper summarises the progress to date. Results are also presented from a training exercise which asked participants to identify the performance characteristics of an unknown component without providing any physical description of the component. (author)

  8. Re-weighting EUROMOD for demographic change: An application on Slovenian and Lithuanian data

    OpenAIRE

    Kump, Nataša; Navicke, Jekaterina

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses an application of re-weighting to account for demographic change within a comparative micro-simulation setting. We use the Slovenian and Lithuanian components of the EUROMOD micro-simulation model with data referring to demographic characteristics of the population in 2010 to test the proposed procedures. The data are re-weighted to reflect demographic change up to 2012 and 2020 as indicated in the Eurostat Population Projections (Europop).

  9. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... Tinnitus is primarily caused by environmental and behavioral factors, with noise exposure and hearing loss being the main catalysts for the condition. There are very few known genetic-based catalysts for tinnitus. However, for a variety ...

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  15. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... Adults , originally published in the American Journal of Medicine. Males get tinnitus more often than females This ... groups. High-Risk Groups While anyone, at any time, can develop tinnitus, there are some groups that ...

  16. Demographics

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  9. Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Artha J; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    There is a large proportion of minority youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Disproportionate minority contact (DMC) occurs when the proportion of any ethnic group is higher at any given stage in the juvenile justice process than the proportion of this group in the general population. There are several theories explaining the presence and persistence of DMC. This article reviews the history of DMC and the theories and implications of this problem. It discusses several targets for interventions designed to reduce DMC and offer resources in this area. PMID:26593114

  10. Demographics

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  11. Demographics

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  12. Demographics

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  13. Demographics

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  14. Demographics

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  15. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... respondents experienced some form of tinnitus 67% of people reporting tinnitus had regular symptoms for over a year 26% of people reporting tinnitus had constant or near constant tinnitus ...

  16. Demographics

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  17. Demographics

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  18. Demographics

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  19. Demographics

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  20. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... veterans, with 9.7% of all vets receiving service-related disability compensation for the condition in 2012. People Employed in Loud Workplace Environments For nearly 30 years, noise-induced hearing loss ...

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  5. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... both age-related hearing loss and accumulative noise-induced hearing loss. It is unclear why incidents of tinnitus appears ... military personnel at a high risk of noise-induced hearing loss and subsequent tinnitus. The consequences of in-duty ...

  6. Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... both age-related hearing loss and accumulative noise-induced hearing loss. It is unclear why incidents of tinnitus appears ... military personnel at a high risk of noise-induced hearing loss and subsequent tinnitus. The consequences of in-duty ...

  7. Demographics

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  8. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... Behavioral Health Issues Patients with a history of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder may be particularly prone to experiencing burdensome tinnitus. While these behavioral health issues do not cause tinnitus, per se, they do exacerbate symptoms. Symptoms ...

  9. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... Each year, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control conducts its National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey , a ... more likely to participate in high hearing-risk behavior, such as hunting and motorsports. Tinnitus is more ...

  10. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... particular risk of developing tinnitus. Senior Citizens The primary catalyst of tinnitus is hearing loss, and age- ... list ATA never sells, shares, or rents personal data Patient Stories There are as many experiences of ...

  11. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... 2012 Survey (the most recent year from which data is available) the CDC included several questions on ... classified their condition as a “moderate” to “very big” problem in their life Extrapolating these findings to ...

  12. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... their condition as a “moderate” to “very big” problem in their life Extrapolating these findings to the national population suggests that nearly 20 million people are dealing ...

  13. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... roughly 30% of seniors experience tinnitus symptoms. Active Military Personnel and Veterans Tinnitus is a huge (and growing) problem for America's military personnel. Exposure to gunfire, explosives and loud machinery puts ...

  14. Demographics

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    Full Text Available ... Tinnitus is primarily caused by environmental and behavioral factors, with noise exposure and hearing loss being the ... Behavioral Health Issues Patients with a history of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder may be particularly ...

  15. Process Evaluation of a Multi-Component Intervention to Reduce Infectious Diseases and Improve Hygiene and Well-Being among School Children: The Hi Five Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnesen, C. T.; Plauborg, R.; Denbaek, A. M.; Due, P.; Johansen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial designed to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among pupils. Participating schools (n = 43) were randomized into either control (n = 15) or one of two intervention groups (n = 28). The intervention consisted of three components: (i) a curriculum (ii)…

  16. Group-contribution+ (GC+) based estimation of properties of pure components: Improved property estimation and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent; Ten Kate, Antoon; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present revised and improved model parameters for group-contribution+ (GC+) models (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) employed for the estimation of pure component properties, together with covariance matrices to quantify...

  17. Migration transition in Serbia: demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitovi? Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From the demographic point of view, the future of Serbia's population is relatively certain at least in the next three to four decades. However, the decreasing and ageing of the population are considered to be very certain processes in the much longer term. Although replacement fertility is an essential condition for long-term survival of any population, it is shown that only an immigration impulse could enable desired effects of the potential fertility recovery in Serbia in the longer perspective. Such a migration transition (from net emigration to net immigration would inevitably lead to increased socio-cultural diversity and require the development of integration strategies. If successful, policies to stimulate an increase in net migration provide an almost instant result. Apart from old immigration countries from Western Europe, this was the case with new immigration destinations located in Mediteranean and Central Europe, including some former socialist countries. When evaluating the future trend of international migration balance of Serbia, the experiences of the latter countries is used. The population dynamics model created for the purpose of the paper is based upon the probabilistic concept of projecting vital components. The main conclusion is that there is no demographic alternative to the migration transition in Serbia when it comes to sustainability of the social security systems in the coming decades, but the realization of such a scenario is still not clear from today's perspective, given the existing limitations of the socio-economic nature.

  18. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical da...

  19. Technology Adoption and Demographic Change

    OpenAIRE

    Wasiluk, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of demographic change on the technology distribution of an economy and on aggregate productivity growth. In the quantitative dynamic model, firms decide on employment and the technology they use subject to an aging workforce. Firms with a higher share of elderly workers update their technology less often and prefer older technologies than firms with a younger workforce. The shorter expected worklife of elderly workers makes firms reluctant to train them for new t...

  20. Sequence Analysis in Demographic Research

    OpenAIRE

    Billari, Francesco C.

    2001-01-01

    EnglishThis paper examines the salient features of sequence analysis in demogrpahicresearch. The new approach allows a holistic perspective on life course analysis and is based on arepresentation of lives as sequences of states. Some of the methods for analyzing such data aresketched, from complex description to optimal matching ot monoethetic divisive algorithms. Afer ashort ilustration of a demographically-relevant example, the needs in terms of data collection and theopportunities of apply...

  1. Focusing probes for the improvement of flaw size determination at the ultrasonic inspection of thick walled reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focusing of sound fields from circular piston sources by curved transducers or lenses can reduce the natural sound field concentration at the end of the nearfield to the range of 1 wavelength. This enables us to determine flaw sizes by scanning the borderline of an reflector, which is especially difficult at thick walled components using normal techniques. This constribution summarises the basic principles for to calculate and build up focusing probes for flaw size determination in thick walled components and their characteristics in laboratory and in practice. Especially regarded are problems of angle beams and the coupling in direct contact. (orig.)

  2. THE ROLE OF THE EXERCISES IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE PSYCHOMOTRICITY COMPONENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macri Aura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive activities support an obvious intellectual development, also influenced by a special plasticity of the cognitive system – a functional advantage that offers a great receptivity to the child in comparison with the adults. The purpose of choosing the theme By the chosen theme we want to contribute at the highlighting of the importance of the exercises as a game in order to achieve the purposes of the physical education and sports and to optimize the psychomotricity components and also the multilateral development of the pupil. Starting from the idea that the game is an efficient and pleasant way to solve many objectives of the physical education and sports, we suppose that the didactic strategies based on the game help to optimize the psychomotricity components and also the multilateral development of the pupil. Ways of research: the analysis of the specialized literature, the complementary fields, the interdisciplinary, the pedagogical observation, investigation, the way of somatic measures, the movement measures. Results: The psychomotor components measure a normal psychomotor behavior of the child and of the teenager that is why the objectives of the physical education have to aim the education of these components at a high level. Conclusion: The selection of the most efficient ways of the dynamic games by the contribution brought to the education of the main psychomotricity components, but also by their structure and their degree of accessibility for the age of research represents the steps of the didactic strategy of development of the psychomotricity at little scholar age, 6-8 years old and also the personal contribution to solve this problem.

  3. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental ideali...

  4. Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain with Imperfect Quality of Commodity Components in Uncertain State

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Alden Ghasimi; Rizauddin Ramli; Nizaroyani Saibani

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a mathematical model for four-level defective goods supply chain with imperfect quality of commodity components in an uncertain state to maximize profit of supply chain. It is assumed that the inspection of incoming parts in suppliers is randomly done and incomplete. This lead some of the manufactured products will not be properly manufactured because of defective parts and are considered as defective goods and in most cases, the defective products can be repaired b...

  5. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mari-Ann Flyvholm; Karen Bo Frydendall; Louise Hardman Smith; Kirsten Hviid

    2013-01-01

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workpl...

  6. A method for socially evaluating the effects of long-run demographic paths on living standards

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Parr; Ross Guest

    2014-01-01

    Background: The paper is motivated by the need for improved social evaluation of prospective demographic change in order to better inform policies that are designed to reduce the very long-run costs of population ageing and to achieve sustainable economic development. Objective: What is the very long-run social value of a given demographic path? What is the value of changes in mortality, immigration, fertility, and labour force participation? How important are shorter-term demographic chan...

  7. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Willekens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  8. The contribution of educational class in improving accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction across European regions : The MORGAM Project Cohort Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrario, Marco M; Veronesi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether educational class, an index of socioeconomic position, improves the accuracy of the SCORE cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction equation. METHODS: In a pooled analysis of 68 455 40-64-year-old men and women, free from coronary heart disease at baseline, from 47 prospective population-based cohorts from Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, Sweden), the UK (Northern Ireland, Scotland), Central Europe (France, Germany, Italy) and Eastern Europe (Lithuania, Poland) and Russia, we assessed improvements in discrimination and in risk classification (net reclassification improvement (NRI)) when education was added to models including the SCORE risk equation. RESULTS: The lowest educational class was associated with higher CVD mortality in men (pooled age-adjusted HR=1.64, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.90) and women (HR=1.31, 1.02 to 1.68). In men, the HRs ranged from 1.3 (Central Europe) to 2.1 (Eastern Europe and Russia). After adjustment for the SCORE risk, the association remained statistically significant overall, in the UK and Eastern Europe and Russia. Education significantly improved discrimination in all European regions and classification in Nordic countries (clinical NRI=5.3%) and in Eastern Europe and Russia (NRI=24.7%). In women, after SCORE risk adjustment, the association was not statistically significant, but the reduced number of deaths plays a major role, and the addition of education led to improvements in discrimination and classification in the Nordic countries only. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend the inclusion of education in SCORE CVD risk equation in men, particularly in Nordic and East European countries, to improve social equity in primary prevention. Weaker evidence for women warrants the need for further investigations.

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tungsten carbide monolithic preform was produced by Advanced Ceramics. MTU conducted various sintering tests on the preform to determine conditions for removing the organic binder and improving the mechanical properties. The originally selected parameters for sintering did not perform as anticipated and further testing is underway

  10. Improving the time frame reduction for reuse of roof rack components in cars using Case-based reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Harish Acharya, Maniyoor; Sudsawat, Suppatarachai

    2012-01-01

    Now a days where technological advancements are growing at a rapid pace, it has become a common norm for all the manufacturing companies to be abreast with these advancements for being competitive in market. This thesis deals with development of one such common norm for one of the products (Roof rack component) for company Thule. The main aim of the thesis is to curtail the products lead time to market and this was achieved by using an artificial intelligence technique i.e., Case-based reason...

  11. Process evaluation of a multi-component intervention to reduce infectious diseases and improve hygiene and well-being among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, C T; Plauborg, R; Denbæk, A M; Due, P; Johansen, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial designed to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among pupils. Participating schools (n = 43) were randomized into either control (n = 15) or one of two intervention groups (n = 28). The intervention consisted of three components: (i) a curriculum (ii) mandatory daily hand washing before lunch (iii) extra cleaning of school toilets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation and to identify chal...

  12. An efficient method to improve the clustering performance for high dimensional data by Principal Component Analysis and modified K-means

    OpenAIRE

    Tajunisha; Saravanan

    2011-01-01

    Clustering analysis is one of the main analytical methods in data mining. K-means is the most popular andpartition based clustering algorithm. But it is computationally expensive and the quality of resultingclusters heavily depends on the selection of initial centroid and the dimension of the data. Several methodshave been proposed in the literature for improving performance of the k-means clustering algorithm.Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is an important approach to unsupervised dimensi...

  13. On improving the product sustainability of metallic automotive components by using the total life-cycle approach and the 6R methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X.; Badurdeen, F.; Rouch, K.; Jawahir, I. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology involving the use of total life-cycle approach, including the Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) method, for improving the product sustainability performance of metallic automotive components. This involves consideration of all four life-cycle stages (pre-manufacturing - PM, manufacturing - M, use - U and post-use - PU), and integration of the 6R activities (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recover, Redesign and Remanufacture). Various end-of-life (EOL) product scenari...

  14. Use of computed tomography slices 3D-reconstruction as a powerful tool to improve manufacturing processes on aeroengine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TURBOMECA has been using computed tomography for several years as an inner-health analysis powerful tool for engine components. From 2D slices of the examined part, detailed information about lacks or inclusions could easily be extracted. But, measurements on internal features were quickly required because no other NDT methods were able to do it. CT has thus logically become a powerful 2D dimensional measuring tool. Recently, with new software and the latest computers able to deal with huge files, CT has become a powerful 3D digitization tool and now, TOMO ADOUR can offer a complete solution for reverse engineering of complex parts. Several months ago, TURBOMECA introduced CT into many development, validation and industrialization processes and has demonstrated how to take corrective actions to process deviation on their aeroengine components by: extracting the nonexisting CAD model of a part, generating CAD compatible data to check dimensional conformity and, eventually correct design misfits or manufacturing drifts, highlighting the metallurgical health of first article parts, making the decision of repairing the defining the appropriate method, generating a file (.STL) to build a rapid prototype or a file to pilot tool parts for machining, calculating physical properties such as behavior or flow analysis on a 'real' model. The image also allows a drawing to be made of a part that was originally produced by a supplier or competitor. This paper will be illustrated with a large number of examples

  15. Use of computed tomography slices 3D-reconstruction as a powerful tool to improve manufacturing processes on aeroengine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellan, C.; Dastarac, D.

    2000-05-01

    TURBOMECA has been using computed tomography for several years as an inner-health analysis powerful tool for engine components. From 2D slices of the examined part, detailed information about lacks or inclusions could easily be extracted. But, measurements on internal features were quickly required because no other NDT methods were able to do it. CT has thus logically become a powerful 2D dimensional measuring tool. Recently, with new software and the latest computers able to deal with huge files, CT has become a powerful 3D digitization tool and now, TOMO ADOUR can offer a complete solution for reverse engineering of complex parts. Several months ago, TURBOMECA introduced CT into many development, validation and industrialization processes and has demonstrated how to take corrective actions to process deviation on their aeroengine components by: extracting the nonexisting CAD model of a part, generating CAD compatible data to check dimensional conformity and, eventually correct design misfits or manufacturing drifts, highlighting the metallurgical health of first article parts, making the decision of repairing the defining the appropriate method, generating a file (.STL) to build a rapid prototype or a file to pilot tool parts for machining, calculating physical properties such as behavior or flow analysis on a "real" model. The image also allows a drawing to be made of a part that was originally produced by a supplier or competitor. This paper will be illustrated with a large number of examples.

  16. Recent improvements in the CUPID code for a multi-dimensional two-phase flow analysis of nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CUPID code has been developed at KAERI for a transient, three-dimensional analysis of a two-phase flow in light water nuclear reactor components. It can provide both a component-scale and a CFD-scale simulation by using a porous media or an open media model for a two-phase flow. In this paper, recent advances in the CUPID code are presented in three sections. First, the domain decomposition parallel method implemented in the CUPID code is described with the parallel efficiency test for multiple processors. Then, the coupling of CUPID-MARS via heat structure is introduced, where CUPID has been coupled with a system-scale thermal-hydraulics code, MARS, through the heat structure. The coupled code has been applied to a multi-scale thermal-hydraulic analysis of a pool mixing test. Finally, CUPID-SG is developed for analyzing two-phase flows in PWR steam generators. Physical models and validation results of CUPID-SG are discussed.

  17. Recent improvements in the CUPID code for a multi-dimensional two-phase flow analysis of nuclear reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Han Young; Lee, Jae Ryong; Kim, Hyung Rae; Park, Ik Kyu; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Jun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The CUPID code has been developed at KAERI for a transient, three-dimensional analysis of a two-phase flow in light water nuclear reactor components. It can provide both a component-scale and a CFD-scale simulation by using a porous media or an open media model for a two-phase flow. In this paper, recent advances in the CUPID code are presented in three sections. First, the domain decomposition parallel method implemented in the CUPID code is described with the parallel efficiency test for multiple processors. Then, the coupling of CUPID-MARS via heat structure is introduced, where CUPID has been coupled with a system-scale thermal-hydraulics code, MARS, through the heat structure. The coupled code has been applied to a multi-scale thermal-hydraulic analysis of a pool mixing test. Finally, CUPID-SG is developed for analyzing two-phase flows in PWR steam generators. Physical models and validation results of CUPID-SG are discussed.

  18. Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

  19. Internal consistency of demographic assumptions in the shared socioeconomic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Leiwen

    2014-01-01

    A new set of alternative socioeconomic scenarios for climate change researches-the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs)-includes for the first time a more comprehensive set of demographic conditions on population, urbanization, and education as the central scenario elements, along with other aspects of society, in order to facilitate better analyses of challenges to climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, it also raises a new question about the internal consistency of assumptions on different demographic and economic trends under each SSP. This paper examines whether the interactions between the demographic and economic factors implied by the assumptions in the SSP projections are consistent with the research literature, and whether they are consistently represented in the projection results. Our analysis shows that the interactions implied by the demographic assumptions in the SSPs are generally consistent with findings from the literature, and the majority of the assumed relationships are also evident in the projected trends. It also reveals some inconsistency issues, resulting mainly from the use of inconsistent definitions of regions and limitations in our understanding of future changes in the patterns of interactions at different stages of socioeconomic development. Finally, we offer recommendations on how to improve demographic assumptions in the extended SSPs, and how to use the projections of SSP central elements in climate change research. PMID:24659845

  20. Economic ageing and demographic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Keuschnigg

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalised model of overlapping generations with economic ageing of households. Economic age is defined as a set of personal attributes such as earnings potential and tastes that are characteristic of a person’s position in the life-cycle. We separate the concepts of economic age and time since birth by assuming only a small number of different states of age. Agents sharing the same economic characteristics are aggregated analytically to a small number of age groups. The model thus allows for a very parsimonious approximation of life-cycle differences in earnings, wealth and consumption. As an illustration, we apply the model quantitatively to study the impact of demographic change.

  1. Demographic studies of Internet routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the current state of Internet infrastructures by examining the position and the number of routers considering various demographic data. The scaling relation between the router and the population densities is studied in two different scales, one is a worldwide scale and the other is a country scale. We found the number of routers in each country to be proportional to its economic level, and a super-linear scaling relation to exist between the router density and the Internet user density on a worldwide level. From a district analysis of the country level, we found that the scaling exponents change according to economic conditions and the level of Internet development. As the Internet penetration rate increases, the scaling exponent tends to be close to 2/3, indicating that routers are distributed like public facilities.

  2. Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain with Imperfect Quality of Commodity Components in Uncertain State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Alden Ghasimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a mathematical model for four-level defective goods supply chain with imperfect quality of commodity components in an uncertain state to maximize profit of supply chain. It is assumed that the inspection of incoming parts in suppliers is randomly done and incomplete. This lead some of the manufactured products will not be properly manufactured because of defective parts and are considered as defective goods and in most cases, the defective products can be repaired by replacing with the good parts. The defective parts will be collected and then returned to the suppliers for repairing. Out proposed model considers defective parts problem by optimizing the costs of production, maintenance, shipping, reworking on the defective goods and parts, shortage in retailers due to the production of defective goods and cost of capital incurred by the companies. The model can anticipate the active suppliers/manufacturers/distributors and the quantity of parts and goods that must be exchanged between them. Our proposed model is novel and we used MINOS solver and LINGO software to solve the problem. The results ascertained the correctness and fine function of the proposed model.

  3. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability - System Dynamics Modeling and Control System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report documents the current status of the modeling, control design, and embedded control research for the magnetic bearing canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating instrumentation and controls (I{\\&}C) into nuclear power plant components. This pump is a highly inter-connected thermo/electro/mechanical system that requires an active control system to operate. Magnetic bearings are inherently unstable system and without active, moment by moment control, the rotor would contact fixed surfaces in the pump causing physical damage. This report details the modeling of the pump rotordynamics, fluid forces, electromagnetic properties of the protective cans, active magnetic bearings, power electronics, and interactions between different dynamical models. The system stability of the unforced and controlled rotor are investigated analytically. Additionally, controllers are designed using proportional derivative (PD) control, proportional integral derivative (PID) control, voltage control, and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Finally, a design optimization problem that joins the electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and control system design into one problem to balance the opposing needs of various design criteria using the embedded system approach is presented.

  4. Independent component analysis-based artefact reduction: application to the electrocardiogram for improved magnetic resonance imaging triggering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Julien; Pietquin, Olivier; Abächerli, Roger; Kraemer, Michel; Felblinger, Jacques

    2009-12-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is required during magnetic resonance (MR) examination for monitoring patients under anaesthesia or with heart diseases and for synchronizing image acquisition with heart activity (triggering). Accurate and fast QRS detection is therefore desirable, but this task is complicated by artefacts related to the complex MR environment (high magnetic field, radio-frequency pulses and fast switching magnetic gradients). Specific signal processing has been proposed, whether using specific MR QRS detectors or ECG denoising methods. Most state-of-the-art techniques use a connection to the MR system for achieving their task, which is a major drawback since access to the MR system is often restricted. This paper introduces a new method for on-line ECG signal enhancement, called ICARE, which takes advantage of using multi-lead ECG and does not require any connection to the MR system. It is based on independent component analysis (ICA) and applied in real time. This algorithm yields accurate QRS detection for efficient triggering. PMID:19887719

  5. Independent component analysis-based artefact reduction: application to the electrocardiogram for improved magnetic resonance imaging triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is required during magnetic resonance (MR) examination for monitoring patients under anaesthesia or with heart diseases and for synchronizing image acquisition with heart activity (triggering). Accurate and fast QRS detection is therefore desirable, but this task is complicated by artefacts related to the complex MR environment (high magnetic field, radio-frequency pulses and fast switching magnetic gradients). Specific signal processing has been proposed, whether using specific MR QRS detectors or ECG denoising methods. Most state-of-the-art techniques use a connection to the MR system for achieving their task, which is a major drawback since access to the MR system is often restricted. This paper introduces a new method for on-line ECG signal enhancement, called ICARE, which takes advantage of using multi-lead ECG and does not require any connection to the MR system. It is based on independent component analysis (ICA) and applied in real time. This algorithm yields accurate QRS detection for efficient triggering

  6. An Improved Face Recognition Technique Based on Modular Multi-directional Two-dimensional Principle Component Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method named modular multi-directional two-dimensional principle component analysis (M2D2DPCA is proposed for face recognition. First, the original images are rotated at some predetermined angles so that we may extract features from the images in any direction. Then we divide the rotated images into smaller sub-images and apply 2DPCA approach to each of these sub-images.  Finally we propose a fusion method named modular multi-directional 2DPCA (M2D2DPCA to combine a bank of preliminary results in different directions. Compared with conventional 2DPCA based algorithms, the advantage of the proposed method is that it can extract significant features from the images in any direction and avoid the effects of varying illumination and facial expression. The results of the experiments on ORL and Yale datasets show that the proposed M2D2DPCA method can obtain a higher recognition rate than the conventional 2DPCA based methods.

  7. Improvement of the pad wear shape in fixed abrasive chemical-mechanical polishing for manufacturing optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N. Y.; Tian, Y. B.; Zhong, Z. W.

    2015-07-01

    Fixed abrasive chemical mechanical polishing has some advantages in generating planarity surfaces of optical components. The surface after polishing has better uniformity, and the material removal rate is much more than the traditional chemical mechanical polishing. The pad wear shape has a significant effect on the uniformity of the surface in the chemical mechanical polishing process. The shape of the pad after wear is almost concave, and it has been challenging to create a flat surface. Therefore, there is a requirement for creating a better pad shape. The better the pad shape is, the more uniform the surface is. Kinematic analysis has been done to investigate the effect of the conditioning process on the pad shape. Some proposals are presented to create a better pad shape. In this paper, kinematic aspects of effects of the conditioner speed and the pad speed on the pad shape were investigated. In addition, a new model, including new designs of the conditioner and pad, is proposed. The conditioner in the new model is static instead of oscillation. The new model generates a better uniformity of the pad shape compared to the old model. The result was validated by an algorithm which was validated by the experiments reported in our previous paper.

  8. On-line monitoring for improving performance of nuclear power plants. Part 2: Process and component condition monitoring and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's work in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management is aimed at enhancing the capability of Member States to utilize good engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports activities such as improving nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational licence renewal, and modernization of the instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants in Member States. The subject of improving the performance of nuclear power plants by utilizing on-line condition monitoring of instrumentation and control systems in plants was suggested by the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in 2003. It was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2004-2007. This is the second report on the use of on-line monitoring (OLM) in nuclear power plants. The first report, On-Line Monitoring for Improving Performance of Nuclear Power Plants, Part 1: Instrument Channel Monitoring (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-1.1), focused on application of OLM to verify the static (calibration) and dynamic (response time) performance of process instruments in nuclear power plants. This second report extends the application of OLM to equipment and process condition monitoring encompassing an array of technologies, including vibration monitoring, acoustic monitoring, loose parts monitoring, motor current signature analysis and noise diagnostics, as well as vibration analysis of the reactor core and the primary circuit. Furthermore, this report includes the application of modelling technologies for equipment and process condition monitoring. A majority of these technologies depend on existing data from existing sensors and first principles models to estimate equipment and process behaviour using empirical and physical modelling techniques. In doing so, pattern recognition tools such as neural networks, fuzzy classification of data, multivariate state estimation and other means are used. These means are described in this report, and examples of their application and implementation are provided. It should be pointed out that OLM data are routinely collected in nuclear power plants for a variety of purposes, but that these data are not often trended or used for long term predictive maintenance purposes. This report promotes the idea of trending such data and provides guidance on how this trending may be performed to yield a new maintenance tool for nuclear power plants. This report was produced by experts and advisors from numerous IAEA Member States

  9. Selection criteria for the improvement of seed yield and its components in advances generations of lentil (lens culinaris medik)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during the years 2006 and 2007 with the objectives; to study the inheritance of seed yield and related traits in both hybridized (F6) and mutated (M6) populations of lentil and to determine the best selection criterion for the improvement of seed yield. Different genetic parameters (variances, heritabilities, genetic gains and correlations) were computed to study the inheritance pattern and interrelationships of different traits. High heritability was observed for days to flower (97.40%), plant height (90.80%), pods per plant (86.20%), hundred seed weight (83.50%) and seed yield per plant (91.80%) in F6 and for days to flower (96.9%), days to mature (91.8%), hundred seed weight (89.0%) and seed yield per plant (94.0%) in M6 generation. High heritability coupled with moderate to high genetic advance was noted for plant height (90.8%, 16.29) pods per plant (86.20%, 25.53) hundred seed weight (83.50%, 35.67) and seed yield per plant (91.80%, 35.84) in F6 generation and for days to flower (96.9%, 25.08), hundred seed weight (89.0%, 25.56) and seed yield per plant (94.0%, 37.01) in M6 generation. The traits mentioned were found to be under the control of additive genes. Seed yield had positive and significant correlation with pods per plant in M6 and with seed weight in both generations. It was concluded that seed weight and pods per plant may be used as selection criterion in both hybridized and mutated populations for the improvement of seed yield. (author)

  10. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  11. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer [Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkmenistan)

    2010-06-15

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  12. Demographic dynamics and environmental change in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan Daniel Joseph

    2001-01-01

    In its first part, the text examines the evolution of research on demographic dynamics and environmental change in Brazil. While concern for the deforestation of the Amazon region was an important starting point for the concerns of demographers, the first systematic studies dealt with the "brown agenda." It was a question of urban environmental quality which motivated specialists to enter this field. In the second part, the text presents a preliminary analysis of demographic dynamics in the p...

  13. Introduction to new demographic model for humans

    OpenAIRE

    Weon, Byung Mook

    2004-01-01

    The Gompertz model since 1825 has significantly contributed to interpretation of ageing in biological and social sciences. However, in modern research findings, it is clear that the Gompertz model is not successful to describe the whole demographic trajectories. In this letter, a new demographic model is introduced especially to describe human demographic trajectories, for example, for Sweden (2002). The new model is derived from the Weibull model with an age-dependent shape...

  14. Development and improvement of synthetic imaging methods for non-destructive ultrasonic testing of complex industrial components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this thesis was, initially, to evaluate phased array methods for ultrasonic Non Destructive Testing (NDT) in order to propose optimizations, or to develop new alternative methods. In particular, this works deals with the detection of defects in complex geometries and/or materials parts. The TFM (Total Focusing Method) algorithm provides high resolution images and several representations of a same defect thanks to different reconstruction modes. These properties have been exploited judiciously in order to propose an adaptive imaging method in immersion configuration. We showed that TFM imaging can be used to characterize more precisely the defects. However, this method presents two major drawbacks: the large amount of data to be processed and a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially in noisy materials. We developed solutions to these two problems. To overcome the limitation caused by the large number of signals to be processed, we propose an algorithm that defines the sparse array to activate. As for the low SNR, it can be now improved by use of virtual sources and a new filtering method based on the DORT method (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator). (author)

  15. Green Component Procurement Collaboration for Improving Supply Chain Management in the High Technology Industries: A Case Study from the Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of high technology industries have been growing increasingly to technological innovations and global economic developments, while the concerns in sustainability are calling for facilitating green materials and cleaner production in the industrial value chains. Today’s manufacturing companies are not striving for individual capacities but for the effective working with green supply chains. However, in addition to environmental and social objectives, cost and economic feasibility has become one of the most critical success factors for improving supply chain management with green component procurement collaboration, especially for the electronics OEM (original equipment manufacturing companies whose procurement costs often make up a very high proportion of final product prices. This paper presents a case study from the systems perspective by using System Dynamics simulation analysis and statistical validations with empirical data. Empirical data were collected from Taiwanese manufacturing chains—among the world’s largest manufacturing clusters of high technology components and products—and their global green suppliers to examine the benefits of green component procurement collaborations in terms of shared costs and improved shipping time performance. Two different supply chain collaboration models, from multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC and universal serial bus 3.0 (USB 3.0 cable procurements, were benchmarked and statistically validated. The results suggest that the practices of collaborative planning for procurement quantity and accurate fulfillment by suppliers are significantly related to cost effectiveness and shipping time efficiency. Although the price negotiation of upstream raw materials for the collaborative suppliers has no statistically significant benefit to the shipping time efficiency, the shared cost reduction of component procurement is significantly positive for supply chain collaboration among green manufacturers. Managerial implications toward sustainable supply chain management were also discussed.

  16. Chronic exercise modulates RAS components and improves balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain of SHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Deepmala; Welsch, Michael A; Keller, Jeffrey N; Francis, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Recently, exercise has been recommended as a part of lifestyle modification for all hypertensive patients; however, the precise mechanisms of its effects on hypertension are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the mechanisms within the brain that can influence exercise-induced effects in an animal model of human essential hypertension. Young normotensive WKY rats and SHR were given moderate-intensity exercise for 16 weeks. Blood pressure was measured bi-weekly by tail-cuff method. Animals were then euthanized; paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), important cardiovascular regulatory centers in the brain, were collected and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, EIA, and fluorescent microscopy. Exercise of 16-week duration attenuated systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure in SHR. Sedentary SHR exhibited increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and decreased anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in the PVN and RVLM. Furthermore, SHR(sed) rats exhibited elevated levels of ACE, AT1R, and decreased levels of ACE2 and receptor Mas in the PVN and RVLM. Chronic exercise not only prevented the increase in PICs (TNF-?, IL-1?), ACE, and AT1R protein expression in the brain of SHR, but also dramatically upregulated IL-10, ACE2, and Mas receptor expression in SHR. In addition, these changes were associated with reduced plasma AngII levels, reduced neuronal activity, reduced NADPH-oxidase subunit gp91(phox) and inducible NO synthase in trained SHRs indicating reduced oxidative stress. These results suggest that chronic exercise not only attenuates PICs and the vasoconstrictor axis of the RAS but also improves the anti-inflammatory defense mechanisms and vasoprotective axis of the RAS in the brain, which, at least in part, explains the blood pressure-lowering effects of exercise in hypertension. PMID:22124756

  17. Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Melanie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bansal, Dinesh G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    2012-09-20

    This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

  18. Demographics of supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are a fundamental component of the universe in general and of galaxies in particular. Almost every massive galaxy harbours a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in its center. Furthermore, there is a close connection between the growth of the SMBH and the evolution of its host galaxy, manifested in the relationship between the mass of the black hole and various properties of the galaxy's spheroid component, like its stellar velocity dispersion, luminosity or mass. Understa...

  19. Using demographic data to better interpret pitfall trap catches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Matalin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of pitfall trapping are often interpreted as abundance in a particular habitat. At the same time, there are numerous cases of almost unrealistically high catches of ground beetles in seemingly unsuitable sites. The correlation of catches by pitfall trapping with the true distribution and abundance of Carabidae needs corroboration. During a full year survey in 2006/07 in the Lake Elton region (Volgograd Area, Russia, 175 species of ground beetles were trapped. Considering the differences in demographic structure of the local populations, and not their abundances, three groups of species were recognized: residents, migrants and sporadic. In residents, the demographic structure of local populations is complete, and their habitats can be considered “residential”. In migrants and sporadic species, the demographic structure of the local populations is incomplete, and their habitats can be considered “transit”. Residents interact both with their prey and with each other in a particular habitat. Sporadic species are hardly important to a carabid community because of their low abundances. The contribution of migrants to the structure of carabid communities is not apparent and requires additional research. Migrants and sporadic species represent a “labile” component in ground beetles communities, as opposed to a “stable” component, represented by residents. The variability of the labile component substantially limits our interpretation of species diversity in carabid communities. Thus, the criteria for determining the most abundant, or dominant species inevitably vary because the abundance of migrants in some cases can be one order of magnitude higher than that of residents. The results of pitfall trapping adequately reflect the state of carabid communities only in zonal habitats, while azonal and disturbed habitats are merely transit ones for many species of ground beetles. A study of the demographic structure of local populations and assessment of the migratory/residential status of particular carabid species are potential ways of increasing the reliability of pitfall trap information.

  20. Public health and demographic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this program is to assess the methodology and available data sources appropriate for use in analytical studies and environmental impact statements concerning the health effects of nuclear power plants. The techniques developed should be applicable as well to evaluation of the known risks of high levels of radiation exposure and of conflicting evidence on low-level effects, such as those associated with the normal operations of nuclear power plants. To accomplish this purpose, a two-pronged approach has been developed. The first involves a determination of the public health and demographic data sources of local, state, and federal origin that are available for use in analyses of health effects and environmental impact statements. The second part involves assessment of the methods used by epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other scientists as found in the literature on health effects. This two-pronged approach provides a means of assessing the strength and shortcomings of studies of the impact of nuclear facilities on the health of the general population in a given locality

  1. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  2. Children of Divorced Parents in Demographic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Paul C.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on demographic changes regarding children of divorced parents between 1960-78. Shows how many children may be expected to be living with divorced parents in 1990. Also presents social and economic characteristics of divorced parents and projects demographic consequences of these patterns. (Author/GC)

  3. The Unaddressed Costs of Changing Student Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Leslie S.; Owings, William A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of changing student demographics on financing education and on our national wellbeing. We begin by examining the research of current student demographics and their relationship to learning and education costs. We then calculate a 1% cost factor from the average per-pupil expenditure based on the 2011 "Digest…

  4. Demographic training and research in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igun, A A

    1976-09-01

    The state of demographic data in Africa is reviewed in this paper along with constraints affecting the collection of adequate demographic information. An evaluation is made of the present situation and efforts to rectify the shortage of demographic personnel in the UN sponsored subregional demographic institutes, including an outline of the course program. The effort and progress being made in similar training programs at the University of Ife, Nigeria, is also examined. Obstacles to the collection of demographic data are classified as physical difficulties; administrative and official problems and difficulties; technical and staff problems; and sociocultural problems. A consensus has been reached on the inadequacy of past efforts in data collection and analysis in Africa. Special attention must be paid to the training of demographers. A comparison is made between demographers in developed countries who have their data collected for them and the African demographer who must be his own statistician, sociologist, anthropologist, and geographer to understand the biases his data are subject to. Training for African demographers should emphasize problems in data collection, data manipulation, and innovation in solving methodological problems. Type of personnel needed include teachers of demography, high level professionals, middle level professionals and low level workers. The training programs given by the Regional Institutes for Population Studies are a postgraduate diploma course, lasting 1 year and a Master's degree course for those who obtain the diploma. Subjects covered include substantive demography; technical demography; family planning, its development and evaluation; auxiliary subjects including mathematics, statistics, sampling and research methods; and complementary subjects e.g., economics, sociology, national planning, physiology of reproduction, and genetics. Short term research projects and a major research report are an integral part of the programs. The paper underlines the need for assistance to such University based programs in expanding their activities with a view to meeting the needs of African governments, private and public agencies, as well as citizens for basic demographic information. PMID:12264826

  5. Asia's demographic miracle: 50 years of unprecedented change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R; Alam, I

    1999-12-01

    The demographic landscape of Asia has seen unprecedented changes over the past 50 years. The transition from high to low mortality and fertility rates has made the eventual stabilization of the world's population a real possibility. The demographic success of Asia is associated with the stunning economic and social changes that have taken place during this period. Aside from social and economic improvements, population and health policies also played a major part in shaping the region's demographic transformation. National programs made a substantial contribution to increasing contraceptive use, lowering fertility, and slowing population growth. The success of family planning programs was frequently supported by positive changes in the demand for children. As the initial impact of the recent financial and economic crisis has shown, the Asian demographic miracle cannot be taken for granted. Since mid-1997, the crisis has interrupted and reversed the region's remarkable development gains. Economic downturns often tend to affect the social sectors unevenly. Strengthening the provision of basic social services, including reproductive health and care of the elderly, particularly in poor nations, will remain a challenge in the next century. The establishment of goals, including in areas such as HIV/AIDS, will help Asian countries realize the vision of the International Conference on Population and Development¿s 20-year Programme of Action. PMID:12349488

  6. Gender inequalities and demographic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A summary was provided of the central findings about gender inequalities in Egypt, India, Ghana, and Kenya published by the Population Council in 1994. These countries exhibited gender inequalities in different ways: the legal, economic, and educational systems; family planning and reproductive health services; and the health care system. All countries had in common a high incidence of widowhood. Widowhood was linked with high levels of insecurity, which were linked with high fertility. Children thus became insurance in old age. In Ghana, women's insecurity was threatened through high levels of marital instability and polygyny. In Egypt, insecurity was translated into economic vulnerability because of legal discrimination against women when family systems were disrupted. In India and all four countries, insecurity was reflective of limited access to education, an impediment to economic autonomy. In all four countries, women's status was inferior due to limited control over reproductive decision making about childbearing limits and contraception. In India, the cultural devaluation of girls contributed to higher fertility to satisfy the desire for sons. In India and Egypt, family planning programs were dominated by male-run organizations that were more concerned about demographic objectives than reproductive health. The universal inequality was the burden women carry for contraception. Family planning programs have ignored the local realities of reproductive behavior, family structures, and gender relations. The assumption that husbands and wives have similar fertility goals or that fathers fully share the costs of children is mistaken in countries such as Ghana. Consequently, fertility has declined less than 13% in Ghana, but fertility has declined by over 30% in Kenya. Family planning programs must be aware of gender issues. PMID:12288918

  7. The Demographic Transition Influences Variance in Fitness and Selection on Height and BMI in Rural Gambia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Courtiol; Ian\\ufffdJ. Rickard; Virpi Lummaa; Andrew\\ufffdM. Prentice; Anthony\\ufffdJ.C. Fulford; Stephen\\ufffdC. Stearns

    2013-01-01

    Recent human history is marked by demographic transitions characterized by declines in mortality and fertility [1]. By influencing the variance in those fitness components, demographic transitions can affect selection on other traits [2]. Parallel to changes in selection triggered by demography per se, relationships between fitness and anthropometric traits are also expected to change due to modification of the environment. Here we explore for the first time these two main evolutionary conseq...

  8. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Antuleska-Bel?eska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer worldwide is the most common malignancy in men, whereas in women it ranks second. At the same time the lung cancer is the leading cause of cancerrelated death. Today, smoking is considered as the major cause of lung cancer. About 90% of lung cancers in men and 78 % of lung cancers in women may be associated with long-term smoking. A total of 173 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC and SCLC were included in this prospective-retrospective study. In the study, all patients were divided into two groups: operable ( 117 and inoperable (56. To quantify the association of certain risk factors and the incidence of lung cancer, an odds ratio (OR 95 % CI was calculated. To determine the level of significance, the value of p <0.05 was taken, and the value of p <0.01 was taken for high significance. The mean age of the group was 60.2 ± 8.7 years, with the youngest patient in the study group aged 31 and the oldest 75 years. There were 80 pensioners (46.25% and 59 (34,1% able-bodied patients in the structure of the socioeconomic status. In regard to smoking status, the majority were smokers. The period of smoking was over 20 years and longer; in regard to intensity of smoking they were divided into three groups: smokers with more than 20 years of smoking experience and more than one pack of cigarettes per day - 49.13%, smokers with more than 20 years of smoking experience and one pack of cigarettes per day - 5.78%, and smokers who smoke more than 20 years but not continuously - 15.61%. Occupational exposure was present in 16.18% of the study population, while positive family history was present in 20.81% of patients. Regarding heredity, applying the Chi-square test, we have shown that heredity has a highly significant correlation with the type of cancer reported in both groups. The demographic characteristics of the test are shown to be statistically significant in relation to lung cancer.

  9. Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. 1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. 2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. 3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. 4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. 5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. 6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR

  10. Development of a technology for amorphous material (Co-free) hardfacing on primary side component materials using laser beam to improve their wear/erosion.corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jeong Hun; Kim, J. S.; Han, J. H.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, S. S

    2000-08-01

    A technology of laser hardfacing of amorphous materials onto materials used in the primary-side components has been developed in order to improve their integrity and reduce the radiation fluence in the primary system. (1) Development of a powder feeding system for the laser cladding. (2) Modification of the laser system in order to perform cladding the part surfaces with complex 3D geometries through the tool paths determined with CAD/CAM. (3) Development of laser cladding technology with amorphous alloy. (4) Examination and analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the clads. (5) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the clads. (6) Development of an ultrasonic vibrator for VSR.

  11. Quality of life after ventral hernia repair with endoscopic component separation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C Ø; Brøndum, T L; Jørgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    hernia size. Demographic data, operative information, and postoperative complications were recorded. All patients completed two similar questionnaires regarding their function level, cosmetic satisfaction, analgesic medication, alcohol consumption, and self-estimated physical and mental health before and......, cosmetic satisfaction, and self-estimated physical and mental health improved significantly. Alcohol consumption was significantly reduced. Endoscopic components separation is a reliable method to repair large ventral hernias, although further studies are required to determine the exact benefits for...

  12. Strongyloides ratti antigenic components recognized by IgE antibodies in immunoblotting as an additional tool for improving the immunodiagnosis in human strongyloidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosângela Maria, Rodrigues; Mônica Camargo, Sopelete; Deise Aparecida de Oliveira, Silva; Jair Pereira, Cunha-Júnior; Ernesto Akio, Taketomi; Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available IgE antibody response in human strongyloidiasis was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting (IB) using Strongyloides ratti saline extract as heterologous antigen. A total of 50 serum samples of patients who were shedding S. stercoralis larvae in feces (group I, copr [...] opositive), 38 of patients with other intestinal parasites (group II), and 38 of subjects with negative results in three parasitologic assays (group III, copronegative) were analyzed. Levels of IgE anti-Strongyloides expressed in ELISA Index (EI) were significantly higher in patients of group I (1.32) than in group II (0.51) and group III (0.81), with positivity rates of 54%, 0%, and 10.5%, respectively. Fifteen S. ratti antigenic components were recognized in IB-IgE by sera of group I, with frequency ranging from 8% to 46%. In group II, only two antigenic bands (101, 81 kDa) were detected in a frequency of 10% and no reactivity was found in group III. Sera with EI values > 1.5 recognized five from 13 specific antigenic bands (70, 63, 61, 44, 7 kDa). It can be concluded that these five antigenic components recognized by IB-IgE using S. ratti antigen might be employed as an additional tool for improving the immunodiagnosis in human strongyloidiasis.

  13. Socio-demographic impacts on lane-changing response time and distance in work zone with Drivers' Smart Advisory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lane-changing behavior is an important component of traffic simulation. A lane-changing action is normally confined to a decision-making process of the task, and the action itself is sometimes assumed as an instantaneous event. Besides, the lane-changing behavior is based mostly on observable positions and speeds of other vehicles, rather than on vehicles' intentions. In practice, changing one lane requires about 5–6 s to complete. Existing lane-changing models do not comprehensively consider drivers' response to work zone lane-changing signs (or other related messages, if any. Furthermore, drivers' socio-demographics are normally not taken into account. With regard to this, fuzzy logic-based lane-changing models that consider drivers' socio-demographics were developed to improve the realism of lane-changing maneuvers in work zones. Drivers' Smart Advisory System (DSAS messages were provided as one of the scenarios. Drivers' responses, including reactions to work zone signs and DSAS messages, and actions to change lane, were investigated. Drivers' socio-demographic factors were primary independent variables, while Lane-Changing Response Time (LCRT and Distance (LCRD were defined as output variables. The model validation process yielded acceptable error ranges. To illustrate how these models can be used in traffic simulation, the LCRT and LCRD in work zones were estimated for five geo-locations with different socio-demographic specifications. Results show that the DSAS is able to instruct all drivers to prepare and change lanes earlier, thereby shortening the duration of changing lanes. Educational background and age are essential variables, whereas the impacts of gender on the output variables are indistinctive.

  14. Department of State Hospitals Patient Age Demographics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data set shows the age demographics of the Department of State Hospitals (DSH) patient population for the first day of each fiscal year July 1st 2009-2014. DSH...

  15. Demographic Effects on the Swedish Pension System

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, T; A. Kruse

    1992-01-01

    The present study describes the effect that different demographic developments will have on the Swedish pension system. Projections of expenditures for old age pensions, survivor pensions, and disability pensions were made for the period 1985-2050 on the basis of future developments of the population and its structure (age, sex, and marital status). Six demographic scenarios were formulated: Benchmark, High Fertility, Low Mortality, West European, National 1, and National 2 scenarios. Togethe...

  16. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedži? Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography and with its multidisciplinary nature, demography gets closer and closer to the field of "woman issues".

  17. Human population growth and the demographic transition

    OpenAIRE

    Bongaarts, John

    2009-01-01

    The world and most regions and countries are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the huge expansion of human numbers: four billion have been added since 1950. Projections for the next half century expect a highly divergent world, with stagnation or potential decline in parts of the developed world and continued rapid growth in the least developed regions. Other demographic processes are also undergoing extraordinary change: women's...

  18. Prospective Demographic Study of Cosmetic Surgery Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schlessinger, Joel; Schlessinger, Daniel; Schlessinger, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The authors sought to examine and assess cosmetic surgery patient demographics as well as age in relation to partner, in a prospective manner, analyzing data for any significant correlations. Design: The authors conducted a prospective study utilizing a survey. Setting: The study was conducted in a private, nonacademic dermatological practice. Participants: Three hundred thirty-six patients participated in this study. Results: Demographics of onabotulinumtoxinA/abobotulinumtoxinA ...

  19. The demographics of global corporate champions

    OpenAIRE

    VÉRON Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    This Working Paper presents a novel dataset documenting the demographics of the world’s 500 largest companies by market capitalisation, as of 30 September 2007. Assigning a birth date to a large company is not a straightforward exercise and involves a measure of judgment, which possibly explains why data on corporate demographics have not been more widely researched in spite of their potential interest to policymakers. However, our methodology, based on the collection of narrative data which ...

  20. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Irving; Vilma Charlton; Errol Morrison; Aldeam Facey; Oral Buchanan

    2013-01-01

    The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided...

  1. Demographic trends, population policy and public opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, R; Bonifazi, C; Menniti, A

    1989-01-01

    Findings are analyzed of the Instituto di Richerche solla poplazione survey carried out in Italy in 1987 which focused on: 1) those variables which may be indirectly affecting Italian's fertility intentions, and 2) the degree of acceptability of a global social policy i.e., one that is not only restricted to economic incentives to be offered to families. Data was obtained from a national sample of 1500 people between 18-49 years. Italians have a good awareness of demographic issues; 61% knew of the decline in marriages; 72% were aware of the increasing aging population; 50% viewed the fall in birth rate negatively; and 41% thought that population and fertility trends would remain at the present low level or would decrease even further (49%). The birth rate decline was contributed to economic reasons at both reasons at both a global and an individual level. The majority of people did not show any signs of prejudice toward immigrants; however, they did favor limiting the number of foreigners in general with the exception of political refugees. The majority were also in favor of helping 3rd World countries. Although Italians value their children and the parent-child relationship very highly, a reduction in the value of children with increasing educational level of the respondents was observed. 83% thought that couples should be allowed to have as many children as they wanted; 81% agreed that measures regarding contraceptive knowledge and availability should be improved; and 49% were in favor of measures to increase births. Regarding possible new policy measures, 50% were in full agreement on the development and increased efficiency of social services to enable women to go out to work. (author's modified) PMID:12283195

  2. Comparing Simple Quasar Demographics Models

    CERN Document Server

    Veale, Melanie; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores several simple model variations for the connections among quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos for redshifts 1 < z < 6. A key component of these models is that we enforce a self-consistent black hole (BH) history by tracking both BH mass and BH growth rate at all redshifts. We connect objects across redshift with a simple constant-number-density procedure, and choose a fiducial model with a relationship between BH and galaxy growth rates that is linear and evolves in a simple way with redshift. Within this fiducial model, we find the quasar luminosity function (QLF) by calculating an "intrinsic" luminosity based on either the BH mass or BH growth rate, and then choosing a model of quasar variability with either a lognormal or truncated power-law distribution of instantaneous luminosities. This gives four model variations, which we fit to the observed QLF at each redshift. With the best-fit models in hand, we undertake a detailed comparison of the four fiducial models, and explore...

  3. Education, Elderly Health, and Differential Population Aging in South Korea: A Demographic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bongoh Kye; Erika Arenas; Graciela Teruel; Luis Rubalcava

    2014-01-01

    Background: Population aging proceeds with other socioeconomic developments, including educational expansion. Improvements in educational attainment lead to changes in demographic behaviors such as assortative mating, fertility, and the intergenerational transmission of education, which change the health of the elderly and the education of their offspring generation. Objective: We examine such a jointly-changing process in South Korea. Methods: We apply a recursive demographic model (Ma...

  4. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  5. Improved low-cloud simulation from a multiscale modeling framework with a third-order turbulence closure in its cloud-resolving model component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Anning; Xu, Kuan-Man

    2011-07-01

    In the original multiscale modeling framework (MMF), the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.5) is used as the host general circulation model (GCM), and the System for Atmospheric Modeling model with a first-order turbulence closure is used as the cloud resolving model (CRM) for representing cloud physical processes in each grid column of the GCM. This study introduces an upgrade of the MMF in which the first-order turbulence closure scheme is replaced by an advanced third-order turbulence closure in its CRM component. The results are compared between the upgraded and original MMFs, CAM3.5, and observations. The global distributions of low-level cloud amounts in the subtropics in the upgraded MMF show substantial improvement relative to the original MMF when both are compared with observations. The improved simulation of low-level clouds is attributed not only to the representation of subgrid-scale condensation in the embedded CRM but also is closely related to the increased surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, the increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS), and stronger longwave radiative cooling. Both MMF simulations show close agreement in the vertical structures of cloud amount and liquid water content of midlatitude storm-track clouds and subtropical low-level clouds, compared with observations, with the upgraded MMF being better at simulating the low-level cumulus regime. Since the upgraded MMF produces more subtropical low-level clouds and does not produce an excessive amount of optically thick high-level clouds in either the tropics or midlatitudes as the original MMF does, the global mean albedo decreases. The positive bias in albedo and longwave cloud radiative forcing (CRF) and negative bias in shortwave CRF are reduced in the tropical convective regions.

  6. Principal component analysis with pre-normalization improves the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in positron emission tomography studies of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study introduces a new approach for the application of principal component analysis (PCA) with pre-normalization on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images. These images are generated using the amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole ([11C]PIB) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs). The aim was to introduce a method which, by using the whole dataset and without assuming a specific kinetic model, could generate images with improved signal-to-noise and detect, extract and illustrate changes in kinetic behavior between different regions in the brain. Eight AD patients and eight HVs from a previously published study with [11C]PIB were used. The approach includes enhancement of brain regions where the kinetics of the radiotracer are different from what is seen in the reference region, pre-normalization for differences in noise levels and removal of negative values. This is followed by slice-wise application of PCA (SW-PCA) on the dynamic PET images. Results obtained using the new approach were compared with results obtained using reference Patlak and summed images. The new approach generated images with good quality in which cortical brain regions in AD patients showed high uptake, compared to cerebellum and white matter. Cortical structures in HVs showed low uptake as expected and in good agreement with data generated using kinetic modeling. The introduced approach generated images with enhanced contrast and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) compared to summed images and parametric images. This method is expected to be an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia.

  7. Privacy-Preserving Demographic Filtering Alambic Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recommender systems are used as a way to user choices that needs to solve the protection problem in e-commerce. For solving such a problem we need to protect the privacy interests of users by hiding their identity and demographic features such as age, sex, geographical location, wealth, level of education, etc. and sometimes users buying preferences along with behavior. An E-commerce service provider allow commercial interests of users to protect data by recommending not to reveal valuable information that is related to market trends to the third parties. This paper concentrates only on recommender system that depends on demographic filtering which is familiar by making recommendations on feedback of previous users. The proposed system is called LAMBIC which is used to improve the privacy protection depending on semi-trusted third party by attaining limited confidence using such recommender systems. The process is to split the user’s data between the service provider and the third party in such a way that neither of them share the private data and protect it by preserving using demographic filtering.

  8. [Demographic changes and health management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2006-01-01

    Since our Constitution declaration in 1978 and General Law for Health in 1986, to date, the Spanish society has undergorne marked social changes. Socio-economic and health indicators in Spain have also improved as to an increased life expectancy, important reduction in infant mortality, and favourable changes reported in the national Health Survey. Risk factors influence the main causes of death, thus it is said that "man does not die but it kills himself". Healthy health practices are specified, and there is empirical evidence of greater disability-adjusted life years, a better adherence to Mediterranean diet, no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, enough time of sleeping, weight control, avoiding obsity and overweight, and increased physical activity, all the above practices achieving a healthier life. At a global scale in the world we live, famine has no frontiers, and fighting against this plague can not await longer. Overall, health and poverty are correlated and it must be overcome for reasons of human dignity, universal rights (even in ius gentium), and ethical dimension as normative of new socio-economic structures. Present must be transformed to recover hope in ou global world, still hungry, and in need of justice, enlightenment and solidarity. PMID:17172218

  9. Blood Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...

  10. The demographic determinants of human microbiome health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Sylvie; Whiteley, Marvin; Brown, Sam P

    2015-03-01

    The human microbiome is a vast reservoir of microbial diversity and increasingly recognized to have a fundamental role in human health. In polymicrobial communities, the presence of one species can modulate the demography (i.e., growth and distribution) of other species. These demographic impacts generate feedbacks in multispecies interactions, which can be magnified in spatially structured populations (e.g., host-associated communities). Here, we argue that demographic feedbacks between species are central to microbiome development, shaping whether and how potential metabolic interactions come to be realized between expanding lineages of bacteria. Understanding how demographic feedbacks tune metabolic interactions and in turn shape microbiome structure and function is now a key challenge to our abilities to better manage microbiome health. PMID:25500524

  11. GENDER DEMOGRAPHIC DISPARITIES IN BACAU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ancuta Stangaciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender demographic disparities existing in Bacau County were determined by means of some demographic indicators such as: population, natural growth, live births, marriages, divorces, indicators which have been broken down by gender. The assessment of the disparities between men and women from the point of view of the demographic phenomena emphasize the fact that on the level of Bacau County there is a surplus of female population, as during the whole period subjected to the analysis, the positive and respectively the negative natural growth for the male population were lower and higher respectively than the one registered in the case of the female population. The birth rate, marriage rate and divorce rate phenomena also changed significantly after 1990 ; thus, the average age of marriage increased, and the gender difference also had a certain growth, which caused a shift in the fertility intensity from the age group 20-24 to the very next one - the 25-29 age group.

  12. The demographic transition: model and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersson, G

    1981-01-01

    Observed exponential population growth curves are short-term parts of a logistic or S-curve in demography or a product-cycle curve in technology. All human populations have the ability to adjust their rates of growth, a fact recognized by the demographic transition model. The acceleration of world population growth that began after 1650 and became conspicuous after 1850 was largely confined to industrialized countries of European culture until after World War II, when the S-curve passed the inflection point. Many signs indicate that the decline in growth rates may become striking in the 1980s or 1990s. The demographic transition agrees with the logistic curve, and since the ultimate carrying capacity of the Earth is limited, represents an intelligent adaptation. The industrial countries with the longest statistical records, such as Sweden and Finland, evidence early efforts to control fertility. The demographic transition in Sweden lasted from 1815 to 1930 and occurred without government interference. A question for postindustrial western society is whether birth rates will be adjusted to the rising death rates expected as the population ages. Birth and death rates in most formulations of the demographic transition model are typical of Western Europe at the start of the transition process but are much too low for most countries of the world. Japan's demographic transition and that of several other Asian countries have occurred much more rapidly than those of Western Europe and have demonstrated not only that the demographic transition model was applicable but that the time span could be shortened by a factor of about 10 when government policy was substituted for spontaneous development. The Indian experience however shows that the shortening of the transition cannot be imposed from above. The demographic transition is well on its way in most of Asia and Latin America, but Africa and the Muslim countries of Asia have so far done little to restrain their high fertility. It may be concluded that the actual form of the demographic transition is influenced by the point of departure and by how and when it takes place. PMID:12312123

  13. [The demographic policy on the regional level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanaeva, Z M

    2010-01-01

    The study and assessment of demographic processes in the Republic of Bashkortostan during 1984-2008 was implemented. During the examined period, the decrease of marriage rate, the increase of divorce rate and mortality rate accompanied with the decrease of birth rate. From 2001, the positive trend is noted, especially in the area of marriage rate increase. However, the instability of the divorce rate index continues to persist. The important demographic target is to proceed with the reduction of reproductive losses, primarily at the expense of the decrease of the postneonatal losses and mortinatality. PMID:21375036

  14. [Demographic transition or revolution? The weaknesses and implications of the demographic transition theory. Part 1: the origins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1998-01-01

    The work of Adolphe Landry is reviewed in relation to development of demographic transition theory. Landry was appointed administrator in 1912 of the National Alliance Against Depopulation and remained active in it his whole life. He also helped create family allowance programs in France. As early as 1909, Landry described three different population regimes. In the "primitive" regime, which characterized all nonhuman life and human life during most of history, the population was adjusted to available subsistence by mortality. In the "intermediate" phase, restrictions on marriage and control of reproduction outside marriage maintained the population at a level below the maximum supportable. In the "contemporary" regime, the universal practice of contraception and abortion could lead to very low levels of fertility. The spread of contraception and low fertility appeared to Landry a true demographic revolution. He attributed the acceptance of contraception to a change in the common aspirations of human beings regarding their conditions, a desire for improved material well-being and social advancement, and an increased spirit of rationality and even calculation in their behavior. Landry believed that the contemporary regime, unlike the preceding two, had no mechanism implying equilibrium. The demographic revolution freed fertility from social determinants and linked it more closely to individual interests. Landry expected the contemporary regime to spread throughout the entire world, with many areas still in the primitive phase passing directly to the contemporary. He was concerned with the effects of demographic aging, and he deplored birth control propaganda that claimed it as a cure for unemployment and for overpopulation in the poor Asian countries. The birth control movements in England and the US were successful in bringing the two countries into the contemporary regime. A number of organizations such as the Population Association of America and the Office of Population Research at Princeton were favorable toward the spread of birth control through the rest of the world. PMID:12294439

  15. Improvement of yield and its components as well, as oil content and fatty acid composition in safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius, L) through progeny bulk selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two successive bulk selection cycles (C 1 and C 2) in some safflower back crosses along with the local variety Giza 1 were evaluated during two seasons (1989 and 1990). Concerning seed yield and its components, bulk progenies of [ ( A 2 s k 1 x Giza 1) x A 2 s k 1 ]; [ (Giza 1 x Mut.1) x Mut.1 ]; [ (A 2 s k 1 x Giza 1)x Giza 1 ]; [ (Mut.1 x A 2 s k 1) x Mut.1 ]; and [Giza 1 x Mut.1) x Giza 1 ] showed an increase of 33.3, 16.9, 16.9,10.0 and 9.8 % in seed yield / plant, respectively in C 2 over C 1 cycle. This increase might be due to the obvious improvement in number of capitula / plant which was 54.5, 11.3, 73.8, 31.8, and 18.6 % as well as to large capitula diameter 11.1, 4.8, 8.7, 0.0 and 18.2 % and to better seed weight of 9.8, 15.8, 7.4, 12.0, and 0.0 % for the progenies of these crosses in the same order. For oil content and quality, these bulk progenies showed 7.1, 9.8, 10.3, 6.5, and 6.8 % increase in oleic acid respectively ; 2.4, 2.5, 5.1, 1.4 and 2.0 % increase in linoleic acid in the same order in C 2 over the corresponding C 1 cycle. Except [ (A 2 s k 1 x G.1) x G.1 ], other bulks showed 3.4, 5.2, 4.9, and 0.9 % increase in oil content and 15.4, 8.3, 8.3 and 13.6 % increase in stearic acid in C 2 over its C 1. The correlation between tow selection cycles based on 1990, performance was highly significant for the most studied traits. For yield and its components, genetic advance ranged from 0.4 % for capitula diameter to 10.3 % for plant height. However, for oil] content and quality characters, genetic advance ranged from 0.2 % for oleic acid and stearic acid to 1.6% for oil content.2 tab

  16. FACTORES SOCIODEMOGRÁFICOS Y EVENTOS VITALES ASOCIADOS CON LA MEJORÍA CLÍNICA DE PACIENTES CON DEPRESIÓN / SOCIAL/DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND VITAL EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CLINICAL IMPROVEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH DEPRESSION / FATORES SOCIODEMOGRAFICOS E EVENTOS VITAIS ASSOCIADOS À MELHORIA CLÍNICA DE PACIENTES COM DEPRESSÃO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dedsy Yajaira, Berbesi Fernández; Ángela María, Segura Cardona.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: a depressão é o transtorno mental mais frequente e incapacitante; o atual estudo buscava analisar os fatores sociodemograficos e eventos vitais associados à depressão, em pacientes de 14 hospitais do Departamento de Antioquia. Métodos: desenhou-se um estudo de casos e controles em popula [...] ção de 204 pacientes de hospitais de primeiro nível de atuação. A amostra foi obtida por convergência. Os pacientes diagnosticados com depressão foram avaliados aos três meses do início do tratamento e classificados como sem melhora (caso) e com mel horia clínica (controle). Resultados: encontrou-se associação entre a não melhora dos sintomas depressivos aos três meses de iniciado o tratamento anti-depressivo e os antecedentes sociodemograficos, problemas econômicos e eventos vitais. Conclusão: encontraram-se como principais fatores relacionados com a depressão - não estar filiado à seguridade social em saúde, a morte de um filho e a violência doméstica psicológica e física, pelo que se destaca a necessidade de se eliminar tais variáveis. Abstract in spanish Introducción: la depresión es el trastorno mental más frecuente y discapacitante. El presente estudio buscaba analizar los factores sociodemográficos y eventos vitales asociados a la depresión en pacientes de 14 hospitales del departamento de Antioquia. Métodos: se diseñó un estudio de casos y contr [...] oles en una población de 204 pacientes de hospitales de primer nivel de atención. La muestra se seleccionó por conveniencia. Los pacientes diagnosticados con depresión fueron evaluados a los tres meses de haber iniciado tratamiento y se clasificaron: sin mejoría (caso) y con mejoría clínica (control). Resultados: se encontró asociación entre la no mejoría de los síntomas depresivos a tres meses de iniciar tratamiento antidepresivo y los antecedentes sociodemográficos, problemas económicos y eventos vitales. Conclusión: se encontraron como principales factores relacionados con la depresión: no tener un régimen de afiliación al sistema de seguridad social en salud; problemas económicos; la muerte de un hijo y la violencia doméstica psicológica y física, por lo cual se señala la necesidad de explorar estas variables. Abstract in english Introduction: depression is the most frequent disabling mental disorder: the present study strives to analyze the social/demographic factors and vital events associated to depression in patients in 14 hospitals in the State of Antioquia. Methods: a study of cases and controls in a population of 204 [...] patients in hospitals of first level of attention was designed. The sample was selected by convenience. The patients diagnosed with depression were evaluated within three months of having started treatment and were classified: no improvement (case) and with clinical improvement (control). Results: there was an association found between no improvement of the depressive symptoms after three months of starting anti-depressive treatment and the social/ demographic background, financial problems and vital events. Conclusion: the main factors associated with depression that were found are: not having an affiliation regime to the social security and health system; financial problems, death of a son/daughter and psychological and physical domestic violence, which point to the need to explore these variables.

  17. A component of polysaccharide peptidoglycan complex on Lactobacillus induced an improvement of murine model of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, S; Hara, T; Nagaoka, M; Mike, A; Mitsuyama, K; Sako, T; Yamamoto, M; Kado, S; Takada, T

    2009-09-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signals play key roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We previously described that both intact cells and a cell wall-derived polysaccharide-peptidoglycan complex (PSPG) in a strain of lactobacillus [Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS)] inhibited IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) isolated from murine IBD. Diets with LcS improve murine IBD by suppression of IL-6 synthesis in LPMCs. Moreover, LcS supplementation with fermented milk ameliorates disease activity in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Here, we focused on the specific roles of PSPG in LcS concerning their anti-inflammatory actions. PSPG derived from LcS, and no other strain of lactobacilli, inhibited IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated murine IBD LPMCs. Purified PSPG-I from LcS inhibited IL-6 synthesis in LPS-stimulated murine IBD LPMCs through the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB. The anti-IL-6 action of LcS PSPG was abrogated by masking with monoclonal anti-PSPG-I. Furthermore, PSPG-I-negative L. casei strains (PSPG-I-negative mutant LcS: LC(DeltaPSPG-I), L. casei ATCC 334) did not inhibit IL-6 production. Finally, we confirmed the effects of PSPG-I on LcS in the models of both IBD and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). In the IBD model, ingestion of LcS improved ileitis and inhibited activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling, while ingestion of the LC(DeltaPSPG-I) strain did not. In the CAC model, treatment with LcS, but not the LC(DeltaPSPG-I) strain, showed tumour-suppressive effects with an inhibition of IL-6 production in the colonic mucosa. These results suggested that a specific polysaccharide component in an L. casei strain plays a crucial role in its anti-inflammatory actions in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:19740306

  18. Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

  19. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  20. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  1. Demographic Discontinuity: Another Explanation for Consumerism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Les; Kangun, Norman

    1988-01-01

    This explanation for consumerism focuses on how unique demographics may have contributed to the movement. Prior movements may not have achieved the scale of the most recent movement because they did not occur after a period of rapid population growth. (Author/JOW)

  2. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  3. Second demographic transition de-blocked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobi? Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

  4. Current demographical processes in the Penza region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronin Ye.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the basic ethnic groups of the Penza region and identifies the demographic processes taking place within each group. The author comes to a conclusion that these processes are determined by the features of the historical development and socioeconomic standing of the ethnic groups.

  5. Changing demographics and shrinking engineering enrollments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that changing U.S. population demographics, poor academic preparation, and a decreasing interest in engineering among college student indicate possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. If we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S., the engineering talent pool must be enlarged to include women and minority men

  6. Study methods, recruitment, socio-demographic findings and demographic representativeness in the OPPERA study

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Gary D.; Bair, Eric; By, Kunthel; Mulkey, Flora; Baraian, Cristina; Rothwell, Rebecca; Reynolds, Maria; Miller, Vanessa; Gonzalez, Yoly; Gordon, Sharon; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Lim, Pei Feng; Greenspan, Joel D.; Dubner, Ron; Fillingim, Roger B

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes methods used in the project “Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment” (OPPERA) and evaluates socio-demographic characteristics associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the OPPERA case-control study. Representativeness was investigated by comparing socio-demographic profiles of OPPERA participants with population census profiles of counties near study sites and by comparing age- and gender-associations with TMD in OPPERA and the 2007-09 US Nat...

  7. Demographic determinants of formation and use of human capital in Ukraine: differential analysis and forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychuk, Dmytro Petrovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem that is little investigated in domestic economics. It assesses the impact of demographic processes on the prospects of accumulation and productivity of human capital. The author argues that focusing only in the quality of education and training that is inherent in most modern research, minimizes the effectiveness of human capital management as an economic asset. A man is a demographic basis of human capital accumulation. Accordingly, the particular demographic processes such as fertility, mortality, migration, development and disintegration of families, require careful analysis. The main objectives of the study related to the specification of the impact of demographic situation on the effectiveness of formation and use of human capital. It was found that due to the increasing demographic crisis in Ukraine initial conditions of accumulation of human capital at all levels of the economic system deteriorated significantly. It was substantiated that the renovation of demographic policy is a key factor for improving the efficiency of social investment; it also causes optimization of relations in various spheres of social interaction.

  8. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  9. Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

    Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, leading to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian Territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this paper we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few decades ago into the future. A Fortran program has been designed and used for the simulation and analysis of our statistical data. This study of demographic change in Palestine has shown that Palestinians will have in future problems as the strongest age cohorts are the above-60-year olds. We therefore recommend the increase of both the retirement age and female employment.

  10. Demographic and health surveillance: longitudinal ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Carrel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal data gathered from health surveillance, when combined with detailed demographic information, can provide invaluable insight into disease outcomes. Many such surveillance sites exist in the developing world, particularly in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and focus on diseases such as HIV/AIDS, cholera, malaria and tuberculosis. The indistinct positions of such surveillance systems, often inhabiting an area between research, treatment and population health monitoring, means that the necessity of and responsibility for ethical oversight is unclear. This regulatory vacuum is further compounded by a lack of attention to longitudinal surveillance systems in ethics literature. In this paper, we explore some key ethical questions that arise during demographic and health surveillance in relation to ethical principles of beneficence, respect for persons and justice: health-care provision, informed consent and study sustainability.

  11. The dynamics or urban demographic change in Malaysia: an analysis of the 1991 population census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K E

    1995-01-01

    "This paper examines how and to what extent the three demographic components of urban change, urban reclassification, natural increase and net migration, operated in Malaysia between 1980 and 1991.... Since there is a spatial dimension to urban demographic changes, another emphasis of the paper is to differentiate the areal patterns of such changes. The analysis is conducted at both the national level and sub-national levels." Data are from the Malaysian Department of Statistics. The author finds that "the important role of natural increase in urban population change is remarkable considering that a rapid fertility transition had been unfolding in Malaysia up to the mid-1970s." PMID:12292933

  12. Demographic growth and development of spa places in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ur?ev Branislav S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of population growth and components of demographic growth in five most important spa settlements in Serbia: Vrnjacka banja, Niska banj, Banja Koviljaca. As indices of demographic development, we have analyzed: natural and mechanical movement of population, age and sex, activity and sex, households and apartments in spa places. The finding is that demographic development of spa places in Serbia has been politically influenced. Due to dismantling state territory of former Yugoslavia, the choice of domestic tourist destination for Serbian population became smaller. Because of that, spas became more important tourist destination which fostered demographic growth of those places. The data analysis demonstrated that during the last six decades, population in all spa places increased with higher insensitive compare with the rest of Serbia. This is the result of high inmigration, particularly in the last decade, when the share of this movement was over 90%. The pacing of population ageing in spa places, did not follow ageing of total population in Serbia. Average age in Serbia between 1961-2002. increased for 31.8%, while in spas population ageing was more intensify with 36.4% increase. The number of household showed constant increase from census to census, as well as in Serbia as in each of spa places with no exception. Average size of household in spas in 1948. was smaller than the average in Serbia for almost one member. By the year 2002. the average sizes of households in spas and in Serbia was almost equalized. Spa places suffered sortage of apartments in 1948. By the year 2002. the evidence showed considerable surplus which as the biggest in Vrnjacka Banja spa. The amount of surplus was 15%, which is higher than the average in Serbia. The purpose of this surplus is rent and accommodation of spa visitors. Overall results point out that despite of population decrease of Serbia, spa places enjoy more and more permanent residents. Among the reasons economic stability of spa places (in the areas of services and medical care should be emphasized, which triggered inmigration increase, outmigration decrease, and slower rate of ageing (despite of small rate of natural increase.

  13. Dynamical modeling of the demographic Prisoner's Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Viktor; Shorish, Jamsheed

    2002-01-01

    Epstein (1998) demonstrates that in the demographic Prisoner's Dilemma game it is possible to sustain cooperation in a repeated game played on a finite grid, where agents are spatially distributed and of fixed strategy type ('cooperate' or 'defect'). We introduce a methodology to formalize the dynamical equations for a population of agents distributed in space and in wealth, which form a system similar to the reaction-diffusion type. We determine conditions for stable zones of sustained coope...

  14. Modeling the Demographic Effects of Endocrine Disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Gurney, William S.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we describe a series of strategic models of populations and individuals subject to challenge by endocrine disruptors. These models are not designed to be fitted to detailed data on specific species but rather are intended to provide general insights on the relative importance of different demographic mechanisms in the population context. Therefore, the models contain the minimum necessary biological detail, but in recompense they are highly accessible to mathematical analysis....

  15. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Price, C. Aaron; Paxson, Kevin B.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvem...

  16. Demographic changes in towns in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Jakoš

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with population growth and changes in towns in Slovenia, whose characteristics are small towns. The latest population indicators show a decline in growth, which doesn’t necessarily represent stagnation but development in a new direction. In view of the present demographic trends, growth of larger towns in Slovenia will have to be qualitative and under no circumstances an account of smaller towns.

  17. Demographic and transportation parameters in RADTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent efforts at Sandia National Laboratories have focused not only on modification of the RADTRAN transportation risk analysis code but also on updating the default parameters for population, land use, and roadway characteristics used by the code. Changes to the code have been discussed earlier in this Conference. This paper summarizes the results of a review of transportation and demographic parameters, performed to complement recent model modifications

  18. Culture, nationality and demographics in ultimatum games

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Anabela; Hirsch, Mark A.; Rutström, Elisabet E.

    2000-01-01

    We use experimental data collected in Russia and in the United States using a simple ultimatum game to evaluate two alternative hypotheses that may account for previously observed behavior in multinational experiments. One hypothesis postulates that behavioral differences observed in bargaining experiments arise from country-specific cultural environments. We submit the alternative hypothesis that different behavior in such experiments stems from differences in the demographic characteristics...

  19. Migration and demographic change in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Lerch, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    This study of interactions between rural-to-urban and international migration and fertility aims to increase understanding of the transformations in population structures and geography in the completion phase of demographic transition, with particular emphasis on urban areas. The Albanian case reveals how the early development of international migrant networks and the concentration of returnees in cities triggered urban-ward movements during the post-communist crisis. Despite subsequent econo...

  20. Demographic and health surveillance: longitudinal ethical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Margaret; RENNIE, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal data gathered from health surveillance, when combined with detailed demographic information, can provide invaluable insight into disease outcomes. Many such surveillance sites exist in the developing world, particularly in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and focus on diseases such as HIV/AIDS, cholera, malaria and tuberculosis. The indistinct positions of such surveillance systems, often inhabiting an area between research, treatment and population health monitoring, means that the ...

  1. Demographics, dividend clienteles and the dividend premium

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, King Fuei

    2010-01-01

    The catering theory of dividends proposed that corporate dividend policy is driven by prevailing investor demand for dividend payers, and that managers cater to investors by paying dividends when the dividend premium is high. While earlier research found that the dividend premium is not driven by traditional clienteles derived from market imperfections such as taxes, transaction costs, or institutional investment constraints, we find empirical evidence that demographic clienteles are an impor...

  2. Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Brian C.; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Leiwen; Pachauri, Shonali; Zigova, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy–economic growth model that accounts for a r...

  3. Complexity and Demographic Explanations of Cumulative Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing— while favoured by increasing—population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limite...

  4. Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M.M.; Radwan, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, this leads to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this article we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few ...

  5. Culture, nationality and demographics in ultimatum games

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Anabela; Hirsch, Mark A; Rutström, Elisabet E.

    2000-01-01

    We use experimental data collected in Russia and in the United States using a simple ultimatum game to evaluate two alternative hypotheses that may account for previously observed behavior in multinational experiments. One hypothesis postulates that behavioral differences observed in bargaining experiments arise from country-specific cultural environments. We submit the alternative hypothesis that different behavior in such experiments stems from differences in the demographic ...

  6. Optimal response to a demographic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Conesa, Juan Carlos; Garriga, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    We examine the optimal policy response to an exogenously given demographic shock. Such a shock affects negatively the financing of retirement pensions, and we use optimal fiscal policy in order to determine the optimal strategy of the social security administration. Our approach provides specific policy responses in an environment that guarantees the financial sustainability of existing retirement pensions. At the same time, pensions will be financed in a way that by construction generates no...

  7. Electrical Injuries: The Demographical and Clinical Features

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan O?uztürk; Muhammet Gökhan Turtay; Cem Ertan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Electrical injuries are an important health problem in our country, as well as worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the demographic characteristics, complications and mortality associated with electrical injuries. Methods: In this study, 38 patients who had been exposed to electrical injuries and treated at the Emergency Department of, Faculty of Medicine, Inonu University between October 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed. Data pertaining to the patie...

  8. Effects of Demographic Variables on Marital Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zainah A. Z.; Nasir R; Ruzy Suliza Hashim; Noraini Md Yusof

    2012-01-01

    Marital satisfaction is an important aspect to study because it is a global evaluation of the state of one’s marriage and a reflection of marital happiness and functioning. This study aimed to ascertain the differences in marital satisfaction based on demographic variables. Subjects for this study were 423 married couples. The instrument used was ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The data were analyzed by inferential statistics using t-test and One-way Analysi...

  9. Socio-demographic Factors of Geriatric Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Barua Ankur; Ghosh M; Kar N; Basilio M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common mental health problem in geriatric population and the overall prevalence rate of depression in this age group varies between 10 and 20%. Objective: To study the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in geriatric population. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done on 74 community-based mental health surveys on depression in geriatric population, which were conducted in the continents of Asia, Europe, Australia, North America,...

  10. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an exercise programme to improve wellbeing outcomes in women with depression: findings from the qualitative component

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Elizabeth; Callaghan, Patrick; Carter, Tim; Morres, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the qualitative component from a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (PRCT), the quantitative component is reported in Callaghan, Khalil, Morres and Carter (2011). Exercise may be effective in treating depression, but trials testing its effect in depressed women are rare. Our previous research found that standard exercise programmes, prescribed by General Practitioners and based on national guidelines of intensity levels thought to produce health benefits, are not suitabl...

  11. Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

  12. Demographic factors predict magnitude of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Blake L; Bui, Eric; Marin, Marie-France; Holt, Daphne J; Lasko, Natasha B; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-10-01

    There is substantial variability across individuals in the magnitudes of their skin conductance (SC) responses during the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. To manage this variability, subjects may be matched for demographic variables, such as age, gender and education. However, limited data exist addressing how much variability in conditioned SC responses is actually explained by these variables. The present study assessed the influence of age, gender and education on the SC responses of 222 subjects who underwent the same differential conditioning paradigm. The demographic variables were found to predict a small but significant amount of variability in conditioned responding during fear acquisition, but not fear extinction learning or extinction recall. A larger differential change in SC during acquisition was associated with more education. Older participants and women showed smaller differential SC during acquisition. Our findings support the need to consider age, gender and education when studying fear acquisition but not necessarily when examining fear extinction learning and recall. Variability in demographic factors across studies may partially explain the difficulty in reproducing some SC findings. PMID:26151498

  13. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  14. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  15. Demographic development and implementation of population policy measures in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovi? Draško

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Srpska faces complex demographic problems that are manifested in a constant reduction in birth rates and negative population growth, reducing the number of pupils in primary schools, the process of depopulation, the disappearance of the villages, aging population, emigration of fertile and working-age population abroad. The components of natural movement of population in the period from 1996 to 2008 indicate problems in demographic development. The current rate of natural increase is negative and points to the disruption of vital structures of population with a range of negative consequences. At the level of the Republic of Srpska, family planning and social policy are under the strong influence of changes that occur in society. From the analysis of demographic determinants for the last ten years it is evident that in the Republic of Srpska, for a longer time, there has been active demographic recession initiated by an intensive reduction of fertility rates. In order to increase the fertility a broader social action is needed from which there should arise strategy for demographic development and family planning program that should take into account the number of children required for the replacement of generations. In accordance with the previous, it is needed to intensify activities on systematization of existing measures of population policy and to direct them primarily in pro-natal purposes, in order to distinguish measures of population and social policy. These activities should be developed at all levels, especially at the level of local government. .

  16. Removing an intersubject variance component in a general linear model improves multiway factoring of event-related spectral perturbations in group EEG studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jeffrey S; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Ferree, Thomas C

    2013-03-01

    Linear statistical models are used very effectively to assess task-related differences in EEG power spectral analyses. Mixed models, in particular, accommodate more than one variance component in a multisubject study, where many trials of each condition of interest are measured on each subject. Generally, intra- and intersubject variances are both important to determine correct standard errors for inference on functions of model parameters, but it is often assumed that intersubject variance is the most important consideration in a group study. In this article, we show that, under common assumptions, estimates of some functions of model parameters, including estimates of task-related differences, are properly tested relative to the intrasubject variance component only. A substantial gain in statistical power can arise from the proper separation of variance components when there is more than one source of variability. We first develop this result analytically, then show how it benefits a multiway factoring of spectral, spatial, and temporal components from EEG data acquired in a group of healthy subjects performing a well-studied response inhibition task. PMID:22102426

  17. Demographic Factors and Communal Mastery as Predictors of Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal-Karagüven, M. Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Academic motivation and test anxiety have been still adduced for low performance of students by educators. To know the factors that have an effect on students' academic motivation and test anxiety levels can be helpful to improve students' academic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic variables and…

  18. Demographic Surprises Foreshadow Change in Neoliberal Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Eric

    2008-01-01

    in the Egypt of 2008, half the population has known only one president, Husni Mubarak. And the rate of population growth, at its peak when Mubarak assumed office in 1981, has stopped declining as it had been in the 1990s. A new kind of population increase has begun. Such are the lessons of the provisional results of the Egyptian general population and housing census, conducted in November 2006 in accordance with the regular ten-year cycle. These demographic surprises have important implicatio...

  19. Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions. (letter)

  20. Job flows, demographics and the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Sierminska, Eva; Takhtamanova, Yelena

    2010-01-01

    The recession the United States economy entered in December of 2007 is considered to be the most severe downturn the country has experienced since the Great Depression. The unemployment rate reached as high as 10.1 percent in October 2009 - the highest we have seen since the 1982 recession. In this paper we examine the severity of this recession compared to those in the past by examining worker flows into and out of unemployment taking into account changes in the demographic structure of the ...

  1. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruo Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan.

  2. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.

    2012-04-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an astronomical journal. Finally, there is some evidence that participation in the AAVSO has a greater impact on the respondents' view of their role in astronomy compared to that expected through increasing amateur astronomy experience alone.

  3. Household demographic determinants of Ebola epidemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ben

    2016-03-01

    A salient characteristic of Ebola, and some other infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, is intense transmission among small groups of cohabitants and relatively limited indiscriminate transmission in the wider population. Here we consider a mathematical model for an Ebola epidemic in a population structured into households of equal size. We show that household size, a fundamental demographic unit, is a critical factor that determines the vulnerability of a community to epidemics, and the effort required to control them. Our analysis is based on the household reproduction number, but we also consider the basic reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate and final epidemic size. We show that, when other epidemiological parameters are kept the same, all of these quantifications of epidemic growth and size are increased by larger households and more intense within-household transmission. We go on to model epidemic control by case detection and isolation followed by household quarantine. We show that, if household quarantine is ineffective, the critical probability with which cases must be detected to halt an epidemic increases significantly with each increment in household size and may be a very challenging target for communities composed of large households. Effective quarantine may, however, mitigate the detrimental impact of large household sizes. We conclude that communities composed of large households are fundamentally more vulnerable to epidemics of infectious diseases primarily transmitted by close contact, and any assessment of control strategies for these epidemics should take into account the demographic structure of the population. PMID:26718863

  4. Electrical Injuries: The Demographical and Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan O?uztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Electrical injuries are an important health problem in our country, as well as worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the demographic characteristics, complications and mortality associated with electrical injuries. Methods: In this study, 38 patients who had been exposed to electrical injuries and treated at the Emergency Department of, Faculty of Medicine, Inonu University between October 2008 and October 2010 were reviewed. Data pertaining to the patients were analysed retrospectively. Results: Out of 38 patients, 28 (73.7% were male and 10 (26.3% female. Electrical injuries were most frequently encountered in the 17-29 year age group, constituting 39.5% of cases. Eight (21.1% patients were exposed to high voltage and 30 (78.9% to low voltage. Among the circumstances leading to electrical injury, household accidents (63.2% prevailed over the occupational accidents (36.8%. Two patients died due to sepsis. The overall mortality rate was 5.3 % and the mean hospital stay was 4.1±5.2 days. Conclusion: The results obtained from this research with respect to the demographic and clinical features can help the development of a particular strategy for electirical injuries. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48: 139-41

  5. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. Methodology: A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Results were expressed as percentages. Results: Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. Conclusion: SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions. (author)

  6. The SDSS-IV in 2014: A Demographic Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britt; Kinemuchi, Karen; Zasowski, Gail; Lucatello, Sara; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Myers, Adam D.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gillespie, Bruce; Ho, Shirley; Gallagher, John S.

    2015-08-01

    Many astronomers now participate in large international scientific collaborations, and it is important to examine whether these structures foster a healthy scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the demographics and gender climate within SDSS-IV, one of the largest and most geographically distributed astronomical collaborations. In 2014 April, the CPWS administered a voluntary demographic survey to establish a baseline for the incipient SDSS-IV, which began observations in 2014 July. We received responses from 250 participants (46% of the active membership). Half of the survey respondents were located in the United States or Canada and 30% were based in Europe. Approximately 65% were faculty or research scientists and 31% were postdocs or graduate students. Eleven percent of survey respondents considered themselves to be an ethnic minority at their current institution. Twenty-five percent of the SDSS-IV collaboration members are women, a fraction that is consistent with the U.S. astronomical community, but substantially higher than the fraction of women in the International Astronomical Union (16%). Approximately equal fractions of men and women report holding positions of leadership in the collaboration. When binned by academic age and career level, men and women also assume leadership roles at approximately equal rates, in a way that increases steadily for both genders with increasing seniority. In this sense, SDSS-IV has been successful in recruiting leaders that are representative of the collaboration. That said, it is clear that more progress needs to be made toward achieving gender balance and increasing diversity in the field of astronomy, and there is still room for improvement in the membership and leadership of SDSS-IV. For example, at the highest level of SDSS-IV leadership, women disproportionately assume roles related to education and public outreach. The goal of the CPWS is to use these initial data to establish a baseline for tracking demographics over time as we work to assess and improve the climate of SDSS-IV.

  7. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable accuracy, demographic parameters from three simulated data sets that vary in the magnitude of a founder event and a skew in the effective population size of the X chromosome relative to the autosomes. The behavior of the Markov chain is also examined and shown to convergence to its stationary distribution, while also showing high levels of parameter mixing. The analysis of three pairwise comparisons of sub-Saharan African human populations with non-African human populations do not provide unequivocal support for a strong non-African founder event from these nuclear data. The estimates do however suggest a skew in the ratio of X chromosome to autosome effective population size that is greater than one. However in all three cases, the 95% highest posterior density interval for this ratio does include three-fourths, the value expected under an equal breeding sex ratio. Conclusion The implementation of composite and approximate likelihood methods in a framework that includes MCMCMC demographic parameter estimation shows great promise for being flexible and computationally efficient enough to scale up to the level of whole-genome polymorphism and divergence analysis. Further work must be done to characterize the effects of the assumption of linkage equilibrium among genomic regions that is crucial to the validity of applying the composite likelihood method.

  8. Auxiliary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter deals with the development of individual auxiliary components for boiler-turbine units in the Soviet Union. These components include in-drum units, staged evaporation assemblies, external cyclones, heat exchangers, parallel gas ducts, air heaters, and gas evaporators. The author focuses his attention on designs which were either applied or researched extensively in the USSR but are practically unknown in the US. 21 figures

  9. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi-component and the quality control of TCMs and TCM prescriptions. PMID:25618711

  10. Improvement and extension of the program system PSU for application in safety evaluation of components of nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety evaluation of power plant components, finite element methods (FEM) play a key role for both the solution of continuum mechanics problems and fracture mechanics problems. Especially in the field of fracture mechanics and damage mechanics specialized methods have to be applied in addition to classical engineering treatment laid down in the standards. The aim of this project was to enhance the finite element program PSU to make it applicable for safety analyses of nuclear power plants, with particular consideration of modern concepts of mechanics of materials, fracture mechanics and damage mechanics. (orig.)

  11. Shifting the light emitting component from core to shell: an effective approach to improve the efficiency of light-emitting diodes based on multi-junction quantum materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanpei; Liu, Kong; Lu, Shudi; Yue, Shizhong; Chi, Dan; Wang, Zhijie; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2015-11-01

    Herein, using the light emitting component as the inner shell, we construct an advanced quantum-dot-quantum-well structure, ZnCdS/CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS, and use it for the fabrication of a light-emitting-diode. In comparison with the device containing conventional structured quantum dots, CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS, the advanced device possesses a superior performance in aspects of luminance, current efficiency, turn-on voltage and emitting wavelength tunability. Therefore, this paper indicates a promising strategy for the fabrication of light emitting devices based on quantum materials. PMID:26443121

  12. Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from these data, suggesting that the ABC approach will be a useful tool for analyzing large genome-wide datasets.

  13. Medical demographic consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demographic study was made of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone around the nuclear power plant and of the population living in areas over which the radioactive cloud passed and over which the plume was formed. For the farmers evacuated from 11,655 homes in the Chernobyl region, 7,000 new houses, built in the Kiev region, had already been provided within 5 months of the accident, and by the summer of 1987 another 5,000 houses were available. A study of the resettlement of the population carried out a year after the accident showed that more than 60% of those evacuated continued to live in the regions from which the evacuation had taken place; about 5% were resettled in other republics, and 20% within their own republic. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

  15. Land use and demographic grids in Cosyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution of the population, agricultural production, economic activity, and the position of land and sea, are important elements of accident consequence codes. These data are necessary in evaluating the health effects within the population arising from the external dose, inhalation and ingestion pathways. These distributions are also essential in calculating the economic impact of implementing countermeasures, such as relocation and food bans. This paper includes a discussion of the agricultural production and population distribution information available for EC countries, their resolution, availability and sources. The gridded data included in the COSYMA system are described. Particular aspects, such as the difficulties involved with using economic land use information, are also explained. Future developments, and their effect on the requirements for land use and demographic grids, are outlined

  16. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  17. Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel E. Cohen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global is the population-weighted mean of the life expectancy at birth of all countries, then B(global x e(global always exceeds P(global unless all countries have the same life expectancy at birth.

  18. Demographic histories and genetic diversities of Fennoscandian marine and landlocked ringed seal subspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Tommi; Valtonen, Mia; Aspi, Jouni; Ruokonen, Minna; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Palo, Jukka U

    2014-01-01

    Island populations are on average smaller, genetically less diverse, and at a higher risk to go extinct than mainland populations. Low genetic diversity may elevate extinction probability, but the genetic component of the risk can be affected by the mode of diversity loss, which, in turn, is connected to the demographic history of the population. Here, we examined the history of genetic erosion in three Fennoscandian ringed seal subspecies, of which one inhabits the Baltic Sea ‘mainland’ and ...

  19. Alternative health care consultations in Ontario, Canada: A geographic and socio-demographic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eby Jeanette; Kitchen Peter; Williams Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background An important but understudied component of Canada's health system is alternative care. The objective of this paper is to examine the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of alternative care consultation in Ontario, Canada's largest province. Methods Data is drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS Cycle 3.1, 2005) for people aged 18 or over (n = 32,598) who had a consultation with an alternative health care provider. Four groups of consultations ar...

  20. Signals of demographic expansion in Drosophila virilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoikkala Anneli

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern of genetic variation within and among populations of a species is strongly affected by its phylogeographic history. Analyses based on putatively neutral markers provide data from which past events, such as population expansions and colonizations, can be inferred. Drosophila virilis is a cosmopolitan species belonging to the virilis group, where divergence times between different phylads go back to the early Miocene. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequence variation among 35 Drosophila virilis strains covering the species' range in order to detect demographic events that could be used to understand the present characteristics of the species, as well as its differences from other members of the group. Results Drosophila virilis showed very low nucleotide diversity with haplotypes distributed in a star-like network, consistent with a recent world-wide exponential expansion possibly associated either with domestication or post-glacial colonization. All analyses point towards a rapid population expansion. Coalescence models support this interpretation. The central haplotype in the network, which could be interpreted as ancestral, is widely distributed and gives no information about the geographical origin of the population expansion. The species showed no geographic structure in the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes, in contrast to results of a recent microsatellite-based analysis. Conclusion The lack of geographic structure and the star-like topology depicted by the D. virilis haplotypes indicate a pattern of global demographic expansion, probably related to human movements, although this interpretation cannot be distinguished from a selective sweep in the mitochondrial DNA until nuclear sequence data become available. The particular behavioural traits of this species, including weak species-discrimination and intraspecific mate choice exercised by the females, can be understood from this perspective.

  1. Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kéry, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic studies in plants appear simple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastic tags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperate latitudes have a pronounced seasonal life–cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots once a year often during or shortly after flowering. Life–states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of a demographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as 0VFVVF000. A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it was seen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities of survival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting. Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, i.e., when plants may stay belowground for one or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as 0VF00F000 may then occur where the meaning of zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methods in wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equated to a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and in Kéry et al. (submitted, we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival and should not be used. In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capturerecapture (CR models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state–transitions and the fraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrial orchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kéry et al., submitted and Cypripedium reginae (Kéry & Gregg, submitted in West Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a total of 620 marked ramets over 10 years, and for Cypripedium, two populations with 98 and 258 marked ramets over 11 years. We chose the ramet (= single stem or shoot as the demographic unit of our study since there was no way distinguishing among genets (genet = genetical individual, i.e., the “individual” that animal ecologists are mostly concerned with. This will introduce some non–independence into the data, which can nevertheless be dealt with easily by correcting variances for overdispersion. Using ramets instead of genets has the further advantage that individuals can be assigned to a state such as flowering or vegetative in an unambiguous manner. This is not possible when genets are the demographic units. In all three populations, auxiliary data was available to show that detection probability of aboveground plants was m 0.995 We fitted multistate models in program MARK by specifying three states (D, V, F, even though the dormant state D does not occur in the encounter histories. Detection probability is fixed at 1 for the vegetative (V and the flowering state (F and at zero for the dormant state (D. Rates of survival and of state transitions as well as slopes of covariate relationships can be estimated and LRT or the AIC machinery be used to select among models. To estimate the fraction of the population in the unobservable dormant state, the encounter histories are collapsed to 0 (plant not observed aboveground and 1 (plant observed aboveground. The Cormack–Jolly–Seber model without constraints on detection probability is used to estimate detection probability, the complement of which is the estimated fraction of the population in the dormant state. Parameter identifiability is an important issue in multi state models. We used the Catchpole–Morgan–Freeman approach to determine which parameters are estimable in principle in our multi state models. Most of 15 tested models were indeed estimable with the notable exception of the most general model, which has fully interactive state- and time-dependent survival and state transition rates. This model would become identifiable if at least some plants would be excavated in years when they do not show up aboveground. Our analyses for three analyzed populations of Cleistes and Cypripedium yielded annual ramet survival rates ranging from 0.86–0.96. Estimates of the average fraction dormant ranged from 0.02–0.30, but with up to half a population in the dormant state in some years. Ultrastructural modeling enables interesting hypotheses to be tested about the relationships of demographic rates with climatic covariates for instance. Such covariate modeling makes the CR approach particularly interesting for evolutionary–ecological questions about, e.g., the adaptive significance of the dormant state. Previous and foreseeable future applications of CR in plant ecology Since the paper by Alexander et al. (1997, it has become increasingly clear that CR models may be useful for demographic analysis of plant populations. In the future, we are likely to see increasing use of these methods that were originally developed for animal populations. Here is a summary about all previous applications that I have come across. I am grateful if readers point out to me any titles that I may have missed. If a reliable way to mark seeds can be devised, CR might indeed provide the analysis tool for tackling one of the ultimate frontiers in plant population ecology: the dynamics of the seed bank. Indeed, the first ever application of CR to plants that I have come across (Naylor, 1972 used a fluorescent dye to mark seeds and a Lincoln–Peterson–type estimator to estimate the seed bank size in an agricultural weed. The application of CR to plants with dormancy has been treated by Shefferson et al. (2001, 2003, Kéry et al. (submitted and Kéry & Gregg (submitted. Population size, and survival rates of plants whose aboveground states are easily overlooked have been estimated for an elusive prairie plant (Alexander et al., 1997; Slade et al., 2003 and for a tropical savannah tree (Lahoreau et al., 2003. For plot–based plant demographic studies, we have shown previously that (not surprisingly different life–states may have different detection probabilities, and that this may seriously bias inference from population modelling (Kéry & Gregg, 2003. It is somewhat astonishing that there still appear to be no applications of CR to the analysis of plant populations and communities. For instance, species richness, patch occupancy, population extinction rates, and species turnover in communities are all still based on adding up the raw data, even though the animal literature has plenty of papers showing more adequate ways of estimating these quantities (e.g., Boulinier et al. 1998; Nichols et al. 1998. I have submitted a note (Kéry, submitted describing the use of the Cormack–Jolly–Seber model to estimate extinction probabilities for plant populations in a manner exactly analogous to patch occupancy models (MacKenzie et al., 2002, 2003. It is perhaps in plant community ecology where we will see most future applications of CR.

  2. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mirfardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is ?the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms?. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  3. An approach to improve direct runoff estimates and reduce uncertainty in the calculated groundwater component in water balances of large lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Andrew J.; Conant, Brewster; Rudolph, David L.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is important in the overall water budget of a lake because it affects the quantity and quality of surface water and the ecological health of the lake. The water balance equation is frequently used to estimate the net groundwater flow for small lakes but is seldom used to determine net groundwater flow components for large lakes because: (1) errors accumulate in the calculated groundwater term, and (2) there is an inability to accurately quantify the direct runoff component. In this water balance study of Lake Pyhäjärvi (155 km2) in Finland, it was hypothesized a hydrograph separation model could be used to estimate direct runoff to the lake and, when combined with a rigorous uncertainty analyses, would provide reliable net groundwater flow estimates. The PART hydrograph separation model was used to estimate annual per unit area direct runoff values for the watershed of the inflowing Yläneenjoki River (a subwatershed of the lake) which were then applied to other physically similar subwatersheds of the lake to estimate total direct runoff to the lake. The hydrograph separation method provided superior results and had lower uncertainty than the common approach of using a runoff coefficient based method. The average net groundwater flow into the lake was calculated to be +43 mm per year (+3.0% of average total inflow) for the 38 water years 1971-2008. It varied from -197 mm to 284 mm over that time, and had a magnitude greater than the uncertainty for 17 of the 38 years. The average indirect groundwater contribution to the lake (i.e., the groundwater part of the inflowing rivers) was 454 mm per year (+32% of average total inflow) and demonstrates the overall importance of groundwater. The techniques in this study are applicable to other large lakes and may allow small net groundwater flows to be reliably quantified in settings that might otherwise be unquantifiable or completely lost in large uncertainties.

  4. Alternative methods to attach components in printed circuit boards to improve their recyclability / Métodos alternativos de fijación de componentes de circuitos impresos para mejorar su reciclabilidad

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André, Canal-Marques; Maria Rita, Ortega-Vega; José-María, Cabrera; Célia de, Fraga-Malfatt.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las Placas de Circuitos Impresos constituyen la base de la industria electrónica. Sin embargo, generan residuos de difícil eliminación y reciclaje, debido a la diversidad de materiales y componentes presentes y su difícil separación. La sustitución de soldaduras de Pb-Sn por aleaciones libres de plo [...] mo intenta minimizar la toxicidad que implica la presencia de Pb, pero no aborda la separación de los componentes para su posterior reutilización y/o reciclaje. Este artículo presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre el problema ambiental que constituyen las placas de circuitos impresos, el estudio de alternativas de fijación, pruebas de fiabilidad para comparar con las placas convencionales y sistemas comerciales para validar o servir de base para futuras investigaciones, enfocadas hacia el desmontaje de PCI. Además, se muestran algunos estudios incipientes mediante prototipos para la realización de pruebas visuales y funcionales. Abstract in english Printed circuit boards (PCB), which form the basis of the electronics industry, generate wastes that are difficult to dispose of and recycle due to the diversity of their materials and components and their difficult separation. The replacement of Pb-Sn welding for lead-free alloys to attach componen [...] ts in printed circuit boards is an attempt to minimize the problem of Pb toxicity, but it does not change the problem of separation of the components for later reuse and/or recycling. This article presents a review of the environmental problem of printed circuit boards, the initial development of alternative fixation studies, and reliability tests for comparison with conventional boards and commercial systems to validate or serve as a basis for future research, focused on PCB disassembly for recycling. At present, initial studies were performed by using prototypes for visual and functional tests.

  5. Quality of demographic data in GGS Wave 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorik Vergauwen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key feature of the Generations & Gender Programme (GGP is that longitudinal micro-data from the Generations and Gender Surveys (GGS can be combined with indicators from the Contextual Database (CDB that provide information on the macro-level context in which people live. This allows researchers to consider the impact of socio-cultural, economic, and policy contexts on changing demographic behaviour since the 1970s. The validity of longitudinal analyses combining individual-level and contextual data depends, however, on whether the micro-data give a correct account of demographic trends after 1970. Objective: This article provides information on the quality of retrospective longitudinal data on first marriage and fertility in the first wave of the GGS. Methods: Using the union and fertility histories recorded in the GGS, we compare period indicators of women's nuptiality and fertility behaviour for the period 1970-2005 and cohort indicators of nuptiality and fertility for women born after 1925 to population statistics. Results: Results suggest that, in general, period indicators estimated retrospectively from the GGS are fairly accurate from the 1970s onwards, allowing exceptions for specific indicators in specific countries. Cohort indicators, however, were found to be less accurate for cohorts born before 1945, suggesting caution when using the GGS to study patterns of union and family formation in these older cohorts. Conclusions: The assessment of the validity of demographic data in the GGS provides country-specific information on time periods and birth cohorts for which GGS estimates deviate from population statistics. Researchers may use this information to decide on the observation period or cohorts to include in their analysis, or use the results as a starting point for a more detailed analysis of item nonresponse in union and fertility histories, which may further improve the quality of GGS estimates, particularly for these earlier periods and older birth cohorts. Comments: Detailed country-specific results are included in an appendix to this paper, available for download from the additional material section.

  6. A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Abdul Nasir; M. H. Tahir (Corresponding author)

    2011-01-01

    The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indi...

  7. India’s demographic dividend: opportunities and threats

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    Demographic transition creates a small window for countries to leverage their demographic dividend and leapfrog to a higher level of income-employment situation. This opportunity comes in the middle stage of demographic transition when the population pyramid shows signs of maturity and bulges in the middle, indicating a relatively larger share of youth or working age persons in total population, and hence a low dependency ratio. Consequently, countries can engage this human resource to augmen...

  8. Darwinian and demographic forces affecting human protein coding genes

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Hellmann, Ines; Torgerson, Dara; Andrés, Aida M.; Albrechtsen, Anders; Gutenkunst, Ryan; Adams, Mark D.; Cargill, Michele; Boyko, Adam; Indap, Amit; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    Past demographic changes can produce distortions in patterns of genetic variation that can mimic the appearance of natural selection unless the demographic effects are explicitly removed. Here we fit a detailed model of human demography that incorporates divergence, migration, admixture, and changes in population size to directly sequenced data from 13,400 protein coding genes from 20 European-American and 19 African-American individuals. Based on this demographic model, we use several new an...

  9. Demographic Changes: The Impact for Safe Blood Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Greinacher, Andreas; Fendrich, Konstanze; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The population structure in most European countries is currently changing, with a shift from younger to older age groups. Only sparse data exist on the impact of these demographic changes on future blood demand and supply. Data on blood recipients are sparse and unconnected to data on blood donors. The first part of this review summarizes studies on the effect of the demographic change on blood supply and demand. With respect to studies in North America and Europe on the impact of demographic...

  10. Demographic change and public sector budgets in a federal system

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Michael; Kempkes, Gerhard; Seitz, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic change on public finances in a federal system. We develop a simple methodical procedure to measure the effect of demographic changes on public revenues and expenditures. We apply our method to the local, state and federal government sector as well as on the social security system in Germany. Our results suggest that demographic change will lead to significant vertical fiscal imbalances between the different layers of government. In addition we sh...

  11. Influence of Transformation Demographic Model on Economic Development of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeykina, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The page represents model of influence of the occurred demographic changes on economic development of Russia. Transformation of model birth rate in modern Russia and its rapprochement to type of the western countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain). Reflection of a social and economic conjuncture in a channel of "the second demographic transition" to which all advanced countries follow. Russia has followed the road long-term changes of economic and demographic model, and return to former mod...

  12. Mining The Relationship Between Demographic Variables And Brand Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Dabbes, Ajayeb Abu; Kharbat, Faten

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to mine the relationship between demographic variables and brand associations, and study the relative importance of these variables. The study is conducted on fast-food restaurant brands chains in Jordan. The result ranks and evaluates the demographic variables in relation with the brand associations for the selected sample. Discovering brand associations according to demographic variables reveals many facts and linkages in the context of Jordanian culture...

  13. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    NARDALI, Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...

  14. Some demographical aspects of the newly nominated towns in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berekméri Mária

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper tries to present some demographical aspects of the newest towns declared in the post-socialist period in Romania. First we draw a sketch of the current demographic tendencies and structures, as basis for the evolution of settlements and new towns. In the second part of our paper we describe a few elements of the demographic profile of new towns declared in post-socialist period.

  15. The second demographic transition: A concise overview of its development

    OpenAIRE

    Lesthaeghe, Ron

    2014-01-01

    At the end of the historical declines in both mortality and fertility (the “first demographic transition”), new demographic phenomena developed in the Western World. Therefore, new theoretical frameworks were needed to explain features such as the baby bust, the systematic postponement of marriage and parenthood, subreplacement fertility, the rise of alternative forms of partnerships, and parenthood outside marriage. The “second demographic transition” (SDT) theory is such an attempt. Althoug...

  16. [Demographic change and state income support: an incidence analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Weizsacker, R K

    1989-01-01

    "Starting from a simple, descriptive life-cycle model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, two income maintenance programs are introduced: a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system. The resulting government budget constraints entail interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of demographic trends. Several policy conflicts arise." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12316190

  17. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herbal mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts (Him-I, Him-II) which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Some fractions of Him-I and Him-II increased the proliferation of bone marrow cells irradiated {gamma}-ray(4Gray). Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. 20 refs., 23 figs. (Author)

  18. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguy, Donatien; Elung'ata, Patricia; Mberu, Blessing; Oduor, Clement; Wamukoya, Marylene; Nganyi, Bonface; Ezeh, Alex

    2015-04-01

    The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) was the first urban-based longitudinal health and demographic surveillance platform in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The NUHDSS was established in 2002 to provide a platform to investigate the long-term social, economic and health consequences of urban residence, and to serve as a primary research tool for intervention and impact evaluation studies focusing on the needs of the urban poor in SSA. Since its inception, the NUHDSS has successfully followed every year a population of about 65,000 individuals in 24,000 households in two slum communities--Korogocho and Viwandani--in Nairobi, Kenya. Data collected include key demographic and health information (births, deaths including verbal autopsy, in- and out-migration, immunization) and other information that characterizes living conditions in the slums (livelihood opportunities, household amenities and possessions, type of housing etc.). In addition to the routine data, it has provided a robust platform for nesting several studies examining the challenges of rapid urbanization in SSA and associated health and poverty dynamics. NUHDSS data are shared through internal and external collaborations, in accordance with the Centre's guidelines for publications, data sharing. PMID:25596586

  19. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance System in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasseh, Momodou; Gomez, Pierre; Greenwood, Brian M; Howie, Stephen R C; Scott, Susana; Snell, Paul C; Bojang, Kalifa; Cham, Mamady; Corrah, Tumani; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-06-01

    The Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Farafenni HDSS) is located 170?km from the coast in a rural area of The Gambia, north of the River Gambia. It was set up in 1981 by the UK Medical Research Council Laboratories to generate demographic and health information required for the evaluation of a village-based, primary health care programme in 40 villages. Regular updates of demographic events and residency status have subsequently been conducted every 4 months. The surveillance area was extended in 2002 to include Farafenni Town and surrounding villages to support randomized, controlled trials. With over three decades of prospective surveillance, and through specific scientific investigations, the platform (population ? 50,000) has generated data on: morbidity and mortality due to malaria in children and during pregnancy; non-communicable disease among adults; reproductive health; and levels and trends in childhood and maternal mortality. Other information routinely collected includes causes of death through verbal autopsy, and household socioeconomic indicators. The current portfolio of the platform includes tracking Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) attainments in rural Gambia and cause-of-death determination. PMID:25948661

  20. The concept of geo-demographic situation and geo-demographic typology of the subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Gennady

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on typologisation of Russian regions according the geo-demographic situation. The typologisation of regions is performed on the basis of statistics for 2011-2012. The regions are described through demographic, economic, social, settlement, ecological, and ethno-demographic categories, the most common of which according to the authors point of view are the typological features of the geo-demographic situation. The subjects of the Russian Federation provided the research material to apply 15 typological traits and identify three types of geo-demographic situation, 9 subtypes of the first level, sub-types of the second level and a model subtype of the third level. The study shows that various types and subtypes of regions require different approaches in demographic, economic, social, equity, ethnic, environmental, and population distribution regional policies towards relevant entities of the Russian Federation.

  1. Process evaluation of a multi-component intervention to reduce infectious diseases and improve hygiene and well-being among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, C T; Plauborg, R; Denbæk, A M; Due, P; Johansen, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial designed to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among pupils. Participating schools (n = 43) were randomized into either control (n = 15) or one of two intervention groups (n = 28). The intervention consisted...... toilets, semi-structured interviews with school coordinators (n = 4), focus groups with pupils (n = 6) and teachers (n = 5), and questionnaires among pupils (n = 5440), teachers (n = 387) and school coordinators (n = 28). This study indicates that the curriculum was successfully implemented at most...... schools, and that teachers and pupils reacted positively to this part of the intervention. However, daily hand washing before lunch seems to be difficult to implement. Overall, the implementation process was affected by several factors such as poor sanitary facilities, lack of time and prioritization and...

  2. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podyashchikh, P

    1968-01-01

    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative overpopulation is eliminated. This represents the primary difference between the demographic law of socialism and the law of capitalism. In the Soviet Union a gradual decrease of the birthrate and the growth rate of population is evident. The industrialization of the country and collectivization of the peasant farms carried into effect within a short time by the Soviet rule ensured quick progress in economy. The high standard of economic and cultural development achieved in the Soviet Union soon affected the indices of the population's production. The birthrate in the Soviet Union was affected essentially by the causes acting toward its decrease as in the western countries, but under socialist conditions of production these asserted themselves largely in a different way. The experience of the Soviet Union demonstrates that by making use of the scientific and technical knowledge at the command of humankind, industrialization can be realized. PMID:12313935

  3. On-Line Monitoring and Dynamic Feature Trending as a Means to Improve In-Service Inspection, Maintenance, and Long-Term Assessment of Systems and Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent publication of an international standard on vibration monitoring of reactor internal structures (IEC 61502, standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission) concludes a long-standing development of methods for a new type of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control system. This new system differs from traditional monitoring systems, as it is aimed primarily at early failure detection. Useful information is provided to plant operators, but in particular to the inspection/maintenance personnel. Powerful modern computer technology allows - in an effective manner - correlation and spectral analysis, feature extraction and trending, alert level monitoring, and remote data/signature transmission of dynamic process signals such as neutron noise, vibration signals, pressure noise, etc. The signature and feature trends are stored in a central databank and form a useful reference for assessment of components and systems in case of actual incipient failure development or at the estimated end of the plant lifetime as part of the aging condition assessment measures.The standard IEC 61502 is used as an example for early failure detection and on-line condition monitoring methods based on signature analysis and feature vector monitoring in general. The reasons/background for structuring this particular standard in a mandatory and an optional part as well as the resulting consequences are explained. But emphasis is also placed on demonstration of the principles, i.e., measurement analysis and usefulness of such methods for maintenance and refurbishment strategies. The transferability of the methods is discussed when applied for other tasks, for instance, for condition/aging assessment of process instrumentation

  4. Under-5 Mortality in Tanzania: A Demographic Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sathiya Susuman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The government of the United Republic of Tanzania has initiated the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness program to improve the health and wellbeing of children.Methods: Tanzania’s under-five mortality rate is still 1.7 times higher than the world average and, in order to achieve its Millennium Development Goal 4 target, its annual reduction rate is quite low at 2.2. The main aim of the study is to examine under-five mortality combined with the Data from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2008 data was used. Odds ratios for infant and under-five mortality were estimated using logistic regression; crude and adjusting models were adopted.Results: Mortality cases (18.3% have been reported to children born with an interval of <24 months. Mothers with no education reported 14.6%, primary education mothers reported 11.1% and higher education reported only 5.3% (P<0.001. Therefore, maternal education plays is a major role on fertility and infant and under-five mortality behavior.Conclusion: Maternal education also influences a mother’s behavior in her usage of available health services to improve the health of the children. Further in-depth analysis is immensely needed in this situation.

  5. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (? 4400 ?g DM1/m2) and 30 mg/kg (? 6000 ?g DM1/m2) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 ?g DM1/m2). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic activity. • When conjugated in T-DM1, higher doses of DM1 can be tolerated. • Antibody-drug conjugates may improve the therapeutic window for cytotoxic agents

  6. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, Kirsten Achilles, E-mail: achilles.kirsten@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Tibbitts, Jay [UCB, Brussels (Belgium); Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (? 4400 ?g DM1/m{sup 2}) and 30 mg/kg (? 6000 ?g DM1/m{sup 2}) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 ?g DM1/m{sup 2}). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic activity. • When conjugated in T-DM1, higher doses of DM1 can be tolerated. • Antibody-drug conjugates may improve the therapeutic window for cytotoxic agents.

  7. Lifecourse Migration of Metropolitan Whites and Blacks and the Structure of Demographic Change in Large Central Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Adopting the demographer's cohort-component projection model, this study examines migration patterns for six cities. The results show that White and Black lifecourse migration patterns have become more alike in the post-1970 period; yet, significant racial disparities still exist. Thus, recent migration patterns do not imply eventual metropolitan…

  8. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32?C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.  References: Huang MC, Huang CC, Thomas K. Febrile convulsions: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure parental knowledge, attitudes, concerns and practices. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Jan;105(1:38-48. Vaswani RK, Dharaskar PG, Kulkarni S, Ghosh K. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for first febrile seizure. Indian Pediatr. 2010 May;47(5:437-9.Sadleir LG, Scheffer IE. Febrile seizures. BMJ. 2007 Feb;334(7588:307-11.Mohebbi MR, Holden KR, Butler IJ. FIRST: a practical approach to the causes and management of febrile seizures. J Child Neurol. 2008 Dec;23(12:1484-9.Salehi Omran M, Khalilian E, Mehdipour E et al. Febrile seizures in North Iranian children: Epidemiology and clinical feature. J Pediatr Neurol. 2008;6(1:39-42.Bidabadi E, Mashouf M. Association between iron deficiency anemia and first febrile convulsion. A case-control study. Seizure. 2009 Jun;18(5:347-51.Vahidnia F, Eskenazi B, Jewell N. Maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, and febrile convulsion. Seizure. 2008 Jun;17(4:320-6.Ashrafzade F, Hashemzadeh A, Malek A. Acute otitis Media in Children with Febrile Convulsion. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;16(35:33-9.Millichap JJ, Gordon Millichap J. Methods of investigation and management of infections causing febrile seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Dec;39(6:381-6.Hosseini Nasab A, Dai pariz M, Alidousti K. Demographic characteristics and predisposing factors of febrile seizures in children admitted to Hospital No. 1 of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. J Med Counc Islam Repub Iran. 2006;24(2:107-12.Keller A, Saucier D, Sheerin A, Yager J. Febrile convulsions affect ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat pup. Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Oct;5(5:649-54.Ogihara M, Shirakawa S, Miyajima T, Takekuma K, Hoshika A. Diurnal variation in febrile convulsions. Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Jun;42(6:409-12.Fallah R, Akhavan S, Mir Sadat Nasseri F. Clinical and demographic characteristics of first febrile seizure in children. J Shaeed Sdoughi Uni Med Sci Yazd. 2009;16(5:61-5.Khodapanahande F, VahidHarandi N, Esmaeli F. Evaluation of seasonal variation and circadian rhythm of febrile seizures in children admitted to the  pediatric ward of Rasoul-e-Akram hospital. Razi J Med Sci. 2008;15(59:59-66.

  9. THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The demographic decline can create major dysfunctionalities not only on a social level but also from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. First, an accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, second, the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economic increase. The social-economic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All these impose a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  10. Examples of the evolution of materials for nuclear applications: metallurgical improvement of 16MND5 steel and new technologies for manufacturing heavy components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creusot-Loire Industrie has been constantly improving and adjusting the quality of its products (heavy forgings, castings or plates) based on knowledge of their in-service behaviour. The development of steel manufacturing techniques has been oriented to increasing the quality of steel, in particular by reducing drastically the impurity content (S,P), by better control of the basic range of chemical composition, and by decreasing the gas content (N,H,O). Changes in ingot shapes have been made to optimize the quality of the steel with respect to segregation (development of hollow and LSD ingots to reduce the effect of irradiation embrittlement at the inner surface and sub-surface area). The effects of these developments on the toughness of nuclear materials are illustrated by two examples: 16MND5 steel used for pressurized water reactors; ASTM A350LF5 steel used for cask bodies for the transport of irradiated fuel elements. Modifications in hot working (mainly forging) procedures have enabled the development of products with shape adapted to easier construction and/or best quality and/or reduction in the number of welds, thus decreasing the construction and in-service inspection costs. New forging products to be used in nuclear pressurized water reactor power plants are presented. ((orig.))

  11. Índices de seleção no aprimoramento simultâneo dos componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro / Selection index for simultaneously improving fruit production components of assai palm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Davi Henrique Lima, Teixeira; Maria do Socorro Padilha de, Oliveira; Flávia Maria Avelar, Gonçalves; José Airton Rodrigues, Nunes.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a estratégia seletiva mais adequada para o incremento simultâneo de componentes da produção de frutos em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea). Implantou-se um experimento com 25 progênies de meio-irmãos, no Município de Santa Izabel, PA, tendo-se utilizado o delineam [...] ento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e parcela de cinco plantas. Os índices de seleção de Smith & Hazel, Williams, e Mulamba & Mock foram aplicados em três estratégias seletivas. Foram utilizados, como pesos econômicos, os coeficientes de variação genéticos, a herdabilidade, a razão entre a correlação genética do caráter selecionado com a produção de frutos, e a somatória de todos os caracteres que compõem o índice e a produção de frutos. Aponderação pela razão das correlações permitiu que os índices de seleção discriminassem as melhores progênies nas diferentes estratégias de seleção avaliadas. A seleção simultânea por meio do índice de Mulamba & Mock, quanto ao número de meses em frutificação, ao número de cachos colhidos, à produção de frutos e ao número de ráquilas no cacho, estima ganhos de forma mais robusta. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the most appropriate strategy to simultaneously increase fruit production components of assai palm (Euterpe oleracea). An experiment with 25 half-sib progenies was carried out in the county of Santa Isabel, PA, Brazil, using a randomized complete block des [...] ign with four replicates and five plants per plot. The Smith & Hazel, Williams, and Mulamba & Mock's selection indexes were applied in three selective strategies. The coefficients of genetic variation, heritability, the ratio between the genetic correlation of the trait under selection and fruit yield, and the sum of all genetic correlations between the traits that comprise the index and fruit yield were used as economic weights. Weighting of the correlation ratio allowed the selection indexes to discriminate the best progenies in the different selection strategies evaluated. Simultaneous selection by the Mulamba & Mock index, as to the number of fruiting months, number of bunches harvested, fruit yield, and number of rachilles per bunch, robustly estimates genetic gains.

  12. High temperature component design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature component design requires the consideration of constructive aspects prior to design and dimensioning work. In the high temperature range of more than 8000C special importance is attached to the failure modes ''creep fatigue'', ''ratcheting'' and ''creep buckling''. Comprehensive examinations of existing design rules considering these failure modes with regard to possible applicability for HTR-conditions have been completed. Corresponding calculations have pointed out that there is a promising potential for safe component design even for extreme temperature load conditions. These results have additionally confirmed that available elastic methods often cannot be used and would lead to very conservative approximations. Thus the improvement of simplified verification methods as well as the improvement of relevant constitutive equations is required in view of further development work in the field of high temperature component design. (orig.)

  13. Propuesta para el perfeccionamiento del componente investigativo de la carrera de Estomatología Improvement of the Researching Component in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Albertí Vázquez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye el resultado de la fase final de una investigación, dirigida a elaborar una propuesta basada en acciones que contribuyan a perfeccionar el diseño de la carrera en cuanto a la actividad investigativa a partir del perfeccionamiento de los programas de las asignaturas que tienen posibilidades de dar tratamiento a la actividad científica investigativa y de la capacitación de los profesores, de manera que el egresado pueda dar respuestas a los problemas de salud de Estomatología a través de la investigación científica. Se diseñó una propuesta basadas en tres acciones, donde la 1ra y 2da acción están dirigidas a explicitar y precisar al nivel de objetivos y contenidos lo referido a la actividad investigativa y la 3ra acción dirigida a la capacitación de los profesoresThe present work constitutes the result of the final phase of an investigation, directed to elaborate a proposal based on actions that contribute to perfect the design of the career as for the investigative activity starting from the improvement of the programs of those subjects with possibilities to give treatment to the investigative activity and that contribute to the training of professors, so that the graduate can cope effectively with health problems through scientific investigation. A proposal was designed based on three actions. The 1ra and 2da action are directed to specify investigative activity to the level of objectives and contents. The 3ra action is directed to the training of professors

  14. Experience and further improvement of ISI on steam generator tubing and RPVs with equipment and software developed by Siemens, applicable to all types of LWR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experience with mechanized in-service inspections of light water reactors in Germany, along with that with in-service inspections abroad following different code requirements, has been encompassing the past 16 years. New experience and results were obtained recently by the implementation of advanced inspection systems for LWR pressure vessel and primary circuits. The system comprises a streamlined manipulating concept, e.g. for RPV inspection, such as the central mast manipulator, which proves to be easily adaptable to different RPV types and geometries along with that with the WWER type. The so-called ALOK technique has also been put into practice providing complete A-scan information and allowing sensitive detection of defects and clear discrimination of background noise. Other problem areas are associated with complex geometries such as those of the nozzles or with materials which do not lend themselves easily to a standard inspection such as trimetal welds. The solution to these problems is offered by the phased array technique with UT tomography as the signal processing technique. Another significant area of PWR-ISI is the inspection of SG tubing. An automated defect detection system has been developed and field-proven for further reliability and performance improvement or optimization. This system is based on a specifically developed multifrequency mixing method which has demonstrated high capacity for signal to noise ratio enhancement (e.g., by suppression of tube sheet and roller expansion signals) as well as for close-margin determination of tube wall degradation. The automated system also helps to eliminate the influence of the human factor in the tedious scanning through all the tube data available. The modular design of the channel head manipulator also allows for tube repair and UT inspection of welds. (author). 20 figs

  15. Variance Components

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R; McCulloch, Charles E

    1992-01-01

    WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES. The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. ". . .Variance Components is an excellent book. It is organized and well written, and provides many references to a variety of topics. I recommend it to anyone with interest in linear models.".

  16. HTR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 describes in detail the situation of the R+D Programs in the domain of heat conducting Components within the PNP-Project, materials development and testing devices (PNP, KVK=Komponenten-Versuch-Kreislauf, EVA II and vibration simulator SAMSON) and fabrication conditions. Planning requirements and development aims of the He/He-intermediate heatexchanger are discussed in the view of stress analysis, fabrication and quality assurance. The heat exchanger with helical configuration is discussed concerning Thermohydraulics, vibration analysis and the development of a novel high temperature insulating material for the PNP-Project. (GL)

  17. Science Achievement, Class Size, and Demographics: The Debate Continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Whitehead, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between school system financial and demographic data and student achievement in the science section of the 1998 Tennessee statewide Terra Nova tests. Results indicate that while many schools had science scale score achievement higher than expected based on system demographics, others should examine a variety of…

  18. China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

  19. Families in Demographic Perspective: Implications for Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on demographic changes in families and implications for counseling couples and families. Contends that several important demographic changes in families have major impacts on kinds of clients that present for counseling and therapy. Looks at children born to unmarried women, separation and divorce, single-parent families, and remarriage…

  20. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  1. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  2. A dynamic multilevel model of demographic diversity and misfit effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Joshua M; Schmitt, Neal

    2005-03-01

    In this study, the authors proposed and evaluated the linkages of a dynamic multilevel model of demographic diversity and misfit effects in a large sample of quick-service restaurants. Using a cross-level approach, the authors studied an employee's demographic misfit in relation to coworkers' demographics as a predictor of turnover risk over time. At the business-unit level, they studied changes in restaurant demographic diversity in relation to changes in profitability over time and unit turnover rates in relation to profitability. The authors also studied the impact of the match between the racial compositions of the restaurants and their communities on profitability. The results supported linkages between demographic misfit and turnover and partially supported a negative association between racial diversity and changes in profitability. PMID:15769233

  3. Modern-Day Demographic Processes in Central Europe and Their Potential Interactions with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba?ski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of contemporary transformations in the population of Central European countries on climate change, in addition to singling out the primary points of interaction between demographic processes and the climate. In analyzing the interactions between climate and demographics, we can formulate three basic hypotheses regarding the region in question: 1) as a result of current demographic trends in Central Europe, the influence of the region on its climate will probably diminish, 2) the importance of the "climatically displaced" in global migratory movements will increase, and some of those concerned will move to Central Europe, 3) the contribution of the region to global food security will increase. In the last decade most of what comprises the region of Central Europe has reported a decline in population growth and a negative migration balance. As a process, this loss of population may have a positive effect on the environment and the climate. We can expect ongoing climate change to intensify migration processes, particularly from countries outside Europe. Interactions between climate and demographic processes can also be viewed in the context of food security. The global warming most sources foresee for the coming decades is the process most likely to result in spatial polarization of food production in agriculture. Central Europe will then face the challenge of assuring and improving food security, albeit this time on a global scale.

  4. Estimating components of variance in demographic parameters of Tawny Owls, Strix aluco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis, C. M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival rates of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco were estimated using recapture and recovery data from approximately 20,000 nestling and adult owls ringed between 1980 and 1999 in southern Finland. Survival rates averaged 33% in the first year of life, 64% in the second, and 73% in subsequent years, but varied dramatically among years. Approximately 50% of annual variation in survival could be explained by stage of the vole cycle and severity of winter weather. Capture probabilities, an index of breeding propensity, varied dramatically among years, and could almost entirely be explained by the vole cycle, superimposed on a long-term increase in capture effort. Matrix models based on mean values in each year of the vole cycle, predict that in 2 out of 3 years, the population would decline by 13%-15% per year, offset by a large increase in the 3rd year. Numbers of nesting pairs are predicted to be low in one of three years, with no long-term trend, consistent with observed estimates of active nests.

  5. How Do The Demographic Components Influence Job Satisfaction In The Hospitality Industry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya KARA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, job satisfaction has been clarified according to different features of employees who work at accommodation establishments by emphasizing conceptual perspective about job satisfaction. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire which evaluates job satisfaction regarding 20 dimensions has been used as a mean of data collection. Application field of the research consists of 397 employees who work at 5 star hotel establishments in Ankara. The data were solved using percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation, t-test, Anova and Tukey analysis. As a result of this research; it has been seen that, there is no statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees work at hotel establishments considering their gender and marital status. Besides, it has been understood that, there is a statistical difference about job satisfaction level of employees considering their ages, education levels, incomes, and length of time in tourism sector.

  6. Demographic characteristics of elite Kenyan endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onywera, Vincent O; Scott, Robert A; Boit, Michael K; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2006-04-01

    Kenyan athletes have dominated international distance running in recent years. Explanations for their success include favourable physiological characteristics, which could include favourable genetic endowment, and advantageous environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the demographic characteristics of elite Kenyan runners with those of the general Kenyan population. Questionnaires, administered to 404 elite Kenyan runners specializing in distances ranging from the 800 m to the marathon and 87 Kenyan controls, obtained information on place of birth, language, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were separated into two groups according to athletic success: those who competed in international competition and those who competed in national competition. The athletes differed from controls in regional distribution, language, and distance and method of travel to school; athletes also differed from each other with the exception of method of travel to school. Most national and international athletes came from the Rift Valley province (controls 20%, national athletes 65%, international athletes 81%), belonged to the Kalenjin ethnic group (controls 8%, national athletes 49%, international athletes 76%) and Nandi sub-tribe (controls 5%, national athletes 25%, international athletes 44%), and spoke languages of Nilotic origin (controls 21%, national athletes 60%, international athletes 79%). A higher proportion of all athletes ran to school each day (controls 22%, national athletes 73%, international athletes 81%) and covered greater distances. In conclusion, Kenyan runners are from a distinctive environmental background in terms of geographical distribution, ethnicity and travelled further to school, mostly by running. These findings highlight the importance of environmental and social factors in the success of Kenyan runners. PMID:16492605

  7. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES OF SEPTIC ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Septic abortion is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. Termination of pregnancy, although a safe and easy procedure in trained hands, can produce catastrophic outcomes when performed by unauthorized or untrained people and in improper settings. OBJECTIVE: To find out the association of various socio-demographic factors with septic abortion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a longitudinal study, conducted in the indoor of obstetrics & gynaecology department of R.M.C.H & R.C, Ghaziabad district of Uttar Pradesh from the period of Feb-2013 to April-2013, after selecting 100 septic abortion cases by simple randomization, who were admitted during the study period. Information of all these cases regarding their age, marital status, socio-economic status, literacy, parity and gestational age was obtained, and their association with septic abortion was studied accordingly. OBSERVATION: Out of the 100 cases of septic abortion studied, maximum percentage (66% of the cases was seen from the age group of 26 to 35 years. Most of the cases (97% were married, maximum (40% were belonging from low socio-economic status group (Group-IV, maximum (60% number of cases were illiterate, maximum (53% number of cases belonged to women group having parity five and above, and maximum (86% number of women were in the 1st trimester of pregnancy at the time of abortion. CONCLUSION: Present study confirms that unsafe abortion is one of the greatest neglected healthcare problems in India and more so in rural India. So, there is the need to strengthen quality abortion services to reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality due to septic abortion

  8. The declines in infant mortality and fertility: Evidence from British cities in demographic transition

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Andrew T.; Gazeley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century Britain was roughly halfway through a 60-year demographic transition with declining infant mortality and birth rates. Cities exhibited great and strongly correlated diversity in these rates. We demonstrate cross-section correlations with, for instance, women's employment, population density, literacy and improved water supply and sanitation, that have been linked to the transition. When we analyse data from the late 1850s and the early 1900s, the chan...

  9. The Impact of Job Satisfaction and Some Demographic Variables on Employee Turnover Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Trust Kabungaidze; Nomakholwa Mahlatshana; Hlanganipai Ngirande

    2013-01-01

    Due to competition for scarce skills, the attraction and retention of teachers in rural schools is probably the biggest challenge in the education sector today. It is imperative for the education department to have knowledge of the impact of job satisfaction and some demographic variables on employee turnover intentions to improve the attraction and retention of teachers especially those with scarce skills. Self administered questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 300 teachers. A strat...

  10. Demographic costs of inbreeding revealed by sex-specific genetic rescue effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zajitschek Felix; Zajitschek Susanne RK; Brooks Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Inbreeding can slow population growth and elevate extinction risk. A small number of unrelated immigrants to an inbred population can substantially reduce inbreeding and improve fitness, but little attention has been paid to the sex-specific effects of immigrants on such "genetic rescue". We conducted two subsequent experiments to investigate demographic consequences of inbreeding and genetic rescue in guppies. Results Populations established from pairs of full siblings th...

  11. An eco-evolutionary model for demographic and phenological responses in migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Niclas Jonzén; Isabel M. Smallegange; Jacob Johansson

    2012-01-01

    Many migratory birds have changed their timing of arrival at breeding grounds in response to recent climate change. Understanding the adaptive value and the demographic consequences of these shifts are key challenges. To address these questions we extend previous models of phenological adaptation to climate change under territory competition to include feedback from population dynamics, winter survival and habitat productivity. We study effects of improved pre-breeding survival and of earlier...

  12. The Effects of the Demographic Transition on Economic Growth : Implications for Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sundman, Marie-Lor

    2011-01-01

    Demographic transition implies severe challenges for high income nations, for instance Japan, as the population decreases due to declines in birth rates as well as the higher rate of elderly population. More women are entering the labor market which affects birth rates. In addition, technological progress has improved health care and standard of living, bringing up life expectancies. However, the elderly population is increasing, elevating the dependency ratio which dampens the economic growt...

  13. A socio-demographic study of aging in the Portuguese population: the EPEPP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Pinto, Anabela; Rodrigues, Vítor; Botelho, Amália; Veríssimo, Manuel Teixeira; Morais, António; Alves, Catarina; Rosa, Manuel Santos; de Oliveira, Catarina Resende

    2011-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy (LE) observed in Western societies, has resulted in a steep rise of older population. This stresses the importance of the research on aging, to better adequate health and social care organization and improve the quality of life (QoL). The aim of the EPEPP-1 (abbreviated from the Portuguese name: Estudo do Perfil de Envelhecimento da População Portuguesa) study was to characterize the socio-demographic components of the elderly Portuguese population in order to disclose factors that could play a role in the aging process and in the elderly QoL. This observational descriptive study, was performed in 2672 individuals older than 54 years taking into account gender and the residence area (rural vs. urban). A questionnaire about social network (marital status, living alone, the hours spent alone, confidents), and social status (education, occupation) was applied. Social network score revealed significant age and gender trends, women and older people performing worst, but with no difference according to residence area. Almost a third was unmarried and spent eight or more hours per day alone, and a fifth lived alone. Social status revealed that being older female and resident in a rural area quoted worst in the prevalence of illiteracy and undifferentiated occupation. The authors concluded that social isolation, illiteracy and undifferentiated occupation are prevalent in Portuguese older population. Identification of further determinants of isolation, adjustment of procedures to be included in social networks and development of actions directed to education are important fields of intervention influencing the elderly QoL. PMID:20510469

  14. Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Carmichael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis. Objective: Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii unfolded as a component of it. Methods: Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk. Results: Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred. Conclusions: Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

  15. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library. PMID:25747869

  16. Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

  17. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Mar?i?

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

  18. The verification of virtual community members socio-demographic profile

    CERN Document Server

    Fedushko, Solomia; Peleschyshyn, Andriy; Syerov, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the current problem of investigation and development of the method of web-members' socio-demographic characteristics' profile validation based on analysis of socio-demographic characteristics. The topicality of the paper is determined by the necessity to identify the web-community member by means of computer-linguistic analysis of their information track (all information about web-community members, which posted on the Internet). The formal model of basic socio-demographic characteristics of virtual communities' member is formed. The algorithm of these characteristics verification is developed.

  19. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  20. Closing the Energy Efficiency Gap: A study linking demographics with barriers to adopting energy efficiency measures in the home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study which linked demographic variables with barriers affecting the adoption of domestic energy efficiency measures in large UK cities. The aim was to better understand the ‘Energy Efficiency Gap’ and improve the effectiveness of future energy efficiency initiatives. The data for this study was collected from 198 general population interviews (1.5–10 min) carried out across multiple locations in Manchester and Cardiff. The demographic variables were statistically linked to the identified barriers using a modified chi-square test of association (first order Rao–Scott corrected to compensate for multiple response data), and the effect size was estimated with an odds-ratio test. The results revealed that strong associations exist between demographics and barriers, specifically for the following variables: sex; marital status; education level; type of dwelling; number of occupants in household; residence (rent/own); and location (Manchester/Cardiff). The results and recommendations were aimed at city policy makers, local councils, and members of the construction/retrofit industry who are all working to improve the energy efficiency of the domestic built environment. -- Highlights: ? 7 demographic variables linked to 8 barriers to adopting energy efficiency measures. ? A modified chi-square test for association was used (first order Rao–Scott corrected). ? Results revealed strong associations between most of the demographics and barriers. ? Data was collected from 198 interviews in the UK cities of Manchester and Cardiff. ? Specific recommendations are presented for regional policy makers and industry.

  1. Levels and trends of demographic indices in southern rural Mozambique: evidence from demographic surveillance in Manhiça district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Ricardo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mozambique most of demographic data are obtained using census or sample survey including indirect estimations. A method of collecting longitudinal demographic data was introduced in southern Mozambique since 1996 (DSS -Demographic Surveillance System in Manhiça district, Maputo province, but the extent to which it yields demographic measures that are typical of southern rural Mozambique has not been evaluated yet. Methods Data from the DSS were used to estimate the levels and trends of fertility, mortality and migration in Manhiça, between 1998 and 2005. The estimates from Manhiça were compared with estimates from Maputo province using the 1997 National census and 1997 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. The DHS data were used to estimate levels and trends of adult mortality using the siblings' histories and the orphanhood methods. Results The populations in Manhiça and in Maputo province are young (44% Conclusion The population under demographic surveillance in Manhiça district presents characteristics that are typical of southern rural Mozambique, with predominance of young people and reduction of adult males. Labour migration and excess adult male mortality are the major factors for the reduction of adult males. Mortality is high and only infant mortality has started to stabilise while adult mortality has increased, and as consequence, life expectancy has decreased. The Manhiça DSS is an adequate tool to report demographic measures for southern rural Mozambique.

  2. Demographic profile of the girl child in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unisa, S

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a statistical profile of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of female children in India during 1951-91. The population 0-14 years old increased during 1951-81. In 1991, there were 52-55 million children 0-4 years old. 40% of all women were 0-14 years old, 19% of the total population in 1991. Boys outnumbered girls at all childhood ages. Males gained more in mortality improvements than girls did over time. The decline in the 1991 sex ratio is attributed to female amniocentesis and differences in undercounts. Infant mortality was high and fluctuated prior to 1941. Rates thereafter declined below 200. Infant mortality improved considerably after the 1950s. The 1988 infant mortality rate (IMR) was 95 for males and 93 for females per 1000 live births. A higher female IMR during 1972-87 is attributed to low female status, sex bias in health care, and higher female rates of common childhood diseases. Boys are breast fed longer. Child marriage below the age of 14 years declined over time. In 1981, 93% of girls 0-14 years old were unmarried. The singulate mean age of marriage increased from 15.59 years in 1951 to 18.32 years in 1981. Literacy rates increased for both males and females during 1961-81 and increased rapidly during 1981-91. The gap between male educational levels and female educational levels was narrowing. School attendance was 62.07% among 10-14 year old boys and 37.47% among 10-14 year old girls. Kerala state was the only state where girls have very high attendance rates. School attendance among 10-14 year old children was positively correlated with higher budget allocations and the average cost per student. School attendance was negatively correlated with illiteracy among household members. In rural areas, girl's attendance was related to access to primary school facilities and roads. PMID:12158014

  3. Relationship between students’ motivation and their socio-demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Cigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on the relationship between indicators of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in students attending higher education institutions, and their socio-demographic characteristics: the type of upper secondary education completed, secondary education grade point average, year of study, gender, and parents’ education.  The research was conducted in March 2012, through a survey questionnaire administered to a sample of 604 respondents. The questionnaire examined, among other things, students’ motivation for learning, self-assessment of motivation for learning English and further professional development, and self-assessment of overall satisfaction with the study programme.  According to the self-determination theory developed by Deci and Ryan (2000, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are essential for undertaking any activity, including learning. As a social agent, each individual interacts with different social groups in an action-oriented set of circumstances, and develops his/her personality (CEFR. Social contexts that catalyse intrapersonal and interpersonal differences also have a significant influence on motivation. Gardner’s theory of motivation emphasizes the importance of social components and the extrinsic nature of instrumental and integrative ­orientation. Instrumental-integrative dichotomy was further developed by Dörnyei (1994: 279, who introduced a motivational framework consisting of three levels: the language level, the learner level and the learning situation level. Survey results show that the respondents are generally highly-motivated to learn, and that intrinsic motivation is predominant. Statistically significant differences were found between gender, secondary education grade point average, and year of study and the type and intensity of motivation, whereas the type of upper secondary education completed, and parents’ education, were not found to be statistically significantly correlated with the examined concepts.

  4. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and...

  11. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole R.; Poole, Daniel J.; Herbers, Joan M.

    2015-01-01

    The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia. PMID:26488899

  12. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, T.R.; T. Pennington, S. Magallon, W.F. Laurance, E. Aerts, E. Alvarez, A. Alves de Oliveira, I. Amaral, L. Arroyo, D. Bonal, R. Brienen, J. Chave, E. Eler, T. Feldpausch, L. Ferreira, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, N. Higuchi, E. Honorio, I. Huamantupa, S. Laurance, B. Marimon, B.H. Marimon Junior, A. Monteagudo, D. Neill, M.-C. Pe\\xf1uela Mora, N. Pitman, A. Prieto, C.A. Quesada, F. Ramirez, H. Ram\\xedrez Angulo, O. L. Phillips et al.; Baker; T.R.; T. Pennington; S. Magallon; Laurance, W.F.; E. Aerts; Alvarez, E.; A. Alves de Oliveira; I. Amaral; Arroyo, L.; Bonal, D.; Brienen, R.; Chave, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits – short turnover times – are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rat...

  13. Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using more robust estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national level. We also take into account the urbanization rate and the average household size neglec...

  14. Demographic Change and Pharmaceuticals' Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ammann; Rachel Berchtold; Ralf Seiz

    2011-01-01

    We analyze how demographic change affected profits and returns across pharmaceutical industries over the last twenty years. Fluctuations in different age group sizes influence the estimated demand changes for age-sensitive drugs, such as antibacterials for young, antidepressants for middle-aged, and antithrombotics for old people. These demand changes are predictable as soon as a specific age group is born. We use consumption and demographic data to forecast future consumption demand growth f...

  15. Demographic dynamics and population issues in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Roberta; Parant, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The Mediterranean Basin is an area of sharply contrasting trends in demographic growth and socio-economic development; the effects of their interactions are becoming increasingly urgent and difficult to manage. Fewer children are being born - whether this is due, as Adolphe Landry would have said, to an individual principle of rationalising life or, as for Frank Notestein and Kingsley Davis, supporters of the demographic transition theory, to the emergence of a modern form of econom...

  16. Demographic Change and Parent-Child Relationships in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Seltzer, Judith A.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Demographic changes in who becomes a parent, how many children parents have, and the marital statuses of parents and children affect the extent to which parents and adult children provide for each other later in life. We describe these demographic changes and their implications for the help parents and children give each other throughout their adult years. The changing demography of US families has increased both generations’ need for family assistance among those already disadvantaged and ha...

  17. Influence of demographic characteristics on employee motivation in catering companies

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Kukanja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose – The purpose of this study is to research motivators that help to attract, retain and motivate employees in the catering industry. Design – The special focus is given to the analysis of specific demographic factors and their influence on employee motivation. Methodology – Using available secondary data, key motivational factors for work in the catering industry are identified. Followed by a qualitative analysis, motivational factors are then compared to specific demographic facto...

  18. The economic and social implications of demographic change

    OpenAIRE

    Fahey, Tony; FitzGerald, John D; Maitre, Bertrand

    1998-01-01

    This Society was founded in the midst of the population crisis caused by the Famine. No crisis on the scale of the Famine occurred again in the Society’s history, but various forms of demographic “weakness”, such as high emigration, low natural increase and falling population totals, recurred frequently both as facts of life in Ireland and as concerns of the Society. At certain points in the present century, concerns about demographic weakness surfaced elsewhere in Europe, particularly in con...

  19. Demographic change and industry-specific innovation patterns in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Henseke, Golo; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2007-01-01

    In Germany, a thread to growth is perceived from demographic change. Demographic change means that a population is aging with the perspective of shrinking. The key question is whether an aging and shrinking population has enough talents to sustain the innovation process that is at the basis of our prosperity. In this paper we deal with the age distributions of inventivity. Specifically, we confirm past conjectures that inventive productivity is age dependent and unequally distributed among in...

  20. Demographic Change and the Labour Share of Income

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Torsten; Vosen, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    Despite similar levels of per capita income, education, and technology the development of labour shares in OECD countries has displayed different patterns since 1960. The paper examines the role of demography in this regard. Employing an overlapping generations model we first examine the mechanisms through which demographic change can affect labour shares. Model simulations show that demographic effects on the labour share are larger in open than in closed economies. Empirical estimates, cond...

  1. Demographic and economic trends in a rural Europe in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Mats; Nilsson, Pia; Weslund, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rural Europe is in a phase of huge transition both from a demographic and economic-structural point of view. This paper is focused on demographic and economic-structural changes in differing rural areas and the connection between these processes. This does not exclude the relations to urban areas as population changes in rural areas cannot be analyzed without taking the urban population development on board in the analyses. This is of course especially important with regard to the migratory m...

  2. Socio-demographic distribution of vestibular schwannomas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanidis, Karen; Kessel, Marie; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are diagnosed less frequently in the remote parts of Denmark, whereas the diagnostic age and tumor size is the same across the different socio-demographic areas of Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether VSs are diagnosed equally often in different socio-demographic areas of Denmark and whether a change has occurred during the period 1976-2012. In addition, differences in diagnostic age and tumor size between areas were explored. METHODS: Since 1976, all...

  3. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse; Vejborg, Ilse; Schwartz, Walter; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women e...

  4. Institutions and demographic responses to shocks: Württemberg, 1634-1870

    OpenAIRE

    Guinnane, Timothy W.; Ogilvie, Sheilagh

    2008-01-01

    Simple Malthusian models remain an important tool for understanding pre-modern demographic systems and their connection to the economy. But most recent literature has lost sight of the institutional context for demographic behavior that lay at the heart of Malthus’s own analysis. This paper estimates a short-run version of a Malthusian model for two Württemberg communities from 1646 to 1870. Württemberg differed institutionally from the northwest European societies analyzed in previous studie...

  5. DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Huma Ali; Hina Ali

    2011-01-01

    Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spiritualit...

  6. Regional and demographic determinants of poverty in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos AZZONI; De Souza, Andre; Nogueira, Veridiana

    2004-01-01

    The paper identifies the role of regional and demographic determinants of poverty in Brazil. We first estimate the probability of a household being classified as poor or indigent. We then apply decomposition techniques to identify the role of demographic variables (family size, parent’s education, etc.) and of regional variables in explaining those probabilities. We found out that parent’s education is the most important determinant, but regional aspects also play a role in determining povert...

  7. Comparing Demographic Characteristics of Male Victims of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Said Pournaghash-Tehrani; Zahra Feizabadi

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of male victims of domestic violence. These demographic characteristics were menxs age, level of education and level of income. To do this, an author-made questionnaire regarding victimization of domestic violence, both, physical and psychological, was administered to 120 randomly chosen men, referred to family courts by their councilors to seek divorce because of experiencing domestic violence. The results showed that age had sig...

  8. The demographic transition and the emergence of sustained economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Galor, Oded

    2004-01-01

    The demographic transition that swept the world in the course of the last century has been identified as one of the prime forces in the transition from stagnation to growth. The unprecedented increase in population growth during the early stages of industrialization was ultimately reversed and the demographic transition brought about a significant reduction in fertility rates and population growth in various regions of the world, enabling economies to convert a larger share of the fruits of f...

  9. The Impact of Demographic and Academic Characteristics on Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nout M. Alhajraf; Aishah M. Alasfour

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students’ demographic and academic characteristics that are associatedwith students’ academic performance during their undergraduate studies. Demographic and academiccharacteristic such as age, gender, nationality, high school major and high school GPA were studied as potentialdeterminants of academic performance. A sample of 700 students from the College of Business Studies at thePublic Authority for Applied Education was examined. Descriptive statisti...

  10. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. PMID:26516882

  11. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (? range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. PMID:26516882

  12. A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdul Nasir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

  13. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dowling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (? range: 0.285 to 0.478 between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  14. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. Improved long-term expression from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors packaged using combinations of mutated HSV-1 proteins that include the UL13 protein kinase and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geller Alfred I

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 gene expression is thought to shut off recombinant gene expression from HSV-1 vectors; however, in a helper virus-free HSV-1 vector system, a number of promoters support only short-term expression. These results raise the paradox that recombinant gene expression remains short-term even in the absence of almost all (~99% of the HSV-1 genome, HSV-1 genes, and HSV-1 gene expression. To resolve this paradox, we hypothesized that specific proteins in the HSV-1 virus particle shut off recombinant gene expression. In two earlier studies, we examined the effects on recombinant gene expression of packaging vectors using specific mutated HSV-1 proteins. We found that vectors packaged using mutated UL13 (a protein kinase, or VP16, or UL46 and/or UL47 (components of the VP16 transcriptional complex supported improved long-term expression, and vectors packaged using mutated UL46 and/or UL47 also supported improved gene transfer (numbers of cells at 4 days. These results suggested the hypothesis that specific proteins in the HSV-1 particle act by multiple pathways to reduce recombinant gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined combinations of mutated proteins that included both UL13 and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex. Results A HSV-1 vector containing a neuronal-specific promoter was packaged using specific combinations of mutated proteins, and the resulting vector stocks were tested in the rat striatum. For supporting long-term expression, the preferred combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins was mutated UL13, UL46, and UL47. Vectors packaged using this combination of mutated proteins supported a higher efficiency of gene transfer and high levels expression for 3 months, the longest time examined. Conclusion Vector particles containing this combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins improve recombinant gene expression. Implications of these results for strategies to further improve long-term expression are discussed. Moreover, long-term expression will benefit specific gene therapy applications.

  16. 75 FR 45173 - Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information on Applicants...Commission (EEOC) form, Demographic Information on Applicants...of data through this form also can be used by...along with other demographic information, as...

  17. The demographics of the ubiquitin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, Michael J; Heride, Claire; Urbé, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquitin system is a major coordinator of cellular physiology through regulation of both protein degradation and signalling pathways. A key building block of a systems-level understanding has been generated by global proteomic studies, which provide copy number estimates for each component. The aggregate of ubiquitin, conjugating enzymes (E1, E2, and E3s), and deubiquitylases (DUBs) represents ?1.3% of total cellular protein. Complementary approaches have generated quantitative measurements of various ubiquitin pools and further subdivision into different ubiquitin chain topologies. Systematic studies aimed at associating specific enzymes (E2s and DUBs) with the dynamics of these different pools have also made significant progress. Here, we delineate the emerging picture of the most significant determinants of the cellular ubiquitin economy. PMID:25906909

  18. Can Population Topics Form the Subject of Educational Action? Le point de vue du demographe (The Demographer's Point of View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Blois, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Contends that population education must address social, religious, and political issues. Early family planning programs have been widened to include migration, life expectancy, and public health, but large sections of the population remain ill-informed on demographic questions. (DMM)

  19. Which transition comes first? Urban and demographic transitions in Belgium and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bocquier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several theories compete to explain the main drivers of urbanisation, past and present, in relation to both demographic transition and economic development. One hypothesis is that rural-to-urban migration is the driver of urbanisation; another is that urban mortality decline actually triggered urban transition. Objective: This paper reconsiders the relationship between demographic (vital migration and urban transitions by analysing the long-term contribution of natural and migratory movements to urban transition. The respective contributions of birth, death, and migration and their timing will indicate whether economic development, through labour force migration, or vital transition mainly determines urban transition. Methods: After examining the spatial dimension of the demographic transition theory, we use 19th and 20th century series on Sweden and Belgium to better identify the migration component of urban transition through the computation of growth difference between urban and rural areas, accounting for the often neglected reclassification effect. Results: In both Sweden and Belgium, migration is the direct or indirect (through reclassification engine of urban transition and its contribution precedes the onset of vital transition, while the vital transition has a secondary, unstable, and negative role in the urban transition. Conclusions: Changes in the economic sphere are reinstated as the underlying cause of population change, acting through the shift of human capital in space. Methodological consequences are then drawn for analysing vital and urban transitions in an increasingly interdependent world. Contribution: The paper contributes to the theoretical literature on urban and demographic transitions in relation to economic development. The proposed method evaluates migration contribution without having to measure it.

  20. Improving the Accuracy of Density Functional Theory (DFT Calculation for Homolysis Bond Dissociation Energies of Y-NO Bond: Generalized Regression Neural Network Based on Grey Relational Analysis and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Min Su

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized regression neural network (GRNN approach based on grey relational analysis (GRA and principal component analysis (PCA (GP-GRNN to improve the accuracy of density functional theory (DFT calculation for homolysis bond dissociation energies (BDE of Y-NO bond. As a demonstration, this combined quantum chemistry calculation with the GP-GRNN approach has been applied to evaluate the homolysis BDE of 92 Y-NO organic molecules. The results show that the full-descriptor GRNN without GRA and PCA (F-GRNN and with GRA (G-GRNN approaches reduce the root-mean-square (RMS of the calculated homolysis BDE of 92 organic molecules from 5.31 to 0.49 and 0.39 kcal mol?1 for the B3LYP/6-31G (d calculation. Then the newly developed GP-GRNN approach further reduces the RMS to 0.31 kcal mol?1. Thus, the GP-GRNN correction on top of B3LYP/6-31G (d can improve the accuracy of calculating the homolysis BDE in quantum chemistry and can predict homolysis BDE which cannot be obtained experimentally.

  1. Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of environmental problems abound in Tanzania. The problems range from declining land resources, de-vegetation, urban and air pollution, degradation of the marine environment to the destruction of biological diversity. A thorough analysis of these manifestations of environments decline reveal the presence of linkages to economic, political, cultural and demographic constraints which have been at the crux of Tanzania's efforts towards emancipation. We attested that societies are always dialect and integral parts of the global entity. As such the analysis of any societal problem can not be sufficiently tackled by basing on a 'micro level' societal specific factors. We need to expand our horizon and include 'macro level' elements which impinges on the society under study. Imperatively, influences on any environment, social or biophysical, whether positive or negative, emanates either or both from within the specific society and or from without. In our study we set out to provide an insight into the nature and character of man and environment interaction in Arumeru district, Northern Tanzania. We intended to investigate the extent to which changes in the household production patterns as a result of environmental stress and the consequent resource management strategies influence and are hitherto influenced by population growth. The aspects of demographic changes especially patterns of growth and settlement, agrarian production such as land tenure, food and cash crop interventions, non-farm activities and management of the commons were studies. Further, local adaptation to crisis including environmental stress and emerging markets were explored. he theoretical model adopted in analysing the man-land environment relationship in Arumeru district and the ensuing findings, give legitimacy to the position that issues of population growth or decline cannot be separated from questions of economic and social development, or from the environmental concerns related to the management of resources both at global and local levels. We found out empirically that despite the dwindling natural resource base, the people in Arumeru still maintain their demographic dynamism. For them, it is a rational thing to do. The explanation for this phenomenon is not discrete, but spans the whole range of the population-resource continuum. From the demographic transition point of view, the society has not reached the threshold where child labour is valueless. In Arumeru, the children are still valued for their labour as they participate in both agro-pastoral related income generating activities. Further, children are still old age insurers. Thus, the age long traditions which favour the persistence of high fertility regimes are still in force. Having children is still a pleasure which costs nothing and hence the family size is rarely determined by the household's income. The interplay of proximate determinants of fertility is found to have an effect on the population increase in the district. People enter into marriage unions at very young ages, while the breastfeeding duration has drastically decreased in recent years. Furthermore, postpartum abstinence is no longer observed and incidences of pathological infertility have been tremendously reduced, thanks to modern medicine. All these factors support high fertility regimes. The argument that rapid population growth always leads to environmental decline and thus forces rural economies into diminishing returns, over-utilisation of resource and pauperisation is rejected. Despite the population increase and dwindling resource base in Arumeru, food security, rural incomes and standard of living have consistently improved throughout the century. The situation in the study area somehow accommodate the Boserupian model, where population growth triggers agricultural intensification, but in this case, the forces which triggers change did not emanate from within, but were externally generated. Institutional arrangements and the markets played a significant role in the intensification of the farming practices. As such, we propose a new paradigm in the analysis of the biophysical environment in relation to population dynamics. We suggest a broad and contextual approach which focuses on conditions of change. The issue of markets and consequent political and institutional requirements need to be thoroughly examined, so as to ascertain how successfully they can effect household adaptations to resource scarcity. (author)

  2. Bayesian spatial analysis of demographic survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the spatial patterns of the risk of unprotected sexual intercourse for Italian women during their initial experience with sexual intercourse. We rely on geo-referenced survey data from the Italian Fertility and Family Survey, and we use a Bayesian approach relying on weakly informative prior distributions. Our analyses are based on a logistic regression model with a multilevel structure. The spatial pattern uses an intrinsic Gaussian conditional autoregressive (CAR error component. The complexity of such a model is best handled within a Bayesian framework, and statistical inference is carried out using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. In contrast with previous analyses based on multilevel model, our approach avoids the restrictive assumption of independence between area effects. This model allows us to borrow strength from neighbors in order to obtain estimates for areas that may, on their own, have inadequate sample sizes. We show that substantial geographical variation exists within Italy (Southern Italy has higher risks of unprotected first-time sexual intercourse. The findings are robust with respect to the specification of the prior distribution. We argue that spatial analysis can give useful insights on unmet reproductive health needs.

  3. Demographic Changes: The Impact for Safe Blood Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinacher, Andreas; Fendrich, Konstanze; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Summary The population structure in most European countries is currently changing, with a shift from younger to older age groups. Only sparse data exist on the impact of these demographic changes on future blood demand and supply. Data on blood recipients are sparse and unconnected to data on blood donors. The first part of this review summarizes studies on the effect of the demographic change on blood supply and demand. With respect to studies in North America and Europe on the impact of demographic changes on future blood supply, the demographic trends will affect many regions in the Western world similarly. These effects are most pronounced in the new member states of the European Union where birth rates declined abruptly after 1989. Coordinated efforts will be required to prevent blood shortages based upon these demographic trends in Western societies. The second part of this review is an overview of methodological approaches to obtain data on the sociodemographic background of the blood donor population. PMID:20737017

  4. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  5. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Galeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  6. [Demographic transition or revolution? The weaknesses and implications of the theory of the demographic transition. Part 2: the consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1998-01-01

    In 1929, Warren S. Thompson published a three-part classification of world populations according to their fertility levels and growth rates that explained the progressive passage from one group to another in terms of economic and social factors. American demographers, preoccupied by the Great Depression, paid insufficient attention to this early formulation of demographic transition theory. During 1928-31, Robert Kuckzinsky systematically analyzed the historical evolution of mortality and fertility in Europe and introduced the term "transition" in reference to eastern Europe. In 1944-45, Frank Notestein and Kingsley Davis presented the theory of demographic transition in the form that came to be nearly universally accepted. All societies, it was believed, would pass through the three stages, from a preindustrial to a postindustrial demographic equilibrium. Mortality was presented as a dependent variable under economic control, while fertility was a dependent variable under social control. Demographic transition theory would provide the conceptual framework for UN demographic projections and the justification for family planning programs for the massive agricultural populations of Asia. As the theory developed, the relationship between development and demographic transition was inverted; it was argued that rapid growth constituted an insurmountable obstacle to industrialization or any kind of modernization. Fertility had to be reduced in poor countries by any means possible to permit their economic advancement. Family planning programs in developing countries were supported, and major resources were devoted to KAP studies and the World Fertility Survey. The struggle to control fertility became the most urgent objective. It was not until the 1974 UN World Population Conference in Bucharest that the American delegation abandoned the extremist position of the preceding decade and acknowledged that population policies are not substitutes for development policies. PMID:12321852

  7. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  8. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Gloster Marleny

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs. Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications, psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%, middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years, high school educated (62.4%, low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income, and received Medicaid (35.9% or Medicare (12.6%. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. One-quarter (25.6% of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7% reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7% reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ≥ 2. Diabetes mellitus was common (35.8%, and moderate/severe depression was present in 16% of participants. Participants were sedentary (835.3 ± 1,644.2 Kcal burned per week, obese (59.7%, and had poor global physical health, poor eating habits, high health literacy, and good overall mental health. Conclusions A majority of patients in the CAATCH trial exhibited adverse lifestyle behaviors, and had significant medical and psychosocial barriers to adequate BP control. Trial outcomes will shed light on the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for BP control when implemented in real-world medical settings that serve high numbers of low-income hypertensive African-Americans with multiple co-morbidity and significant barriers to behavior change.

  9. Examining the spatially non-stationary associations between the second demographic transition and infant mortality: A Poisson GWR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Shoff, Carla; MATTHEWS, STEPHEN A.

    2013-01-01

    Based on ecological studies, second demographic transition (SDT) theorists concluded that some areas in the US were in vanguard of the SDT compared to others, implying spatial nonstationarity may be inherent in the SDT process. Linking the SDT to the infant mortality literature, we sought out to answer two related questions: Are the main components of the SDT, specifically marriage postponement, cohabitation, and divorce, associated with infant mortality? If yes, do these associations vary ac...

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

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    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  11. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

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    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  12. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

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    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  13. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

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    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  14. Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  15. Memory-endowed US cities and their demographic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, A; Hernando, R; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in a European country (Spain), indicating more coherent evolution in US cities. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (such as the American Civil War) or economic crisis (such as the 1929 Stock Market Crash). PMID:25551139

  16. Socio-demographic distribution of vestibular schwannomas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanidis, Karen; Kessel, Marie

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) are diagnosed less frequently in the remote parts of Denmark, whereas the diagnostic age and tumor size is the same across the different socio-demographic areas of Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether VSs are diagnosed equally often in different socio-demographic areas of Denmark and whether a change has occurred during the period 1976-2012. In addition, differences in diagnostic age and tumor size between areas were explored. METHODS: Since 1976, all patients diagnosed with a VS in Denmark have been registered in a national database, in which information on, for example, the size of the tumor and the age and address of the patient has been registered. Up to 2012, 2739 patients were diagnosed with a VS. Patient distribution according to area of habitat was determined by subgrouping into urban, suburban, rural, and remote municipalities, using the definitions of socio-demographic areas elaborated by Demarks Statistic. RESULTS: The mean national incidence increased almost linearly over the time period from 6.1 per million per year in the first period from 1976 to 1984, to 22.1 per million per year in the last period from 2003 to 2012. There was a lower incidence at the end of the period in the remote areas compared with the other socio-demographic areas (1976-1984, p = 0.05 and 2003-2011, p = 0.001). The mean age at diagnosis increased during the period, from 52.6 years in the first period to 58.6 years in the last period. There was no significant difference in the age distribution between socio- demographic areas. The mean diagnostic tumor size decreased during the period, from 28.6 mm in the first period to about 10 mm in the last period. There was no significant difference in the size of the tumor between socio- demographic areas.

  17. DEMOGRAPHICS AND SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN

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    Huma Ali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Demographics like gender, educational level, organizational tenure and total number of years at current position related to leadership spirituality is getting increased attention among leadership researchers during the twenty-first century. A very few studies have been conducted on this topic in American and European context, but this area remain neglected by behavioral scholars in Pakistani context. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the effect of demographics on leadership spirituality. At the end, discussion and conclusion of the study is given.

  18. Growth-Maximizing Public Debt under Changing Demographics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an overlapping-generations model to study the growth-maximizing level of public debt under conditions of demograhic change. It is shown that the optimal debt level depends on a positive marginal productivity of public capital. In general, it also depends on the demographic par...... will have to adjust its fiscal plans to accommodate those changes, most likely downward, if growth is to be preserved. An advantage of this model is that it allows us to determine in advance the way in which fiscal policies need to adjust as demographic parameters change....

  19. Demographic Factors and Knowledge Sharing Quality among Malaysian Government Officers

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    Mohd Bakhari Ismail

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of the important elements in knowledge management. Previous works indicate that employees are reluctant to share knowledge among themselves. Many factors impede knowledge sharing among employees in organizations. One of those factors is demography. The purpose of this study is to find out the differences among government officers’ knowledge sharing quality in terms of demographic factors. A survey of 48 respondents using questionnaire as data collection method was conducted. The results show that demographic variables are not significant predictors to government officers’ knowledge sharing quality.

  20. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

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    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.