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Sample records for hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone

  1. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved double antibody radioimmunoassay method is described for the determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in biological and other fluids. Highly purified second antibody is immobilised on to hydrophilic, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles of a suspendable size to form a solid phase second antibody reagent. The immobilised second antibody reagent is used to precipitate the reaction product of the first antibody with labelled and unlabelled thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-anti-TSH-complex) so as to produce a two-phase system which permits rapid and efficient separation of bound TSH in the solid phase from free TSH in the liquid phase. Details of the preparation of this novel second antibody-polyacrylamide reagent and of the assay procedure for human TSH are described. (U.K.)

  2. Thyroid stimulating hormone stability in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a thermo labile peptide hormone. It is unstable in serum and rapidly degrades when exposed to ambient temperature (temp) for considerable time. The stability of TSH with regard to storage temp, duration and added preservative was evaluated for performing TSH essay, Venous blood was collected in 5 ml plain and aprotinin containing glass tubes from 37 individuals aged 15-56 years serum obtained was analysed for TSH at zero time value, then divided into 3 aliquots, sets with and without aprotinin. One set was kept at room temperature (RT), 2nd at 4 degree centigrade and 3rd at 20 degree centigrade TSH was measured after 24 and 72 hours for comparison to the zero time value of TSH. Significant decline in TSH was seen in the samples stored at RT for 72 hours. This effect was abolished when aprotinin, the protease inhibitor, was added to the samples, No significant difference from zero time value was noticed in the aprotinin-treated or untreated sera when kept at RT for 24 hours or when stored at 4 degree centigrade -20 degree centigrade for 72 hours. Thus we concluded that proper storage and addition of aprotinin may significantly reduce TSH degradation. (author)

  3. Thyroid ultrasonography in congenital isolated thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Wakamoto, H; MIYAZAKI, M.; Tatsumi, K.; Amino, N.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency on thyroid development was examined using ultrasonography in a child with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Ultrasound revealed the thyroid gland was one sixth normal volume, suggesting that TSH plays an important part in thyroid growth, but not a critical role in differentiation.

  4. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sinus cavities. It is part of the body's feedback system to maintain stable amounts of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood and to help control the rate at which the body uses energy. ...

  5. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Thyroglobulin, and Thyroid Hormones and Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Ostergaard, Jane Nautrup; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Molina, Esther; Larrañaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Sandström, Maria; Hennings, Joakim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Schmidt, Julie; Travis, Ruth C; Byrnes, Graham; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased levels of thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) risk, but strong epidemiological evidence is lacking. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-seven incident TC case patients (n = 300 women and 57 men; mean age at blood collection = 51.5 years) were identified in the EPIC cohort study and matched with 2 (women) or 3 (men) control subjects using incidence density sampling. Matching included study center, sex, a...

  6. Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

  7. Preparation of quality control samples in radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To days, the radioimmunoassay is becomes the best technique to analysis different concentrations of substance, especially in medical and research laboratories. Although the specificity of RIA techniques, the quality controls must takes place to give good results as possible. In this dissertation i prepared quality control samples of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), to use it in RIA techniques and to control the reliability results of those laboratories which used these methods. We used China production kits of RIA method to determine the level of hormone (low-normal-high) concentration. Statistical parameters were used to drown the control chart of the mean to these data.(Author)

  8. Historical Note: Many Steps Led to the ‘Discovery’ of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, James

    2014-01-01

    Finding thyroid-stimulating hormone was a process rather than a circumscribed event, and many talented persons participated over many years. Key early participants were Bennet M. Allen and Philip E. Smith who had the misfortune just prior to World War I of independently and simultaneously starting very similar experiments with tadpoles. This led to a series of back and forth publications attempting to establish priority for finding evidence of a thyrotropic factor in the anterior pituitary. Decades of work by others would be required before sophisticated biochemical techniques would bring us to our modern understanding. PMID:25114872

  9. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism.

  10. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    George Jyothis T; Thow Jonathan C; Matthews Bruce; Pye Maurice P; Jayagopal Vijay

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insuffici...

  11. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  12. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24836306

  13. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12 th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99mTc thyroid scan. Disproportionately high TSH in comparison to low maternal antithyroid drug dosage and further elevation of TSH after stopping mother?s antithyroid drugs ruled out maternal antithyroid drug-induced congenital hypothyroidism in the baby. Early institution of therapy in these patients can prevent mental retardation and other features of hypothyroidism.

  14. Relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone and various components of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the relation between thyroid stimulating hormone and various components of metabolic syndrome. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology department, Army Medical College of National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad and Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan; from January to March 2013. Material and Methods: Hundred adult inhabitants (30-60 years) of Rawalpindi participated in this study. Subjects who fulfilled the WHO criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) were included and those who had any thyroid illness, or were using any thyroid medications were excluded from this study. For thyroid function tests (TFT's), serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (TT3), free throxine (FT4) were estimated. Insulin resistance (IR) was measured by Homeostasis Model Assessment for IR (HOMA-IR). Data was analyzed by SPSS-18. Results: Out of 50 subjects of control group, 26 (52%) were male and 24 (48%) were female. Basal metabolic rate (BMI), serum triglyceride (TG), HOMA-IR were higher and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was lower in MetS patients. There was no significant difference in serum TT3 and FT4 between MetS patients and control group, however, mean serum TSH levels were higher in MetS (2.622 + 0.924 vs 5.002 + 1.074 mIU/l, p<0.001). In correlation analysis, serum TSH was positively and significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.344, p=0.014) and HOMA-IR (r=0.419, p<0.002). Conclusion: These results suggest that serum TSH correlates with various components of metabolic syndrome patients. Analysis of serum TSH levels in metabolic syndrome patients may prove beneficial in preventing the various cardiometabolic complications in such patients. (author)

  15. A comparison of immunoenzymometric assays for human thyroid stimulating hormone and human growth hormone with established immunoradiometric assay methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-site immunoenzymometric assays (IEMAs) utilizing polyclonal antisera coated microtitre well (solid phase) and horse radish peroxidase labelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) have been developed with a view to supplying a non-radioisotopic immunoassay system for use in a bulk matched reagent scheme. A two state assay format with a spectrophotometric end point readout was chosen. Results for the pituitary hormones human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) and human growth hormone (hGH) are presented. Assay characteristics and performance of these IEMAs compared favourably with existing immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) which use microcrystalline cellulose coupled solid phase antibody and 125I labelled MAb. Intra-assay analytical precision was similar for both hTSH methods but slightly worse for the hGH IEMA. Relative to IRMA, mean IEMA sensitivity was better for the hTSH, but worse for hGH. However, ''working ranges'' with analytical imprecision of less than 10% covered the distribution of standards in all assays. Good agreement was obtained between methods for patient hTSH specimens up to 12.5 mIU/L but a concentration-dependent negative bias developed in the IEMA at higher hTSH levels. A similar bias was observed in the hGH IEMA. The bias was traced to a ''matrix effect'' due to the hTSH-free horse serum used to prepare standards. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  16. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and developmental regulation of a novel receptor from Drosophila melanogaster structurally related to members of the thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide probes derived from consensus sequences for glycoprotein hormone receptors, we have cloned an 831-amino acid residue-long receptor from Drosophila melanogaster that shows a striking structural homology with members of the glycoprotein hormone (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG)) receptor family from mammals. This homology includes a very large, extracellular N terminus (20% sequence identity ...

  17. Gender and Age Impact on the Association Between Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Serum Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Tan, Jian; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Guizhi; Wang, Renfei; He, Yajing; Ren, Xiaojun; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Wang, Shen; Li, Xue; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Tianpeng; Liu, Na; Upadhyaya, Arun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hyperlipidemia is still a topic of debate. We aimed to explore the impact of gender and age on the association between serum TSH and lipid profile in a large cohort of Chinese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 13,915 participants (8565 male, 5350 female), who self-reported as healthy without any known previous diseases. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements, thyroid function, and other serum parameters were collected. The associations between TSH and hyperlipidemia of males and females were analyzed separately after dividing TSH and age into subgroups. Odds ratio for hyperlipidemia was calculated by binary logistic regression models.Young males had significantly higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and high serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol than females, yet after menopause, females had higher prevalence than males. TSH was positively associated with hyperlipidemia independent of thyroid hormones. Males showed more reduced risks of hyperlipidemia in low TSH concentrations, while females demonstrated more enhanced risks of hyperlipidemia in high TSH concentrations. For instance, if TSH was lower than 0.3??IU/mL, the risks of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in males were only 0.198 (P??0.05), respectively. If TSH was higher than 4.0??IU/mL, women displayed significantly higher risks of developing hypertriglyceridemia than the reference TSH risks (P?hormone independent positive associations between serum TSH and lipids, which were substantially influenced by gender and age. Males demonstrated more protective effects of low TSH against hyperlipidemia, while females showed more detrimental effects of high TSH on hyperlipidemia. PMID:26656346

  18. Extended clinical utility of a sensitive and reliable radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmann, R E; Rubenstein, H A; Pugeat, M M; Nisula, B C

    1983-08-01

    We have developed a radioimmunoassay for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that is sufficiently sensitive to permit reliable measurement of subnormal serum TSH levels. We report our evaluation of the utility of this radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. In 59 normal subjects, the mean serum TSH level was 1.49 +/- 0.10 microU/ml (mean +/- SEM) with the range 0.5 to 4.5 microU/ml. In patients without pituitary-hypothalamic lesions, the serum TSH level accurately reflected thyroid status, being subnormal in 29 hyperthyroid patients, supranormal in 26 hypothyroid patients, and normal in 31 euthyroid patients being treated for nonthyroid conditions. In patients being treated for either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, the serum TSH level appeared to be a sensitive indicator of thyroid status, and its return to normal appeared to be a useful therapeutic criterion. We conclude that improving the sensitivtity and reliability of the serum TSH radioimmunoassay greatly extends its clinical applications. PMID:6879292

  19. Relationship of serum thyroid stimulating hormone with body mass index in healthy adults

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    Amrita Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate any possible relationship between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with body mass index (BMI in healthy adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 417 subjects aged 18-60 years who volunteered to get screened for thyroid illness with serum TSH have been enrolled from November 2012 to July 2013. Patients were divided into four groups based on BMI value: Underweight (BMI <18 kg/m 2 , normal (BMI: 18-22.9 kg/m 2 , overweight (BMI: 23-24.9 kg/m 2 , and obese (BMI ?25 kg/m 2 . Result: In our study we found a significant variation (P < 0.001 in TSH with increasing BMI. As the BMI increased, mean TSH in the BMI range also increased. The individuals with higher BMI had higher TSH and this trend continued from underweight to Obese. The mean TSH of underweight group was 1.6036 mIU/L, normal weight group 2.1727 mIU/L, overweight group 2.2870 mIU/L and obese group 2.6416 mIU/L. Conclusion: In this study we found a significant relationship between serum TSH and BMI and mean TSH increased as BMI increased. Further large scale data from the population is required to confirm our findings.

  20. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  1. Thyroid stimulating hormone and leptin levels and severe growth retardation among beta- thalassaemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: It has been proposed that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) influences leptin secretion from adipocytes. We evaluated the association between TSH and leptin levels in thalassaemic patients with growth retardation. Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 30 major thalassaemic patients and 24 normal subjects (range: 12 - 20 y). Both Leptin and TSH were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The anthropomorphic data were collected based on standard methods. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze data. Results: Patients had severe growth retardation. Mean concentration of leptin in thalassaemic mean value of serum TSH concentration of lepton in thalassaemic patients was significantly lower than normal subjects (2.26 +- 2,61 vs 13.14 +- 15.95 ng/ml). The mean value os serum TSH concentration in beta- thalassaemic patients was higher than normal subjects. But the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.146). There was no marked relationship between TSH and leptin concentration in thalassaemic patients (r= -0.022, P =0.909) and in control group (r =0.289, P=0.214). Conclusion: In beta - thalassaemic patients and normal group leptin secretion is a not affected by TSH concentration. (author)

  2. Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

  3. Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels in patients with gout treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Atxotegi, Joana; Urionagüena, Irati; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles

    2015-11-01

    Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the upper normal limit has been reported in a small percentage of patients treated with febuxostat in clinical trials, but a mechanistic explanation is not yet available. In an observational parallel longitudinal cohort study, we evaluated changes in TSH levels in patients with gout at baseline and during urate-lowering treatment with febuxostat. Patients to be started on allopurinol who had a measurement of TSH in the 6-month period prior to baseline evaluation were used for comparison. TSH levels and change in TSH levels at 12-month follow-up were compared between groups. Patients with abnormal TSH levels or previous thyroid disease or on amiodarone were not included for analysis. Eighty-eight patients treated with febuxostat and 87 with allopurinol were available for comparisons. Patients to be treated with febuxostat had higher urate levels and TSH levels, more severe gout, and poorer renal function, but were similar regarding other characteristics. A similar rise in TSH levels was observed in both groups (0.4 and 0.5 µUI/mL for febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively); at 12-mo, 7/88 (7.9 %) of patients on febuxostat and 4/87 (3.4 %) of patients on allopurinol showed TSH levels over 0.5 µUI/mL. Doses prescribed (corrected for estimated glomerular filtration rate in the case if patients on allopurinol) and baseline TSH levels were determinants of TSH levels at 12-month follow-up. No impact on free T4 (fT4) levels was observed. Febuxostat, but also allopurinol, increased TSH levels in a dose-dependent way, thus suggesting rather a class effect than a drug effect, but with no apparent impact on either clinical or fT4 levels. PMID:26342297

  4. Development of serum-free bioreactor production of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiens, L R; Büntemeyer, H; Lütkemeyer, D; Lehmann, J; Bergmann, A; Weglöhner, W

    2000-01-01

    For the detection of autoantibodies to thyroid stimulating hormone receptors (TSH-R) in Graves' disease based on a novel coated tube assay system, human TSH-R is needed in large amounts. Whereas expression of TSH-R in bacteria, yeast, or insect cells results in nonfunctional, denaturated receptor, mammalian cells such as COS, CHO, and HeLa are able to express functional TSH-R, but only in very low amounts. Furthermore, for all of these cultivations expensive standard media containing 10% fetal calf serum are needed to obtain functional receptor. Here we report on the development of a serum-free production-scale process based on a stable transformed and highly productive human leukemia cell line K562 (1). Starting with K562-TSH-R cells growing in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum the cell line was adapted to serum-free medium. The adaptation medium was optimized in regards to amino acid and protein concentrations, since the use of unadjusted medium caused cell death after 2 days. The adapted cells were stable and could be cultivated without antibiotics for more than 50 cell doublings without losing their productivity. The obtained receptor showed improved TSH binding. The process development was based on cultivations in a 2-L bench-scale bioreactor. Cultivations in batch mode and chemostat mode and perfusion cultivation with the usage of an internal microfiltration device and a spin-filter device were compared. After process optimization a continuous process using spin-filter was set up and run in a 20 L-pilot-scale bioreactor. The presented results were the prerequisite for the production of the novel assay for the diagnosis of autoantibodies to TSH-R in Graves' disease. PMID:11027160

  5. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Thyroglobulin, and Thyroid Hormones and Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma : The EPIC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased levels of thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) risk, but strong epidemiological evidence is lacking. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-seven incident TC case patients (n = 300 women and 57 men; mean age at blood collection = 51.5 years) were identified in the EPIC cohort study and matched with 2 (women) or 3 (men) control subjects using incidence density sampling. Matching included study center, sex, age, date, time, and fasting status at blood collection. Levels of total and free (f) thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-thyronine (T3), TSH, Tg, and anti-Tg antibodies (TgAb) were measured by commercially available immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: TC risk was positively associated with Tg (OR for the highest vs lowest quartile = 9.15; 95% CI = 5.28 to 15.90; P < .001) and negatively associatedwith TSH level (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.81; P = .001). Odds ratios were not modified by adjustment for weight and height and were consistent across sexes, age groups, and countries. The association with Tg was stronger in follicular than papillary TC. The odds ratio for TgAb-positivity was 1.50 (95% CI = 1.05 to 2.15; P = .03). Among case patients, TSH level was stable over time, whereas Tg level was higher in proximity to TC diagnosis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 57% and 74% for TSH and Tg level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: High Tg levels precede by up to 8 years the detection of TC, pointing to a long sojourn time of the disease. Low TSH levels may predispose to TC onset. Neither marker has sufficient accuracy to be a screening test.

  6. Neonatal iodine status survey by thyroid-stimulating hormone screening in Surabaya

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    Connie Untario

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background lodine deficiency disorders (IDD are a significant public health problem globally. Iodine deficiency may cause subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early infancy. Neonatal thyroid screening of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH to detected hypothyroidism may olso be used to determine the prevcalence of IDD in a population. Previous studies reported mild IDD status in differen parts of Indonesia Objective To evaluate the iodine status of neonates born in Mitra Keluarga Surabaya Hospital (MKSH by TSH screening over a 6-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study conducted in MKSH from January 2005 to December 2010. Of the 5,619 infants took part in this study. Blood specimens for TSH measurement were collected from subjects 2 to 6 days after birth, and sent to a reference laboraratory for evaluation. Using the neonatal TSH values, the iodine deficiency level of the group was determined according to the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of IDD criteria Results A total of 3,349 newborn babies underwent neonatal TSH screening in MKSH. Subjects’ mean TSH concentration was 5.14 mIU/L. A TSH concentration > 5mIU/L was found in 1270 (37.9% subjects, 166 (27.6% in 2005, 252 (44.0% in 2006, 331 (47.1% in 2007, 356 (57.7% in 2008, 114 (20.7% in 2009 and 51 (16.8% in 2010. On the basis of the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder criteria, this frequency corresponded to a moderate level of IDD. Twenty-two neonates had TSH > 20 mIU/L from which 2 infants were confirmed positive for hypothyroidism. Conclusion A 6-year study of 3,349 newborns screenerd for TSH revealed that 37.9% of subjects had TSH concentration of more than 5mIU/L. this frequency indicates a moderate level of IDD in the study population.

  7. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Sterian, Ward; Ilda Shizue, Kunii; Rui Monteiro de Barros, Maciel.

    2000-09-07

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os programas de detecção precoce trazem economias ao sistema de saúde e oferecem a oportunidade de rastrear e tratar precocemente casos de hipotiroidismo congênito. OBJETIVO: Determinar influências de doenças que afetam a dinâmica materno-fetal-placentária sobre programas de detecção preco [...] ce de hipotiroidismo congênito que se baseiam na dosagem do hormônio tirotrófico (TSH). TIPO DE ESTUDO: Ensaio clínico prospectivo não-randomizado com, ao menos, três meses de seguimento. LOCAL: Centro Universitário Público de Referência - Centro de Atendimento Integrado a Saúde da Mulher (CAISM). PARTICIPANTES: 415 recém-nascidos de 5 grupos de parturientes: 83 crianças eram filhas de mães cardiopatas; 98 de mães com toxemia gravídica; 54 de mães diabéticas; 40 de mães portadoras de imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV); e 140 de mães hígidas. PROCEDIMENTOS: Todos os recém-nascidos tiveram amostras de sangue de cordão umbilical coletadas em papel de filtro ao nascimento. VARIÁVEIS ESTUDADAS: Dosagem de TSH em sangue coletado em papel de filtro usando um ensaio imunofluorométrico próprio (sensibilidade em manchas de sangue seco = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTADOS: Não encontramos diferença na média de TSH dos 5 grupos. Além disso, os níveis de TSH estavam acima de 5 mU/L em 48% dos bebês, sugerindo que nossa região é severamente deficiente em iodo. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados demonstram que programas de detecção precoce de hipotiroidismo congênito, que utilizam primariamente TSH, não são afetados por doenças maternas não-tiroidianas. Sugerimos que, além das vantagens técnicas sobre a punção de calcanhar com dosagem primária de T4, os programas de detecção precoce que utilizam primariamente TSH de cordão umbilical também podem ser usados como instrumento de avaliação e controle da carências de iodo. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pos [...] sible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

  8. Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alvarado-Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identificadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA, PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA, FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA. Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo.

  9. Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús, Alvarado-Flores; María Del Rosario, Montoya-Garcia; Javier, Ventura Juárez; Roberto, Rico-Martínez.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH), Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH), Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH) y Prolactina (PRL) en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identi [...] ficadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA), PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA), FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA) y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA). Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo. Abstract in english The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect [...] sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA), PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA), FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA) and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA). These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.

  10. Nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. ? Using nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. ? Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. ? Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab2) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L?1 H2O2 by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2 as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab2. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab2, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab2, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab2, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab2 to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 ?IU mL?1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 ?IU mL?1 TSH at the 3sB criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

  11. Nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Yuling; Chen Huafeng; Hou Li; Zhang Bing; Liu Bingqian; Chen Guonan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2012-08-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab{sub 2}) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2} as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab{sub 2}. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab{sub 2}, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab{sub 2} to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} TSH at the 3s{sub B} criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

  12. Thyrostimulin, but Not Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH), Acts as a Paracrine Regulator to Activate the TSH Receptor in Mammalian Ovary*

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Su-Chin; Hsu, Pei-Jen; Wu, Fang-Ju; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lu, Chung-Hao; Luo, Ching-Wei

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), activated by either TSH or the newly discovered glycoprotein hormone thyrostimulin, plays a central role in the control of body metabolism. Interestingly, in addition to its thyroid expression, we discovered that the mRNA level of TSHR is periodically regulated in rat ovary by gonadotropins. Ovarian microdissection followed by real-time PCR analysis indicated that granulosa cells show the highest level of TSHR expression. Cultures of follicles ...

  13. Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

  14. Comparison of effective I-131 half-life between thyroid hormone withdrawal and recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyroid cancer: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation for postoperative radioiodine ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is performed by either thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) administration. There is little information on the impact of the method of preparation with respect to whole-body effective I-131 half-life and its potential clinical implications in the Australian setting. A retrospective study was performed on patients admitted for adjuvant radioiodine ablation for non-metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the Royal Adelaide Hospital over a 4½-year period from 2009. Dose rate measurements were analysed for 19 rhTSH and 31 thyroid hormone withdrawal patients. The mean effective I-131 half-lives were 11.51 and 13.29?h for the rhTSH and thyroid hormone withdrawal groups, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P?=?0.761). This result differs from previously published data where withdrawal periods were typically longer, resulting in slower renal clearance and longer half-lives for withdrawal patients. Our study did not demonstrate a significant difference in whole-body effective half-life of I-131 between the two methods of preparation for radioiodine ablation. This suggests that putative advantages of rhTSH over withdrawal in terms of whole-body radiation dose, duration of hospital admission and quality of life may be sensitive to duration of withdrawal.

  15. Effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995 on a growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone-producing pituitary tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirasawa,Ryoto

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary adenoma. She had high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels and very high serum growth hormone (GH levels. Transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, post-operative irradiation, frontal craniotomy for removal of residual tumor and large-dose bromocriptine therapy were carried out consecutively. After therapy, serum GH levels gradually decreased, but not to the normal range, and serum TSH levels remained at inappropriately normal levels. Using immunoperoxidase techniques, GH-, TSH- and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-containing cells were demonstrated in the adenoma. A long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995, 600 micrograms/day suppressed the serum GH level to the normal range with a concomitant suppression of TSH. Furthermore, the paradoxical serum GH responses to TRH and LH-RH were slightly improved. No important subjective side-effects were noted. Therefore, SMS 201-995 appeared to be a very effective drug in this patient with a GH- and TSH-producing pituitary tumor.

  16. Establishment of a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference interval in healthy adults. The importance of environmental factors, including thyroid antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Hansen, Pia Skov; Brix, Thomas H; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been shown that thyroid antibodies affect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in men and women and that TSH levels are predictive of future thyroid disease. We investigated the validity of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines regarding the TSH reference interval by studying 1512 individuals. Two hundred and fifty had at least one thyroid antibody, 121 were taking medications other than estrogens and occasional analgesics, and 105 reported...

  17. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4-6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration-a surrogate marker for MID-was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10-15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children. PMID:26540070

  18. Electron Capture Dissociation of Divalent Metal-adducted Sulfated N-Glycans Released from Bovine Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Sulfated N-glycans released from bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) were ionized with the divalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Co by electrospray ionization (ESI). These metal-adducted species were subjected to infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) and the corresponding fragmentation patterns were compared. IRMPD generated extensive glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, but most product ions suffered from sulfonate loss. Internal fragments were also observed, which complicated the spectra. ECD provided complementary structural information compared with IRMPD, and all observed product ions retained the sulfonate group, allowing sulfonate localization. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of ECD towards metal-adducted sulfated N-glycans released from a glycoprotein. Due to the ability of IRMPD and ECD to provide complementary structural information, the combination of the two strategies is a promising and valuable tool for glycan structural characterization. The influence of different metal ions was also examined. Calcium adducts appeared to be the most promising species because of high sensitivity and ability to provide extensive structural information.

  19. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Inhibits Adipose Triglyceride Lipase in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through the PKA Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongqing; Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Yan, Fang; Wang, Aihong; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) metabolism in adipose tissue. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a rate-limiting enzyme controlling the hydrolysis of TG. Thus far, it is unclear whether TSH has a direct effect on the expression of ATGL. Because TSH function is mediated through the TSH receptor (TSHR), TSHR knockout mice (Tshr-/- mice) (supplemented with thyroxine) were used in this study to determine the effects of TSHR deletion on ATGL expression. These effects were verified in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and potential underlying mechanisms were explored. In the Tshr-/- mice, ATGL expression in epididymal adipose tissue was significantly increased compared with that in Tshr+/+ mice. ATGL expression was observed to increase with the differentiation process of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, TSH significantly suppressed ATGL expression at both the protein and mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Forskolin, which is an activator of adenylate cyclase, suppressed the expression of ATGL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The inhibitory effects of TSH on ATGL expression were abolished by H89, which is a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. These results indicate that TSH has an inhibitory effect on ATGL expression in mature adipocytes. The associated mechanism is related to PKA activation. PMID:25590597

  20. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.J., Paz-Filho; C.O., Mesa-Junior; M., Olandoski; L.C., Woellner; C.A., Goedert; C.L., Boguszewski; G.A., Carvalho; H., Graf.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Sevent [...] een patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P

  1. The effects of antisense peptide nucleic acid on the expression of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effects of antisense peptide nucleic acid (asPNA) on thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) of Fisher rat thyroid cells membrane. Methods: Two kinds of asPNA which could hybridized to the TSHR mRNA named as nuclear localization signal-asPNA1 (NLS-asPNA1) and NLS-asPNA2 were designed, and a control PNA with a scramble sequence named as NLS-scrPNA was synthetized. The cellular uptake of peptide nucleic acids were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy, and the toxic effect of asPNA to Fisher rat thyroid cells was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of NLS-asPNA on the expression of TSHR mRNA was detected by realtime quantitative RT-PCR. Results: Fluorescence microscopy indicated that asPNA were taken up by the cells. The results of MTT assay showed that all the asPNA had no toxic effect on the cells. The results of realtime quantitative RT-PCR showed that NLS-asPNA1 and NLS-asPNA2 could inhibit the expression of TSHR mRNA, the copies of TSHR cDNA decreased gradually along with the prolongation of culture time. But NLS-scrPNA had no significant effect on the expression of TSHR mRNA. Conclusion: NLS-asPNA could be taken up by the cells and down-regulate the expression of TSHR mRNA. (authors)

  2. Comparison of radioiodine biokinetics following the administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and after thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luster, Markus; Lassmann, Michael; Haenscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sherman, Steven I. [Section of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Skarulis, Monica C. [Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Reynolds, James R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren Grant Magnusen Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Iodine kinetics were studied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer while euthyroid under exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and while hypothyroid to detect differences in radioiodine uptake, distribution and elimination. Nine patients with total or near-total thyroidectomy on thyroid hormone suppressive therapy received two or three daily doses of 0.9 mg recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) followed by administration of a diagnostic activity of 2 mCi (74 MBq) iodine-131. After the biokinetics assessments had been performed, patients stopped taking thyroid hormones to become hypothyroid. A second 2 mCi (74 MBq) diagnostic activity of {sup 131}I was administered, followed by a second set of biokinetics assessments. One week later the patients underwent remnant ablation with a therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I. A comparison of the {sup 131}I kinetics in the patients while euthyroid and while hypothyroid showed major differences in the doses to the remnant as well as in residence times and radiation exposure to the blood. In the first diagnostic assessment the remnant dose was higher in eight of the nine patients and clearance of the activity from the blood was faster in all of them. The data from this study suggest that radioiodine administration is potent and safe when administered to euthyroid patients following rhTSH administration. Enhanced residence time in the remnant and decreased radiation exposure to the blood were noted when patients were euthyroid compared to when they were rendered hypothyroid. However, all patients received diagnostic activities in the same order: first while euthyroid, followed by hypothyroidism. It is quite possible that ''stunning'' from the radioiodine administered in the initial uptake study inhibited the subsequent uptake of radioiodine by the remnant lesions in the second uptake study. (orig.)

  3. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Assay as the First Line Biochemical Parameter to Determine Thyroid Gland Abnormalities

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    Taiwo Abayomi Banjo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased cellular catabolic activities observed in hyperthyroid state had been established. This is consequent to excessive hormones secreted by the thyroid gland during this condition. A total of 60 subjects comprising of 45 females mean age 43.02±1.90 (range 22-70 years and 15 males mean age 50.40±3.59 (range 25-68 and 60 controls comprising of 45 females mean age 41.18±1.68 (range 22-68 years and 15 males mean age 40.53±2.88 (range 25-65 were recruited for the study. The plasma level of T4, T3 and TSH were determined in both the experiment group and the controls. A significant increase (p<0.05 in plasma T4, T3 and a significant decrease (p<0.05 in plasma TSH were observed in the experiment group in comparison to the controls. Also, an inverse relationship was noted to exist between the plasma T4 and T3; and TSH in primary hyperthyroid state.

  4. Is suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with subclinical depression in the Danish General Suburban Population Study?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, Jan; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The first phase of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) including 8214 individuals was an attempt to evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism without or with elevated peroxidase antibodies and depression. No such association was found. In the second phase, including 14,787 individuals, we have focused on suppressed TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and depression. Aims: To evaluate to what extent suppressed TSH is associated with subclinical depression. Methods: The total scores of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were used to evaluate subclinical depression, both by its total score and by an algorithm of the subthreshold depressed by presence of at least three of the 10 ICD-10 depression symptoms. Serum levels of TSH were used to classify the individuals into suppressed (TSH < 0.4 mIU/l), elevated (TSH ? 3.8 mIU/l) and normal reference (TSH between 0.4 and 3.7 mIU/l). Results: We identified 285 individuals with suppressed TSH and 1266 individuals with elevated TSH. The MDI total score was 7.55 in suppressed TSH individuals, 6.22 in elevated TSH individuals and 6.52 in normal reference individuals (P = 0.01). When the MDI was used diagnostically to identify subclinical depression, the prevalence was 8.07% in suppressed TSH individuals, 5.8% in normal reference individuals and 5.29% in elevated TSH individuals. Conclusion: This population-based study supports that persons with suppressed TSH (subclinical hyperthyroidism) seem to have a risk, although small, of subclinical depression.

  5. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Paz-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years, who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P < 0.001, a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2. Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 ± 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase, 1.80 ± 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 ± 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%, painful thyroiditis (29.4% and hypothyroidism (52.9%. Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 ± 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001 and by 46.0 ± 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001. Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects.

  6. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz-Filho, G.J.; Mesa-Junior, C.O.; Boguszewski, C.L.; Carvalho, G.A.; Graf, H. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; Olandoski, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Bioestatistica; Woellner, L.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Goedert, C.A. [Centro de Tomografia Computadorizada, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances {sup 131}I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 {+-} 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to {sup 131}I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 {+-} 64.4 mL. {sup 131}I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean {sup 131}I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 {+-} 9.7 to 49.6 {+-} 13.4% (P < 0.001), a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2). Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 {+-} 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase), 1.80 {+-} 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 {+-} 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%), painful thyroiditis (29.4%) and hypothyroidism (52.9%). Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 {+-} 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001) and by 46.0 {+-} 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of {sup 131}I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

  7. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0?±?10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (?), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (?). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p?=?0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p?=?0.001) and alanine transaminase (p?=?0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p?=?0.001) and creatinine (p?=?0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + ?0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -?1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change of body mass index was 0.4 (±0.7) kg/m2 in the THW group and was decreased by ?0.6 (±0.6) kg/m2 in the rh-TSH group. Consistent with previous studies, the rates of complete ablation between the THW and rh-TSH groups were not significantly different. The clinical parameters, as we mentioned above, were elevated for THW group but were irrelevant for the rh-TSH group. The findings favor HD-RIT after rh-TSH, especially for patients with chronic liver and kidney disease

  8. Assays for thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies employing different ligands and ligand partners may have similar sensitivity and specificity but are not interchangeable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Handberg, Aase

    2010-01-01

    The best biochemical marker of Graves' disease (GD) is the presence in serum of autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR-Ab). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of two sensitive hTSHR-Ab assays with a specific focus on the clinical importance of differences in results. Both assays are competitive in nature but employ quite different types of ligands. In the "M22-pTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with a labeled monoclonal antibody (M22*) against the thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor for binding to porcine TSH receptors. In the "bTSH-rhTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with labeled bovine TSH for binding to recombinant human TSH receptors.

  9. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jyothis T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered when evaluating the cause of hyperthyroidism. Early diagnosis and treatment of such adenomas is critical in reducing neurological and endocrine complications.

  10. Influence of thyroid-stimulating hormone on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In poorly differentiated thyroid cancer originating from thyroid follicular cells, the ability to concentrate iodine is lost. This makes recurrence undetectable by 131I whole-body scan. In this situation, other radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI), are used to evaluate recurrence or metastasis. Some reports suggest that 18F-FDG uptake is increased by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation. This study aimed to determine the influence of TSH on 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro. The cells were stimulated with 1000 ?U/ml of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) for 1 day, 3 days, and 5 days. Each cell was incubated with 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 18F-FDG or 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 99mTc-MIBI for 1 h at 37degC. The uptake of each radiopharmaceutical in the cells was quantified as a percent of whole radioactivity per total viable cell number. The quantification of glucose transporter 1, 2, 3 and 4 mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TSH stimulation increased 18F-FDG uptake in a time-dependent manner. Following 5 days of rhTSH stimulation, 18F-FDG uptake was approximately 2.2 times that of the control. The increase in 18F-FDG uptake following rhTSH stimulation was correlated to the increase in GLUT4 mRNA level. The GLUT1 mRNA level was unchanged. An increased uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was observed with a pattern similar to that of 18F-FDG. The 99mTc-MIBI uptake was approximately 1.5 times that of the control 5 days later. These results suggest that TSH stimulates 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in poorly differentiated papillary thyroid cancer, and therefore 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) or 99mTc-MIBI scans under TSH stimulation may be more accurate than under suppression. (author)

  11. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yulin; Xia, Xiaohu; Xu, Ye; Ke, Wei; Yang, Wei; Li, Qingge

    2012-04-13

    Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L(-1) and became 0.003 mIU L(-1) when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L(-1) of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. PMID:22444539

  12. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodotyronine and Thyroxine Concentrations and Their Relationship with Metabolic Parameters, Anthropometric Variables and Body Composition in Premenopausal Euthyroid Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the potential relationships of thyroid hormones, metabolic parameters, and anthropometric variables with body composition in premenopausal women. Material and Method: A total of 84 women with a mean age of 35.12±8.11 years were investigated. Subjects with a history of diabetes, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, chronic liver, and renal disease were excluded from the study. In all subjects, anthropometric parameters were evaluated and body composition was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Fasting serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, triiodothyrionine (T3, thyroxine (T4, fasting blood glucose (FBG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 were measured by enzymatic methods. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was determined by Friedewald formula. Results: Serum TSH, CRP and TC levels in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p<0.05. Serum TSH concentration was positively associated with waist to hip ratio (WHR and fat mass and, negatively associated with fat-free mass (p<0.05. There was also a positive relationship between T3 and TG and between T4 and LDL-C in all participants. In comparison of subjects with different body fat percentage, subjects with higher body fat had also higher amount of TSH concentrations (p=0.015. Discussion: Our results showed a relationship of fat mass and lipid profile with thyroid function in premenopausal women. Further researches are needed to clarify the nature and mechanism of these relationships.

  13. Comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Khadem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physiological changes in thyroid gland during pregnancy have been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic causes of preeclampsia.Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this case?control study, 40 normal pregnant women and 40 cases of preeclampsia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated. They were compared for serum levels of Free T3 (FT3, Free T4 (FT4 and TSH. The data was analyzed by SPSS software with the use of t?student, Chi?square, Independent sample T-test and Bivariate correlation test. p?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was not statistically different between two groups (p=0.297. No significant difference was observed in terms of parity between two groups (p=0.206. Normal pregnant women were not significantly different from preeclampsia cases in the view of FT3 level (1.38 pg/ml vs. 1.41 pg/ml, p=0.803, FT4 level (0.95 pg/ml vs. 0.96 pg/ml, p=0.834 and TSH level (3.51 ?IU/ml vs. 3.10 ?IU/ml, p=0.386. Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the hypothesis that changes in FT3, FT4 and TSH levels could be possible etiology of preeclampsia

  14. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ? The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ? method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L?1 and became 0.003 mIU L?1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L?1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  15. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  16. Phorbol ester prevents the thyroid-stimulating-hormone-induced but not the forskolin-induced decrease of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in thyroid cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omri, B; Breton, M F; Haye, B; Jacquemin, C; Pavlovic-Hournac, M

    1988-07-15

    The potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) affects several thyroid cell functions and interacts with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) either by inhibiting or potentiating its action on different cellular parameters. Since phorbol ester acts mainly through the activation of protein kinase C, which is its receptor, we studied this activation and its interaction with TSH and forskolin in suspension cultures of porcine thyroid cells. In thyroid cell cultures, TPA has a dual effect on protein kinase C activity: immediately (2-5 min) after exposure of cells to TPA, it began to be translocated from the cytosol to the particulate fraction. The transfer of the cytosolic enzyme was total and could occur with or without a loss of activity. The translocated enzyme still needed Ca2+ and phospholipids for its activation. The basal activity increased transiently (2-4 h) in both the cytosol and particulate fractions during translocation. The peak activity in the particulate fraction was reached 10-30 min after exposure of cells to TPA, and was followed by down-regulation of protein kinase C and almost complete disappearance of its activity. The residual activity was about 13% of control after a 2-day exposure to TPA. It was unequally distributed between cytosol (4%) and particulate fraction (9%). Prolonged exposure of cells to TPA did not affect either the activity or the subcellular distribution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. TPA interacted with TSH and prevented the decrease of this activity induced by prolonged exposure of cells to the hormone not only when it was introduced simultaneously with TSH, but also when it was added 24 h after TSH. However, the forskolin-induced decrease in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity was not prevented by the presence of TPA. TPA also affected the increases in cAMP accumulation mediated by TSH and forskolin. The TSH-induced increase was significantly stimulated by TPA after short contacts (5-15 min), while longer preincubations of cells with TPA provoked a very strong inhibition of the TSH action. However, the forskolin-induced stimulation of the cAMP accumulation was maintained and even further increased in the presence of TPA. Consequently, the actions of TSH and TPA are apparently interdependent, while those of forskolin and TPA seem to be parallel and independent. Neither TSH nor forskolin prevented the TPA-induced down regulation of protein kinase C. The biologically inactive phorbol ester analogue 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate had no effect on protein kinase C activity, and did not interact with either TSH or forskolin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3402444

  17. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using a capillary blood-sample collected on filter paper. Value of the method for detecting neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothyroidism is the thyroid disturbance most commonly encountered in paediatrics. Its average frequency is estimated at around one case per 6000 births. It is an exceptionally serious disease in newborn infants as it is accompanied by imperfect brain development leading to cerebral atrophy, degenerescence of the cortical neurons, defective myelinization and, most often, in children, irreversible psychomotor retardation. It should be possible to avoid this complication provided that a substitutive therapy using thyroid hormone is initiated very rapidly. For this it is necessary that the hypothyroidism be detected during the first few days of life since the chances of the therapy being successful decline very quickly. Save in a few exceptional cases, early detection cannot be based on clinical signs alone. The laboratory can play a decisive part by bringing to light either a defect in the production of thyroid hormone or a high blood level of TSH. The paper presents a description of the micromethod used together with a detailed analysis of certain important technical points, a study of the quality of the results obtained and a general discussion of the strategy for detecting neonatal hypothyroidism. (author)

  18. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 ?IU/ml, median: 7.37 ?IU/ml, range: 0.074-211 ?IU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  19. Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides / Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Teresa, Marrero Rodríguez.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma pap [...] ilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares). El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %), en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 %) y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %). En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia. Abstract in english The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular a [...] nd undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

  20. Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares. El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %, en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 % y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %. En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia.The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas. The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %, in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %, and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %. No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

  1. HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

  2. HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, U. [Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Harmer, C.; Clarke, S.; Moss, L.; Nicol, A.; Clarke, P.; Smellie, J.; McCready, R.; Farnell, K.; Franklyn, J.; John, R.; Nutting, C.; Yap, B.; Lemon, C.; Wadlsey, J.; Gerrard, G.; Roques, T.; Macias, E.; Whitaker, S.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Alvarez, P.; Kadalayil, L.; Hackshaw, A.

    2012-07-01

    Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

  3. Asp330 and Tyr331 in the C-terminal cysteine-rich region of the luteinizing hormone receptor are key residues in hormone-induced receptor activation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruysters, M.W.P.; Verhoef-Post, M.; Themmen, A.P.N.

    2008-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor plays an essential role in male and female gonadal function. Together with the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors, the LH receptor forms the family of glycoprotein hormone receptors. All glycoprotein hormone receptors share a common modular topography, with an N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain and a C-terminal seven-transmembrane transduction domain. The ligand binding domain consists of 9 leuci...

  4. Efectos del fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental en los niveles plasmáticos de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH) / Phothoperiod and Environmental Temperature Effects on Plasmatic Levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Villagrán, De Rosso; CM, Elizondo; Posadas, Martinez; D, Giunta; EI, Barragán.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en el Alto Valle del R ío Negro, Patagonia Argentina, indican que existe una prevalencia de bocio ligeramente superior a la línea de corte establecida por el Internacional Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders con un grado de nutrición de yodo apropiado; prevalen [...] cia que podría ser atribuida a factores ambientales y/o nutricionales que interfieren con el metabolismo tiroideo. La concentración de TSH circulante responde a variaciones circadianas y es influenciada por las estaciones y la temperatura ambiental. Las características geográficas, el clima semidesértico o la presencia de sustancias que actúan como disruptores endocrinos, son factores que podrían relacionarse a modificaciones en la producción hormonal en zonas urbanas o rurales. Objetivos: a) Evaluar la posible asociación entre la variación anual de los valores de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH), el fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental. b) Estimar si los valores plasmáticos de TSH son significativamente diferentes en poblaciones rurales y urbanas de Alto Valle del Río Negro. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 1393 pacientes sanos residentes en el Alto Valle: 226 masculinos y 1167 femeninos, que acudieron por control clínico en el año 2010. Se utilizó para el análisis el software SPSS 17.0. Se encontraron variaciones significativas en el Log-TSH con un pico máximo al comienzo del otoño-invierno y un pico mínimo en primavera-verano. Se obtuvo una diferencia significativa en valores de Log-TSH en área rural: 0,46 uUI/ml (0,30-0,61) contra 0,28 uUI/ml (0,26-0,30) con p Abstract in english Studies carried out in Alto Valle del Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina, show a prevalence of goiter slightly above the cut-off line established by the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IC-CIDD), with an appropriate iodine nutrition grade; such prevalence could be at [...] tributed to environmental and/ or nutritional factors that interfere with thyroid metabolism. Blood TSH concentration responds to circadian variations and is influenced by seasonality and environmental temperature. The geographic characteristics, semi-desert climate or the presence of endocrine disruptors are factors that could be related to hormonal production modifications in urban or rural areas. Objectives: a) To evaluate the potential association between annual variation in TSH levels, photoperiod and environmental temperature. b) To estimate if plasma TSH values are significantly different in populations from rural and urban areas in Alto Valle del Rio Negro. We retrospectively evaluated 1393 healthy patients living in Alto Valle del Río Negro: 226 males and 1167 females, who presented for routine clinical check-up during 2010. SPSS 17.0 software was used for the analysis. Significant variations were found in Log-TSH, with a maximal peak at the beginning of the fall-winter and a minimal peak in spring-summer. There is a significant difference in the values of TSH between rural and urban areas, (values of Log-TSH in rural area: 0.46 uUI/ml (0.30-0.61) vs. urban area: 0.28 uUI/ml (0.26-0.30) with p

  5. Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010 / Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Mosso; Paula, Margozzini; Pamela, Trejo; Angélica, Domínguez; Sandra, Solari; Gonzalo, Valdivia; Eugenio, Arteaga.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean [...] National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

  6. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hormone therapy is working. Report any side effects, especially vaginal bleeding, to your health care provider right away. Glossary Antidepressant: A medication that is used to treat depression. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which ...

  7. Stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion by thyrotropin in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    OpenAIRE

    St Aubin, D J

    1987-01-01

    Bovine thyroid stimulating hormone administered to three beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, was effective in producing an increase in circulating levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine. A single dose of 10 I.U. of thyroid stimulating hormone resulted in a 145% increase in triiodothyronine and a 35% increase in thyroxine after nine hours in a whale tested within two hours after capture. The response was less pronounced in an animal tested with the same does on two occasions after four and...

  8. Hormonal evaluation in erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Çal??kan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Erectile dysfunction (ED is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between ED and hormonal abnormalities. Material and methods: We evaluated 178 patients between the ages of 25 and 85 years old. Medical histories and details were collected, and the IIEF question test was completed by all patients. After the basic evaluation, serum total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured.Results: The mean age of the patients and IIEF scores were 50.5±12.3 and 12.8±6.13, respectively. The mean testosterone, prolactin, TSH, LH and FSH were 426±152 ng/dL, 15.8±45.6 ng/mL, 1.56±1.2 micro IU/mL, 5.5±4.3 m IU/mL and 7.7±6.9 m IU/mL, respectively. Two patients had abnormal TSH levels, and 27 patients had abnormal LH levels. Abnormal FSH levels were detected in 6 patients. Eight patients had abnormal testosterone levels, and twenty had abnormal prolactin levels.Conclusion: ED is an illness that affects older men, and multiple factors cause this illness. Hormonal abnormalities are one of these factors that can be corrected. When appropriate, hormone levels should be measured and treated in patients who present with ED.

  9. Embryonic exposure to excess thyroid hormone causes thyrotrope cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Tonyushkina, Ksenia N.; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2013-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is more prevalent in children born to women with hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, suggesting a role for thyroid hormone (TH) in the development of central thyroid regulation. Using the zebrafish embryo as a model for thyroid axis development, we have characterized the ontogeny of negative feedback regulation of thyrotrope function and examined the effect of excess TH on thyrotrope development. We found that thyroid-stimulating hormone ? subunit (tshb) ...

  10. Asp330 and Tyr331 in the C-terminal Cysteine-rich Region of the Luteinizing Hormone Receptor Are Key Residues in Hormone-induced Receptor Activation*S?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruysters, Martijn; Verhoef-Post, Miriam; Themmen, Axel P.N.

    2008-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor plays an essential role in male and female gonadal function. Together with the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors, the LH receptor forms the family of glycoprotein hormone receptors. All glycoprotein hormone receptors share a common modular topography, with an N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain and a C-terminal seven-transmembrane transduction domain. The ligand binding do...

  11. Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolobe OM

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available CorrigendumJolobe OM. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:299–301.On page 299, note that the title was incorrectly listed as "Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". The correct title is "Upper limit of the normal range for thyroid-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". On line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".On page 301, line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".Read the original letter

  12. The role of thyroid hormone in sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Carlos; Andersen, Mônica Levy

    2014-03-01

    Sleep deprivation is a stressful condition, as the subject experiences feelings of inadequate well-being and exhibits impairments in his/her functioning. However, in some circumstances sleep deprivation may be crucial for survival of the individual. Most likely, complex neural circuits and hormones play a role in allowing sleep deprivation to occur. For instance, thyroid hormone activity sharply increases when an individual is in a state of sleep deprivation. We believe that this increase is central to sleep deprivation physiology. During sleep deprivation, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis initially increases as a consequence of increased release of thyroid stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Subsequently, as sleep deprivation continues, the sympathetic nervous system is recruited through its anatomical connection with the thyroid gland. While thyroid stimulating hormone levels markedly increase during sleep deprivation, it has been suggested that these increases are secondary to sleep deprivation. However, there is little evidence to support this assumption. We believe that the physiology of the thyroid axis during sleep deprivation and the actions of the effector hormone thyroid hormone suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits sleep and not the contrary. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the possible neural functions that enable sleep deprivation. In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that an augmentation in the thyroid hormone axis is central to a subject's ability to curtail sleep. PMID:24468575

  13. Thyroid Hormone Regulation by Stress and Behavioral Differences in Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Helmreich, Dana L.; Tylee, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential regulators of growth, development and normal bodily function and their release is coordinated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. While the HPT axis has been established as an acutely stress-responsive neuroendocrine system, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of its stress-regulation. The present study examined acute stress-induced changes in peripheral hormone levels [triiodothyronine (T3); thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone ...

  14. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Weight ... and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your Best Life with Diabetes ... vs Fact Patient Alerts Scientific Statements ...

  15. The Immune System as a Regulator of Thyroid Hormone Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, John R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for decades that the neuroendocrine system can both directly and indirectly influence the developmental and functional activity of the immune system. In contrast, far less is known about the extent to which the immune system collaborates in the regulation of endocrine activity. This is particularly true for immune-endocrine interactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Although thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) can be produced by many types of extra-pituitary cell...

  16. Growth hormone radioimmunoassay (RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth hormone not only stimulates growth, but also influences several other metabolic processes in the body. By its growth-promoting activity, the hormone accelerates the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins by stimulating the uptake of amino acids by the tissues. Using rat diaphragm preparations in vitro, a reduced uptake of several amino acids following Hypophysectomy has been demonstrated. Among other hormones, only pancreatic insulin is a potent stimulator of this process. On the cellular level, growth hormone effects appear to be mediated by cAMP. The hormone affects protein synthesis in rat levator ani and cardiac muscles, but they display a different behavior from the diaphragm. In adipose tissue, growth hormone also has a stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in virto, primarily at the ribosomal level as RNA synthesis is blocked by actinomycin D. Growth hormone effects on protein synthesis in liver were similarly demonstrated and require a lower concentration of hormone than for synthesis by muscle or adipose tissue

  17. Hormones and psychosexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, G; Giusti, M

    1995-09-01

    The male phenotype arises from the optimal concordance of chromosomal, gonadal and hormonal sex. Hormonal sex depends directly on the type of gonads that have been formed, and is linked both to the production of hormones and to their optimal effect on target tissues. The present review underlines the fact that psychosexual orientation in the male is also related to factors linked to sex hormones. Many of the experimental and clinical data available militate against the long-held belief that the development of role and gender identity in man is predominantly determined by environmental factors. This study points out the importance of hormonal factors at the CNS level. The most common abnormalities of sexual orientation are homosexuality and transsexualism. Despite their relatively high frequency in the general population, research into possible biological influences in these abnormalities is very scant. The authors of the present paper have reviewed the literature data yielded by biological and hormonal studies on homosexuality and transsexualism. These data seem to support the hypothesis that androgens may be deficient in the CNS of male homosexuals. Morphological or functional (neurotransmitter) anomalies in androgen actions at the CNS level could also favor radical dissociation between psychological sex and gonadal, hormonal and phenotypic sex in transsexualism. In conclusion, the present review seems to indicate that hormonal factors (gonadal and adrenal hormones, hormone receptors, transduction mechanism of the hormonal signal, neurosteroids, neurotransmitters etc.) play a determining role in the formation of gender identity. PMID:8850137

  18. Does High Quality Fat Diet Cause Hormonal Level Changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty adult male albino rats arranged into three equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of adding 15% oil, normal or fried, to the rat diet for two months on the levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), corticosterone, testosterone and progesterone. Addition of 15% normal oil to the rat diet for two months caused non-significant changes in all these hormones while fried oil (thermally oxidized fat) caused increases in T4, testosterone and decrease in corticosterone. These results denoted that although high fat diet affect numerous blood components, adding 15% of normal oil to the diet had no affect on thyroid, stress or sex hormones while fried oil disturbed some hormones, most probably due to high lipid peroxides found in fried oil.

  19. DEHP reduces thyroid hormones via interacting with hormone synthesis-related proteins, deiodinases, transthyretin, receptors, and hepatic enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Letian; Wei, Li; Li, Lianbing

    2015-08-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used extensively in many personal care and consumer products, resulting in widespread nonoccupational human exposure through multiple routes and media. Limited studies suggest that exposure to DEHP may be associated with altered thyroid function, but detailed mechanisms are unclear. In order to elucidate potential mechanisms by which DEHP disturbs thyroid hormone homeostasis, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day for 30 days and sacrificed within 24 h after the last dose. Gene expressions of thyroid hormone receptors, deiodinases, transthyretin, and hepatic enzymes were measured by RT-PCR; protein levels of transthyretin were also analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that DEHP caused histological changes in the thyroid and follicular epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were observed. DEHP significantly reduced thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) levels, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was not affected. After exposure to DEHP, biosynthesis of thyroid hormones was suppressed, and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) levels were significantly reduced. Additionally, levels of deiodinases and transthyretin were also affected. TSH receptor (TSHr) level was downregulated, while TRH receptor (TRHr) level was upregulated. Metabolism of thyroid hormones was accelerated due to elevated gene expression of hepatic enzymes (UDPGTs and CYP2B1) by DEHP. Taken together, observed findings indicate that DEHP could reduce thyroid hormones through influencing biosynthesis, biotransformation, biotransport, receptor levels, and metabolism of thyroid hormones. PMID:25913319

  20. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fact sheet about the results of research on menopausal hormone therapy. Includes information about the effect of menopausal hormone therapy on the body. Also outlines the benefits and risks of using menopausal hormones.

  1. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional-motivational and social factors.

  2. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.P., Saraiva; N.B., Figueiredo; C.R., Padovani; M.M., Brentani; C.R., Nogueira.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine t [...] he profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F), free thyroxine (T4F), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibody (TPO), and estradiol (E2). Estrogen receptor ß (ERß) was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P

  3. Elevated prealbumin level following high thyroid hormones levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kinoshita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to report about a patient with high prealbumin level [56.8 mg/dL (reference range 22.0-40.0 mg/dL] following elevation in thyroid hormones levels. Among the thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine (free T4 and total T4 level showed an elevation. Triiodothyronine (free T3 and total T3 level was within normal limits. Since prealbumin mainly transports T4, the elevation of prealbumin level along with T4 level is reaso- nable. When patients have chronic hyperthyroidism without thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb, a diagnosis will be Negative Graves’ disease. However, a part of patients with Negative Graves’ disease may be High prealbumin syndrome.

  4. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but not the other • Bloody discharge from a nipple & breast cancer hormones, Women, FACT SHeeT www.hormone.org hormones, Women, and Breast cancer fact sheet the hormone health network offers free, online resources based on the most advanced clinical ...

  5. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases , Thyroid Hormone Treatment | No Comments From Mayo Clinic – Some medical discoveries truly stand the test of time. The case of a dedicated Mayo Clinic chemist is a prime example. Feeling he was ...

  6. Bioidentical Hormone Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Files, Julia A; Ko, Marcia G.; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2011-01-01

    The change in hormonal milieu associated with perimenopause and menopause can lead to a variety of symptoms that can affect a woman's quality of life. Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is an effective, well-tolerated treatment for these symptoms. However, combined HT consisting of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been associated with an increased number of health risks when compared with conjugated equine estrogen alone or placebo. As a result, some women are t...

  7. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms of enteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones

  8. Hormonal Link to Autoimmune Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Shilpa

    2012-01-01

    IgE recognition of autoantigens might augment allergic inflammation in the absence of exogenous allergen exposure. Among allergy and autoimmunity, there is disproportionate representation of males before puberty and females after puberty, suggesting a role for sex hormones. Hormone allergy is an allergic reaction where the offending allergens are one's own hormones. It is an immune reaction to the hormones, which can interfere with the normal function of the hormones. It can occur perimenstru...

  9. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individu...

  10. Radioimmunoassay of GI hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive review describes the radioimmunoassay method of quantitating the wide variety of gastrointestinal peptide hormones, particularly gastrin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, secretin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The problems associated with the development of the radioimmunoassay method are discussed. These include the production of antisera and ways of overcoming the difficulties of raising antibodies to low molecular weight peptide hormones; the quantity, quality and specificity of antisera; the different methods of labelling tracer antigen with 125I depending on the nature of amino acids available for labelling in the peptide hormone and the subsequent methods of labelled antigen purification; the methods of separating antibody bound from free hormone; and the standardization and quality control of assays and ways of increasing their sensitivity. A summary of the conditions and sensitivities of nine radioimmunoassays for gastrointestinal peptide hormones performed routinely in the author's laboratory is given. The problems associated with the interpretation of radioimmunoassay results are also raised including non-specific interference and other possible sources of error. (U.K.)

  11. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  12. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-09-15

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  13. [Hormonal contraception in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, F; Buttarelli, M; Cromi, A; Di Naro, E; Franchi, M

    2001-12-01

    The proper use of hormonal contraceptives represents an effective and safe prevention of unintended pregnancies which are still associated with morbidity and mortality. The side effects of the hormonal method are of concern to many young women even if a lot of adolescents are unaware of health benefits associated with their use except for those regarding menstrual disorders. Effective contraception improves health and may gives non contraceptives benefits such as a decreased risk of developing pelvic inflammatory diseases and improvement of endometriosis. However, incorrect or inconsistent use and discontinuation rate are higher in young girls than in older women determining a higher incidence of voluntary abortion. The use of hormonal contraception in adolescents is still a topic of discussion among medical practitioners. Adolescents require an accurate screening and a more frequent follow-up to reduce side effects and improve compliance and use. PMID:11723425

  14. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Fleming, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol.

  15. Impact of growth hormone administration on other hormonal axes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J O; Ovesen, Per Glud; Juul, A; Hansen, T K; Skakkebaek, N E; Christiansen, J S

    1999-01-01

    Growth hormone regulates several other hormonal systems and vice versa. The present review focusses on the effect of GH administration in adults on selected hormonal systems. Growth hormone treatment has been linked to development of central hypothyroidism in hypopituitary children. We now know that GH enhances the extra-thyroidal conversion of T(4) to T(3). Lowering of T(4) during GH treatment therefore reflects biochemical unmasking of subclinical central hypothyroidism. In normal adults GH ad...

  16. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  17. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ... produce the same amount at a slower rate. AGING CHANGES The hypothalamus is located in the brain. ...

  18. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  19. Thyroid hormone resistance may course hypotonia in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivkovska, Julijana; Born, Alfred Peter

    2014-01-01

    Allan Herndon Dudley's syndrome (AHDS) is X-linked mental retardation and hypotonia caused by mutations in a thyroid hormone transporter gene - MCT8. The typical thyreoidea AHDS profile is elevated T3, low-normal T4 and normal or elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Neonatal screening with TSH often does not identify AHDS in boys and therefore it is of paramount importance to screen boys who present with hypo-tonia and/or mental retardation with thyroidea profile. In the case report a four and a half month-old boy with develop-mental delay and hypotonia is described and diagnosed with AHDS. The finding of the typical thyroidea profile leads to the diagnosis which is confirmed by DNA analysis.

  20. Growth hormone and diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Singh R.; Agrawal J; Kumar V.; Raman R; Maurya OPS

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone has been considered to be the cause of diabetic retinopathy. However the relationship between growth hormone responses and diabetic retinopathy has not been consistent. Moreover, the correlation (if any) between the severity of retinopathy and growth hormone changes are also not well defined. In the present study 23 diabetics (16 with retinopathy, 7 without retinopathy) and 8 non-diabetic healthy controls were studied. Serum growth hormone was measured in the fasting state and ...

  1. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be painful. Thinning of your bones, which may lead to loss of height and bone breaks (osteoporosis). Who needs treatment for symptoms of ... for menopause? Lower hormone levels in menopause may lead to hot flashes, vaginal dryness and thin bones. To help with these problems, women are often ...

  2. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  3. Radioactive peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter is concerned with the various methods that are employed to prepare radioactive peptide hormones. These include exchange techniques, controlled replacement of hydrogen by tritium, introduction of tritium atoms in pre-established positions. The last section deals with preparation and storage of radioactive polypeptides. 70 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. Recombinant hormones in osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-01-01

    For the last 10 years, bone anabolic therapy with the recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) analogue, teriparatide (rhPTH[1 - 34]), or full-length rhPTH(1 - 84) has been an option in the treatment of osteoporosis. Both drugs are given as a daily subcutaneous injection. In the USA, only teriparatide is marketed.

  5. Thyroid hormones before and after weight loss in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, T; Andler, W

    2002-01-01

    Background: Little is known about changes in thyroid function in obese children. An influence of leptin on thyroid hormone synthesis has been proposed. Aims: To examine thyroid function and leptin concentrations in obese children. Methods: Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and leptin were measured in 118 obese children (aged 4.5–16 years); thyroid function was also determined in 107 healthy children of normal weight. T3, T4, and TSH were analysed in 55 obese children who had achieved weight reduction and in 13 obese children who had not achieved weight reduction after one year based on normal energy diet. Results: TSH, T3, and T4 were significantly higher in obese children compared to those of normal weight. Twelve per cent of the obese children had TSH, 15% had T3, and 11% had T4 concentrations above the twofold standard deviation of normal weight children. The degree of overweight correlated with T3, T4, and TSH. Thyroid hormones did not correlate significantly with leptin. A reduction in overweight showed a significant decrease in T3, T4, and leptin serum concentrations, but there was no significant change in TSH. Conclusion: Peripheral thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and TSH are moderately increased in obese children; weight reduction leads to a long term decrease in the peripheral thyroid hormones but not in TSH. There is no necessity to treat the increased serum TSH. PMID:12244007

  6. Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Variation on a Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythrow, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events. PMID:17549577

  7. Terapia hormonal da menopausa Menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Pardini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM, estrogênica (TE ou estro-progestagênica (TEP. A principal indicação para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida.Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT, estrogen therapy (ET, and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT. The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal women remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

  8. Terapia hormonal da menopausa / Menopausal hormone therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dolores, Pardini.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM), estrogênica (TE) ou estro-progestagênica (TEP). A principal indica [...] ção para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida. Abstract in english Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET), and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT). The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal w [...] omen remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT) of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

  9. [Hormones and the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Czyzyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Hormones have an influence on many tissues and organs, including the cardio-vascular system (CVS). Depending on their activity on CVS, they can be divided into 4 groups: having hypertensive or hypotensive influence and chronotropic positive or negative action. Endocrine regulation in CVS may occur in many ways. Apart from hormones usually connected with CVS regulation, other more recently, discovered ones can act on it. A few of these act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. Additionally, novel mechanisms of signal transduction have been discovered for steroid and thyroid hormones, which are independent of gene transcription regulation and are - known as "nongenomic". Hormones which increase blood pressure include: urotensin II, endothelins, angiotensin II, catecholamines, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and leptin. On the other hand, blood pressure can be decreased by: natriuretic peptides, the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, angiotensin 1-7, substance P, neurokinin A, ghrelin, Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), oxytocin, and, sex hormones. Hormones which when appearing in excess increase the heart rate are: catecholamines, endothelins, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, leptin and PTHrP. Those which decrease the heart rate include: natriuretic peptides, substance P, neurokinin A, oxytocin, angiotensin 1-7. This paper describes the contemporary view of the functions of hormones which act on the vessel tree and heart. The particular effect of mediator depends on many circumstances i.e.: hormone concentration, receptor type. It may also undergo contraregulation. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVS diseases', which can result in the development of new medicines. PMID:18979453

  10. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse tr...

  11. Predictive value of thyroid hormones on the first day in adult respiratory distress syndrome patients admitted to ICU : Comparison with SOFA and APACHE II scores.

    OpenAIRE

    Ture Mevlut; Memis Dilek; Kurt Imran; Pamukcut Zafer

    2005-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone dysfunction could affect outcome and increase mortality in critical illness. Therefore, in a prospective, observational study we analyzed and compared the prognostic accuracy of free tri-iodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), along with the APACHE II and SOFA scoring systems in predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in critically ill patients. Patients and Methods: Physiology scores were calculated for the first 24 hou...

  12. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other cell types. The extraintestinal cells may synthesize different bioactive fragments of the same prohormone due tocell-specific processing pathways. Moreover, endocrine cells, neurons, cancer cells, and, for instance, spermatozoa release the peptides differentially (autocrine, endocrine, neurocrine, paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells. Also the target cells of gut hormones occur widespread outside the digestive tract.

  13. A case of thyroid hormone resistance: a rare mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pires Gonçalves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones (RSTH is a rare disease that affects about 3,000 individuals, belonging to about 1,000 families. It results from reduced intracellular action of thyroid hormones (TH genetically determined and manifests as persistent hyperthyroxinemia with non-suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH. We describe a 67-years old, Caucasian woman, with past history of subtotal thyroidectomy due to diffuse goiter, who presents with a recurrence of goiter. Although she is clinically euthyroid, laboratory evaluation shows persistent hyperthyroxinemia with non-suppressed TSH. Response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH test was normal and TSH concentrations were not suppressed during oral administration of suprafisiologic doses of levothyroxine (L-T4. Peripheral blood DNA was extracted from the patient and a mutation was found localized in cluster one, at codon 346 of the ligand binding domain of the THRB gene. The patient’s son underwent thyroid function testing (TFT and genetic study, both negative, suggesting a sporadic mutation. RSTH should be considered in all hyperthyroxinemic patients who are clinically euthyroid. Mutations interfering with three major steps required for TH action on target tissues have been, so far, identified (TR-?, TR-?, MCT8, SPB2. Each mutation is associated with a distinctive syndrome. Goal of management is to maintain a normal serum TSH level and a eumetabolic state and offer appropriate genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Inappropriate treatment of eumetabolic patients results in hypothyroidism and need for TH replacement.

  14. Israel EQAS for thyroid related hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free Thyroxine (FT4) radioimmunoassay (RIA) was operated in 36 laboratories. The 17 serum pools distributed covered analyte concentrations from subnormal to elevated values. Five of these were based on ''zero analyte'' pools artificially prepared by treatment with Amberlite. ''Spiked'' sera was used for recovery studies. Eleven pools were analyzed more than once. Abnormal, method dependent results with large interlaboratory variation was observed in the Amberlite treated pools. A ''matrix effect' was suspected and the results excluded from analysis. The All Laboratory Trimmed Mean (ALTM) was stable to within 4% for each analyte and taken as target value. Overall recovery for T3, T4, and TSH was 101, 91, and 89 per cent. Laboratory performance was assessed from the bias of each result and the variability of bias (as CV of bias for each test), over one year. Performance has improved, especially for TSH, where median bias decreased to 1% from 39%. Percentage of laboratories with unacceptable performance fell from 79% to 32%. A trend towards increased use of IRMA for TSH and of F-T4 was observed. However, F-T4 results proved method dependent. TSH IRMA is suggested as the best supplementary test to T4 for thyroid function testing. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Hormones and cancer in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Key, TJ

    1995-01-01

    Hormones play a major role in the aetiology of several of the commonest cancers worldwide, including cancers of the endometrium, breast and ovary in women and cancer of the prostate in men. It is likely that the main mechanisms by which hormones affect cancer risk are by controlling the rate of cell division, the differentiation of cells and the number of susceptible cells. Hormones have very marked effects on cell division in the endometrium; oestrogens stimulate mitosis whereas progestins o...

  16. Hormones and Borderline Personality Features

    OpenAIRE

    Evardone, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M; Morey, Leslie C

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality is diagnosed in clinical settings three times more often in women than in men, and symptom severity in women appears sensitive to circulating sex steroid levels. In non-human mammals, prenatal hormones contribute to the development of sex-linked behavior and their responsiveness to postnatal hormones. Therefore, this study examined the hypothesis that prenatal hormones may influence the development of borderline personality traits by measuring a marker of perinatal andr...

  17. Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Bridget M; Tobet, Stuart A.; Lara, Hernan E.; Lucion, Aldo B.; Wilson, Melinda E; SERGIO E RECABARREN; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2012-01-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal ho...

  18. Mammalian sex hormones in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Skoczowski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17?-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture

  19. Coordination of mitochondrial biogenesis by thyroid hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Weitzel, Joachim M.; Alexander Iwen, K.

    2011-01-01

    ? We developed a model for different time courses in thyroid hormone-mediated gene transcription. ? Early induced thyroid hormone target genes are direct targets via thyroid hormone receptors. ? Late induced thyroid hormone target genes are regulated via intermediate factors. ? Intermediate factors of thyroid hormone action are defined.

  20. Interactions between calciotropic hormones.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbeer, J N

    1987-01-01

    The metatarsal cytochemical bioassay (CBA) for parathyroid hormone (PTH) was adapted to study interactions between PTH and certain vitamin D metabolites. Thus, while they had no effect in the system alone, both 1,25(OH)2D3 and 25(OH)D3 caused a dose-dependent potentiation of PTH-stimulated glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the hypertrophic chondrocytes of the rat metatarsal. 1,25(OH)2D3 was about 1000 times more potent than 25(OH)D3. Specificity is indicated by the lack of a simil...

  1. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combinations of estrogen and progestin are used to treat certain symptoms of menopause. Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone that is no longer being made by ...

  2. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method

  3. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-05-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

  4. Emergence of an Ancestral Glycoprotein Hormone in the Pituitary of the Sea Lamprey, a Basal Vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sower, Stacia A; Decatur, Wayne A; Hausken, Krist N; Marquis, Timothy J; Barton, Shannon L; Gargan, James; Freamat, Mihael; Wilmot, Michael; Hollander, Lian; Hall, Jeffrey A; Nozaki, Masumi; Shpilman, Michal; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2015-08-01

    The gnathostome (jawed vertebrates) classical pituitary glycoprotein hormones, FSH, LH, and TSH, consist of a common ?-subunit (GpA1) and unique ?-subunits (Gp?1, -2, and -3), whereas a recently identified pituitary glycoprotein hormone, thyrostimulin, consists of GpA2 and GpB5. This paper reports the identification, expression, and function of an ancestral, nonclassical, pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone (GpH) consisting of the thyrostimulin A2 subunit with the classical ?-subunit in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, a jawless basal vertebrate. Lamprey (l) GpA2, and lGpH? were shown to form a heterodimer by coimmunoprecipitation of lGpA2 with FLAG-tagged lGpH? after the overexpression in transiently transfected COS7 cells using a bipromoter vector. Dual-label fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed the coexpression of individual subunits in the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. GnRH-III (1??) significantly increased the expression of lGpH? and lGpA2 in in vitro pituitary culture. Recombinant lamprey GpH was constructed by tethering the N terminal of lGpA2 to the C terminal of lGpH? with a linker region composed of six histidine residues followed by three glycine-serine repeats. This recombinant lamprey GpH activated the lamprey glycoprotein hormone receptor I as measured by increased cAMP/luciferase activity. These data are the first to demonstrate a functional, unique glycoprotein heterodimer that is not found in any other vertebrate. These data suggest an intermediate stage of the structure-function of the gonadotropin/thyroid-stimulating hormone in a basal vertebrate, leading to the emergence of the highly specialized gonadotropin hormones and thyroid stimulating hormones in gnathostomes. PMID:26066074

  5. [Hormonal treatment of transsexual persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkanen, Helena; Das, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The primary investigations and starting the hormonal treatment of transsexual persons takes place in Helsinki and Tampere University hospitals as part of the real life period. The hormones used are estrogen and anti-androgen for MtoF and testosterone for FtoM persons. The medication suppresses the endogenous sex-hormone production and brings about the desired features of the other sex. While the recommended doses result in physiological hormone levels, higher doses do not hasten or increase the desired changes and are a health risk. After the transition period, the follow up is referred to the person's home district. The physical and psychological status and laboratory values are evaluated at the yearly follow-up doctor visits. Although the hormone doses are lowered and percutaneous administration route is favored upon aging, stopping the medication is not recommended. PMID:26237927

  6. Migraine: is it related to hormonal disturbances or stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashar R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rachna Parashar,1 Payal Bhalla,2 Nirendra K Rai,3 Abhijit Pakhare,4 Rashmi Babbar5 1Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 2Department of Physiology, Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 5Department of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India Background: Common neurological syndrome (migraine without aura is more common among women than men. Migraine is among the top 20 causes of disability. Menstruation is known to be a powerful trigger for migraine, and so is stress, but the presentation of headache is similar in both. Also, women are more vulnerable to stress as well as migraine, and this makes a complex relationship of menstruation, stress, and migraine. Objective: This study was done to understand the association of hormonal fluctuation in menstruation and stress with common migraine. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 40 young adult females, of whom 20 participants were cases of migraine without aura (18–35 years old, and the remaining 20 participants were age-matched controls. The study was done in Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. Study participants were selected on the basis of International Headache Society (ICHD-IIA1.1 (2004 classification. Study participants with neurological disorders, chronic diseases, and disease suggestive of any hormonal disturbances were excluded. Clinically diagnosed migraine cases were asked to maintain a headache diary and to fill in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales questionnaire. Biochemical assessment of hormonal status for thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin was also done on the second day of their menstrual cycle. We used the Mann–Whitney U test to compare hormonal levels and the ?2 test to compare anxiety- or depression-related stress among the migraine and nonmigraine groups. Results: Significantly higher values of prolactin were observed in cases (mean ± standard deviation, 152.7 mIU/L±30.5 compared to controls (76.1 mIU/L±8.7, with a P-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant difference observed in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (P=0.081, estrogen (P=0.086, luteinizing hormone (P=0.091, or follicle-stimulating hormone (P=0.478. Also, anxiety with stress or depression with stress was significantly higher among the migraine group than the controls (P=0.002. Odds of any stress in migraine were higher in the migraine group than in the nonmigraine group (odds ratio 12, 95% confidence interval 2.7–53.33. Conclusion: Migraine, particularly without aura, in women is mainly associated with stress-related anxiety or depression, and are more susceptible to stress in the premenstrual period. Keywords: migraine, menstruation, stress

  7. Anti-mullerian hormon level and polycystic ovarian syndrome diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Zadehmodarres

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrinopathy that accompanied with long term complications. The early diagnosis of this syndrome can prevent it. Objective: The aim was to determine the role of anti-mullerian hormon (AMH in PCOS diagnosis and to find cut off level of it. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 117 women between 20-40 years old were participated in two groups: 60 PCOS women (based on Rotterdam criteria consensus as the case group and 57 normal ovulatory women as the control group. In day 2-4 of cycle, transvaginal sonography was performed and serum hormonal level of AMH, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol (E2, testosterone, fasting blood sugar (FBS, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, and prolactin (PRL were measured in all of participants. For all of them score of hirsutism (base on Freeman-Galloway scoring was determined. Results: There were statistically significant in irregular pattern of menstruation, AMH and FSH level, and presence of hirsutism between two groups. But regarding mean of age, body mass index, plasma level of PRL, TSH, LH, Testosterone, FBS, and E2 differences were not significant. Construction by ROC curve present 3.15 ng/ml as AMH cut off with 70.37% sensitivity and 77.36% specificity in order to PCOS diagnosis. Conclusion: AMH with cut off level of 3.15 ng/ml with sensitivity 70.37% and specificity 77.36% could use for early diagnosis of PCOS patients.

  8. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on acquired growth hormone resistance in malnourished children using radioisotopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the influence of nutrition on growth hormone resistance in children who were suffering from prologed protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The plasma levels of glucose and serum levels of insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free teraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were analyzed by radioisotopic techniques in 7 children with marasmus (mean age 5.29 1.01) and 14 children with unexplained short stature (stunted) (mean age 6.21 1.72) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. At the basal condition of laboratory investigations, the GH level was significantly higher in the two malnourished groups compared to control (P< 0.01), whereas, plasma glucose levels and insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two malnourished groups and the control

  9. Carcinogênese hormonal e neoplasias hormônio-dependentes Hormonal carcinogenesis and hormone dependents neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Estrêla da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias hormônio-dependentes podem originar-se de mutações genéticas resultantes da proliferação de células normais ou da multiplicação de células já transformadas por outros carcinógenos. Alguns hormônios e drogas anti-hormonais estão sendo utilizados com sucesso no tratamento dessas neoplasias em humanos. Apesar da freqüência elevada das neoplasias hormônio-dependentes nos animais, seu tratamento com hormônios antagonistas e fármacos anti-hormonais, bem como a identificação imunoistoquímica de receptores hormonais nas neoplasias não fazem parte da rotina dos hospitais veterinários.The hormone-dependent neoplasms may originate from genetic mutations resulting the normal cells proliferation or of the cells multiplication already transformed by other carcinogen. Some hormones and anti-hormones drugs are being used with success in the treatment of those neoplasm in humans. In spite of the elevated frequency of the hormone dependent neoplasms in the animals, the use of antagonistic hormones and anti-hormones drugs, as well as the identification immunohistochemical of hormones receptors in the neoplasm is not already part of the veterinary hospitals routine.

  10. Carcinogênese hormonal e neoplasias hormônio-dependentes / Hormonal carcinogenesis and hormone dependents neoplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra Estrêla da, Silva; Rogéria, Serakides; Geovanni Dantas, Cassali.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias hormônio-dependentes podem originar-se de mutações genéticas resultantes da proliferação de células normais ou da multiplicação de células já transformadas por outros carcinógenos. Alguns hormônios e drogas anti-hormonais estão sendo utilizados com sucesso no tratamento dessas neoplasi [...] as em humanos. Apesar da freqüência elevada das neoplasias hormônio-dependentes nos animais, seu tratamento com hormônios antagonistas e fármacos anti-hormonais, bem como a identificação imunoistoquímica de receptores hormonais nas neoplasias não fazem parte da rotina dos hospitais veterinários. Abstract in english The hormone-dependent neoplasms may originate from genetic mutations resulting the normal cells proliferation or of the cells multiplication already transformed by other carcinogen. Some hormones and anti-hormones drugs are being used with success in the treatment of those neoplasm in humans. In spi [...] te of the elevated frequency of the hormone dependent neoplasms in the animals, the use of antagonistic hormones and anti-hormones drugs, as well as the identification immunohistochemical of hormones receptors in the neoplasm is not already part of the veterinary hospitals routine.

  11. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  12. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Extramural Research NCI's Role ... to allow breast-conserving surgery . Data from randomized controlled trials have shown that neoadjuvant hormone therapies—in ...

  13. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  14. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the standard treatment for men who have a prostate cancer recurrence documented by CT , MRI , or bone scan after treatment with radiation therapy or prostatectomy. Hormone therapy is often recommended for men who ...

  15. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual link...

  16. Thyroid hormone and adipocyte differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Obregón, María Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid hormones act as pleiotropic factors in many tissues during development, by regulating genes involved in differentiation. The adipose tissue, a target of thyroid hormones, is the main place for energy storage and acts as a regulator of energy balance, sending signals to keep metabolic control. Adipogenesis is a complex process that involves proliferation of preadipocytes and its differentiation into mature adipocytes. This process is regulated by several transcription factors (CCAAT/en...

  17. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased risk of venous thromboembolism as compared with nonusers, and about twice the risk as compared with users of products with norethisterone, levonorgestrel or norgestimate (low-risk products). Transderma...

  18. Growth hormone and protein metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Vendelbo, Mikkel; Kampmann, Ulla; Christensen, Britt; Madsen, Michael; Nørrelund, Helene; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and intracellular STAT 5 signalling represents a very old regulatory system and, whereas insulin dominates periprandially, GH may be viewed as the primary anabolic hormone during stress and fasting. GH exerts metabolic effects both directly and through stimulation of IGF-I, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA). When well nourished the GH-induced stimulation of IGF-I and insulin is important for tissue anabolism whereas during fasting and other catabolic states GH predominantly...

  19. Hormones and cancer in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    1995-12-01

    Hormones play a major role in the aetiology of several of the commonest cancers worldwide, including cancers of the endometrium, breast and ovary in women and cancer of the prostate in men. It is likely that the main mechanisms by which hormones affect cancer risk are by controlling the rate of cell division, the differentiation of cells and the number of susceptible cells. Hormones have very marked effects on cell division in the endometrium; oestrogens stimulate mitosis whereas progestins oppose this effect. The risk for endometrial cancer increases with late menopause, oestrogen replacement therapy and obesity, and decreases with parity and oral contraceptive use; thus risk increases in proportion to the duration of exposure to oestrogens unopposed by progestins, probably because unopposed oestrogens stimulate endometrial cell division. The effects of hormones on breast epithelial cell division in non-pregnant women are much less clear-cut than their effects on the endometrium, but both oestrogens and progestins appear to stimulate mitosis. Breast cancer risk increases with early menarche, late menopause and oestrogen replacement therapy, probably due to increased exposure of the breasts to oestrogen and/or progesterone. Early first pregnancy and multiparity reduce the risk for breast cancer, probably due to the hormonally-induced differentiation of breast cells and the corresponding reduction in the number of susceptible cells. Hormones do not have marked direct effects on the epithelial cells covering the ovaries, but hormones stimulate ovulation which is followed by cell division during repair of the epithelium. Risk for ovarian cancer increases with late menopause and decreases with parity and oral contraceptive use, suggesting that the lifetime number of ovulations may be a determinant of risk. For all three of these cancers risk changes within a few years of changes in exposure to sex hormones and some of the changes in risk persist for many years, indicating that hormones can affect both early and late stages of carcinogenesis. Understanding of the role of sex hormones in the aetiology of prostate cancer and of some rarer cancers is less complete. PMID:8538637

  20. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  1. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor ß (ERß was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

  2. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AntonioBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  3. T3 release from thyroid slices as an assay for thyroid stimulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new in vitro bioassay for thyroid stimulators is described. The method is based on radioimmunological measurement of triiodothyronine (T3) release from thyroid slices. Small thyroid slices were cut from several porcine thyroids. The slices were pooled in incubation vessels. The stimulating effect of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), bovine TSH, and serum from a patient with Graves's disease was investigated. After 3 hr the T3 concentration was significantly higher in the vessels containing the thyroid stimulators than in the control vessels. For maximal sensitivity 16 hr of incubation was used in the assay. Bovine TSH, human TSH, and serum from a patient with Graves's disease gave linear dose response curves in a log-log system. For bovine TSH the curve was linear from 5 to 125 ?U/ml incubation medium. The dilution curves for bovine TSH and serum from a patient with Graves's disease were parallel. The dilution curve for human TSH was considerably steeper. In 5 assays the ? values for the bovine TSH curves were 0.10-0.16 (mean, 0.12). In 3 assays the ? values for the human TSH curves were 0.05-0.07. (auth.)

  4. Maternal and fetal hormonal profiles of anemic pregnant women of Eastern Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaemia is defined as reduction in circulating hemoglobin mass below the critical level expected for age and sex. Anaemia affects almost two- thirds of pregnant women in developing countries, it is associated with poor maternal and prenatal outcomes. Anaemia during pregnancy through many endocrine alterations-may influence the maternal and fetal environment. To investigate the anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal profiles in paired maternal and cord blood samples and to compare between the two groups, anaemic (n=68) and non-anaemic groups (n=57), in order to study the endocrine effects of anaemia during pregnancy in the mothers and their neonates. This cross sectional study was conducted in Gadarif hospital, Eastern Sudan. Women were classified into two groups based on the WHO classification of anaemia: Group 1(normal control-no anaemia Hb>11.0 g/dl) Group 2 anaemic, (Hb11g/dl). There was no significant difference in the fetal anthropometrics parameters (weight, length and placental weight) between the anaemic (Hb11g/dl). Maternal prolactin was significantly higher in anaemic group when compared with non anaemic group with p-value =.002. Cord serum albumin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anaemic group with p-value=.04. Cord serum ferritin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anemic group with p-value<.001. There was no significant difference was observed in the other maternal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). There was no significant difference was observed in the other fetal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). In this study there were some maternal and fetal endocrine modulations due to anaemia during pregnancy as indicated by the high levels of maternal prolactin in blood of the anemic women group and also the high values of albumun and ferritin in the cord blood of the anemic women group.(Author)

  5. Specific luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone receptor binding sites in hippocampus and pituitary: an autoradiographical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, J C; Palacios, J M; Maurer, R

    1987-06-01

    Using the iodinated luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone analogue [D-Ala6, N alpha MeLeu7, Pro9 NEt]-luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone as radioligand, specific binding sites have been visualized in the rat both in the pituitary and the hippocampal formation of the brain. In the hippocampus, the CA1, CA2 and particularly CA3 regions were heavily labelled. These hippocampal sites have a pharmacological specificity resembling that of luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone receptors in pituitary homogenates and could therefore represent true luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone receptors. The luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone superagonist [D-Ala6, Pro9 NEt]-luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone and the potent antagonist [D-pGlu1, D-Phe2, D-Trp3,6]-luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone were highly potent in displacing the iodinated luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone analogue. The weak agonist [Gln8]-luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, however, was at least two orders of magnitude less potent. Somatostatin was inactive. Hippocampal luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone receptors were species-specific, being present in the rat but not in the mouse, guinea-pig, hamster, rabbit and human brains. In order to identify the cellular location of these hippocampal receptors, various lesions were performed. Electrolytic lesions of the septal afferents did not reveal any receptor density change. Colchicine as well as kainic acid injections did, however, reduce considerably the number of hippocampal receptors. Interestingly, in the electrolytically and kainic-acid-lesioned animals, the appearance of non-displaceable luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone binding sites within a well-defined area corresponding to the lesioned, gliosis-rich area was observed. The present results suggest the presence of pharmacologically specific, species-dependent, luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone receptors located, at least partly, on intrinsic hippocampal neurons, in particular granule and pyramidal cells. PMID:2819769

  6. Nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid hormones, T3 and T4, modulate a vast number of metabolic processes in mammalian tissues. High affinity, low capacity binding sites for T3 and T4 have been demonstrated in cell nuclei of target organs using both in vivo and in vitro labelling techniques. The displacement of [125I]T3 from nuclear binding sites by thyroid hormone analogues correlates well with the thyromimetic activities of the analogues tested. Dose-response relationships between T3 occupancy and growth hormone secretion as a function of free T3 concentration have been established with the GH1 cell line. The equilibrium dissociation constant of the equation which describes how T3 binds to the nuclei of intact cells is essentially the same as the free T3 concentration that elicits the half-maximal biological response of the hormone. It is becoming apparent that these nuclear binding sites represent specific thyroid hormone receptors, whose function may be to regulate gene activity in target tissues. This report concerns the binding of the rat liver nuclear receptor to duplex and random coil DNA as well as to non-mammalian and synthetic DNAs. We postulate that the receptor binds in vivo to native DNA in the minor groove of the DNA helix

  7. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  8. Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Brito

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone (GH producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

  9. Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia / Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Brito; Lya, Sáez; Melchor, Lemp; Claudio, Liberman; Harold, Michelsen; A Verónica, Araya.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pit [...] uitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

  10. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cibele N., Peroni; Cesar Y., Hayashida; Nancy, Nascimento; Viviane C., Longuini; Rodrigo A., Toledo; Paolo, Bartolini; Cyril Y., Bowers; Sergio P.A., Toledo.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormonereleasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormo [...] ne to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormonereceptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p

  11. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  12. Hormone Action in the Mammary Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Brisken, C; O'Malley, B

    2010-01-01

    A woman’s breast cancer risk is affected by her reproductive history. The hormonal milieu also influences the course of the disease. The female reproductive hormones, estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin, have a major impact on breast cancer and control postnatal mammary gland development. Analysis of hormone receptor mutant mouse strains combined with tissue recombination techniques and proteomics revealed that sequential activation of hormone signaling in the mammary epithelium is require...

  13. Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.-M.J., Lengyel.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the sto [...] mach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a) discovery of this peptide, b) mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c) regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

  14. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ond?ej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Ture?ková, Veronika; Grúz, Ji?í; Rol?ík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 240, ?. 1 (2014), s. 55-76. ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  15. Hormonal contraception: what is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Hormonal contraception has become more effective and more widely used, while the world population has grown from 3000 million in 1960 to 6000 million in 2000. There is a need for improved contraception, because legal abortion is used in a high proportion of pregnancies and illegal abortion continues to be common in some countries. Hormonal contraception now includes different choices of administration and dose regimens. The best selection depends on the benefits and risks of the method and whether there is a medical disability. Medical eligibility for combined oral contraceptives has improved during the past 40 years so that, for most women, all currently available low-dose products are safe. For women with medical conditions, wider eligibility for oral contraceptive use has evolved from better knowledge of the risk factors. The long-term risks of rare cardiovascular and malignant adverse events remain controversial. There are long-term benefits, however, as oral contraceptive use appears to protect against endometrial, ovarian and colorectal cancers. Emergency contraception provides an option that reduces the number of unplanned pregnancies with little or no long-term risk. Endometrial contraception is an option that would ideally have no influence on ovarian function or the bleeding pattern, and cause no significant side-effects. Hormonal male contraception, with indirect suppression of spermatogenesis by decreasing gonadotrophin output, is a further choice. Although hormonal contraception is effective and safe, many research investigations remain to be carried out in order to improve tolerance and achieve wider utilization. PMID:12206470

  16. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gh helps children grow taller (also called linear growth), increases muscle mass, and decreases body fat. In both children ... syndrome In adults, Gh is used to treat • Growth hormone deficiency • Muscle wasting (loss of muscle tissue) from hIV • Short ...

  17. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain. In children, GH is essential for normal growth, muscle and bone strength, and distribution of body fat. ... December 2011 What aRe the siDe eFFects oF GRoWth hoRMone theRapy? ... Headaches • Muscle or joint pain • Mildly underactive thyroid gland • Swelling ...

  18. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  19. Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T4) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), tri iodine thyronine (T3) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

  20. Exposure to difenoconazole causes changes of thyroid hormone and gene expression levels in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Yu, Liang; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2015-11-01

    Difenoconazole was believed to induce a large suite of symptoms during zebrafish development, but little is known about the negative invisible effect known as endocrine disruption. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to various concentrations of difenoconazole from fertilization to 120h post-fertilization (hpf), and the whole body content of thyroid hormone and gene transcription in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were investigated. Results showed thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly decreased, while triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were not changed. Moreover, the mRNA transcription of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh?), transthyretin (ttr), thyronine deiodinase (dio1 and dio2), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (ugt1ab) in the HPT axis were significantly up-regulated, but the transcriptions of thyroglobulin (tg), sodium/iodide symporter (nis) and thyroid hormone receptors tr? were not changed. The overall results showed that exposure to difenoconazole could alter thyroid hormone levels and gene transcription in zebrafish larvae, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. PMID:26590868

  1. The hormonal regulation of life processes in insects (2.) The anti-juvenile hormones (1.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those compounds that decrease either the level or activity of natural endogenous juvenile hormones in insects are called anti-juvenile hormones (AJH). The possible effects of anti-juvenile hormones are manifold: they may inhibit special enzymes or the bindings of juvenile hormones to receptors and transport proteins or may cause the destruction of corpora allata, the sources of juvenile hormones. The most obvious possibility to elicit an anti-juvenile hormone effect lies in the inhibition of enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones

  2. The menopause and hormone replacement therapy: views of women in general practice receiving hormone replacement therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    Women's views on the menopause and hormone replacement therapy were explored using a questionnaire given to women attending one general practice who were having hormone replacement therapy under the supervision of their doctor. Sixty four women (67%) responded. Although only 5% of women had requested hormone replacement therapy from their general practitioner the majority of women indicated that they had been helped by hormone replacement therapy. Eight per cent of women were using hormone re...

  3. Correlation of skin changes with hormonal changes in polycystic ovarian syndrome: A cross-sectional study clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vijaya Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%, followed by hirsutism (62.5%, seborrhea (52.5%, androgenetic alopecia (AGA (30%, acanthosis nigricans (22.5% and acrochordons (10%. Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone.

  4. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jose Carlos, Pereira Jr.; Marcia, Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins, Pessoa.

    Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes th [...] e levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

  5. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Sandeep; Cherian, Davis; Jacob, Jubbin J.

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. ...

  6. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular / Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system / Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena Bastos, Brito; Fernando, Nobre; Carolina Sales, Vieira.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, reali [...] zamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem. Abstract in spanish La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujere [...] s con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven. Abstract in english Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascu [...] lar disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

  7. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.

  8. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma?gorzata Bi?kowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens.

  9. Hormonal Replacement: advantages and disdvantagens Reposição Hormonal: vantagens e desvantagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Aparecida Campesatto Mella

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of estrogens was considered by many people as a physiological condition and not pathological one probably because the ovarian inadequacy is genetically programmed. However with the increase of the expection of the women´s life, the negative impact of the deficiency of estrogens became more significant. Although this deficiency is easy to take care less than, 20% of the women post menopáusicas receive estrogens. The therapy of hormonal replacement (THR in the menopause it appeared as the mainly treatment form, to alleviate the symptoms and act as prevention, reducing the emergence of diseases, as the cardiovascular and the osteoporosis, but THR is not totally unproved of risks. The hormonal therapeutical has past the last years for doubts and uncertainties, in consequence of several related publications of its use, this way it becomes important to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this therapy. Analyse througha wide bibliographical revision, the advantages and disadvantages of the TRH replacement in women climatérias, as well as evaluate if the possible risks of this therapy overcomes s the benefits proportionate for the same . It was used as methodology bibliographical researches made in libraries and internet. The texts of books and scientific articles were studied and the contents of them were selected for the elaboration of this work. The THR is recommended to alleviate the vasomotores symptoms , treatment of vaginal atrophy and prevention of osteoporosis. In spite of the acquaintances advantages, approximately 70% of the women interrupt the treatment after the first year. One of the principal causes of the low adherence of THR is the bleed irregular , other reasons includes mastalgia, nausea, chronic headache, profit of weight and hidrica retention, besides the fear of cancer. The decision of a woman to use the TRH is a complex process and it is recommended by the doctor, who is taking care of her by the individual risk of diseases, by the attitudes toward the menopause and THR, values menopausais, symptoms and to the middle to which the woman belongs. A deficiência de estrogênio foi considerada por muitos uma condição fisiológica ,e não patológica, provavelmente porque a insuficiência ovariana é geneticamente programada. Entretanto com o aumento da expectativa de vida das mulheres, o impacto negativo da deficiência de estrogênio tornou-se mais significativo. Embora essa deficiência seja tratável, menos de 20% das mulheres pós menopáusicas recebem estrogênio. Embora a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH na menopausa não seja totalmente isenta de riscos,ela tem sido utilizada com o objetivo de aliviar sintomas e de agir preventivamente e assim reduzir o aparecimento de doenças, como as cardiovasculares e a osteoporose. A terapêutica hormonal tem passado os últimos anos por duvidas e incertezas, em conseqüência de diversas publicações relacionadas a seu uso, desta forma torna-se importante analisar as vantagens e desvantagens dessa terapia: analisar através de uma ampla revisão bibliográfica, as vantagens e desvantagens da terapia de reposição hormonal em mulheres climatérias, bem como avaliar se os possíveis riscos dessa terapia superam os benefícios proporcionados pela mesma. Utilizou-se como metodologia a pesquisa bibliográfica efetuada em bibliotecas e internet e os textos de livros e artigos científicos foram estudados e os conteúdos selecionados para a elaboração do trabalho.A terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH é recomendada para alivio dos sintomas vasomotores, tratamento da atrofia vaginal e prevenção da osteoporose. Apesar das conhecidas vantagens, aproximadamente 70% das mulheres cessam o tratamento após o primeiro ano. Uma das principais causas da baixa aderência a TRH é o sangramento irregular, outras razões incluem mastalgia, náusea, cefaléia, ganho de peso e retenção hídrica, além do medo de câncer. A decisão de uma mulher em usar terapia de reposição hormonal é um processo complexo determinado pela r

  10. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    GHIGO, Ezio; ARVAT, Emanuela; MUCCIOLI, Giampiero; CAMANNI, Franco

    1997-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence str...

  11. Gut hormones in acute diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Besterman, H S; Christofides, N D; Welsby, P.D.; Adrian, T. E.; Sarson, D L; Bloom, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    The gut hormone response to a breakfast meal was studied in 12 subjects hospitalised for an episode of acute diarrhoea (presumed infective) who were otherwise well and in 13 healthy control subjects. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were low but basal insulin concentrations were raised. Basal concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide and both basal and postprandial responses of motilin, enteroglucagon, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were also significantly greater than control...

  12. [Hormone replacement and breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhäuser, M

    2002-12-11

    This review discusses the effect of Oestrogens, Progestagens, Tibolone, Raloxifene and Phytooestrogens in postmenopausal women on the breast. Epidemiological statisticians are only speaking of a clinical significance if the relative risk is half ( 2.0). All published data from observational studies or from important meta- and reanalyses concerning the relative risk of breast cancer in women using postmenopausal hormone therapy are within these limits and clearly below the risk observed in young smokers. The relative risk for breast cancer observed in the Womens Health Initiative (WHI) stays within these limits too, in women treated by a fix Oestrogen-Progestagen combination. However, in the WHI, there was no increase of the relative risk for breast cancer in women using oestrogens alone. The risk for breast cancer rises in parallel to the duration of the hormone treatment. The risk for hormone users to suffer from breast cancer does not increase earlier than 4-5 years after the start of the therapy. An important reanalysis reports, that after 5 years of hormone use, a breast cancer is diagnosed in 2 additional women out of 1000 (47 instead of 45 women). The absolute risk should be indicated in addition to the relative risk because, for non-specialists, the exclusive indication of the relative risk might be misleading. Following the results from the WHI and from some other, older studies, the relative risk for breast cancer might be higher in women taking an oestrogen-progestagen combination than in women using oestrogens alone. Experimental and preliminary clinical data on Tibolone and Raloxifene do not show a negative effect on breast tissue. However, if Tibolone and Raloxifene as well as Phytooestrogens possess a protective activity remains open because prospective randomized long-term clinical studies are still missing. PMID:12520726

  13. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M; Blaakaer, J; Gluud, C; Andersen, J R; Homann, C; Garred, P

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection system allowing us to distinguish between the different electrophoretic patterns in small amounts of plasma or serum (10 microliters). Small aliquots of Blue Sepharose were added to diluted sera or plas...

  14. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Antonietta, Costantino; Giulia, Gava; Marta, Berra; Cristina, Meriggiola Maria

    2014-01-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important ...

  15. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112. ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  16. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcorrelated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  17. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer A. Robinson; Anne E. Burke

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating alter...

  18. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M. Masternak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  19. Keeping circadian time with hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet, E

    2015-09-01

    Daily variations of metabolism, physiology and behaviour are controlled by a network of coupled circadian clocks, comprising a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus and a multitude of secondary clocks in the brain and peripheral organs. Light cues synchronize the master clock that conveys temporal cues to other body clocks via neuronal and hormonal signals. Feeding at unusual times can reset the phase of most peripheral clocks. While the neuroendocrine aspect of circadian regulation has been underappreciated, this review aims at showing that the role of hormonal rhythms as internal time-givers is the rule rather than the exception. Adrenal glucocorticoids, pineal melatonin and adipocyte-derived leptin participate in internal synchronization (coupling) within the multi-oscillatory network. Furthermore, pancreatic insulin is involved in food synchronization of peripheral clocks, while stomach ghrelin provides temporal signals modulating behavioural anticipation of mealtime. Circadian desynchronization induced by shift work or chronic jet lag has harmful effects on metabolic regulation, thus favouring diabetes and obesity. Circadian deregulation of hormonal rhythms may participate in internal desynchronization and associated increase in metabolic risks. Conversely, adequate timing of endocrine therapies can promote phase-adjustment of the master clock (e.g. via melatonin agonists) and peripheral clocks (e.g. via glucocorticoid agonists). PMID:26332971

  20. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HuguesDardente

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  1. Updates in hormonal emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrader, Sarah P; Hall, Larissa N; Ragucci, Kelly R; Rafie, Sally

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, there have been many updates in hormonal emergency contraception. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception has been available for several years to prevent pregnancy when used within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure, and it was recently approved for nonprescription status for patients aged 17 years or older. Current research suggests that the primary mechanism of action is delaying ovulation. Ulipristal is the newest emergency contraception, available by prescription only, approved for use up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure. The primary mechanism of action is delaying ovulation. When compared with levonorgestrel emergency contraception, ulipristal was proven noninferior in preventing pregnancy. Evidence suggests that ulipristal does not lose efficacy from 72-120 hours; however, more studies are warranted to support this claim. Many misconceptions and controversies about hormonal emergency contraception still exist. Research does not support that increased access to emergency contraception increases sexual risk-taking behavior. Several studies suggest that health care providers, including pharmacists, could benefit from increased education about emergency contraception. It is important for pharmacists to remain up-to-date on the most recent hormonal emergency contraception products and information, as pharmacists remain a major point of access to emergency contraception. PMID:21923590

  2. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ? Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ? Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ? Exposure to PBDEs and alternate FRs was associated with alterations in hormone levels.

  3. Study on changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrome due to the stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrom due to the stagnation of liver-qi. Methods: Serum thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), free thyroxine (FT4), cortisol levels were measured with immunoradioassay (IMRA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 30 patients with this type of insomnia and 30 controls. Results: The serum TSH levels were significantly lower and serum TRH, GH, cortisol FT4 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: This insomnia syndrome was closely related to the dysfunction of mpothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and adrenal axis. (authors)

  4. Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

  5. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Bastos Brito; Fernando Nobre; Carolina Sales Vieira

    2011-01-01

    A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose ...

  6. Disfunción eréctil de origen hormonal / Hormonal etiology in erectile dysfunction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José María, Martínez Jabaloyas.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El adecuado funcionamiento del mecanismo de la erección depende de la correcta interrelación de factores psicológicos, vasculares, neurológicos y hormonales. Las enfermedades endocrinas afectan a la función sexual y la disfunción sexual puede ser uno de los síntomas de alguna alteración hormonal. La [...] diabetes mellitus es la alteración endocrina que con más frecuencia causa disfunción eréctil debido a las frecuentes complicaciones vasculares y neurológicas que conlleva. Es importante la determinación de glucosa en la evaluación inicial del varón con disfunción eréctil, así como intentar un adecuado control de los niveles de glucemia para evitar el empeoramiento. La disfunción eréctil del diabético es multifactorial, de mayor severidad y responde peor al tratamiento oral. La hiperprolactinemia es causante de alteraciones en la esfera sexual, ya que provoca descenso de la testosterona. En estos casos, la sintomatología sexual se trata corrigiendo los niveles de prolactina. La determinación rutinaria de la prolactina no está clara y parece que debe determinarse cuando las cifras de testosterona están disminuidas. Las alteraciones de la hormona tiroidea (tanto el hiper como el hipotiroidismo) se asocian a disfunción eréctil, que en la mitad de los casos remitirá con la normalización de la hormona tiroidea. No está claro el papel que juegan las hormonas suprarrenales en la función eréctil y su determinación rutinaria no se contempla en la evaluación diagnóstica de la disfunción eréctil. Tampoco se conoce bien el papel del estradiol en la regulación del mecanismo de la erección, aunque se sabe que cifras elevadas de este pueden provocar disfunción eréctil. Dentro de las alteraciones endocrino-metabólicas reseñar las dislipemias, con la hipercolesterolemia como factor de riesgo importante de disfunción eréctil y aunque su corrección puede prevenir el deterioro del sistema vascular, no está claro el papel de las estatinas en la disfunción eréctil. Abstract in english The proper function of erection mechanisms depend on correct interrelationship between psychological, vascular, neurological and hormonal factors. Endocrine diseases affect sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may be one of the symptoms of some hormonal anomalies. Diabetes mellitus is the endocri [...] ne disease most frequently causing erectile dysfunction due to the frequent vascular and neurological complications associated. It is important to determine blood glucose in the initial evaluation of a male with erectile dysfunction, as well as to try an adequate control of blood glucose levels to avoid worsening. Diabetic male erectile dysfunction is multifactorial, more severe and has worse response to oral treatment. Hyperprolactinemia causes disorders of the sexual sphere because it produces a descent of testosterone. In these cases, sexual symptoms are treated by correcting the levels of prolactin. Routine determination of prolactin is not clear and it seems it should be determined when testosterone levels are diminished. Thyroid hormone disorders (both hyper and hypotyroidism) are associated with erectile dysfunction, which will subside in half the patients with thyroid hormone normalization. The role of adrenal hormones in erectile function is not clear and their routine determination is not considered in the diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction. The role of estradiol in the regulation of the erection mechanism is not well known either, although it is known that high levels may cause erectile dysfunction. Among endocrine-metabolic disorders we point out dyslipemias, with hypercholesterolemia as an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction and, though its correction may prevent vascular system deterioration, the role of statins in erectile dysfunction is not clear.

  7. VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Chaurasia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyroxine (T3. The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4, Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3?IU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 57-59

  8. Variations of Endocrine Hormones Concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under Simulated Seasonal Acclimatized: Role of Leptin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-long

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in endocrine hormones concentrations are important for the survival of small mammals during acclimatization. In order to understand the role of leptin sensitivity on other endocrine hormones concentrations, we examined body mass, serum leptin level, serum insulin, tri-iodothyronine (T 3, thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under seasonal acclimatized (The simulated temperature and photoperiod in winter: 5°C and SD, 8h:16h Light:Dark; the simulated temperature and photoperiod in summer: 30°C and SD, 16h:8h Light:Dark for 4 weeks. The results showed that body mass, serum leptin level, serum T3, T4 concentrations and T3/T4 showed significant variation, but serum insulin and TSH concentrations showed no variations between treatment group. There were positive correlation between serum leptin level and insulin, T4 concentrations, and were negative correlation between serum leptin level and body mass, T3 concentrations. However, no correlation was found between serum TSH concentrations and serum leptin level. The present results suggested T. belangeri overcome winter thermogenesis challenges by adjusting body mass and endocrine hormones concentrations. Furthermore, leptin may play an potential role in their body mass regulation in T. belangeri.

  9. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  10. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2012-02-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  11. Thyroid hormone levels in patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted with three main objectives, to study thyroid hormones (T 4, T 3) and TSH levels in patients with CRF under haemodialysis and to compare them with normal subjects, to study best means of treatment and to compare these findings with results from other parts of the world. This study was done on 61 patients with renal failure in Khartoum dialysis and kidney transplant centre U of K, 45 males and 16 females with ages ranging from 17-75 years and 42 symptoms-free subjects 14 males and 23 females with age ranging from 16-60 years. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used for the determination of serum T 4, T 3 and TSH. By using t-test found that the mean concentrations of T 4, T 3 of normal subjects were much higher than those of the patients (p0.05). These results also illustrated that 45.9% of patients with renal failure of low T 4, and 91.8%, 90.26 of patients had T 3 and TSH hormone levels in the normal range, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean of thyroid hormones (T 4, T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormones between males and females (p>0.05). The T 3 and T '4 concentrations in patients at all age groups (year) was less than the age groups of the control group, and this decrease was statistically significant (p0.05).(Author)

  12. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Lucy Ann; Monson, John P; Agha, Amar

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement. PMID:20455887

  13. Reference intervals for thyroid hormones on the architect analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubl, Walter; Schmieder, Jürgen; Gladrow, Eberhard; Demant, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to establish reference intervals for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyronine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) on the Architect i2000 analyser (Abbott). Serum samples were obtained from apparently healthy adults (n=217, age 18-90 years) excluding individuals taking oral contraceptives or under hormone replacement therapy. The second group were ambulatory euthyroid patients (n=323) excluding those with a history of thyroid disorders. We also investigated thyroid hormones in sera from euthyroid hospitalised patients (n=490) excluding those with severe non-thyroidal illness. The reference intervals for the healthy adults were for TSH 0.17-4.23 mIU/l, for FT4 11.24-26.86 pmol/l, for FT3 2.56-6.36 pmol/l, for TT4 55.8-155.1 nmol/l and for TT3 0.90-2.54 nmol/l. TSH and TT3 concentrations were similar in males and females. However, FT4, FT3 and TT4 levels exhibited significant differences between females and males. No significant differences were observed between the concentrations of TSH, FT3, TT3, FT4 and TT4 in healthy subjects and in euthyroid ambulatory patients aged 18-90 years. TSH levels in healthy subjects were the same in younger and older individuals. In contrast, in outpatients and in hospitalised patients TSH concentrations were significantly lower (20%) in subjects older than 50 years compared to those younger than 50 years. For FT3 and TT3 we consistently observed in all three study groups 6-7% and 8-12% higher concentrations in the younger ( 50 years) subjects. For FT4 and TT4 no consistent pattern of correlation with age was detectable when the three study groups were analysed independently. The reference intervals for thyroid hormones determined in this study differ considerably from values found in other European and non-European countries. This underlines the need for population-specific reference ranges. PMID:11939490

  14. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C; Moser, K; Reeves, G; Peto, R; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone ther...

  15. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael; Pöllänen, Eija; Atkinson, Ross A; Hansen, Mette; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated...

  16. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein a...

  17. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fa...

  18. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  19. DNA regulatory elements for steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, M; Chalepakis, G; Schauer, M; Slater, E P

    1989-05-01

    Gene regulation by steroid hormones is mediated through an interaction of the hormone receptors with DNA regulatory sequences called hormone regulatory or responsive elements (HRE). An analysis of the HRE's in the DNA of mouse mammary tumour provirus, human metallothionein IIA gene, chicken lysozyme gene, chicken and Xenopus vitellogenin genes, growth hormones genes, Moloney murine sarcoma provirus, rabbit uteroglobin gene, rat tyrosine aminotransferase gene, rat tryptophan oxygenase gene and rat acidic glycoprotein gene, yields the following consensus for positively modulated glucocorticoid responsive elements (GRE): 5'-GGTACAnnnTGTTCT-3'. This element can also mediate induction by progesterone and probably by androgens, but not by estrogens. Detailed analysis of the DNA protection pattern suggests that a dimer of the hormone receptor interacts with this palindromic 15-mer. In genes that are negatively regulated by glucocorticoids an imperfect copy of the GRE is found, and repression is probably due to competition between hormone receptor and other transcription factors or enhancer binding proteins for binding to overlapping DNA sequences. The receptors without bound hormone are able to interact specifically with DNA in vitro, but binding of hormone is needed for transcriptional activation in vivo. This could be due, at least in part, to changes in the rate parameters of the receptor-DNA interaction induced by binding of the hormone to the receptor. The possible role of precise chromatin organization in glucocorticoid induction is discussed on the basis of the nucleosome phasing found in the LTR region of mouse mammary tumour virus. PMID:2661921

  20. Hormonal basis of mood and postpartum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Barbara L; Sorenson, Diane L; Meliska, Charles J; Basavaraj, Neal; Zirpoli, Gina G; Gamst, Anthony; Hauger, Richard

    2003-06-01

    Mood disorders during the postpartum period occur in 10% to 15% of women. The hormonal basis of these disorders, however, has not been investigated systematically and extensively. We review recent studies, primarily from the past 5 years, in which investigators examined the major categories of proposed hormonal etiologies, including gonadal steroids, thyroid hormones, cortisol, prolactin, and melatonin, and then present descriptive statistics of our preliminary findings in these hormonal dimensions from a group of 20 depressed and normal control pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:12734034

  1. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in TH activity.

  2. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bastos Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem.

  3. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased risk of venous thromboembolism as compared with nonusers, and about twice the risk as compared with users of products with norethisterone, levonorgestrel or norgestimate (low-risk products). Transdermal patches and vaginal ring belong to high-risk products. The risk of thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction is increased 50 - 100% with use of combined products, with little difference in risk between different progestins. Progestin-only products do not confer any increased risk of venous or arterial thrombosis, except for progestin depot, which may double the risk of venous thrombosis. EXPERT OPINION: First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, smoking, hypertension or migraine with aura should not use high-risk products, but should primarily consider progestin-only products, and be careful to use low-risk combined products.

  4. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wen-Jun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

  5. Steroid hormone influence on melanomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkov, Mario; Joseph, Richard; Copland, John

    2015-12-01

    Disparities in the prognosis and incidence of melanoma between male and female patients have led clinicians to explore the influence of steroid hormones on the development and progression of this malignancy. A better understanding of the disparities of melanoma behavior between sexes and ages could lead to improved prevention and treatment options. There are multiple themes in the literature that unify the physiologic functions of estrogen and androgen receptors; herein we discuss and map their pathways. Overall, it is important to understand that the differences in melanoma behavior between the sexes are multifactorial and likely involve interactions between the immune system, endocrine system, and environment, namely UV-radiation. Melanoma deserves a spot among hormone-sensitive tumors, and if tamoxifen is re-introduced for future therapy, tissue ratios of estrogen receptors should be obtained beforehand to assess their therapeutic predictive value. Because androgens, estrogens, and their receptors are involved in signaling of commonly mutated melanoma pathways, potential synergistic properties of the recently developed molecular kinase inhibitors that target those pathways may exist. PMID:26415591

  6. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  7. The Hormonal Control of Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, Anthony P.; Farooqi, I.Sadaf; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Numerous circulating peptides and steroids produced in the body influence appetite through their actions on the hypothalamus, the brain stem, and the autonomic nervous system. These hormones come from three major sites—fat cells, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreas. In this Review we provide a synthesis of recent evidence concerning the actions of these hormones on food intake.

  8. In vitro hormone assays with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of radioimmunoassay are given, with special emphasis on the following topics: preparation of radioactive tracer and standard solutions; obtention of specific antiserum and choice of adequate techniques for the separation of antibody-bound hormone from unbound hormone. The various applications of radioimmunoassay are discussed. A brief comment is made about the radioreceptor assay. (M.A.)

  9. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  10. Plasma Selenium Levels in First Trimester Pregnant Women with Hyperthyroidism and the Relationship with Thyroid Hormone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Tugba Atilan

    2015-10-01

    The thyroid gland has the highest selenium (Se) concentration per unit weight among all tissues. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the Se levels in the plasma of hyperthyroidic pregnant women and to investigate the association between maternal plasma Se concentrations and thyroid hormone levels. The study population consisted of 107 pregnant women, 70 healthy pregnant women (group 1) and 37 pregnant women with hyperthyroidism (group 2). The plasma free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were significantly higher, and the plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and Se levels were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1 (p?hyperthyroidic pregnant women compared with normal pregnant women supported the hypothesis that hyperthyroidism was associated with decreased antioxidant response. PMID:25796516

  11. Characteristics of hormonal profile of children with allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumna T.Ye.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to determine features of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases, the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and cortisol were investigated in 110 children in the age from 6 to 17 years. Of them 79 children with allergic diseases (40 children from Zaporozhye and 39 children – from eco¬friendly clean Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area and 31 healthy children (16 children - from Zaporozhye and 15 - with conventionally ecofriendly clean districts of the Zaporozhye area. Levels of hormones (ACTH (pg/ml, TSH (mkIU/ml, cortisol (ng/ml were determined through diagnostic test systems by a standard method in laboratories of the Zaporozh?e state medical university. By research results it is set, that in the conditions of large industrial city Zaporozh?e, forming of allergic pathology in children took place during activating of the hypophysis-adrenal system with the increase of TSH, cortisol, ACTH secretion with a high risk of exhaustion of immunoreactions and persistence of antigens; this was confir¬med by increase of values of their medians in relation to healthy children. In children with allergic diseases, habitants of ecologically favourable Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area, vice versa, lower indexes of medians of ACTH, TSH and cortisol were registered; this testifies to sup¬pression of hypothalamus function and hypophysis system with violation of protective reaction and adaptation mechanisms in response to forming of allergic inflammation. Thus, adjusting of hormonal activity by principle of ne¬gative reverse link in children with allergic diseases was not executed, regardless of place of residence. In addition, indexes of median of ACTH, TSH, cortisol in children with different clinical forms of allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis in comparison to healthy ones, testified that for children with bronchial asthma the highest level of index of medians of ACTH (37,39 (29,1-56,11 pg/ml and cortisol (249,23 (169,57-293,83 ng/ml was registered, for children with a rhin¬allergosis – indexes of medians of cortisol were the lowest (84,69 (84,06-92,81 ng/ml, and indexes of medians of TSH were reliably higher only in comparing groups of children with bronchial asthma (2,73 (1,13-3,18 mkMU/ml with healthy (1,96 (1,59-1,99 mkMU/ml. As a result of the conducted research, it was well-proven that indexes of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases depend not only on their place of residence but also on the clinical forms of allergic pathology; this must be taken into account in individual selection of doses and duration of treatment even by inhalation and by topical glucocorthicosteroid agents.

  12. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and ?-32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  13. Liver X receptor ? controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-11-10

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXR?, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity. PMID:26504234

  14. Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietge, Joseph E., E-mail: tietge.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Degitz, Sigmund J., E-mail: degitz.sigmund@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Haselman, Jonathan T., E-mail: haselman.jon@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Butterworth, Brian C., E-mail: butterworth.brian@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Korte, Joseph J., E-mail: korte.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Kosian, Patricia A., E-mail: kosian.pat@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie J., E-mail: lind1020@d.umn.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); and others

    2013-01-15

    Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18-357 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23-435 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF END-STAGE LIVER DISEASE AND LIVER TRANSPLANTATION ON THYROID HORMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rocha PENTEADO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Thyroid dysfunction has been reported in most chronic illnesses including severe liver disease. These defects in thyroid hormone metabolism result in the sick euthyroid syndrome, also known as low T3 syndrome. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the thyroid function in patients with end stage liver disease prior and after deceased donor liver transplantation and to correlate thyroid hormonal changes with the MELD score (Model for End stage Liver Disease. Methods In a prospective study, serum levels of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, total thyroxine (tT4, free thyroxine (fT4 and triiodothyronine (T3 from 30 male adult patients with end stage liver disease were measured two to four hours before and 6 months after liver transplantation (LT. MELD was determined on the day of transplant. For this analysis, extra points were not added for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results The patients had normal TSH and fT4 levels before LT and there was no change after the procedure. Total thyroxine and triiodothyronine were within the normal range before LT, except for four patients (13.3% whose values were lower. Both hormones increased to normal values in all four patients after LT (P=0.02 and P18, it was observed that there was no change in the TSH, freeT4, and total T4 levels in both groups after LT. Although there was no significant variation in the level of T3 in MELD 18 group after LT (P=0.003. Conclusion Patients with end stage liver disease subjected to liver transplantation had normal TSH and fT4 levels before and after LT. In a few patients with lower tT4 and T3 levels before LT, the level of these hormones increased to normal after LT.

  16. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  17. Mechanisms of genotoxic effects of hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?eli? Ninoslav J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept that compounds commonly present in biological systems lack genotoxic and mutagenic activities is generally in use, hence a low number of endogenous substances have ever been tested to mutagenicity. Epidemiological and experimental analyses indicated, however, that sexual steroids could contribute to initiation and/or continuation of malign diseases. Detailed studies using methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, cytogenetics and other branches, showed that not only epigenetic mechanisms, such as a stimulation of cell proliferation, but also certain hormones, that can express genotoxic effects, such as covalent DNA modification, then chromosomal lesions and chromosomal aberrations, are in the background of malign transformation under activities of hormones. In the case of oestrogens, it was shown that excessive hormonal stimulation led to a metabolic conversion of these hormones to reactive intermediates with formation of reactive oxygenic derivates, so that cells were virtually under conditions of oxidative stress. Individual and tissue susceptibility to occurrence of deterioration of DNA and other cell components generally results from the differences in efficiency of enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms of resistance against oxidative stress. Besides, steroid thyeroid hormones and catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine and adrenaline can express genotoxic effects in some test-systems. It is interesting that all above mentioned hormones have a phenolic group. Data on possible genotoxic effects of peptide and protein hormones are very scarce, but based on the available literature it is considered that this group of hormones probably lacks mutagenic activities. The possibility that hormones, as endogenous substances, express mutagenic activities results from the fact that DNA is, regardless of chemical and metabolic stability susceptible, to a certain extent, to changeability compatible with the processes of the biological evolution.

  18. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persky Victoria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  20. Hormones and acoustic communication in anuran amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Christopher J

    2009-10-01

    Circulating hormone levels can mediate changes in the quality of courtship signals by males and/or mate choice by females and may thus play an important role in the evolution of courtship signals. Costs associated with shifts in hormone levels of males, for example, could effectively stabilize directional selection by females on male signals. Alternatively, if hormone levels affect the selection of mates by females, then variation in hormone levels among females could contribute to the maintenance of variability in the quality of males' signals. Here, I review what is known regarding the effects of hormone levels on the quality of acoustic signals produced by males and on the choice of mates by females in anuran amphibians. Surprisingly, despite the long history of anuran amphibians as model organisms for studying acoustic communication and physiology, we know very little about how variation in circulating hormone levels contributes to variation in the vocal quality of males. Proposed relationships between androgen levels and vocal quality depicted in recent models, for example, are subject to the same criticisms raised for similar models proposed in relation to birds, namely that the evidence for graded effects of androgens on vocal performance is often weak or not rigorously tested and responses seen in one species are often not observed in other species. Although several studies offer intriguing support for graded effects of hormones on calling behavior, additional comparative studies will be required to understand these relationships. Recent studies indicate that hormones may also mediate changes in anuran females' choice of mates, suggesting that the hormone levels of females can influence the evolution of males' mating signals. No studies to date have concurrently addressed the potential complexity of hormone-behavior relationships from the perspective of sender as well as receiver, nor have any studies addressed the costs that are potentially associated with changes in circulating hormone levels in anurans (i.e., life-history tradeoffs associated with elevations in circulating androgens in males). The mechanisms involved in hormonally induced changes in signal production and selectivity also require further investigation. Anuran amphibians are, in many ways, conducive to investigating such questions. PMID:21665833

  1. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy. This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin. Physical activity should be promoted, and cigarette smoking reduced if possible. Women at risk of cardiovasculardisease will also benefit from hormone replacement therapy. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone therapy will protect against both coronary heart disease and stroke, and there is no increased risk of venous thrombosis or hypertension. A disadvantage of hormone replacement therapy is an increased risk of forming gall-bladder stones and undergoing cholecystectomy. Unopposed estrogen therapy gives a higher incidence of endometrial cancer in women with an intact uterus, but the contribution of progestins for about 10 days every month excludes this risk. Breast cancer in relation to estrogen-progestogen therapy has been given much concern, and the problem is still not fully solved. If there is a risk, it is small, and only after prolonged use of estrogen (15-20 years). The decision whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy should, of course, be taken by the individual woman in question, but her decision should be based on the available scientific information. It is the opinion of the authors that the advantages of hormone replacement therapy far exceed the disadvantages. We suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Thyroid hormone regulates the obesity gene tub

    OpenAIRE

    Koritschoner, Nicolás P.; Alvarez-Dolado, Manuel; Kurz, Steffen M.; Heikenwälder, Mathias F.; Hacker, Christine; Vogel, Frank; Muñoz, Alberto; Zenke, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone T3/T4 is a major regulator of energy metabolism in vertebrates, and defects in thyroid status are frequently associated with changes in body weight. It is demonstrated here that thyroid hormone regulates in vivo and in vitro the tub gene, which when mutated in tubby mice causes obesity, insulin resistance and sensory deficits. Hypothyroidism in rats altered tub mRNA and protein in discrete brain areas. These changes could be attributed to thyroid hormone deficiency since T3/T4...

  3. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Gutkowska; M., Jankowski; S., Mukaddam-Daher; S.M., McCann.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during [...] parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

  4. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

  5. Stress increases putative gonadotropin inhibitory hormone and decreases luteinizing hormone in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Geraghty, Anna C; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George E.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The subjective experience of stress leads to reproductive dysfunction in many species, including rodents and humans. Stress effects on reproduction result from multilevel interactions between the hormonal stress response system, i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and the hormonal reproductive system, i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis. A novel negative regulator of the HPG axis known as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was recently discovered in quail,...

  6. FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... youth within this age range. Some of the causes for delayed puberty can include: Dysfunction of the ovaries or testicles Hormone deficiency Turner syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Chronic infections Cancer Eating disorder (anorexia nervosa) ^ Back to top Is there anything ...

  7. Growth hormone doping: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erotokritou-Mulligan I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

  8. Unsulfated cholecystokinin : An overlooked hormone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Agersnap, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosyl O-sulfation is a common posttranslational derivatization of proteins that may also modify regulatory peptides. Among these are members of the cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin family. While sulfation of gastrin peptides is without effect on the bioactivity, O-sulfation is crucial for the cholecystokinetic activity (i.e. gallbladder emptying) of CCK peptides. Accordingly, the purification of CCK as a sulfated peptide was originally monitored by its gallbladder emptying effect. Since then, the dogma has prevailed that CCK peptides are always sulfated. The dogma is correct in a semantic context since the gallbladder expresses only the CCK-A receptor that requires sulfation of the ligand. CCK peptides, however, are also ligands for the CCK-B receptors that do not require ligand sulfation. Consequently, unsulfated CCK peptides may act via CCK-B receptors. Since in vivo occurrence of unsulfated products of proCCK with an intact ?-amidated C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence (-Trp-Met-Asp-PheNH(2)) has been reported, it is likely that unsulfated CCK peptides constitute a separate hormone system that acts via CCK-B receptors. This review discusses the occurrence, molecular forms, and possible physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of unsulfated CCK peptides.

  9. Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T4 and T3. In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T4 and T3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T4 and T3. Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

  10. Osteoporotic fracture and parathyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita S Datta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption, resulting in bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. Stimulating the function of bone-forming osteoblasts, is the preferred pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. Recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH, PTH(1-34, is an anabolic agent with proven benefits to bone strength and has been characterized as a potential therapy for skeletal repair. In spite of PTH’s clinical use, safety is a major consideration for long-term treatment. Studies have demonstrated that intermittent PTH treatment enhances and accelerates the skeletal repair process via a number of mechanisms. Recent research into the molecular mechanism of PTH action on bone tissue has led to the development of PTH analogs to control osteoporotic fractures. This review summarizes a number of advances made in the field of PTH and bone fracture to combat these injuries in humans and in animal models. The ultimate goal of providing an alternative to PTH, currently the sole anabolic therapy in clinical use, to promote bone formation and improve bone strength in the aging population is yet to be achieved.

  11. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; JØrgensen, N R

    2010-01-01

    Fracture healing is a complex process, and a significant number of fractures are complicated by impaired healing and non-union. Impaired healing is prevalent in certain risk groups, such as the elderly, osteoporotics, people with malnutrition, and women after menopause. Currently, no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment. Interestingly, fractures occurring at both cancellous and cortical sites can be treated successfully, indicating that both osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic fractures can be the target of PTH-induced healing. Finally, the data suggest that PTH partly prevents the delay in fracture healing caused by aging. Recently, the first randomized, controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of PTH on fracture healing was published, indicating a possible clinical benefit of PTH treatment in inducing fracture healing. The aim of this article is therefore to review the evidence for the potential of PTH in bone healing, including the underlying mechanisms for this, and to provide recommendations for the clinical testing and use of PTH in the treatment of impaired fracture healing in humans.

  12. Gut hormone release after intestinal resection.

    OpenAIRE

    Besterman, H S; Adrian, T. E.; Mallinson, C. N.; Christofides, N D; Sarson, D L; Pera, A.; Lombardo, L; Modigliani, R.; Bloom, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of gut and pancreatic hormones in the adaptive responses to gut resection, plasma concentrations of the circulating hormones were measured, in response to a test breakfast, in patients with either small or large intestinal resection and in healthy control subjects. In 18 patients with partial ileal resection a significant threefold rise was found in basal and postprandial levels of pancreatic polypeptide, a fourfold increase in motilin, and more than a twofold...

  13. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular disease has been suggested as a primary cause of death, whereas cancer statistics might be influenced by the number of malignancies causing the pituitary disease. Furthermore, differences in mortality rates ...

  14. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Mortensen, Kristian H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2012-01-01

    The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequent osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play ...

  15. Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients and communicate information regarding the current state of energy balance to the brain. These hormones regulate appetite, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. They can act either via the circulation at target peripheral tissues, by activation of the vagus nerve or by acting on key brain regions implicated in energy homeostasis such as the hypothalamus and brainstem. This review gives an overview of t...

  16. Localization and functions of steroid hormone receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, S

    1998-01-01

    This review focuses on the subcellular localization of steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), taking into account the technical problems of immunohistochemistry and the characteristics of nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of each receptor, on the interaction between SHKs and cellular components, and on the possible roles of sex SHRs in the reproductive organs. It is concluded that SHRs are basically localized in the nucleus, regardless of hormonal status, and that...

  17. Sex hormones and choice under risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, Burkhard C.

    2012-01-01

    We correlate choice under risk in Holt-Laury lottery tasks for gains and losses with salivary testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol, the use of hormonal contraceptives, menstrual cycle information as well as the digit ratio (2D:4D) in more than 200 subjects. Risk aversion is negatively correlated with testosterone and positively correlated with cortisol, a stress hormone, for gains only. In males, testosterone is negatively correlated with risk aversion for gains only. In female...

  18. Serum antimüllerian hormone in healthy premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Christiana M.; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Egleston, Brian L.; Kahle, L.L.; Spittle, Cynthia S.; Godwin, Andrew K; Brinton, Louise A.; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2011-01-01

    Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is extensively studied in ovarian aging and pathology; however, little is known about correlates in healthy premenopausal women. We found that AMH levels are strongly inversely associated with age and differed significantly between oral contraceptive pill users and nonusers, whereas no significant associations were seen between AMH and other clinical, behavioral, and anthropometric characteristics and laboratory variables, making it an attractive hormone for clinic...

  19. Sex Steroidal Hormones and Respiratory Control

    OpenAIRE

    Behan, Mary; Wenninger, Julie M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing public awareness that sex hormones can have an impact on a variety of physiological processes. Yet, despite almost a century of research, we still do not have a clear picture as to the effects of sex hormones on the regulation of breathing. Considerable data has accumulated showing that estrogen, progesterone and testosterone can influence respiratory function in animals and humans. Several disorders of breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death...

  20. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsboll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are dyin...

  1. Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), various experiments such as 125I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

  2. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K; van Schie, Annelies; Ghatei, Mohammed A; Holst, Jens Juul; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Diamant, Michaela; Eekhoff, E Marelise W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohyd...

  3. Proinsulin: From Hormonal Precursor to Neuroprotective Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique J. de la Rosa; de Pablo, Flora

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, non-canonical functions have been described for several molecules with hormone-like activities in different stages of vertebrate development. Since its purification in the 1960s, proinsulin has been one of the best described hormonal precursors, though it has been overwhelmingly studied in the context of insulin, the mature protein secreted by the pancreas. Beginning with our discovery of the presence and precise regulation of proinsulin mRNA in early neurulation and neuro...

  4. Proinsulin: from hormonal precursor to neuroprotective factor

    OpenAIRE

    FloraDe Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, non-canonical functions have been described for several molecules with hormone-like activities in different stages of vertebrate development. Since its purification in the 1960s, proinsulin has been one of the best described hormonal precursors, though it has been overwhelmingly studied in the context of insulin, the mature protein secreted by the pancreas. Beginning with our discovery of the presence and precise regulation of proinsulin mRNA in early neurulation and neuro...

  5. Reproductive hormone replacement alters sleep in mice

    OpenAIRE

    PAUL, KETEMA N.; Laposky, Aaron D.; Turek, Fred W.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have reported that reproductive hormones can alter baseline sleep-wake states, however, no studies in mice have examined whether reproductive hormone replacement in adult females and males influences sleep. In this study, we determined whether androgen replacement in males and estrogen replacement in females alter sleep-wake amount and sleep rebound after extended wakefulness. The gonads from adult male and female C57BL/6J mice were removed and animals were implanted with cont...

  6. Mitochondrial and sex steroid hormone crosstalk during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Decline in circulating sex steroid hormones accompanies several age-associated pathologies which may influence human healthspan. Mitochondria play important roles in biosynthesis of sex steroid hormones, and these hormones can also regulate mitochondrial function. Understanding the cross talk between mitochondria and sex steroid hormones may provide insights into the pathologies associated with aging. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the interplay between mitochondria and sex steroid hormones during the aging process. The review describes the effect of mitochondria on sex steroid hormone production in the gonads, and then enumerates the contribution of sex steroid hormones on mitochondrial function in hormone responsive cells. Decline in sex steroid hormones and accumulation of mitochondrial damage may create a positive feedback loop that contributes to the progressive degeneration in tissue function during aging. The review further speculates whether regulation between mitochondrial function and sex steroid hormone action can potentially influence healthspan. PMID:24495597

  7. Radioimmunoassay and the hormones of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has provided the tools for wide-reaching investigations that have changed and continue to change many important concepts of thyroid physiology and pathophysiology. The RIA for human thyrotropin (TSH) was developed in 1965; development of the RIA for triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine(T4), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), and recently, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) followed. The capacity to measure nanogram and picogram concentrations with relative ease and speed has permitted the demonstration of dynamic relationships of the intrathyroidal and circulating thyroid hormones to each other and to the pituitary and hypothalamic regulating hormones. Evidence for the presence of cross-influences between TRH and other hypothalamic regulating hormones on the secretion of pituitary hormones has accumulated. The impact of the new information on clinical practice is now becoming evident. There is new appreciation of the value of assaying serum T3 and TSH concentrations in the clinical management of patients with disturbed function of the thyroid, pituitary, or hypothalamus. The necessary components for RIA performance can be purchased separately or in kit form from commercial sources. With appropriate quality-control procedures, precise, sensitive, and reliable data can be generated. Awareness of the specific technical problems relating to the RIA of these hormones is absolutely necessary to assure reliable results. The availability of kits or their components permits the performance of these studies in the community hospital and in reliable commercial-service laboratories. (U.S.)

  8. Smoking effects on the hormonal balance of fertile women.

    OpenAIRE

    Frairia, Roberto; BERTA, Laura Adelaide Angela

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated serum pituitary hormones (prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone), gonadal hormones (estrone, estradiol, progesterone), sex steroid binding protein (SBP) and urine estrogens in 684 healthy fertile women, subdivided into smokers (n = 237) and nonsmokers (n = 447). The aim of the work was to elucidate whether smoking habits can affect hormonal balance. Smoking interference of estrogen metabolism has been postulated, but no unequivocal data have been reported. ...

  9. The influence of caloric deprivation and food composition on TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J

    1989-01-01

    In vivo changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and nuclear binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells were studied in obese women during seven days of caloric deprivation (maximum 1,100 kcal/d). In seven women given a high protein diet (80% protein, 7% carbohydrates, 7% fat) and in two women who fasted (group 1), total T3 (TT3) decreased from 1.66 +/- 0.43 nmol/L to 1.11 +/- 0.32 nmol/L (P less than .01), free T3 (FT3) decreased from 5.7 +/- 1.1 p...

  10. The role of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in resting and stress-induced release of corticotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Franci, C R; J.A. Anselmo-Franci; McCann, S M

    1992-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that stimulation of the anteroventral third ventricle region increases atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release, whereas lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle or median eminence block the release of ANP from blood volume expansion, suggesting a critical central nervous system participation in this response. ANP is also produced within neurons that have cell bodies in the rostral hypothalamus and axons that extend to the median eminence and neural lobe. I...

  11. Plasma zinc, copper, and serum thyroid hormones and insulin levels after zinc supplementation followed by placebo in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lucianna Fernandes J C; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Franco, Juliana Gastao; Pires, Luciane; Luna, Aderval Severino; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Koury, Josely Correa

    2011-09-01

    Intense physical activity is associated with biological adaptations involving hormones and trace elements. Zinc supplementation may affect plasma copper concentration, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose homeostasis, but data in athletes are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate in competitive athletes (cyclists, n?=?7, 32?±?8 years) the effect of zinc supplementation (22 mg/day as zinc gluconate) during 30 days, and discontinuation using placebo (maltodextrin) during the following 30 days, on plasma zinc and copper concentrations, serum thyroid hormones, insulin and glucose levels, and HOMA2-IR. Compared to baseline, plasma zinc and Zn:Cu plasma ratio increased, but plasma copper decreased after zinc supplementation (day 30) and discontinuation (day 60) (p?HOMA2-IR increased (27% and 47%, respectively) on day 60 compared to baseline (p?=?0.03), suggesting a delayed effect of zinc supplementation. Moreover, plasma zinc was positively associated with serum insulin (r?=?0.87, p?=?0.009) and HOMA2-IR (r?=?0.81, p?=?0.03) after zinc supplementation (day 30), indicating that supplemental zinc may impair glucose utilization in cyclists. PMID:20809272

  12. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  13. Mechanisms of hormonal prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, D; Sivaraman, L; Hilsenbeck, S G; Conneely, O; Ginger, M; Rosen, J; Omalle, B W

    2001-12-01

    Reproductive history is a consistent risk factor for human breast cancer. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly demonstrated that early age of first pregnancy is a strong protective factor against breast cancer and provides a physiologically operative model to achieve a practical mode of prevention. In rodents, the effects of full-term pregnancy can be mimicked by a three-week exposure to low doses of estrogen and progesterone. Neither hormone alone is sufficient to induce protection. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie hormone-induced refractoriness are largely unresolved. Our recent studies have demonstrated that an early cellular response that is altered in hormone-treated mammary cells is the initial proliferative burst induced by the chemical carcinogen methylnitrosourea. The decrease in proliferation is also accompanied by a decrease in the ability of estrogen receptor-positive cells to proliferate. RNA expression of several mammary cell-cycle-related genes is not altered in hormone-treated mice; however, immunohistochemical assays demonstrate that the protein level and nuclear compartmentalization of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are markedly upregulated as a consequence of hormone treatment. These results support the hypothesis that hormone stimulation, at a critical period in mammary development, results in cells with persistent changes in the intracellular regulatory loops governing proliferation and response to DNA damage. A corollary to this hypothesis is that the genes affected by estrogen and progesterone are independent of alveolar differentiation-specific genes. Suppressive subtractive hybridization-PCR methods have identified several genes that are differentially expressed as a consequence of prior estrogen and progesterone treatment. Future experiments are aimed at determining the mechanisms of hormone-induced upregulation of p53 protein expression as part of the overall goal of identifying and functionally characterizing the genes responsible for the refractory phenotype. PMID:11795441

  14. Comparison Between the Effects of the Alcholic Extract of Mellissia Officinalis and Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Materials and Methods: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Results: The results showed that in experimental groups receiving the plant extract and atorvastatin, the concentration of thyroid hormones increased, whereas the amount of the thyroid-stimulating hormone showed a significant decrease (p<0.05.Conclusion: Mellissia officinalis extract decreases TSH but it increases T3 and T4. Further studies are required for applying this extract to the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

  15. Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo / Hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitarism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Abucham; Teresa C. Alfinito, Vieira; Erika Ribeiro, Barbosa; Rogério Silicani, Ribeiro; Manoel R. Alves, Martins.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada [...] por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada deficiência, dosagens, vias de administração, efeitos colaterais e monitorização clínico-laboratorial durante os diferentes períodos da vida para cada reposição hormonal: hormônio de crescimento na criança e no adulto, hormônios tiroideanos no hipotiroidismo central, glicocorticóides no hipoadrenalismo central, análogos de vasopressina no diabetes insípidus central, esteróides sexuais no homem e na mulher, da puberdade à senescência e gonadotrofinas no tratamento da infertilidade. As informações aqui contidas resultam de uma revisão crítica da literatura aliada à nossa experiência de mais de duas décadas no diagnóstico e tratamento do paciente hipopituitário na Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Abstract in english This article brings an updated review of hypopituitarism with emphasis in hormone replacement therapy. The physiological basis of hormone replacement therapy and practical aspects of treating hypopituitary patients were both taken into account to provide a rational strategy for treatment. The review [...] is organized by individual pituitary hormone deficiency and covers epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of hypopituitarism, as well as the most relevant hormone preparations currently available for treating each hormone deficiency. Practical guidelines to hormone dosing, routes of administration, side effects and clinical and laboratory monitoring during the entire lifespan are given for each individual hormone replacement therapy: growth hormone in GH-deficient children and adults, thyroid hormone in central hypothyroidism, glucocorticoid in central hypoadrenalism, vasopressin analogs in diabetes insipidus, sex hormones in man and women from puberty to senescence, and gonadotropins for treating infertility. In addition to the literature review, we took into account our own experience of more than two decades in investigating, diagnosing, and treating hypopituitary patients at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

  16. Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Baki Ç?FTC?

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-? due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

  17. Thyroid hormones and fetal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, H N; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D

    2005-08-01

    Thyroid hormones are intricately involved in the developing fetal brain. The fetal central nervous system is sensitive to the maternal thyroid status. Critical amounts of maternal T3 and T4 must be transported across the placenta to the fetus to ensure the correct development of the brain throughout ontogeny. Severe mental retardation of the child can occur due to compromised iodine intake or thyroid disease. This has been reported in areas of the world with iodine insufficiency, New Guinea, and also in mother with thyroid complications such as hypothyroxinaemia and hyperthyroidism. The molecular control of thyroid hormones by deiodinases for the activation of thyroid hormones is critical to ensure the correct amount of active thyroid hormones are temporally supplied to the fetus. These hormones provide timing signals for the induction of programmes for differentiation and maturation at specific stages of development. Understanding these molecular mechanisms further will have profound implications in the clinical management of individuals affected by abnormal maternal of fetal thyroid status. PMID:16170282

  18. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss in fast muscle function (power), and accumulation of fat in skeletal muscle. Further HRT raises the protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscle after resistance training, and has an anabolic effect upon connective tissue in both skeletal muscle and tendon, which influences matrix structure and mechanical properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal muscle.

  19. Steroid hormone receptors and human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steroid hormone receptor (SR) binding capacity can be measured both in the cytosol and in the nuclear fraction of the cancerous cells. Approximately 30-40% of breast cancers are hormone dependent. SR-positive tumors can be treated by endocrine therapy resulting in a favourable clinical response in 60-70% of the cases. At the National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary, estradiol (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor assays are performed by a multipoint saturation analysis using Scatchard plot. Dextran coated charcoal technique is used for the separation of free and receptor protein-bound labelled hormones. Data obtained from 400 breast cancer patients show a correlation between the SR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients. The ER binding capacity is higher after menopause compared to the premenopausal values. Specific correlation between the PR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients cound not be observed. The PR binding capacity is the highest over 20 years. The highest clinical response rate, 80%, could be found in the group of patients with both ER and PR in their tumor tissues. (author)

  20. Thyroid hormones and adult interpersonal violence among women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Cave; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter; Nilsonne, Åsa; Wilczek, Alexander; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-06-30

    Elevated T3 levels have been reported in men with antisocial behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and expressed adult interpersonal violence in female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Furthermore, expressed adult interpersonal violence in female BPD patients was compared to healthy female controls. A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD and 57 healthy women were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS). Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3), thyroxine (FT4 and T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with immunoassays in patients. Plasma cortisol was also measured. Among females with BPD, expressed interpersonal violence as an adult showed a significant positive correlation with the T3 levels. The mean expression of interpersonal violence as an adult was significantly higher in BPD patients as compared to healthy controls. The multiple regression model indicated that two independent predictors of KIVS expressed interpersonal violence as an adult: T3 and comorbid diagnosis of alcohol abuse. Association between T3 levels and violent/aggressive behavior earlier reported exclusively in male samples may be valid also in females with BPD. PMID:25858801

  1. Thyroxine modifies the effects of growth hormone in Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Andrew; Menon, Vinal; Zhi, Xu; Gesing, Adam; Wiesenborn, Denise S; Spong, Adam; Sun, Liou; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M

    2015-04-01

    Ames dwarf (df/df) mice lack growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin. Treatment of juvenile df/df mice with GH alone stimulates somatic growth, reduces insulin sensitivity and shortens lifespan. Early-life treatment with thyroxine (T4) alone produces modest growth stimulation but does not affect longevity. In this study, we examined the effects of treatment of juvenile Ames dwarf mice with a combination of GH + T4 and compared them to the effects of GH alone. Treatment of female and male dwarfs with GH + T4 between the ages of 2 and 8 weeks rescued somatic growth yet did not reduce lifespan to match normal controls, thus contrasting with the previously reported effects of GH alone. While the male dwarf GH + T4 treatment group had no significant effect on lifespan, the female dwarfs undergoing treatment showed a decrease in maximal longevity. Expression of genes related to GH and insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) of female dwarfs was differentially affected by treatment with GH + T4 vs. GH alone. Differences in the effects of GH + T4 vs. GH alone on insulin target tissues may contribute to the differential effects of these treatments on longevity. PMID:25935838

  2. Levels of endocrine hormones and lipids in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Uzkeser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between endocrine hormones, lipid levels and clinical parameters in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Materials and methods: Fifteen male patients with CTS and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum free T3, free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were analyzed. Symptom severity and hand function were assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire in clinical examination.Results: Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were similar between CTS patients and controls (p> 0.05. Also, there was no statistically significant correlation between laboratory parameters and clinical characteristics in patients with CTS (p> 0.05.Conclusion: The serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels seem within normal range in male CTS patients. Further studies are needed to investigate association endocrine factors, lipid levels such as triglyceride and total cholesterol with CTS in male and female patients.

  3. Secondary amenorrhea in a woman with spinocerebellar degeneration treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone: a case report and in vitro analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanasaki Haruhiko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While thyrotropin-releasing hormone is known to be a prolactin-release stimulating factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate and its derivative, taltirelin hydrate, are used for the treatment of spinocerebellar degeneration, a degenerative disease characterized mainly by motor ataxia. We report the case of a patient being treated with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation for spinocerebellar degeneration who developed amenorrhea after a dose increase. Her hormonal background was analyzed and the effect of prolonged exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone on pituitary prolactin-producing cells was examined in vitro. Case presentation Our patient was a 36-year-old Japanese woman who experienced worsening of gait disturbance at around 23 years of age, and was subsequently diagnosed as having spinocerebellar degeneration. She had been treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate for four years. Taltirelin hydrate was added to the treatment seven months prior to her presentation, followed by an improvement in gait disturbance. Around the same period, she started lactating and subsequently developed amenorrhea three months later. Taltirelin hydrate was discontinued and she was referred to our hospital. She was found to have normal sex hormone levels. A thyrotropin-releasing hormone provocation test showed a normal response of thyroid-stimulating hormone level and an over-response of prolactin at 30 minutes (142.7 ng/mL. Resumption of menstruation was noted three months after dose reduction of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. In our in vitro study, following long-term exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, cells from the rat pituitary prolactin-producing cell line GH3 exhibited an increased basal prolactin promoter activity but showed a marked decrease in responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Conclusions Physicians should be aware of hyperprolactinemia-associated side effects in patients receiving thyrotropin-releasing hormone treatment. Long-term treatment with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation might cause a large amount of prolactin to accumulate in prolactin-producing cells and be released in response to exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation.

  4. A thyrotropin-secreting macroadenoma with positive growth hormone and prolactin immunostaining: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, F; Bayraktaro?lu, T; Zor, F; G N, B D; Saliho?lu, Y S; Kalayc?, M

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) are rare adenomas presenting with hyperthyroidism due to impaired negative feedback of thyroid hormone on the pituitary and inappropriate TSH secretion. This article presents a case of TSH-secreting macroadenoma without any clinical hyperthyroidism symptoms accompanying immunoreaction with growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. A 36-year-old female patient was admitted with complaints of irregular menses and blurred vision. On physical exam, she had bitemporal hemianopsia defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation showed suprasellar macroadenoma measuring 33 mm × 26 mm × 28 mm was detected on pituitary MRI. She had no hyperthyroidism symptoms clinically. Although free T4 and free T3 levels were elevated, TSH level was inappropriately within the upper limit of normal. Response to T3 suppression and thyrotropin releasing hormone-stimulation test was inadequate. Other pituitary hormones were normal. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy was performed due to parasellar compression findings. Immunohistochemically widespread reaction was observed with TSH, GH and prolactin in the adenoma. The patient underwent a second surgical procedure 2 months later due to macroscopic residual tumor, bitemporal hemianopsia and a suprasellar homogenous uptake with regular borders on indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy. After second surgery; due to ongoing symptoms and residual tumor, she was managed with octreotide and cabergoline treatment. On her follow-up with medical treatment, TSH and free T4 values were within normal limits. Although silent TSHomas are rare, they may arise with compression symptoms as in our case. The differential diagnosis of secondary hyperthyroidism should include TSHomas and thyroid hormone receptor resistance syndrome. PMID:26096253

  5. MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.)

  6. MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiba, Yozo [National Hospital of Okayama (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.).

  7. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequent osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects of estrogen and androgen insufficiency as well as the effects of sex HRT on morbidity and mortality with special emphasis on evidence based research and areas needing further studies.

  8. Terapêutica hormonal na coréia de Sydenham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Albernaz

    1957-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinco casos de coréia de Sydenham foram submetidos à terapêutica hormonal com Cortisona, Prednisona e Prednisolona; o fenobarbital e a clorpromazina foram utilizados como medicação sintomática e a Penicilina-Benzatina como profilática. Depois de analisadas as referências bibliográficas, comparados os resultados de ?;rios autores, e ajuizados os resultados obtidos em nossos casos, acreditamos poder concluir que: 1 a terapêutica hormonal da coréia de Sydenham, com o uso de ACTH, Cortisona, Prednisona ou Pred-nisclona apresenta resultados satisfatórios; 2 a Prednisona e a Prednisolona são os hormônios mais úteis no tratamento da coréia de Sydenham, sendo possível que sua associação aos salicilatos permita obter resultados ainda melhores; 3 o tratamento deve prolongar-se até o completo desaparecimento dos sintomas, as doses variando de acôrdo com a gravidade e a evolução da moléstia; 4 a terapêutica hormonal deve ser usada sem prejuízo de medicação sintomática (sedativa e profilática (antibiótica.

  9. Thyroid hormone and blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2003-12-01

    Thyroid hormone has well-recognized effects on the cardiovascular system and blood pressure regulation. Blood pressure is altered across the entire spectrum of thyroid disease. The effects of hyperthyroidism include increased cardiac output, contractility, tachycardia, widened pulse pressure, decreased systemic vascular resistance, and increased basal metabolic rate. The manifestations of hypothyroidism are in marked contrast to those of hyperthyroidism and include decreased cardiac output, narrow pulse pressure, increased systemic vascular resistance, and decreased metabolic rate. Although thyroid hormone affects almost all tissues of the body and mediates changes in homeostasis, adaptations of the cardiovascular system can result in changes in blood pressure to accommodate the new demands on the system. In this paper, we review the direct and indirect thyroid hormone-mediated effects on blood pressure. PMID:14594573

  10. Transdermal hormone therapy and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee P Shulman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lee P ShulmanDivision of Reproductive Genetics, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: The clinical aftermath of the reporting of the initial findings of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI in 2002 was a profound reduction in the use of hormone therapies by menopausal women. This reduction led to a well documented increase in vasomotor symptoms and vaginal atrophy among those women who discontinued their hormone regimens. However, another adverse impact among these women, as well as many other menopausal women, is the well recognized increased likelihood of osteoporosis resulting from the decline in circulating estradiol levels associated with natural and surgical menopause. Although the use of non-hormonal drugs such as bisphosphonates has been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in women with osteoporosis, bisphosphonates have not been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in non-osteoporotic women. Indeed, only oral estrogen (as demonstrated in the WHI studies has been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women. As non-oral hormone therapies have been shown to be as effective in treating vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy and to have a different (and perhaps more beneficial physiological effect than oral regimens, it behooves us to assess the impact of non-oral hormone regimens on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Although there are no clinical trials that primarily assess the impact of non-oral regimens on fracture risk in menopausal women, numerous studies are consistent in demonstrating the positive impact of non-oral regimens in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density among users, even for those women using estrogen doses that are considered to be “too low” to have a beneficial impact on other menopausal symptoms.Keywords: menopause, hormone, estrogen, non-oral, bone, osteoporosis, fracture

  11. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: okbgeni@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  12. Hormonal and nonhormonal treatment of vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Miriam S; Nakajima, Steven T

    2015-03-01

    This article focuses on the cause, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis of, and treatment options for vasomotor symptoms. In addition, it summarizes important points for health care providers caring for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with regard to health maintenance, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and vaginal atrophy. Treatment options for hot flashes with variable effectiveness include systemic hormone therapy (estrogen/progestogen), nonhormonal pharmacologic therapies (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, clonidine, gabapentin), and nonpharmacologic therapy options (behavioral changes, acupuncture). Risks and benefits as well as contraindications for hormone therapy are further discussed. PMID:25681847

  13. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR HORMONE REFRACTORY PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. V. Gridneva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Second-line hormonal therapy, chemo- and glucocorticosteroid therapy, treatment with aminog-lutetimides, ketoconazole, suramin, target agents, and vaccines may be singled out among the basic treatments for hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC. There is a search for a new ef-fective therapy for HRPC, which is associated with the development of new regimens based on docetaxel in combination with target therapy and new classes of antitumor drugs, which shows promise of improving the results of treatment for this disease.

  14. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 levels and responses to meals may be altered in obese subjects. Clinical trial results have shown further that two GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), exenatide and liraglutide, which are approved for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, also produce weight loss in overweight subjects without diabetes. Thus, GLP-1 RAs may provide a new option for pharmacological treatment of obesity.

  15. Discrepancies between Antimullerian Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in Assisted Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Munawar Hussain; David Cahill; Valentine Akande; Uma Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Data from 107 women undergoing their first IVF/ICSI were analyzed. Relationships between antimullerian hormone (AMH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were analyzed after dividing patients into four groups according to AMH/FSH levels. Concordance was noted in 57% of women (both AMH/FSH either normal or abnormal) while 43%of women had discordant values (AMH/FSH one hormone normal and the other abnormal). Group 1 (AMH and FSH in normal range) and group 2 (normal AMH and high FSH) were youn...

  16. Vitellogenin hormonal control in the green frog, Rana esculenta. Interplay between estradiol and pituitary hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, A; Polzonetti-Magni, A; Zerani, M; Carnevali, O; Botte, V

    1985-01-01

    1. The effect of estradiol and pituitary hormones on the titre of serum vitellogenin has been studied in Rana esculenta by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. 2. Hepatic synthesis of vitellogenin depends on physiological doses of estradiol. 3. Gonadotrophins enhance the uptake, presumably by acting directly on the oocyte plasma membrane. 4. In addition, our data support direct pituitary intervention on liver synthesis and/or release of vitellogenin. 5. Hormonal response, as evaluated by vitellogenin serum titres, tends to increase from November to July. This could be the expression of a modification, throughout the sexual cycle, of liver sensitivity to the hormones. PMID:14575034

  17. Transgender Youth Don't Have Hormone Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153769.html Transgender Youth Don't Have Hormone Abnormalities Levels generally ... 24, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Sex hormone levels in transgender youth are consistent with the gender they were ...

  18. Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Comprehensive Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... p.m. eastern time, M-F For More Information MedlinePlus Endocrine & Metabolic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide ... Language URL National Hormone and Pituitary Program (NHPP): Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone ( ...

  19. Menopausal Hormone Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in hormone therapy to manage the symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes. They also don’t ... hormones estrogen and progestin to treat symptoms of menopause and various medical conditions. These medications can be ...

  20. The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital; Profil des hormones thyroidiennes chez les femmes enceintes: analyse de 125 cas a l'hopital general de Yaounde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong a ZOK, F. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Yaounde (Cameroon); Mbodj, M. [Hopital General Grand Yoff, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Dakar (Senegal); Mayer, E. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Gyneco-Obstetrique, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2009-10-15

    This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

  1. Mitochondrial and sex steroid hormone crosstalk during aging

    OpenAIRE

    Velarde, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Decline in circulating sex steroid hormones accompanies several age-associated pathologies which may influence human healthspan. Mitochondria play important roles in biosynthesis of sex steroid hormones, and these hormones can also regulate mitochondrial function. Understanding the cross talk between mitochondria and sex steroid hormones may provide insights into the pathologies associated with aging. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the interplay between...

  2. Hormonal therapy for stage D cancer of the prostate.

    OpenAIRE

    Gudziak, M R; Smith, A Y

    1994-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is the most common malignant neoplasm occurring in men. About half of patients present with metastatic disease. The mainstay of the treatment of stage D cancer of the prostate is hormonal therapy. Bilateral simple orchiectomy remains the gold standard with which other therapies must be compared. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues and antiandrogens are now most commonly used but are costly. Initiating hormonal therapy immediately on diagnosing metast...

  3. Photoperiod-dependent negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones in Fundulus heteroclitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Fundulus heteroclitus, an annual cycle in the response of the thyroid to ovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (oTSH) is characterized by maximal thyroxin (T4) secretion in mid-winter and minimal T4 secretion in summer. Four daily injections of oTSH, given in winter caused serum T4 to plateau at elevated levels for several days, while in summer fish similar treatment resulted in far more fluctuating titers of serum T4; maximum levels were similar in both groups. The difference in sustenance rather than magnitude of Peak T4 led to an examination of the negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones as they might relate to these seasonal changes. Radioiodine uptake by thyroid follicles served as a simple, but effective bioassay for endogenous TSH. Fish collected in summer were more sensitive to negative feedback of T3 than those collected in winter; feedback effects of T4 in the two groups were not significantly different. The effects of specific photoperiods on negative feedback sensitivity to T3 and T4 were also tested. Exposure of winter fish for one month to long days (LD 14:10) enhanced the degree of reduction of iodine uptake caused by T4 in the aquarium water (10 micrograms/100 ml). Negative feedback in short-day (LD 8:16) winter fish was not demonstrated. It is concluded that long days increase and short days diminish the negative feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis to thyroid hormones in F. heteroclitus. Such photoperiodically induced changes may act to aid in the year-round maintenance of T4 levels necessary for seasonal adaptation and survival

  4. Identification and consequences of polymorphisms in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Helena Gásdal; van der Deure, Wendy M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetic factors exert considerable influence on thyroid function variables. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in thyroid hormone pathway genes have been associated with serum thyroid parameters implying small alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, little is known about SNPs in the THRA (17q11.2) and THRB (3p24.2) genes. The aim of this study was to map THRA and THRB for the occurrence and frequencies of SNPs and relate these to thyroid parameters. DESIGN AND METHODS: SNPs were identified by sequencing all THRA and THRB exons and flanking regions in 52 randomly selected subjects. SNPs were genotyped in 1116 healthy Danish twins by TaqMan assays and related to thyroid parameters. One SNP in THRB was additionally genotyped in the elderly population of the Rotterdam Scan Study (n = 940). MAIN OUTCOME: 15 SNPs (7 novel) in THRA and THRB were identified. Two SNPs in the 3' untranslated region of THRA were genotyped: a novel SNP (2390A/G) and 1895C/A (rs12939700). In THRB,a synonymous (735C/T; rs3752874) and an intronic SNP (in9-G/A; rs13063628) were genotyped. No associations between SNPs and thyroid hormone levels (total and free 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine [T3] and thyroxine, reverse T3) were found. THRB-in9-G/A was significantly associated with higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (p(lnTSH) = 0.01) in the Danish twins, but not in subjects of the Rotterdam Scan Study, although it showed a similar trend. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the T3 receptor genes revealed 15 SNPs, including 7 novel. Only THRB-in9-G/A was associated with higher serum TSH in a large population of Danish twins.

  5. Enhancement of insecticide efficacy by adipokinetic hormones.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Plavšin, Ivana; Velki, Mirna; Stašková, Tereza

    New York : NovaScience Publishers,Inc, 2015 - (Montgomery, J.), s. 77-91 ISBN 978-1-63483-475-9 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adipokinetic hormones Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  6. Personal view: Hormones and depression in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studd, J

    2015-02-01

    Depression is more common in women, occurring at times of hormonal fluctuations as premenstrual depression, postnatal depression and perimenopausal depression. These are all related to changes in hormone levels and constitute the diagnosis of reproductive depression. There is a risk that severe premenstrual depression can be misdiagnosed as bipolar disorder and that women will be started on inappropriate antidepressants or mood-stabilizing therapy. The most effective treatment for severe premenstrual syndrome is by suppression of ovulation and suppression of the cyclical hormonal changes by transdermal estrogens or by GnRH analogs. Postnatal depression is more common in women with a history of premenstrual depression and also responds to transdermal estrogens. Transdermal testosterone gel can be also used in women who suffer loss of energy and loss of libido which may be due to the inappropriate prescription of antidepressants. There is also a role for the Mirena IUS and laparoscopic hysterectomy and oophorectomy in women who are progestogen-intolerant. The hormonal causation of certain common types of depression in women and the successful treatment by estrogens should be understood by psychiatrists and gynecologists. PMID:25040604

  7. Insect lipids mobilized by adipokinetic hormones.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Tom?ala, Aleš; Bárt?, Iva; Socha, Radomír

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2012 - (Langella, J.), s. 99-122 ISBN 978-1-61209-566-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP501/10/1215; GA ?R GAP502/10/1734 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adipokinetic hormones Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  8. Sex chromosome anomalies, hormones, and aggressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, R C; Theilgaard, A; Owen, D R; White, D

    1984-01-01

    This double-blind, controlled study of XYY and XXY men found in a birth cohort of 4,591 tall men born in Copenhagen assessed evidence of delinquent and aggressive behavior and explored the role of hormonal determinants in the behavioral and psychological differences noted among groups. Information from social records, a structured psychological interview, and projective tests did not support the notion that men with sex chromosome anomalies are particularly violent or aggressive. Hormonally, XYY men had significantly higher concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) than matched control groups. In contrast, XXY men had higher levels of LH, FSH, and prolactin, but low concentrations of testosterone. There was a significantly positive relation among all subjects as well as XY controls alone between plasma testosterone level and evidence of criminal convictions. A proportionate increase in testosterone levels was noted when subjects were divided into nondelinquents, delinquents without violent convictions, and delinquents with violent convictions. The relation between testosterone level and criminal behavior was not reflected in measures of aggression derived from the psychological interview and projective tests. There was no specific evidence that testosterone is a mediating factor in the criminal behavior of XYY men. PMID:6419709

  9. LEARNING HORMONE ACTION MECHANISMS WITH BIOINFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Sousa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to manage the constantly growing information in genetics availableon the internet is becoming crucial in biochemical education and medicalpractice. Therefore, developing students skills in working with bioinformaticstools is a challenge to undergraduate courses in the molecular life sciences.The regulation of gene transcription by hormones and vitamins is a complextopic that influences all body systems. We describe a student centered activityused in a multidisciplinary “Functional Organ System“ course on the EndocrineSystem. By receiving, as teams, a nucleotide sequence of a hormone orvitamin-response element, students navigate through internet databases to findthe gene to which it belongs. Subsequently, student’s search how thecorresponding hormone/vitamin influences the expression of that particulargene and how a dysfunctional interaction might cause disease. This activity,proposed for 4 consecutive years to cohorts of 50-60 students/year enrolled inthe 2nd year our undergraduate medical degree, revealed that 90% of thestudents developed a better understanding of the usefulness of bioinformaticsand that 98% intend to use them in the future. Since hormones and vitaminsregulate genes of all body organ systems, this web-based activity successfullyintegrates the whole body physiology of the medical curriculum and can be ofrelevance to other courses on molecular life sciences.

  10. Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration.

  11. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1988-01-01

    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  12. Molecular mechanisms of incretin hormone secretion?

    OpenAIRE

    Ezcurra, Marina; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.; Emery, Edward

    2013-01-01

    •Fluorescent tagging enables detailed analysis of enteroendocrine cell physiology.•Electrogenic nutrient uptake evokes electrical activity and hormone secretion.•G protein coupled receptors play key roles in lipid stimulated incretin secretion.•Targeting enteroendocrine cells is under investigation to treat diabetes and obesity.

  13. Determination of hormone parathyroid by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of bovine parathyroid hormone and its employment for the determination of seric PTH by radioimmunoanalysis is described. The specific activity of 131I PTH is 200-350mCi/mg and the damage 3-5%. The method used for radioimmunoanalysis was that of C.D. Arnaud and coworkers. (author)

  14. Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, I

    1990-06-01

    To understand the pathophysiology of thyroid heart disease, it is necessary to recognize that thyroid hormone has effects on both the peripheral circulation and the myocardium. One of the earliest responses to thyroid hormone administration is a decline in systemic vascular resistance and an increase in cardiac output and cardiac contractility. In many ways, this response is similar to the cardiovascular response to exercise and is associated with increased left ventricular work. The majority of cardiac adaptations to changes in thyroid function are physiologic; however, certain patients do demonstrate clinical evidence of cardiac disease. Atrial arrhythmias, limitations in exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure are reported to occur as a result of hyperthyroidism and are more common in older patients. Thyroid hormone also plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. Diastolic hypertension is a common accompaniment of hypothyroidism. By understanding the mechanisms by which thyroid hormone affects both the peripheral circulation as well as the myocardium, it is possible to predict the clinical response to the treatment of various thyroid disease states. PMID:2189307

  15. Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    July 17, 2014 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove, Room TE406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker: Neal E. Craft, Ph.D. President Craft Technologies, Inc. Print This Page Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies DCEG Seminar News & Events

  16. Multiple aberrant hormone receptors in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghorayeb, Nada; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms regulating cortisol production when ACTH of pituitary origin is suppressed in primary adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome (CS) include diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. These can lead either to constitutive activation of the cAMP system and steroidogenesis or to its regulation exerted by the aberrant adrenal expression of several hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) and their ligands. Screening for aberrant expression of GPCR in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) and unilateral adrenal tumors of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrates the frequent co-expression of several receptors. Aberrant hormone receptors can also exert their activity by regulating the paracrine secretion of ACTH or other ligands for those receptors in BMAH or unilateral tumors. The aberrant expression of hormone receptors is not limited to adrenal CS but can be implicated in other endocrine tumors including primary aldosteronism and Cushing's disease. Targeted therapies to block the aberrant receptors or their ligands could become useful in the future. PMID:25971648

  17. The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

  18. Improvement of in vitro fertilisation after treatment with buserelin, an agonist of luteinising hormone releasing hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, A J; Subak-Sharpe, R J; Dawson, K J; Margara, R A; Franks, S.; Winston, R M L

    1988-01-01

    Treatment with buserelin, an agonist of luteinising hormone releasing hormone, and human menopausal gonadotrophin was compared with the conventional treatment of clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotrophin in the outcome of in vitro fertilisation. Seventy seven infertile women had 83 cycles of treatment with buserelin and human menopausal gonadotrophin, and concurrently another 328 infertile women were treated with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotrophin. Seven (8%) cy...

  19. Electrical and synaptic properties of embryonic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons in explant cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Kusano, K.; Fueshko, S; Gainer, H; Wray, S

    1995-01-01

    Voltage- and ligand-activated channels in embryonic neurons containing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) were studied by patch-pipette, whole-cell current and voltage clamp techniques. LHRH neurons were maintained in explant cultures derived from olfactory pit regions of embryonic mice. Cells were marked intracellularly with Lucifer yellow following recording. Sixty-two cells were unequivocally identified as LHRH neurons by Lucifer yellow and LHRH immunocytochemistry. The cultured ...

  20. Ghrelin stimulation of growth hormone release and appetite is mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuxiang; Wang, Pei; Zheng, Hui; Smith, Roy G

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic agonists of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) rejuvenate the pulsatile pattern of GH-release in the elderly, and increase lean but not fat mass in obese subjects. Screening of tissue extracts in a cell line engineered to overexpress the GHSR led to the identification of a natural agonist called ghrelin. Paradoxically, this hormone was linked to obesity. However, it had not been directly shown that the GHSR is a physiologically relevant ghrelin receptor. Furthermore, gh...

  1. Correlations between endogen amylin hormone and some hormonal, biochemical and bone parameters in pullets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Guzel; N, Gunes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the correlations of amylin (a pancreatic polypeptide hormone) with some hormonal, biochemical and bone parameters in pullets. Forty 18-week-old pullets were used. Plasma amylin, CT (calcitonin), 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol ), serum os [...] teocalcin, glucose, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as weight, length and total volume of tibiotarsi were measured. Plasma amylin concentration was negatively correlated with serum cholesterol (p

  2. Discordances between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in female infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Weghofer Andrea; Gleicher Norbert; Barad David H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) represent the two most frequently utilized laboratory tests in determining ovarian reserve (OR). This study determined the clinical significance of their concordance and discordance in female infertility patients. Methods We investigated 366 consecutive infertility patients (350 reached IVF), excluding women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). They were considered to have normal FSH and AMH if values ...

  3. Activation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor stimulates cardiac reverse remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M.; Takeuchi, Lauro M; Rick, Ferenc G.; Dulce, Raul; Treuer, Adriana V; Florea, Victoria; Rodrigues, Claudia O.; Paulino, Ellena C.; Konstantinos E. Hatzistergos; Selem, Sarah M; Gonzalez, Daniel R.; Block, Norman L; Schally, Andrew V.; Hare, Joshua M

    2011-01-01

    Both cardiac myocytes and cardiac stem cells (CSCs) express the receptor of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), activation of which improves injury responses after myocardial infarction (MI). Here we show that a GHRH-agonist (GHRH-A; JI-38) reverses ventricular remodeling and enhances functional recovery in the setting of chronic MI. This response is mediated entirely by activation of GHRH receptor (GHRHR), as demonstrated by the use of a highly selective GHRH antagonist (MIA-602). One m...

  4. Growth hormone releasing hormone induces the expression of nitric oxide synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Barabutis, Nektarios; Siejka, Agnieszka; Schally, Andrew V.

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and its receptors are expressed in a wide variety of human tumours and established cancer cell lines and are involved in carcinogenesis. In addition, GHRH antagonists exert an antitumour activity in experimental cancer models. Recent studies indicate that the mechanisms involved in the mediation of the effects of GHRH include the regulation of the metabolism of the reactive oxygen species. This work demonstrates the expression of GHRH receptors and GHRH...

  5. Enhanced adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol responses to corticotrophin-releasing hormone in central idiopathic diabetes insipidus.

    OpenAIRE

    ARVAT, Emanuela; GHIGO, Ezio; CAMANNI, Franco

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that arginine vasopressin (AVP) exerts a stimulatory effect on adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion. Moreover, there is consistent evidence that the hypothalamic AVP-secreting neurons are involved in the neuroregulation of ACTH secretion. With the aim to throw further light on the interaction between AVP and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the neuroregulation of ACTH secretion, in this study we compared the ACTH and cortisol responses to human CRH (100 micr...

  6. Localized suppression of cortical growth hormone releasing hormone receptors state-specifically attenuates EEG delta waves

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Fan; Taishi, Ping; Churchill, Lynn; Urza, Marcus J.; Krueger, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), in part via a well-characterized hypothalamic sleep-promoting site. However, GHRH may also act in the cortex to influence sleep. Application of GHRH to the surface of the cortex changes electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power. GHRH and the GHRH receptor (GHRHR) mRNAs are detectable in the rat cortex and the expression of cortical GHRHR is activity-dependent. Here we microinjected a GHRH antagonist or GHRH...

  7. Growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor mRNA in acromegalic pituitary tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, M B; Gaylinn, B. D.; Thorner, M.O.; Stoler, M H

    1997-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) has been recently cloned and found to be a member of a new family of seven transmembrane receptors that includes secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, calcitonin, and corticotropin-releasing factor. GHRH-R mRNA has been demonstrated by Northern blot analyses to be present specifically in the anterior pituitary gland. To determine the precise cellular localization of this receptor in normal anterior pituitary and pituitary adenomas...

  8. Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated with significant fatigue

  9. Normal pituitary hormone response to thyrotrophin and gonadotrophin releasing hormones in subjects exposed to elemental mercury vapour.

    OpenAIRE

    Erfurth, E M; Schütz, A; Nilsson, A.; Barregård, L; Skerfving, S

    1990-01-01

    Exposure to elemental mercury (Hg) vapour results in an accumulation of Hg in the pituitary, the thyroid, and the testis. In this study, basal serum concentrations of pituitary hormones (thyrotrophin (TSH), prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinising hormone (LH] or their response after administration of thyrotrophin and gonadotrophin releasing hormones did not differ between 11 male workers (mean urinary Hg (U Hg) concentration 26 nmol/mmol creatinine) and nine male ...

  10. Structural Basis for Antibody Discrimination between Two Hormones That Recognize the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinstry, William J.; Polekhina, Galina; Diefenbach-Jagger, Hannelore; Ho, Patricia W.M.; Sato, Koh; Onuma, Etsuro; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Parker, Michael W.; (SVIMR-A); (Chugai); (Melbourne)

    2009-08-18

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a vital role in the embryonic development of the skeleton and other tissues. When it is produced in excess by cancers it can cause hypercalcemia, and its local production by breast cancer cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis formation in that disease. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the action of PTHrP through its receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, without influencing parathyroid hormone action through the same receptor. Such neutralizing antibodies against PTHrP are therapeutically effective in animal models of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and of bone metastasis formation. We have determined the crystal structure of the complex between PTHrP (residues 1-108) and a neutralizing monoclonal anti-PTHrP antibody that reveals the only point of contact is an {alpha}-helical structure extending from residues 14-29. Another striking feature is that the same residues that interact with the antibody also interact with parathyroid hormone receptor 1, showing that the antibody and the receptor binding site on the hormone closely overlap. The structure explains how the antibody discriminates between the two hormones and provides information that could be used in the development of novel agonists and antagonists of their common receptor.

  11. Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos / Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Forga; E., Anda; J. P., Martínez de Esteban.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonal [...] es o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1) Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2) Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3) Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética), síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP). Abstract in english We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and [...] , more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1) It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2) It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3) It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone), ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP).

  12. Sex hormones and the female voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, J; Abitbol, P; Abitbol, B

    1999-09-01

    In the following, the authors examine the relationship between hormonal climate and the female voice through discussion of hormonal biochemistry and physiology and informal reporting on a study of 197 women with either premenstrual or menopausal voice syndrome. These facts are placed in a larger historical and cultural context, which is inextricably bound to the understanding of the female voice. The female voice evolves from childhood to menopause, under the varied influences of estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone. These hormones are the dominant factor in determining voice changes throughout life. For example, a woman's voice always develops masculine characteristics after an injection of testosterone. Such a change is irreversible. Conversely, male castrati had feminine voices because they lacked the physiologic changes associated with testosterone. The vocal instrument is comprised of the vibratory body, the respiratory power source and the oropharyngeal resonating chambers. Voice is characterized by its intensity, frequency, and harmonics. The harmonics are hormonally dependent. This is illustrated by the changes that occur during male and female puberty: In the female, the impact of estrogens at puberty, in concert with progesterone, produces the characteristics of the female voice, with a fundamental frequency one third lower than that of a child. In the male, androgens released at puberty are responsible for the male vocal frequency, an octave lower than that of a child. Premenstrual vocal syndrome is characterized by vocal fatigue, decreased range, a loss of power and loss of certain harmonics. The syndrome usually starts some 4-5 days before menstruation in some 33% of women. Vocal professionals are particularly affected. Dynamic vocal exploration by televideoendoscopy shows congestion, microvarices, edema of the posterior third of the vocal folds and a loss of its vibratory amplitude. The authors studied 97 premenstrual women who were prescribed a treatment of multivitamins, venous tone stimulants (phlebotonics), and anti-edematous drugs. We obtained symptomatic improvement in 84 patients. The menopausal vocal syndrome is characterized by lowered vocal intensity, vocal fatigue, a decreased range with loss of the high tones and a loss of vocal quality. In a study of 100 menopausal women, 17 presented with a menopausal vocal syndrome. To rehabilitate their voices, and thus their professional lives, patients were prescribed hormone replacement therapy and multi-vitamins. All 97 women showed signs of vocal muscle atrophy, reduction in the thickness of the mucosa and reduced mobility in the cricoarytenoid joint. Multi-factorial therapy (hormone replacement therapy and multi-vitamins) has to be individually adjusted to each case depending on body type, vocal needs, and other factors. PMID:10498059

  13. Neuronal control of breathing: sex and stress hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Mary; Kinkead, Richard

    2011-10-01

    There is a growing public awareness that hormones can have a significant impact on most biological systems, including the control of breathing. This review will focus on the actions of two broad classes of hormones on the neuronal control of breathing: sex hormones and stress hormones. The majority of these hormones are steroids; a striking feature is that both groups are derived from cholesterol. Stress hormones also include many peptides which are produced primarily within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and secreted into the brain or into the circulatory system. In this article we will first review and discuss the role of sex hormones in respiratory control throughout life, emphasizing how natural fluctuations in hormones are reflected in ventilatory metrics and how disruption of their endogenous cycle can predispose to respiratory disease. These effects may be mediated directly by sex hormone receptors or indirectly by neurotransmitter systems. Next, we will discuss the origins of hypothalamic stress hormones and their relationship with the respiratory control system. This relationship is 2-fold: (i) via direct anatomical connections to brainstem respiratory control centers, and (ii) via steroid hormones released from the adrenal gland in response to signals from the pituitary gland. Finally, the impact of stress on the development of neural circuits involved in breathing is evaluated in animal models, and the consequences of early stress on respiratory health and disease is discussed. PMID:23733699

  14. Sex chromosome anomalies, hormones, and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, R C; Theilgaard, A; Owen, D R; White, D

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral investigation of men with sex chromosome anomalies has been primarily limited to the study of institutionalized individuals or patient groups. A double-blind controlled investigation of XYY and XXY men found in a birth cohort of 4591 tall men born in Copenhagen gathered sexual information and assessed the role of hormonal determinants on sexual behavior. There were significant differences in several sexual dimensions and in gender role between XYY men and their controls and XXY men and their controls as well as between XYY and XXY men. Although both proband groups differed from each other and from their controls in pituitary gonadal function, there was no evidence that adult hormonal levels mediate the effect of sex chromosome anomalies on male sexuality. PMID:3122695

  15. Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Forga

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonales o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1 Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2 Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3 Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética, síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP.We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and, more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1 It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2 It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3 It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone, ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP.

  16. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper; Ravn, Pernille; Gaist, David

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma in a nationwide setting. Methods: Using population-based registries we conducted a case-control study nested in the Danish female population. We identified all women aged 55-84 years with a first diagnosis...

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og tumorinduceret osteomalaci. Hyperfosfatæmisk familiær tumoral calcinosis er derimod associeret med forhøjet nedbrydning af FGF23. Måling af FGF23 er et differentialdiagnostisk redskab ved udredning af tilstande med længerevarende hypofosfatæmi. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May 17

  18. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

  19. [New aspects of hormone replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fait, Tomáš

    2014-11-01

    All existing recommendations sign hormone replacement therapy (HRT) as first therapy for acute climacteric syndrome. The low dose vaginal therapy is the first choice for prevention and therapy of urogenital atrophy and its complications. Early start of HRT has neutral or slightly beneficial influence on ischaemic heart disease. It is sure that HRT is effective in prevention and therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Long term therapy must be individualized on base of benefits to risks ratio with differences by type of HRT. PMID:25600040

  20. Transdermal hormone therapy and bone health

    OpenAIRE

    Shulman, Lee P.

    2008-01-01

    Lee P ShulmanDivision of Reproductive Genetics, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: The clinical aftermath of the reporting of the initial findings of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002 was a profound reduction in the use of hormone therapies by menopausal women. This reduction led to a well documented increase in vasomotor symptoms and vaginal atrophy among those women who disconti...

  1. Cigarette smoking and steroid hormones in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Key, TJ; Pike, MC; Baron, JA; Moore, JW; Wang, DY; Thomas, BS; Bulbrook, RD

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has suggested that cigarette smoking has an anti-oestrogenic effect in women, but the effects of smoking on steroid hormone metabolism are not fully understood. We compared serum concentrations of oestradiol, progesterone (luteal phase) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), and urinary excretion rates of six steroids of predominantly adrenal origin, in healthy premenopausal and postmenopausal female smokers and non-smokers. Serum concentrations of oestradiol, ...

  2. Exogenous and endogenous hormones and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ChenMD, Wendy Y.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to higher levels of both exogenous and endogenous hormone is associated with breast cancer risk. Because of the association between breast cancer and HRT, only the minimal duration of HRT use is recommended for symptom control, and it is not recommended for chronic disease management. Current research issues include the role of progestins, other types of HRT, duration of unopposed estrogen use, and characteristics of cancers that develop on HRT. Circulating sex steroid levels are ass...

  3. Comparative genomics of insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Noriega, F.G.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Koener, J. F.; Valenzuela, J.G.; Hernandez-Martinez, S.; PHAM, V. M.; Feyereisen, R.

    2006-01-01

    The biosynthesis of insect juvenile hormone (JH) and its neuroendocrine control are attractive targets for chemical control of insect pests and vectors of disease. To facilitate the molecular study of JH biosynthesis, we analyzed ESTs from the glands producing JH, the corpora allata (CA) in the cockroach Diploptera punctata, an insect long used as a physiological model species and compared them with ESTs from the CA of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The predicted genes ...

  4. Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pierpaola D’Arista; Pamela Blanco; Mariangela Rutilo; Alice Mannocci; Antonio Ciocca; Pietro Bria

    2008-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED).

    Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied mult...

  5. Hormone replacement therapy: dilemmas in 2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Anne

    2003-01-01

    About 6 million women in the United States are prescribed a combined estrogen-progestin regimen during and after the menopause. The immediate benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are relief of menopausal symptoms. Doctors and their patients have long presumed that the benefits on cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis outweigh the possible increased risk of breast cancer or venous thrombosis. The Women's Health Initiative, a National Institutes of Health program, is the first study ...

  6. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M; Petersen, J H; Simell, T; Simell, O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1998-01-01

    The gonads are usually considered quiescent organs in infancy and childhood. However, during the first few postnatal months of life, levels of gonadotropins and sex hormones are elevated in humans. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that environmental factors operating perinatally may influence male reproductive health in adulthood. The early postnatal activity of the Sertoli cell, a testicular cell type that is supposed to play a major role in sperm production in adulthood is largely unkn...

  7. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen; Sjögren, I; Laursen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Growth hormone (GH) treatment is a successful medical therapy for children and adults with GH deficiency as well as for growth retardation due to chronic renal disease, Turner syndrome and in children born small for gestational age. For all of these conditions, treatment is long term and patients receive daily subcutaneous injections of GH for many years. Patient compliance is therefore of critical importance to ensure treatment benefit. One of the major factors influencing compliance i...

  8. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.; Ashley Cetola Pettia, Pharm.D.; Albert I. Wertheimer, PhD, MBA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique) when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the l...

  9. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude; Kindblom, Jenny; Törnell, Jan; Billestrup, Nils; Usson, Yves; Morel, Gérard; Lobie, Peter E

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of ho...

  10. Interactions between hormonal contraception and antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Arne; Brodtkorb, Eylert; Sabers, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and hormonal contraceptives may affect each other's metabolism and clinical efficacy. Loss of seizure control and unplanned pregnancy may occur when these compounds are used concomitantly. Although a large number of available preparations yield a plethora of possible drug combinations, most of these drug interactions are predictable and, thus, avoidable. Unfortunately, there is a substantial lack of data regarding the newer AEDs. Detailed understanding of these issues ...

  11. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D; Schwarz, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during hemodialysis. During the development of the method we found significantly different results of blood ionized calcium and serum PTH concentration when obtained from the arterial blood line on the dialysis unit o...

  12. Stress hormone dynamics: an adaptation to migration?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna L. K.; Sandell, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    The hormone corticosterone (CORT) is an important component of a bird’s response to environmental stress, but it can also have negative effects. Therefore, birds on migration are hypothesized to have repressed stress responses (migration-modulation hypothesis). In contrast to earlier studies on long-distance migrants, we evaluate this hypothesis in a population containing both migratory and resident individuals. We use a population of partially migratory blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in sou...

  13. Aspects of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The research into thyroid function has a long history. The recognition of goiter as pathology of the thyroid gland dates back to the ancient world of Rome and Greece and possibly even to the early history of chinese medicine. In an excellent review of the historical aspects of the discovery of thyroid hormones and their biological action (1) Pitt-Rivers describes the growing awareness of the significance of iodine for thyroid function early in the 19th century. The actual pr...

  14. Metabolic effects of growth hormone in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N; Jørgensen, J O; Møller, J; Orskov, L; Ovesen, Per Glud; Schmitz, O; Christiansen, J S; Orskov, H

    1995-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has acute actions to stimulate lipolysis and ketogenesis after 2 to 3 hours, effects that may be important in the adaptation to stress and fasting. This is accompanied by a decrease in insulin sensitivity in both liver and muscle. These combined effects may be very deleterious to insulin-dependent diabetic patients, in whom increased GH secretion may precipitate and maintain acute metabolic derangement (ketoacidosis) and be a major initiator of the dawn phenomenon. On the oth...

  15. Ageing, growth hormone and physical performance.

    OpenAIRE

    GIORDANO, Roberta; LANFRANCO, Fabio; ARVAT, Emanuela; MACCARIO, Mauro

    2003-01-01

    Human ageing is associated to a declining activity of the GH/IGF-I axis and to several changes in body composition, function and metabolism which show strict similarities with those of younger adults with pathological GH deficiency. The age-related changes of the GH/IGF-I axis activity are mainly dependent on age-related variations in the hypothalamic control of somatotroph function, which is also affected by changes in peripheral hormones and metabolic input. The term "somatopause" indicates...

  16. Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Cone Photoreceptor Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongwei; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the retina, TH signaling plays a central role in cone opsin expression. TH signaling inhibits S opsin expression, stimulates M opsin expression, and promotes dorsal-ventral opsin patterning. TH signaling has also been associated with cone photoreceptor viability. Treatment with thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) or induction of high T3 by deleting the hormone-inactivating enzyme type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) causes cone death in mice. This effect is reversed by deletion of the TH receptor (TR) gene. Consistent with the T3 treatment effect, suppressing TH signaling preserves cones in mouse models of retinal degeneration. The regulation of cone survival by TH signaling appears to be independent of its regulatory role in cone opsin expression. The mechanism by which TH signaling regulates cone viability remains to be identified. The current understanding of TH signaling regulation in photoreceptor viability suggests that suppressing TH signaling locally in the retina may represent a novel strategy for retinal degeneration management. PMID:26427466

  17. HORMONAL EVALUATION IN FEMALES HAVING MELASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharique

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melasma is a commonly acquired hyperpigmentation which present as irregular, light to dark brown macules on sun exposed skin due to various etiological factors including hormonal imbalance. AIM : To assist the level of various hormones and study the clinical and hormonal correlation in patients of melasma. METHODS : 50 female patients of melasma between age group 18 - 50 with equal number of age matched females with no signs of melasma, hirsutism and any other endocrinal abnormality, were enrolled. They were examined by woods’ lamp to see the type of melasma whether epidermal, dermal or mixed. 10 ml of venous blood sample was drawn after overnight fasting on 3 rd - 5 th day of the menstrual cycle in mid follicular phase for the assessment of LH, FSH, Prolactin, Estradiol and Progesterone by chemiluminescence method. RESULT : Out of 50 patients, 8 patients had deranged level of LH, 7 patients had deranged level of FSH, 14 patients had deranged prolactein, 18 patients had deranged estradiol and 6 patients had deranged level of progesterone. 70% patients were married and belong to age group of 31 - 40 years. 18 % patients has onset of melasma during pregnancy while 52% patients after the delivery. CONCLUSIONS : LH, estradiol and progesterone are found to be contributory factors in development of melasma.

  18. Hormone profile of menopausal women in Havana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daysi, Navarro; Alina, Acosta; Erick, Robles; Cóssette, Díaz.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a tendency among women today to delay the age at which they have their first child or subsequent children. This creates a dilemma for couples, since health professionals tend to counsel against pregnancy in women aged >40 years without considering their reproductive potential [...] and their ability to and likelihood of conceiving and carrying to term a healthy newborn at little or no risk. OBJECTIVE: Assess hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in menopausal women in Havana, to evaluate relevance to reproductive potential. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted from March 2006 through March 2008 of 230 healthy women aged 40-59 years seen in the Menopause and Osteoporosis Clinic in Havana, Cuba. Chart review yielded data on current age, stage of climacteric and hormone levels expressed in means and standard deviations: serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and testosterone. Analysis of variance was used for assesment by age group and stage of menopause (eumenorrheic, perimenopausal and postmenopausal), with a p value of

  19. Metabolic effects of growth hormone in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, N; JØrgensen, J O

    1995-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has acute actions to stimulate lipolysis and ketogenesis after 2 to 3 hours, effects that may be important in the adaptation to stress and fasting. This is accompanied by a decrease in insulin sensitivity in both liver and muscle. These combined effects may be very deleterious to insulin-dependent diabetic patients, in whom increased GH secretion may precipitate and maintain acute metabolic derangement (ketoacidosis) and be a major initiator of the dawn phenomenon. On the other hand, augmented GH secretion plays a beneficial role in the defense against hypoglycemia, in particular during prolonged hypoglycemia and in patients with impaired ability to secrete other counterregulatory hormones appropriately. It is also certain that GH is a potent anabolic hormone in terms of promoted nitrogen retention, but the extent to which these well-known actions are direct or secondary to hyperinsulinemia, increased activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), or release of protein-conserving lipid intermediates has eluded precise characterization.

  20. Incretin hormones as immunomodulators of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NuriaAlonso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis results from endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammatory processes affecting both macro-and microvasculature which are involved in vascular diabetic complications. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally as opposed to intravenously and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. GLP-1 based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor (R agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4, an enzyme that degrades endogenous GLP-1 are routinely used to treat patients with T2D. Recent experimental model studies have established that GLP-1R mRNA is widely expressed in several immune cells. Moreover, its activation contributes to the regulation of both thymocyte and peripheral T cells proliferation and is involved in the maintenance of peripheral regulatory T cells. GLP-1 R is also expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The effect of incretin hormones on atherosclerogenesis have recently been studied in animal models of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apo E-/-. These studies have demonstrated that treatment with incretin hormones or related compounds suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis and macrophage infiltration in the arterial wall as well as a marked anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells. This effect may have a major impact on the attenuation of atherosclerosis and may help in the design of new therapies for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Vitamin D, steroid hormones, and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Paolino, Sabrina; Sulli, Alberto; Smith, Vanessa; Pizzorni, Carmen; Seriolo, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The endogenous serum metabolite of vitamin D (calcitriol, 1,25(OH)2 D3 ) is considered a true steroid hormone (D hormone), and like glucocorticoids (GCs) and gonadal hormones, may exert several immunomodulatory activities. Serum vitamin D deficiency (25(OH) D), and therefore reduced 1,25(OH)2 D3 availability, is considered a risk factor for several chronic/inflammatory or autoimmune conditions, including infectious diseases, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and especially autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD). In ARD in particular, 1,25(OH)2 D3 regulates both innate and adaptive immunity, potentiating the innate response (antimicrobial activity) but reducing adaptive immunity (antigen presentation, T and B cell activities). Regarding a possible synergism between vitamin D and GCs, several studies show that 1,25(OH)2 D3 has significant additive effects on dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of human lymphocyte and monocyte proliferation. Conversely, vitamin D deficiency seems to play a role in increasing autoantibody production by B cells, and seasonal vitamin D declines may trigger flares in ARD, as recently shown. Finally, 1,25(OH)2 D3 seems to reduce aromatase activity and limit the negative effects related to increased peripheral estrogen metabolism (cell proliferation, B cell overactivity). PMID:24739090

  2. Dexamethasone suppresses sex-hormone binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R E; Rajguru, S; Nolan, G H; Ahluwalia, B S

    1988-01-01

    Dexamethasone suppression (DEX-S) for 14 days has been used to determine the probable source of androgen excess. The exact mechanism(s) of DEX-S is still unclear. The authors postulated that dexamethasone (DEX) inhibits either the synthesis or secretion of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG). To examine this hypothesis, 14 women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and 3 volunteers were given DEX for 14 days. The PCOD group included obese and nonobese women (+/- 15% ideal body weight). Plasma determinations by radioimmunoassay of total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, luteinizing hormone; follicle-stimulating hormone; cortisol, and SHBG were made. DEX suppressed SHBG levels (P less than 0.01). SHBG levels were significantly lower in the obese than in the nonobese (P less than 0.01). All androgens were suppressed by DEX, with the exception of androstenedione post-DEX levels, which were significantly greater than pre-DEX levels in 6 of 14 subjects (P greater than 0.05). This observation is consistent with DEX suppression of SHBG. PMID:3121398

  3. Recovery of hormone sensitivity after salvage brachytherapy for hormone refractory localized prostate cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dan, Smith; P. Nick, Plowman.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent work has demonstrated the return of hormone sensitivity after palliative chemotherapy in androgen independent prostate cancer. We wished to establish whether a similar phenomenon existed in patients with no exposure to chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of “hormone resista [...] nt” patients who had received salvage brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer after previous external beam radiotherapy was undertaken. Three patients with subsequent biochemical relapse responded to the rechallenge with hormonal treatment. RESULTS: The series of patients presented here demonstrates this phenomenon occurs after salvage brachytherapy with no exposure to chemotherapy. Recovery of sensitivity is demonstrated both to androgen deprivation and to androgen receptor antagonism. The recovery of hormone sensitivity was surprisingly durable, ranging from eight months to over twenty-one months. CONCLUSIONS: Hormone sensitivity may be recovered after salvage brachytherapy. Potential mechanisms underlying these observations are discussed and the likely central role of the activity of the androgen receptor highlighted. The relevance of these findings to the management of advanced prostate cancer is considered including thoughts on the practice of intermittent anti-androgen therapy.

  4. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mortensen, Gerda Krogh

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies have reported endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals used commonly as additives in cosmetics and skin care products. We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans after topical application. In a two-week single-blinded study, 26 healthy young male volunteers were assigned to daily whole-body topical application of 2 mg/cm2 basic cream formulation each without (week one) and with (week two) the three 2% (w/w) compounds. The concentrations of BP and the main phthalate metabolites monoethyl (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) were measured in serum together with the following reproductive hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), lutenising hormone (LH), testosterone, estradiol, and inhibin B and thyroid hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyroxine (T3), and total thyroxine (T4)). MEP, MBP, and BP peaked in serum a few hours after application, reaching mean +/- SEM levels of 1001 +/- 81 microg/L, 51 +/- 6 microg/ L, and 135 +/- 11 microg/L, respectively. Only MEP was detectable in serum before treatment. Minor differences in inhibin B, LH, estradiol, T4, FT4, and TSH were observed between the two weeks, but these were not related to exposure. We demonstrated for the first time that DEP, DBP, and BP could be systemically absorbed in man after topical application. The systemic absorption of these compounds did not seem to have any short-term influence on the levels of reproductive and thyroid hormones in the examined young men.

  5. The reciprocal regulation of stress hormones and GABAA receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Mody

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-derived steroid hormones regulate the expression and function of GABAA receptors (GABAARs. Changes in GABAAR subunit expression have been demonstrated under conditions of altered steroid hormone levels, such as stress, as well as following exogenous steroid hormone administration. In addition to the effects of stress-derived steroid hormones on GABAAR subunit expression, stress hormones can also be metabolized to neuroactive derivatives which can alter the function of GABAARs. Neurosteroids allosterically modulate GABAARs at concentrations comparable to those during stress. In addition to the actions of stress-derived steroid hormones on GABAARs, GABAARs reciprocally regulate the production of stress hormones. The stress response is mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the activity of which is governed by corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH neurons. The activity of CRH neurons is largely controlled by robust GABAergic inhibition. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CRH neurons are regulated by neurosteroid-sensitive, GABAAR ? subunit-containing receptors representing a novel feedback mechanism onto the HPA axis. Further, it has been demonstrated that neurosteroidogenesis and neurosteroid actions on GABAAR ? subunit-containing receptors on CRH neurons are necessary to mount the physiological response to stress. Here we review the literature describing the effects of steroid hormones on GABAARs as well as the importance of GABAARs in regulating the production of steroid hormones. This review incorporates what we currently know about changes in GABAARs following stress and the role in HPA axis regulation.

  6. The role of reproductive hormones in postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Rubinow, David R

    2015-02-01

    Despite decades of research aimed at identifying the causes of postpartum depression (PPD), PPD remains common, and the causes are poorly understood. Many have attributed the onset of PPD to the rapid perinatal change in reproductive hormones. Although a number of human and nonhuman animal studies support the role of reproductive hormones in PPD, several studies have failed to detect an association between hormone concentrations and PPD. The purpose of this review is to examine the hypothesis that fluctuations in reproductive hormone levels during pregnancy and the postpartum period trigger PPD in susceptible women. We discuss and integrate the literature on animal models of PPD and human studies of reproductive hormones and PPD. We also discuss alternative biological models of PPD to demonstrate the potential for multiple PPD phenotypes and to describe the complex interplay of changing reproductive hormones and alterations in thyroid function, immune function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, lactogenic hormones, and genetic expression that may contribute to affective dysfunction. There are 3 primary lines of inquiry that have addressed the role of reproductive hormones in PPD: nonhuman animal studies, correlational studies of postpartum hormone levels and mood symptoms, and hormone manipulation studies. Reproductive hormones influence virtually every biological system implicated in PPD, and a subgroup of women seem to be particularly sensitive to the effects of perinatal changes in hormone levels. We propose that these women constitute a "hormone-sensitive" PPD phenotype, which should be studied independent of other PPD phenotypes to identify underlying pathophysiology and develop novel treatment targets. PMID:25263255

  7. Effects of PCBs and PBDEs on thyroid hormone, lymphocyte proliferation, hematology and kidney injury markers in residents of an e-waste dismantling area in Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two typical categories of contaminants released from e-waste dismantling environments. In China, the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs are associated with abnormal thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites, but the results are limited and contradictory. In this study, we measured the serum levels of PCBs and PBDEs and the thyroid hormone free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 40 residents in an e-waste dismantling area and in 15 residents in a control area. Additionally, we also measured some lymphocyte proliferation indexes, hematologic parameters and kidney injury markers, including white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, serum creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin (?2-MG). The results indicated that the mean level of ?PCBs in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (964.39 and 67.98ngg(-1), p0.05). We determined that serum levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower, whereas the levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, platelets and serum creatinine were significantly higher in the exposed group (pthyroid hormone, hematology and kidney injury markers. PMID:26218560

  8. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Thyroid Hormones in 9?13 Years Old Pre?Menarche Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohereh Bahrayni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Muslims fast from dawn to dusk during Ramadan. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on endocrine hormones have been studied in healthy adults but no previous study has investigated this effect on children. This study aimed to evaluate the feasible changes in serum level of thyroxin (T3, tetraiodothyronin (T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and body composition in pre-menarche girls. Methods: This cohort study was performed through Ramadan 2012. We enrolled fifty-eight 9-13years old girls (weight 34.20±7.96 kg, height 142.01±7.76 cm in two groups from (31 and 27 in fasted and non-fasted groups, respectively prior to Ramadan until afterwards. Weight and height of the subjects were measured using standard methods, and then Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. Body composition was measured using Bio Impedance Analyzer (BIA method. Serum concentrations of T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured by Radio Immunoassay (RIA. Paired t-test was used to compare result of each group before and after Ramadan. Independent t-test was used to compare two groups together. Tanner intervention variable was controlled by generalized linear models intervening test. SPSS.11 software was used for data analysis. Results: Ramadan fasting induces a significant decrease in BMI and weight on fasted group (p=0.005, p=0.044, respectively while a significant increase was observed in non-fasted group (p<0.001. Although, T3 decreased significantly by fasting (p<0.001, it remained in the normal range. Hence, T4 decreased and TSH increased slightly in both groups. Conclusions: According to our findings, despite a significant reduction of T3 in fasting group, variation in thyroid hormones level remained in the normal range during Ramadan fasting.

  9. Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Samantha J; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C; D'Souza, Damian G; Darras, Veerle M; Van Herck, Stijn L J

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms. PMID:25784853

  10. Coupling of antibodies to magnetic particles for radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silanized magnetic particles have been developed by means of a number of different methods for coupling antibodies for use in radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) of thyroid related hormones. Coarse and fine iron oxide particles were prepared by use of chemical precipitation of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride in NaOH or NH4OH under different reaction conditions. Carbodiimide, glutaraldehyde, glutaric anhydride and spacer arms coupling methods were studied for immobilization of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) antibodies on magnetic particles, respectively. The effect of the magnetic particle preparation and the properties of the particles on the couplings was discussed. The influence of coupling conditions, such as reaction time, coupling media and pH, concentration of coupling reagent and coupling ratio of antibody and magnetic particles, on the preparation of magnetic particle antibodies and the assay performance was also investigated. A comparison of five types of magnetic particles from different sources for coupling TSH antibody for TSH IRMA application was made. Silanized magnetic particles and other types of particles showed comparable results. Five TSH antibodies, including two polyclonal and three monoclonal antibodies coupled to silanized magnetic particles respectively, were used in TSH IRMA. It was found that each of them and a commercial monoclonal TSH antibody as label formed good sandwich partners and gave a high signal to low levels of TSH. T3, T4 and TSH antibodies coupled to silanized magnetic particles have been used in total T3, total T4, blood spot total T4 RIA and TSH IRMA. The storage stability and reproducibility were satisfactory. These magnetic antibodies have also been employed for free T3, free T4 RIA and blood spot TSH IRMA, but some of the technical problems remained to be solved. 13 refs, 7 tabs

  11. Sustained Administration of Hormones Exploiting Nanoconfined Diffusion through Nanochannel Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geninatti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Implantable devices may provide a superior means for hormone delivery through maintaining serum levels within target therapeutic windows. Zero-order administration has been shown to reach an equilibrium with metabolic clearance, resulting in a constant serum concentration and bioavailability of released hormones. By exploiting surface-to-molecule interaction within nanochannel membranes, it is possible to achieve a long-term, constant diffusive release of agents from implantable reservoirs. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the controlled release of model hormones from a novel nanochannel system. We investigated the delivery of hormones through our nanochannel membrane over a period of 40 days. Levothyroxine, osteocalcin and testosterone were selected as representative hormones based on their different molecular properties and structures. The release mechanisms and transport behaviors of these hormones within 3, 5 and 40 nm channels were characterized. Results further supported the suitability of the nanochannels for sustained administration from implantable platforms.

  12. Parathyroid hormone related protein and hypercalcaemia in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundred, N J; Ratcliffe, W. A.; Walker, R. A.; Coley, S; Morrison, J. M.; Ratcliffe, J G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether parathyroid hormone related protein has a humoral role in breast cancer. DESIGN--Plasma concentrations and tumour expression of parathyroid hormone related protein were determined (by two site immunoradiometric assay and immunohistochemistry respectively) in women with breast cancer and related to the presence of bone metastases and serum calcium concentrations. SUBJECTS--Plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone related protein were measured in 57 women with earl...

  13. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and reproductive hormones in adult sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Thulstrup, A M; Olsen, J; Ernst, E; Andersen, C Y; Bonde, J P

    2008-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to alter levels of reproductive hormones in adult sons. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected according to their exposure to tobacco smoke in foetal life. From February 2005 to January 2006, a blood sample from each young man (18-21 years) was collected and analysed for reproductive hormones. There were no apparent trends of increasing or decreasing hormonal levels with increased exposure to maternal...

  14. Hormonal Therapy and Risk of Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    OpenAIRE

    Amadou, Amina; Fabre, Alban; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Hainaut, Pierre; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal therapies, including hormonal contraceptives (HC) and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been shown to influence breast cancer (BC) risk. However, the variations of these effects among populations and ethnic groups are not completely documented, especially among Hispanic women. We evaluated the association between HC and premenopausal BC risk, and between HRT and postmenopausal BC risk in Mexican women. Data from a Mexican multi-center population-based c...

  15. Chemical proteomics strategies for elucidation of cellular steroid hormone targets

    OpenAIRE

    Golkowski, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the given work was the development and improvement of affinity chromatography-based methodologies as a means to elucidate the cellular target structures of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones. Steroid hormones are among the most important regulators of physiological processes in mammals. Moreover, pharmacological agents based on or derived from steroid hormones are indispensable for the treatment of diseases related inflammation, the immune defense and the deregulation of the...

  16. Growth hormone rescues hippocampal synaptic function after sleep deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunyoung; Grover, Lawrence M.; Bertolotti, Don; Green, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is required for, and sleep loss impairs, normal hippocampal synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function and expression, hippocampal NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity, and hippocampal-dependent memory function. Although sleep is essential, the signals linking sleep to hippocampal function are not known. One potential signal is growth hormone. Growth hormone is released during sleep, and its release is suppressed during sleep deprivation. If growth hormone l...

  17. Estrous cycle phase and gonadal hormones influence conditioned fear extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Milad, Mohammed R; Igoe, Sarah A; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Novales, Juan E

    2009-01-01

    Gonadal hormones modulate fear acquisition, but less is known about the influence of gonadal hormones on fear extinction. We assessed sex differences and the influence of gonadal hormone fluctuations and exogenous manipulations of estrogen and progesterone on acquisition, extinction learning and extinction recall in a 3-day auditory fear conditioning and extinction protocol. Experiments were conducted on males and naturally cycling female rats. Regarding female rats, significant differences i...

  18. Benefits and risks of hormonal contraception for women

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja; Schönermark, Matthias P.; Gorenoi, Vitali

    2007-01-01

    Scientific background: A large proportion of women of reproductive age in Germany use various methods of pregnancy prevention (contraception), among them various hormone-based methods. Hormonal contraceptives may be divided into combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives (pills, skin patches, vaginal rings), progestogen-only contraceptives (pills, injections, implants, hormone spirals) and emergency contraceptives. Research questions: The evaluation addressed the question of benefits and ri...

  19. Risk Assessment of Growth Hormones and Antimicrobial Residues in Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Sang-Hee; Kang, Daejin; Lim, Myung-Woon; Kang, Chang Soo; Sung, Ha Jung

    2010-01-01

    Growth promoters including hormonal substances and antibiotics are used legally and illegally in food producing animals for the growth promotion of livestock animals. Hormonal substances still under debate in terms of their human health impacts are estradiol-17?, progesterone, testosterone, zeranol, trenbolone, and melengestrol acetate (MGA) . Many of the risk assessment results of natural steroid hormones have presented negligible impacts when they are used under good veterinary practices. F...

  20. Thyroid Hormone Crosstalk with Nuclear Receptor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-Yun; Brent, Gregory A

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormone influences diverse metabolic pathways important in lipid and glucose metabolism, lipolysis, and regulation of body weight. Recently, it has been recognized that thyroid hormone receptor (TR) interacts with transcription factors that predominantly respond to nutrient signals including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver X receptor (LXR), and others. Crosstalk between thyroid hormone signaling and these nutrient responsive factors occurs through a vari...

  1. The role of steroid hormones in skeletal muscle metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Salehzadeh, Firoozeh

    2011-01-01

    Steroid hormones play important roles in the regulation of whole body metabolism. Skeletal muscle is an insulin-responsive organ with a key role in overall substrate metabolism. Disturbances in skeletal muscle metabolism, as a result of hormonal imbalance may be an underlying defect in metabolic disease. Reduced insulin-responsive glucose disposal in skeletal muscle is a characteristic feature of metabolic syndrome. The overall aim of this thesis work is to identify the role of steroid hormon...

  2. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Exogenous hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Tryggvadottir, L

    1997-01-01

    The well-described influence of several aspects of reproductive life on the risk for cancer in the reproductive organs has raised concern regarding the safety of exogenous hormones, particularly since sex hormones have become one of the most widely used drugs among women in the western world. The major areas of application include oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy in women with menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of oral contraceptives onto the Nordic market in the late ...

  3. Interactions of polyhalogeneted aromatic hydrocarbons with thyroid hormone metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Schuur, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possible interactions of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their metabolites with thyroid hormone metabolism. This chapter summarizes firstly the effects of thyroid hormone on the induction of biotransformation enzymes by PHAHs. Secondly, the results on the inhibition of thyroid hormone sulfation by hydroxylated metabolites of PHAH are summarized. Some conclusions and remarks on the overall implications of the results are given at the end of this chapter....

  4. Overnight levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and growth hormone before and during gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment in short boys born small for gestational age

    OpenAIRE

    Kaay, D.C.M. van der; Jong, F.H., de; Rose, S R; Odink, R.J.H.; Bakker-Van Waarde, W.M.; Sulkers, E.J.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone (GH) profiles and fasting insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels after 3 months of GnRHa treatment with those at baseline. Methods: After measurement of basel...

  5. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amilton Cesar dos, Santos; Diego Carvalho, Viana; Gleidson Benevides de, Oliveira; Luis Miguel, Lobo; Antônio Chaves, Assis-Neto.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. [...] Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  6. Thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction with hormonal contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Keiding, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have assessed the risk of venous thromboembolism with newer hormonal contraception, few have examined thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction, and results have been conflicting.

  7. Hormone therapy for reproductive depression in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studd, John

    2014-12-01

    An email survey of patients attending a PMS and Menopause Centre produced 238 patients whose principal presenting symptom was depression. Seventy-seven percent claimed to have had severe or moderate depression, 17% had had at least one psychotic episode and 14% had attempted suicide. Fifty-eight percent had seen a psychiatrist. Seventy-one percent had received antidepressants and 17% had received mood stabilising drugs. Twelve percent had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and 3.8% had received electroconvulsive therapy. Sixty-eight percent had premenstrual syndrome as a teenager and 145 women (89%) out of 165 women who had been pregnant had no depression during pregnancy but 110 (66%) developed postnatal depression. Ninety-seven women (58%) who had been pregnant had suffered both premenstrual depression and postnatal depression. All were treated with transdermal estrogens and 93% also had transdermal testosterone. One hundred and seventy-one patients had a uterus and received cyclical progestogen to protect the endometrium and 63% of these developed the premenstrual syndrome-type symptoms of progesterone intolerance during the progestogen days. Thirty-five percent of patients claimed to be cured and 55% had a considerable improvement with estrogen therapy. Only 3.7% reported that there was no improvement. For 94%, the hormone therapy was a life-changing event for the better. None were worse. Forty patients had hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for progesterone intolerance or heavy uterine bleeding and 38 replied that it was life changing for the better with less or no depression. It is concluded that premenstrual and postnatal depressions appear in the same vulnerable women. These women are typically well during pregnancy and are a sub group of reproductive depression which also develops climacteric depression in the transition phase. These types of depression are the product of hormonal changes and respond well to transdermal hormone therapy. PMID:25398672

  8. Effect of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Brain Structure, Motor Function and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emma A.; O'Reilly, Michelle A.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Seunarine, Kiran K.; Chong, Wui K.; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A.; Dattani, Mehul T.

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis plays a role in normal brain growth but little is known of the effect of growth hormone deficiency on brain structure. Children with isolated growth hormone deficiency (peak growth hormone less than 6.7 [micro]g/l) and idiopathic short stature (peak growth hormone greater than 10 [micro]g/l)…

  9. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    OpenAIRE

    Magon, Navneet

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as “pseudomenopause” or “medical oophorectomy,” which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) work by temporarily “switching off” the ovaries. Ovaries can be “switched off” for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many condi...

  10. Oncogenic mutations of thyroid hormone receptor ?

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeong Won; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    The C-terminal frame-shift mutant of the thyroid hormone receptor TR?1, PV, functions as an oncogene. An important question is whether the oncogenic activity of mutated TR?1 is uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Using four C-terminal frame-shift mutants—PV, Mkar, Mdbs, and AM—we examined that region in the oncogenic actions of TR?1 mutants. Remarkably, these C-terminal mutants induced similar growth of tumors in mouse xenograft models. Molecular analyses showed that they physicall...

  11. Effects of aging on thermoregulatory responses and hormonal changes in humans during the four seasons in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Sugenoya, Junichi; Inukai, Yoko; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Iwase, Satoshi

    2011-03-01

    Physiological functions are impaired in various organs in aged people, as manifest by, e.g., renal and cardiac dysfunction and muscle atrophy. The elderly are also at increased risk of both hypothermia and hyperthermia in extreme temperatures. The majority of those over 65 years old have elevated serum osmolality. Our hypothesis is that the elderly have suppressed osmolality control in different seasons compared to the young. Eight healthy young men and six healthy older men participated in this study. The experiments were performed during spring, summer, autumn and winter in Japan, with average atmospheric temperatures of 15-20°C in spring, 25-30°C in summer, 15-23°C in autumn and 5-10°C in winter. Each subject immersed his lower legs in warm water at 40°C for 30 min. Core (tympanic) temperature and sweat rate at chest were recorded continuously. Blood was taken pre-immersion to measure the concentrations of antidiuretic hormone, serum osmolality, plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, aldosterone, leptin, thyroid stimulating hormone, fT3 and fT4. The results suggested that the elderly have suppressed osmolality control compared to the young; osmolality was especially elevated in winter compared to the summer in elderly subjects. Therefore, particularly in the elderly, balancing fluid by drinking water should be encouraged to maintain euhydration status in winter.

  12. Genetic characterization of growth hormone 1 gene in patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Birla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growth hormone (GH secretion and release is a complex and highly regulated process. Any alteration disturbing synthesis, secretion or biological action of GH, results into growth hormone deficiency (GHD. GHD is of two types-isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD and combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD,of which IGHDis more common. The genes implicated in its etiology are growth hormone 1(GH1 and receptor of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRHR. Mutations within the coding region and/or either entire or partial deletions of the GH1gene lead to IGHD. In addition,GH1 possesses upstream regulatory elements and a promoter with binding sites for various transcription factors, which control its expression. Aim: The study was planned with an aim to identify entire GH1 locus deletion, mutations in the GH1 coding region and sequence variations (polymorphisms in the promoter region of the gene in patients with IGHD. Materialsand Methods: Thirty patients clinically diagnosed with IGHD and 30 healthy individuals who formed the controls were enrolled for the study. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood sample and processed for amplification of the desired regions followed by direct sequencing and/or restriction endonuclease digestion. Results: Out of the 30 IGHD patients screened, 20% of the cases showed consanguinity and 16% had a positive family history. Seven percentage of the patients showed homozygous deletion of the GH1gene while rest of them had heterozygous deletion. Screening of the coding region of GH1 showed sequence variations in exon 1 in 20% of the patients whereas the promoter region showed the presence of polymorphisms-rs2005171 in 20%, rs2005172 in 15% and rs11568828 in 18% of the cases. The haplotype comprising rs2005171 and rs2005172 was observed in four patients. Conclusion: The present study is an attempt to characterize the GH1 locus in IGHD patients. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of its kind where entire GH1locus, upstream regulatory elements and promoter region have been studied. Such an analysis would provide valuable information on the etiology of IGHD.

  13. Hypothalamic hypopituitarism in a patient with a basal encephalocoele--treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, D V; Mason, W. P.; Wilson-Holt, N; Adams, J; Keene, M.; TANNER, J; Jacobs, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A 20-year-old patient presented with primary amenorrhoea and growth hormone deficiency caused by a basal encephalocoele. She was found to have developed diabetes insipidus in the 8 years following diagnosis. Gonadotrophin release in response to bolus injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was normal, as was thyrotrophin and adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretion. Pulsatile administration of LHRH by the subcutaneous route resulted in normal ovulation and subsequent menstruati...

  14. Síndrome metabólico en menopausia: implicaciones de la terapia hormonal / Menopause syndrome: implications of hormone therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Katherine, Tabares-Trujillo; Jesús Rafael, Aguilera-Pérez; Beatriz, Velázquez-Valassi; Pablo, Garza-Ríos; Lizbeth Citlalli, Angulo-Torres; Rosalía, García-Ruiz.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La incidencia de enfermedad cardiovascular y síndrome metabólico en mujeres postmenopáusicas es de 35%. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la relación entre los diferentes parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos en pacientes con o sin terapia hormonal de reemplazo con síndrome [...] metabólico. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio en una cohorte retrospectiva, con el análisis de casos de la Coordinación de Peri y Postmenopausia del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes en el periodo comprendido entre 1998 y 2009; se incluyeron aquellas pacientes con diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico. Las variables analizadas fueron: a) indicadores antropométricos; b) indicadores bioquímicos y c) niveles de tensión arterial. Se formaron dos grupos: pacientes con terapia de reemplazo hormonal (Grupo I) y el otro con pacientes sin terapia hormonal (Grupo II). El análisis estadístico se realizó dependiendo de la variable, con prueba de chi cuadrada y t de Student y se calculó OR (IC 95%). Resultados: Se incluyeron 310 casos; el Grupo I se conformó por 121 casos y el Grupo II por 189 casos. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en relación a los índices antropométricos; de los indicadores bioquímicos, se encontraron diferencias en los valores de colesterol (p = 0. 024) y de la tensión arterial, las diferencias se encontraron en la diastólica con (p de 90 mmHg. Conclusiones: Las pacientes con síndrome metabólico sin terapia hormonal tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar TAD > 90 mmHg y una tendencia a mantener rangos más elevados en el perfil de lípidos y mayor riesgo de desarrollar ECV, aunque la investigación sobre los diferentes factores de riesgo, así como las implicaciones de la terapia hormonal, aún son insuficientes para reconocer la dimensión del problema en el climaterio. Abstract in english Introduction: The incidence of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome during the menopause is around 35%. The objective of this study was to establish the relation between anthropometric and biochemical values in those patients with metabolic syndrome with and without hormone replacement ther [...] apy during menopause. Methods: A retrospective cohort study with case analysis of the Coordination of Peri and Postmenopause at the Instituto Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes during the period between 1998 and 2009; the study included those patients with diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The variables analyzed were: a) anthropometric, b) biochemical indicators and c) blood pressure levels, divided in two groups: patients with hormone replacement therapy (Group I) and patients without hormonal therapy (Group II). The statistical analysis were performed depending on the variable, with chi-square, Student t test and OR, CI (95%). Results: 310 cases were included: Group I, 121 cases and Group II 189 cases. There were no statistically significant differences on anthropometric and biochemical indicators, but significant differences in cholesterol (p=0.024) and diastolic blood pressure levels, were found (p 90 mmHg. Conclusions: Patients with metabolic syndrome without hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk for diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and a tendency to maintain higher cholesterol levels and increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, although research on the different risk factors, and the implications of hormone therapy, are still insufficient to recognize the scale of the problem in the climacteric woman.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  16. Novel approaches for the study of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-10-01

    Steroid hormones are essential for the normal function of most organ systems in vertebrates. Reproductive activities in females and males, such as the differentiation, growth and maintenance of the reproductive system, require signaling by sex steroid hormones. Although extensively studied in mammals and a few fish and bird species, the evolution and molecular mechanisms associated with the nuclear steroid hormone receptors are still poorly understood in amphibians and reptiles. Given our interest in environmental signaling of sex determination as well as a major interest in environmental contaminants that can mimic steroid hormone signaling, we have established an approach to study the molecular function (ligand binding and trans-activation) of steroid hormone receptors cloned from reptiles. This approach involves molecular cloning and sequencing of steroid hormone receptors, phylogenic analysis and in vitro trans-activation assays using endogenous or exogenous ligands. Comparing the in vitro trans-activation induced by different ligands with receptors cloned from different species would develop additional functional relationships (classification) among steroid hormone receptors. This approach can provide insight into understanding why each species could have different responses to exogenous ligands. Further, we have developed a novel and less invasive approach to obtaining mRNA for molecular cloning and sequencing of steroid hormone receptors in reptiles and other non-mammalian species, using blood cells as a source of genetic material. For example, white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) of the American alligator both express steroid hormone receptors and have adequate amounts of mRNA for molecular cloning. This approach would allow us to analyze components of endocrine function of steroid hormones without sacrificing animals. Especially in endangered species, this approach could provide an understanding of endocrine functions, elucidate the phylogenic relationships of various receptors in vitro, such as the steroid hormone receptors, and determine possible effects of environmental contaminants in a minimally invasive manner. PMID:21669814

  17. [Hormonal contraception and breast cancer risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Petru, Edgar

    2010-11-01

    The largest meta-analysis comprised a total of 54 epidemiologic studies (Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer) and included 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 controls. Women currently using hormonal contraceptives had a modestly elevated risk for breast cancer (RR 1.24). This risk continuously decreased over years and did not exist after discontinuation of the drugs after ten years. Women who had started on contraceptives before the age of 20, had an elevated risk for breast cancer over the subsequent years (relative risk = RR 1.95 until the 30th year of age, RR 1.54 between 30 and 34 years, and RR 1.27 between the age of 35 and 40 years, respectively) compared to those who started to use contraceptives after 20 years of age. There was no difference in the risk between the different dosages, combined or gestagen-based contraceptives. However, the proportion of women using gestagens only was small. Study data on the effect of oral contraceptives in women with BRCA1/2 mutation or women with a positive familial history are controversial. A recently published systematic overview of 10 studies including a pooled analysis of 54 studies did not reveal an elevated breast cancer risk for women carrying an elevated breast cancer risk taking contraceptives. PMID:20714815

  18. Hypoparathyroidism - Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Underbjerg, Line

    2015-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human intact PTH (rhPTH(1-84)) as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34)) have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once-a-day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice-a-day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve quality of life and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy.

  19. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are dying every year from obesity-related diseases. Recently, incretin-based therapy was proposed for the treatment of obesity. Currently two different incretin therapies are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: 1) the GLP-1 receptor agonists which cause significant and sustained weight loss in overweight patients, and 2) dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors being weight neutral. These findings have led to a greater interest in the physiology of intestinal peptides with potential weight-reducing properties. This review discusses the effects of the incretin-based therapies in obesity, and provides an overview of intestinal peptides with promising effects as potential new treatments for obesity.

  20. Nuclear hormone receptors put immunity on sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santori, Fabio R

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are transcription factors regulated by small molecules. The functions of NHRs range from development of primary and secondary lymphoid organs, to regulation of differentiation and function of DCs, macrophages and T cells. The human genome has 48 classic (hormone and vitamin receptors) and nonclassic (all others) NHRs; 17 nonclassic receptors are orphans, meaning that the endogenous ligand is unknown. Understanding the function of orphan NHRs requires the identification of their natural ligands. The mevalonate pathway, including its sterol and nonsterol intermediates and derivatives, is a source of ligands for many classic and nonclassic NHRs. For example, cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates (CBIs) are natural ligands for ROR?/?t. CBIs are universal endogenous metabolites in mammalian cells, and to study NHRs that bind CBIs requires ligand-free reporters system in sterol auxotroph cells. Furthermore, ROR?/?t shows broad specificity to sterol lipids, suggesting that ROR?/?t is either a general sterol sensor or specificity is defined by an abundant endogenous ligand. Unlike other NHRs, which regulate specific metabolic pathways, there is no connection between the genetic programs induced by ROR?/?t and ligand biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the roles of nonclassic NHRs and their potential ligands in the immune system. PMID:26222181

  1. [Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopie?, Bogus?aw

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a commonly encountered electrolyte abnormality in clinical practice and in some groups of patients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the pathophysiology of this disturbance is complex, its understanding is vital to the disorder's evaluation and treatment. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the commonest form of euvolemic hyponatremia and is the clinical and biochemical manifestation of a wide range of disease processes, mostly associated with malignancy, pulmonary, or neurologic disorders, and of pharmacotherapy. Symptoms vary depending on the severity of hyponatremia and, if occur, can range from weakness, mild headache, muscle cramps, nausea, and vomiting to convulsions, coma, and death. Identifying the underlying disorder remains an integral part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients. The most frequently used treatment options include water restriction, oral intake of salt, hypertonic saline and vaptans, being nonpeptide vasopressin antagonists interfering with the antidiuretic effect of the hormone. The aim of our paper is to present a practical diagnostic approach and management of SIADH, with a particular emphasis on the results of recent studies. PMID:25248244

  2. Degradation of parathyroid hormone in macrophage endosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted as an 84 amino acid protein that is rapidly cleaved between amino acids 34 and 35 by Kupffer cells in liver. The resulting amino terminal peptide (1-34) is active at PTH target organs (kidney and bone). Cathepsin D can process PTH to 1-34 in vitro, and a cathepsin D-like protease, which may rapidly process proteins, is present in endosomes of alveolar macrophages. The authors set out to determine whether PTH is degraded to 1-34 in endosomes, and to elucidate the mechanism of hormone processing in vivo. Intracellular transport of 125I-PTH was assessed by binding to alveolar macrophages at 40C, followed by internalization at 370C. Distribution of PTH among plasma membranes, endosomes and lysosomes was determined by subcellular fractionation. Degradation of the ligand to TCA-soluble fragments in each compartment was assayed at neutral and acid pH. 1-34 in supernatants was separated from undergraded PTH by gel filtration and detected by bioassay on kidney membranes. The authors data suggest that: 1) macrophages rapidly degrade PTH to TCA-soluble fragments. 2) macrophages do not secrete proteases that degrade extracellular PTH. 3) PTH is internalized into endocytic vesicles after 5 mins, but not delivered to lysosomes within 30 mins. 4) A bioactive peptide is released into the extracellular medium after 20 mins. 5) PTH is degraded in endosomes at acid pH by a pepstatin-sensitive protease

  3. Thyroid hormones: Possible roles in epilepsy pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamijani, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhoseini; Karimi, Benyamin; Amini, Elham; Golpich, Mojtaba; Dargahi, Leila; Ali, Raymond Azman; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) l-thyroxine and l-triiodothyronine, primarily known as metabolism regulators, are tyrosine-derived hormones produced by the thyroid gland. They play an essential role in normal central nervous system development and physiological function. By binding to nuclear receptors and modulating gene expression, THs influence neuronal migration, differentiation, myelination, synaptogenesis and neurogenesis in developing and adult brains. Any uncorrected THs supply deficiency in early life may result in irreversible neurological and motor deficits. The development and function of GABAergic neurons as well as glutamatergic transmission are also affected by THs. Though the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unknown, the effects of THs on inhibitory and excitatory neurons may affect brain seizure activity. The enduring predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures leads to a complex chronic brain disorder known as epilepsy. Pathologically, epilepsy may be accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and eventually dysregulation of excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. Based on the latest evidence on the association between THs and epilepsy, we hypothesize that THs abnormalities may contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We also review gender differences and the presumed underlying mechanisms through which TH abnormalities may affect epilepsy here. PMID:26362394

  4. Proinsulin: from hormonal precursor to neuroprotective factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora De Pablo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, non-canonical functions have been described for several molecules with hormone-like activities in different stages of vertebrate development. Since its purification in the 1960s, proinsulin has been one of the best described hormonal precursors, though it has been overwhelmingly studied in the context of insulin, the mature protein secreted by the pancreas. Beginning with our discovery of the presence and precise regulation of proinsulin mRNA in early neurulation and neurogenesis, we uncovered a role for proinsulin in cell survival in the developing nervous system. We subsequently demonstrated the ability of proinsulin to prevent pathological cell death and delay photoreceptor degeneration in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. In this review, we focus on the evolution of proinsulin/insulin, beginning with insulin-like peptides expressed in mainly the neurosecretory cells of some invertebrates. We summarize findings related to the regulation of proinsulin expression during development and discuss the possible effects of proinsulin in neural cells or tissue, and its potential as a neuroprotective molecule.

  5. Granuloma telangiectásico asociado a alteración hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estephannia Mora Solano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Title: Telangiecticum granuloma associated to hormonal alterations.ResumenEl granuloma telangiectásico es una lesión mucocutánea benigna no neoplásica, de origen epitelial, contenido vascular y crecimiento rápido, cuya etiología es atribuible a un trauma menor pero constante. Se asocia a alteraciones hormonales propias del embarazo y la pubertad. En la cavidad oral tiene predilección a nivel de la encía. A continuación se presenta caso clínico de una paciente de 25 años de edad, quien acude a consulta odontológica por presentar una lesión tumoral que se desarrolló mientras estaba en el tercer mes de embarazo, localizada en el sector anteroinferior, dificultando la fonación, masticación y deglución. Se realizó escisión quirúrgica y al efectuar estudio histopatológico se confirmó diagnóstico de granuloma telangiectásico. (DUAZARY 2012 No. 1, 65 - 67AbstractTelangiecticum granuloma is a nonneoplastic benign mucocutaneous lesion of epitelial origin, vascular content and fast growing, etiology is attributable to minor and constant trauma. In the oral cavity it has a predilection to the gum. We present a case of a female 25 years old patient who goes to dental consult for presenting a tumor lesion while she was in the third month of pregnancy, located in the jaw, making difficult the phonation, mastication and swallowing. We proceed to surgical excision and pathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of telangiectaticum granuloma.Key words: Pyogenic granuloma; pregnancy; hyperplasia; hormones. (Mesh Database.

  6. Pubertal development in the male pig: effects of treatment with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on plasma luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone.

    OpenAIRE

    Trudeau, V L; Meijer, J C; Erkens, J H; van de Wiel, D F; Wensing, C J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, [D-Trp6]-GnRH (GnRH-A) on developmental profiles of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), and pituitary responsiveness to exogenous GnRH were studied in male Dutch Landrace x Large White crossbred pigs from 1 to 30 wk of age. Group 1 control animals (control; n = 12) were injected subcutaneously in the neck with vehicle at 1 and 16 wk of age. Group 2 animals (early t...

  7. Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used the hormone to treat nearly 7,700 children for failure to grow. In 1985, the HHS learned that ... energy If you lacked growth hormone as a child and have these problems as an ... muscle mass. Effects on strength, energy, and bone fractures in GH- ...

  8. Molecular Basis for Certain Neuroprotective Effects of Thyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Davis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of brain damage that is common to ischemia-reperfusion inury and brain trauma includes disordered neuronal and glial cell energetics, intracellular acidosis, calcium toxicity, extracellular excitotoxic glutamate accumulation and dysfunction of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum. Thyroid hormone isoforms, 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 and L-thyroxine (T4, have nongenomic and genomic actions that are relevant to repair of certain features of the pathophysiology of brain damage. Thyroid hormone can nongenomically repair intracullar H+ accumulation by stimulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger and can support desirably low [Ca2+]i.c. by activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Thyroid hormone nongenomically stimulates astrocyte glutamate uptake, an action that protects both glial cells and neurons. The hormone supports the integrity of the cytoskeleton by its effect on actin. Several proteins linked to thyroid hormone action are also neuroprotective. For example, the hormone stimulates expression of the seladin-1 gene whose gene product is anti-apoptotic and is potentially protection in the setting of neurodegeneration. Transthyretin (TTR is a serum transport protein for T4 that is important to blood-brain barrier transfer of the hormone and TTR has also been found to be neuroprotective in the setting of ischemia. Finally, the interesting thyronamine derivatives of T4 have been shown to protect against ischemic brain damage through their ability to induce hypothermia in the intact organism. Thus, thyroid hromone or hormone derivatives have experimental promise as neuroprotective agents.

  9. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  10. Sex hormones, personality characters and professional status among Saudi females.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The relationship between male and female sex hormones (testosterone, estradiol and progesterone), personality characters and professional status was studied. METHODS The study was conducted in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2003 and May 2003. The participants completed a questionnaire consisting of personal information regarding age, profession, educational level and medical history. Then the participant went through an adjective checklist. Hormones...

  11. Labelling and standardizing some pituitary hormones for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimum conditions for efficient 125I labelling of human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) using chloramine-T have been established for radioimmunoassay (RIA). The amount of the hormone, chloramine-T, 125I, and the reaction time were, respetively, controlled evaluating the yield and the bindability of the labelled hormone to its antibody. To measure the bindability, the labelled hormone was incubated together with its antibody for a definite temperature. In the separation of the free hormone (F) from the antibody bound (B), a double antibody technique was applied comparing with the chromatoelectrophoresis. For the efficient separation of the labelled hormone, two methods of separation such as gel filtration and gel electrophoresis were compared in the sensitivity and in the immunological activity points of view. Experiments for the production of HCG antibody were also conducted. The produced antisera were tested in two ways; i.e., the incubation test with the labelled hormone, and the Ouchterlony test. Using the produced anti-HCG serum and the purchased anti-FSH serum, standard dose-response curves were plotted correlating with the international standard preparation of the hormones

  12. Radiochemical Assay of Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Rate in Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is an important insect hormone known to have many effects on development, reproduction,and behavior in both solitary and social insects. This protocol describes how to quantify in vitro biosynthesis rates from excised corpora allata (CA), the glands responsible for JH productio...

  13. Effect of Marshmallow's Root Extract on Thyroid Hormones in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Roshangar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L. is belonging to Malvaceae family. Previous studies have shown that this plant has many physiological effects on hormone systems. The goal of this study was investigating the effect of root extract of this plant on concentrations of thyroid hormones in broilers. 240 broilers were divided into four groups with five replications and twelve members in each replication. A group was control group and other groups were fed by various doses of extract (0.25, 0.5 and 1% for 42 days in drinking water. At last two broilers were selected randomly from each replication, blood samples were taken and concentration of T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured using Eliza method and Monibind Kit. Obtained data were analyzed using SAS program and means were compared using Duncan multiple ranges test. Concentration of T3 hormone was decreased significantly (p<0.05 in third and fourth groups (doses 0.5 and 1% but 0.25% of extract (group 2 increased it none significantly. Concentration of T4 hormone was not affected by treatments. There was significant differences between TSH hormone of third and fourth group with control group (p<0.05, but second group didn’t affect this hormone. On the whole the extract of marshmallows root can affect T3 and TSH hormones dose dependently and is effective in metabolism in this way.

  14. Hormonal actions in the Protozoan stress: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2015-12-01

    In the higher ranked animals the alteration of the environment can provoke a uniform reaction named general adaptation system (GAS), which is a manifestation of stress, caused by different stressors. During GAS certain organs show typical reactions and two members of the hormonal system are activated: epinephine and glucocorticoids. As the unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena also synthesize most of the mammalian-like hormones (except steroids), it can respond to stress by a hormonal reaction. The main differences, related to the mammalian GAS hormonal reaction are, that 1) in Tetrahymena the level of all of the hormones studied significantly elevates under the effect of heat, osmotic or chemical stress and 2) the single stress effect is durable. It is manifested at least to the 100th generations, which means that it is inherited epigenetically. Not only hormone synthesis but the receptorial hormone binding is also elevated, which means that the whole hormonal system is activated. The stress reaction (GAS) phylogenetically can be deduced to a unicellular (Protozoan) level however, prokaryotes - which are also stress-reactive - are using another mechanisms. PMID:26689872

  15. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Savino; Liguori, Stefania A.; Maria F. Fissore; Roberto Oggero

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk f...

  16. Hormonal status of diabetes mellitus patients with microcirculation disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the study of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and anti-insular hormones show their correlation with homorheological disorders in patients with diabetic angiopathies. The results obtained indicate a possble involvement of the anti-insular hormones in the development of vascular changes in diabetes mellitus

  17. DITHIOCARBAMATE FUNGICIDE THIRAM DISRUPTS THE HORMONAL CONTROL OF OVULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiram has been reported to inhibit dopamine-B-hydroxylase and orepinephrine (NE) synthesis. NE is a neurotransmitter important to the control of pituitary function. n this study, the acute effects of thiram on the hormonal control of ovulation [luteinizing hormone (LH) surge] in...

  18. Effect of growth hormone-releasing factor on growth hormone release in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five male children who received cranial irradiation for extrahypothalamic intracranial neoplasms or leukemia and subsequently developed severe growth hormone (GH) deficiency were challenged with synthetic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF-44), in an attempt to distinguish hypothalamic from pituitary dysfunction as a cause of their GH deficiency, and to assess the readily releasable GH reserve in the pituitary. In response to a pulse of GRF-44 (5 micrograms/kg intravenously), mean peak GH levels rose to values higher than those evoked by the pharmacologic agents L-dopa or arginine (6.4 +/- 1.3 ng/mL v 1.5 +/- 0.4 ng/mL, P less than .05). The peak GH value occurred at a mean of 26.0 minutes after administration of GRF-44. These responses were similar to those obtained in children with severe GH deficiency due to other etiologies (peak GH 6.3 +/- 1.7 ng/mL, mean 28.0 minutes). In addition, there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between peak GH response to GRF-44 and the postirradiation interval. Prolactin and somatomedin-C levels did not change significantly after the administration of a single dose of GRF-44. The results of this study support the hypothesis that cranial irradiation in children can lead to hypothalamic GRF deficiency secondary to radiation injury of hypothalamic GRF-secreting neurons. This study also lends support to the potential therapeutic usefulness of GRF-44 or an analog for GH deficiency secondary to cranial irradiation

  19. The Role of Anabolic Hormones for Wound Healing in Catabolic States

    OpenAIRE

    Demling, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the interrelationship between hormones, nutrition, and wound healing. Methods: The data on various hormones and their effects on specific elements of nutrition and wound healing are reviewed. Results: The key anabolic hormones are human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and testosterone and its analogs. Although each has specific metabolic actions, there is also a very important hormone-hormone interaction....

  20. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.)

  1. The study of endocrine hormone changes in patients with CLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojgani M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of some cancer researches show that a number of hormones in ceratin tumors are growing up. Often, the majority of these hormones are produced by tumor cells or by an unknown origin in the neoplastic area. Also, it is clear that some of these ectopic hormones are produced only by specific tumors. In addition, different effects of these abnormally produced hormones on the immune system are shown in recent years. Thus, we decided to study the hormonal status of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients. The results of this study showed that the LH and FSH levels in the majority of patients are rising above normal while testosterone level in many of them is decreased. In the next step, we are going to study the immunological effects of LH, FSH, and testosterone one the lymphocyte function in vitro.

  2. Growth Hormone Therapy in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Vogt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is characterized by hyperphagia, obesity if food intake is not strictly controlled, abnormal body composition with decreased lean body mass and increased fat mass, decreased basal metabolic rate, short stature, low muscle tone, cognitive disability, and hypogonadism. In addition to improvements in linear growth, the benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition and motor function in children with PWS are well established. Evidence is now emerging on the benefits of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. This review summarizes the current literature on growth hormone status and the use of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. The benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition, muscle strength, exercise capacity, certain measures of sleep-disordered breathing, metabolic parameters, quality of life, and cognition are covered in detail along with potential adverse effects and guidelines for initiating and monitoring therapy.

  3. Half-life of exogenous growth hormone following suppression of endogenous growth hormone secretion with somatostatin in type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Mullis, PE; Pal, BR; MATTHEWS, DR; Hindmarsh, PC; Phillips, PE; Dunger, DB

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the half-life of growth hormone in young adult patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus following bolus injection and prolonged exposure for the purpose of deconvolution analysis of plasma growth hormone profiles to determine growth hormone secretory rates. DESIGN: In the bolus study, an intravenous bolus injection of 100 mU of biosynthetic human growth hormone was given while endogenous growth hormone was suppressed by a continuous infusion of somatos...

  4. Alimentary triggers of hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Lykholat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC consistently holds the leading positions in the structure of morbidity and mortality of the female population. Food containing veterinary hormones is extremely dangerous to human health: estrogens are female sex hormones. Excessive level of estrogen in the body gives rise to diseases of varying severity: in women (especially of older age it may cause breast cancer. The paper investigates the processes of lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidant protection system in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens. The purpose of the work is to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection status in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens for determining the trigger mechanisms for tumor development. Experiments were conducted on female Wistar rats exposed to exogenous estrogen for 45 days. At the beginning of the experiment, age of experimental animals was 3 months in pubertal period and 6 months as mature ones. The control groups consisted of intact animals of appropriate age. To simulate the influence of exogenous estrogen, rats’ food was treated with the Sinestron drug at the rate of 2 mg per kg. The research materials were serum and liver of rats. Objects of the research were indicators of lipid peroxidation activity (content of TBA-active products and antioxidant protection system (reduced glutathione (RG level, glutathione transferase (GT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GP, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and total antioxidative activity (AOA. Data obtained was treated with standard methods of estimation of variation series. Various degrees of peroxidation intensification depending on the age and organs were determined. Maximum excess of control indexes in the serum was observed and it indicated synthetic estrogen effect of on all major body systems. In prepubertal period females’ liver the reaction of prooxidant system and tension in the antioxidant protection system exceeded the strength of response in the body of mature animals. The organ discreteness of changes in the activity of antioxidant protection enzymes depending on the age of the animals was recorded. Given the involvement of glutathione system in the deactivation of estrogens through their conjugation in reactions catalyzed by glutathione transferase, decreased enzyme activity may lead to accumulation of highly active intermediate metabolites with subsequent damage to intracellular structures. Later on, these phenomena may become a trigger of reduction of the compensatory mechanisms’ potential, which together with the genotoxic effect of exogenous estrogens is an important pathogenetic element in carcinogenesis: they initiate the development of proliferative processes and occurrence of cancer conditions, in particular, hormone dependent breast tumors, in future.

  5. Steroid hormone receptors and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    The 1st step in the action of a steroid hormone involves entering a target cell where it is recognized and bound by a soluble macromolecule called a cytosol receptor (Re) specific for that hormone. The receptor hormone complex (ReS) is translocated to the cell's nucleus (RnS) where it binds to a large number of sites on chromatin. The binding of RnS to acceptor sites is thought to make gene sites available for transcription by RNA polymerase which subsequently results in elevated cellular RNA and protein synthesis. The 3-H steroid exchange assay based on the temperature dependence of the rate of steroid dissociation can be used to differentiate occupied and unoccupied receptors. The method has been used to examine the relationship between nuclear binding of the Rn estradiol complex and the stimulation of growth processes in the rat uterus. A single injection of .2 mcg/100 g body weight of estradiol causes the nuclear accumulation and retention of approximately 10-20% of the total number of uterine Re sites. Nuclear occupancy for 6 or more hours appears to be a requirement for stimulation of late uterotrophic events such as DNA synthesis, sustained stimulation of RNA polymerase activities, and cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Estriol, a short-acting estrogen, has been classified as a weak estrogen, but it acts as such only when administered in a single injection, in which case it stimulates all early uterotrophic events but does not stimulate significant uterine growth. When estriol is present in a continuous fashion it is a highly effective estrogen. Longterm nuclear retention of the RnE complexes is necessary for uterine hypertrophy and hyperplasia. RnE complexes appear to interact with the genome to open gene sites for transcription; continued transcriptional activity is required for full uterine growth. Nonsteroidal estrogen antagonists have estrogen properties in some cells but act as estrogen antagonists in others. Progesterone appears to modify or redirect estrogen action by modulating estrogen receptor levels. Progesterone may act by reducing the level of available cytoplasmic estrogen receptors and hence decreasing the likelihood of receptor binding or by interfering with the nuclear retention of the RnE complex and decreasing the ability of these complexes to stimulate transcriptional events. PMID:12299912

  6. Opiate action on adenohypophyseal hormone secretion during anesthesia and gynecologic surgery in different phases of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassays of cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol (E2) and progesterone were carried out in order to elucidate opiate action an adenohypophyseal hormone secretion during anesthesia in gynecologie surgery. (EG)

  7. New evidence regarding hormone replacement therapies is urgently required. Transdermal postmenopausal hormone therapy differs from oral hormone therapy in risks and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Modena, M. G.; Sismondi, P; Mueck, A O; Kuttenn, F.; De Lignieres, B.; Verhaeghe, J.; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Caufriez, A; Genazzani, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Controversies about the safety of different postmenopausal hormone therapies (HTs) started 30 years ago and reached a peak in 2003 after the publication of the results from the Women Health Initiative (WHI) trial and the Million Women Study (MWS) [Writing group for the women's health initiative investigations. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;288:321–33; Million women study collaborators. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in ...

  8. New evidence regarding hormone replacement therapies is urgently required transdermal postmenopausal hormone therapy differs from oral hormone therapy in risks and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    SISMONDI, Piero

    2005-01-01

    Controversies about the safety of different postmenopausal hormone therapies (HTs) started 30 years ago and reached a peak in 2003 after the publication of the results from the Women Health Initiative (WHI) trial and the Million Women Study (MWS) [Writing group for the women's health initiative investigations. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;288:321-33; Million women study collaborators. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in ...

  9. Inhibin A, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in 473 healthy infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, M; Schmidt, I M; Haavisto, A M; Boisen, K A; Damgaard, I N; Mau, C; Petersen, J H; Juul, A; Skakkebaek, N E; Main, K M

    2003-01-01

    The early postnatal regulation of reproductive hormones seems to be more complex in girls than in boys. The aim of this study was to describe inhibins A and B, FSH, LH, estradiol, and SHBG in a large prospective cohort of 473 unselected, healthy, 3-month-old girls. In full term, appropriate-for- gestational-age girls (n = 355) hormones showed a marked interindividual variation, with concentrations up to pubertal values [medians (95% confidence intervals): inhibin B, 82 pg/ml (

  10. The predictive value of thyroid hormone levels on the neurological outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-dong CHEN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation between thyroid hormone levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke and the severity of disease and short-term prognosis. Methods According to the level of serum total triiodothyronine (TT3, 98 patients who presented first acute ischemic stroke and without history of thyroid abnormality were divided into low TT3 group and normal TT3 group. Thyroid hormone levels and neurological function defect of those patients were tested, and their neural functional recovery after 3 months was evaluated.  Results Low TT3 group had more severe neural function defect compared to normal TT3 group (?2 = 58.134, P = 0.000. There were no significant differences on total thyroxine (TT4; t = 1.636, P = 0.105 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH; t = 1.059, P = 0.292 between 2 groups. There was a significantly negative correlation between TT3 levels and National Insititute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score on admission (r = -0.672, P = 0.000. Patients with low TT3 showed a significantly smaller percentage of neurological function improvement on both NIHSS ( ?2 = 8.993, P = 0.003 and modified Rankin Scale (mRS; ?2 = 6.247, P = 0.012 scores compared to those with normal TT3 at 90 d after onset.  Conclusions Low T3 level is associated with the severity of acute ischemic stroke and neural functional recovery, suggesting serum T3 level may be a predictor of neural function improvement in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.009

  11. A Prospective Investigation of Graves' Disease and Selenium: Thyroid Hormones, Auto-Antibodies and Self-Rated Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Mikulski, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Graves' thyrotoxicosis tachycardia, weight loss and mental symptoms are common. Recovery takes time and varies between patients. Treatment with methimazole reduces thyroid hormone levels. According to previous research, this reduction has been faster if selenium (Se) is added. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether supplementing the pharmacologic treatment with Se could change the immune mechanisms, hormone levels and/or depression and anxiety. Methods: We prospectively investigated 38 patients with initially untreated thyrotoxicosis by measuring the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid receptor antibodies and thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies before medication and at 6, 18 and 36 weeks after commencing treatment with methimazole and levo-thyroxine, with a randomized blinded oral administration of 200 µg Se/day or placebo. The selenoprotein P concentration was determined in plasma at inclusion and after 36 weeks. The patients were also assessed with questionnaires about depression, anxiety and self-rated symptoms before medication was started and after 36 weeks. Results: FT4 decreased more in the Se group at 18 weeks (14 vs. 17 pmol/l compared to the placebo group, p = 0.01) and also at 36 weeks (15 vs. 18 pmol/l, p = 0.01). The TSH increased more in the Se group at 18 weeks (0.05 vs. 0.02 mIU/l, p = 0.04). The depression and anxiety scores were similar in both groups. In the Se group, the depression rates correlated negatively with FT3 and positively with TSH. This was not seen in the placebo group. Conclusions: Se supplementation can enhance biochemical restoration of hyperthyroidism, but whether this could shorten clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis and reduce mental symptoms must be investigated further.© 2015 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones; Der Schilddruesenknoten. TSH und periphere Hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, M. [Klinikum Hanau (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  13. Genetic features of thyroid hormone receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maha Rebaï; Imen Kallel; Ahmed Rebaï

    2012-12-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are prototypes of nuclear transcription factors that regulate the expression of target genes. These receptors play an important role in many physiological processes. Moreover, a dysfunction of these proteins is often implicated in several human diseases and malignancies. Here we report genetic variations and alterations of the TRs that have been described in the literature as well as their potential role in the development of some human diseases including cancers. The functional effects of some mutations and polymorphisms in TRs on disease susceptibility, especially on cancer risk, are now established. Therefore, further investigations are needed in order to use these receptors as therapeutic targets or as biological markers to decide on appropriate forms of treatment.

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a hormonal condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Helene; Guennoc, Anne-Marie; Veyrat-Durebex, Charlotte; Gordon, Paul H; Andres, Christian R; Camu, William; Corcia, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disorder in adults. This fatal condition, due to degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in spinal and bulbar myotomes, leads to death from respiratory failure after median disease duration of 36 months. ALS is sporadic in more than 90% of cases and familial in the remaining cases. Most studies show male predominance with a gender ratio of 3:2, but gender differences are age related. The phenotype of ALS is also different in males and females with a predominance of limb onset in males and bulbar onset in females. While age and site of onset impact survival rate, and are both related to gender, gender by itself has not clearly been shown to have an effect on survival. Given this complex relationship between gender and ALS, we developed a hypothesis about hormone involvement in ALS aetiology by suggesting protective effect of oestrogens and adverse effect of androgens. PMID:22873563

  15. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Amos-Landgraf, James M; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J.; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F.; Van Den Brink, Gijs R.

    2014-01-01

    The age-adjusted incidence of colonic adenomas and colorectal cancer is higher in men than in women. In a careful analysis of two established animal models, we found that castration reduced, and testosterone supplementation restored, the number of adenomas in the male rat and mouse colon, whereas ovariectomy and replacement of female hormones had no measureable effect on colonic adenomagenesis. In Min mice, in which most of the tumors arise in the small intestine, this testosterone-dependent ...

  16. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  17. Terapia hormonal na menopausa: quando não usar Hormone therapy in menopause: when not to use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poli Mara Spritzer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A menopausa corresponde à cessação permanente da menstruação, conseqüente à perda da função folicular ovariana ou à remoção cirúrgica dos ovários. A idade média para ocorrência da menopausa natural gira em torno de 50 anos. A deficiência estrogênica decorrente da menopausa está associada com sintomas vasomotores, atrofia urogenital, declínio cognitivo, assim como a um aumento no risco de doenças crônico-degenerativas, aterosclerose e doença cardiovascular, osteoporose e doença de Alzheimer. A estrogenioterapia permanece sendo o tratamento mais efetivo para o manejo dos sintomas vasomotores e atrofia urogenital. Em mulheres com útero presente, a progesterona natural ou os progestogênios devem ser associados ao tratamento com estradiol para antagonizar os efeitos proliferativos deste hormônio sobre o endométrio e anular o risco de hiperplasia/carcinoma endometrial. Por outro lado, em determinadas condições clínicas, a terapia hormonal não é recomendada ou é mesmo contra-indicada. Neste artigo, focalizamos criticamente essas situações clínicas em que não se deve indicar a terapia hormonal na menopausa.Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of menses, as a result of the loss of ovarian follicular function or of surgical removal of ovaries. The mean age for occurrence of natural menopause is around 50 years. Estrogen deficiency has been associated with vasomotor symptoms, urogenital atrophy, and cognitive impairment, as well as increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Estrogen therapy remains the most effective treatment for the management of vasomotor symptoms and urogenital atrophy. Progesterone or progestins should be added to estrogen treatment in women with uterus, in order to antagonize the estrogen-induced endometrial proliferation. In turn, in specific clinical conditions hormone therapy is not recommended. In the present article, the authors critically focus these clinical conditions in which hormone therapy should not be used.

  18. Continuation of growth hormone therapy versus placebo in transition-phase patients with growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens; Nørrelund, Helene; Vahl, Nina; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2002-01-01

    In a placebo-controlled, parallel study of 18 patients with a mean age of 20 years who had confirmed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we evaluated body composition, insulin sensitivity, and glucose turnover at baseline (when all were receiving GH replacement); after 12 months of continued GH therapy or placebo; and after a 12-month open phase of GH therapy. In the placebo group, insulin sensitivity and fat mass increased and lipid oxidation decreased, whereas glucose oxidation increased (p

  19. Hormonal and cellular regulation of Sertoli cell anti-Müllerian hormone production in the postnatal mouse.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Attar, L; Noël, K; Dutertre, M; Belville, C; Forest, M. G.; Burgoyne, P.S.; JOSSO, N.; Rey, R.

    1997-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted by immature testicular Sertoli cells. Clinical studies have demonstrated a negative correlation between serum AMH and testosterone in puberty but not in the neonatal period. We investigated AMH regulation using mouse models mimicking physiopathological situations observed in humans. In normal mice, intratesticular, not serum, testosterone repressed AMH synthesis, explaining why AMH is downregulated in early puberty when serum testosterone is still low....

  20. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often enc...

  1. Psychological effects of withdrawal of growth hormone therapy from adults with growth hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, CV; Bradley, Clare; Gibney, J; Healy , ML; Russell-Jones, DL; Sönksen, PH

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Growth hormone (GH) is known to be required for physical well-being. Whilst it is also widely believed to be important for quality of life (QoL) and psychological health, there is less supportive evidence. The objective of this study was to investigate the psychological effects of discontinuation of GH replacement from adults with severe GH deficiency (GHD). Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which GH replacement therapy was discontinued for 3 months from 12 of...

  2. Changes in calcium regulating hormone and sex hormone in male patients with liver cirrhosis and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the significance of the changes in calcium regulating hormone and sex hormone in male patients with liver cirrhosis, a prospective study was performed on 48 male patients with liver cirrhosis and 43 controls. The serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT), osteocalcin (BGP), estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) were determined by IRMA or RIA. Serum levels of calcium(Ca2+), phosphorus (P3+) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in all patients and controls. Cirrhotic patients showed lower serum CT, BGP, Ca2+, P3+ T, and BMD. The serum levels of PTH, E2, ALP and BLP were increased significantly in the cirrhosis group. When the condition of cirrhosis deteriorated, above-mentioned changes became much more obvious. Significant disorders of calcium regulating hormone and sex hormone in end-stage cirrhotic patients resulted in osteoporosis

  3. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of a lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varasteh Moradi, Shayli; Varamini, Pegah; Steyn, Frederik; Toth, Istvan

    2015-11-10

    In the current study, the efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) was examined following oral administration in male rats. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique was developed and applied for measuring the concentration of lactose[Q(1)][w(6)]LHRH (compound 1) in rat plasma in order to allow measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters. LH release was evaluated using a sandwich ELISA. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax=0.11?g/ml) was reached at 2h (Tmax) following oral administration of the compound at 10mg/kg. The half-life was determined to be 2.6h. The absolute bioavailability of the orally administered compound was found to be 14%, which was a remarkable improvement compared to zero-to-low oral bioavailability of the native peptide. Compound 1 was effective in stimulating LH release at 20mg/kg after oral administration. The method was validated at a linear range of 0.01-20.0?g/ml and a correlation coefficient of r(2)?0.999. The accuracy and precision values showed the reliability and reproducibility of the method for evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters. These findings showed that the lactose derivative of LHRH has a therapeutic potential to be further developed as an orally active therapeutics for the treatment of hormone-dependent diseases. PMID:26325323

  4. Discordances between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH in female infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weghofer Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH represent the two most frequently utilized laboratory tests in determining ovarian reserve (OR. This study determined the clinical significance of their concordance and discordance in female infertility patients. Methods We investigated 366 consecutive infertility patients (350 reached IVF, excluding women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. They were considered to have normal FSH and AMH if values fell within age-specific (as- 95% confidence intervals (CI, and to suffer from diminished ovarian reserve (DOR if FSH exceeded and/or AMH fell below those. The two hormones, thus, could be concordant (Group I, both normal (IA or abnormal (IB, show normal AMH/abnormal FSH (Group II or normal FSH/abnormal AMH (Group III. Oocyte yields, stratified for age categories, were then studied in each group as reflection of OR. Results Oocyte yields significantly decreased from groups IA to II to III and IB. Predictive values of as-FSH/AMH patterns changed, however, at different ages. Except at very young and very old ages, normal as-AMH better predicted higher oocytes yields than normal as-FSH, though above age 42 years normal as-FSH predicts good oocyte yields even with abnormally low AMH. Under age 42 discrepancies between as- FSH and as-AMH remain similarly predictive of oocyte yields at all ages. Discussion Concordances and discordances between as-FSH and as-AMH improve OR assessments and predictability of oocyte yields in IVF.

  5. On the role of gallbladder emptying and incretin hormones for nutrient-mediated TSH suppression in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, David P; Lund, Asger; Faber, Jens; Holst, Jens J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2014-12-01

    Bile acids are possible candidate agents in newly identified pathways through which energy expenditure may be regulated. Preclinical studies suggest that bile acids activate the enzyme type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, which deiodinates thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active triiodothyronine (T3). We aimed to evaluate the influence of bile acid exposure and incretin hormones on thyroid function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (total T3 and free T4) were measured in plasma from two human studies: i) 75?g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and three isocaloric (500?kcal) and isovolaemic (350?ml) liquid meals with increasing fat content with concomitant ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder emptying in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes and 15 healthy age, gender and BMI-matched controls (meal-study) and ii) 50?g-OGTT and isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusions (IIGI) alone or in combination with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and/or GLP2, in ten patients with type 2 diabetes (IIGI-study). In both studies, TSH levels declined (P<0.01) similarly following all meal and infusion stimuli. T3 and T4 concentrations did not change in response to any of the applied stimuli. TSH levels declined independently of the degree of gallbladder emptying (meal-study), route of nutrient administration and infusion of gut hormones. In conclusion, intestinal bile flow and i.v. infusions of the gut hormones, GIP, GLP1 and/or GLP2, do not seem to affect thyroid function parameters. Thus, the presence of a 'gut-thyroid-pituitary' axis seems questionable. PMID:25277744

  6. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, C R; Walton, K G; Wenneberg, S R; Levitsky, D K; Mandarino, J P; Waziri, R; Hillis, S L; Schneider, R H

    1997-05-01

    Stress has been implicated in both somatic and mental disorders. The mechanisms by which stress leads to poor health are largely unknown. However, studies in animals suggest that chronic stress causes high basal cortisol and low cortisol response to acute stressors and that such changes may contribute to disease. Previous studies of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique as a possible means of countering effects of stress have reported altered levels of several hormones both during the practice and longitudinally after regular practice of this technique. In this prospective, random assignment study, changes in baseline levels and acute responses to laboratory stressors were examined for four hormones-cortisol, growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and testosterone-before and after 4 months of either the TM technique or a stress education control condition. At pre- and post-test, blood was withdrawn continuously through an indwelling catheter, and plasma or serum samples were frozen for later analysis by radioimmunoassay. The results showed significantly different changes for the two groups, or trends toward significance, for each hormone over the 4 months. In the TM group, but not in the controls, basal cortisol level and average cortisol across the stress session decreased from pre- to post-test. Cortisol responsiveness to stressors, however, increased in the TM group compared to controls. The baselines and/or stress responsiveness for TSH and GH changed in opposite directions for the groups, as did the testosterone baseline. Overall, the cortisol and testosterone results appear to support previous data suggesting that repeated practice of the TM technique reverses effects of chronic stress significant for health. The observed group difference in the change of GH regulation may derive from the cortisol differences, while the TSH results are not related easily to earlier findings on the effects of chronic stress. PMID:9226731

  7. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S

    2011-01-01

    No human study has investigated the possible impact of breastfeeding on semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones, but a recent study of another hypothesis indicated an association with oligozoospermia. We investigated the association between breastfeeding, semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 sons were selected according to maternal smoking during pregnancy and followed up with questionnaires, semen analysis and blood sampling in 2005-2006. Complete data were available for 269 men aged 18-21 years. Breastfeeding was not statistically significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility or morphology, oligozoospermia, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the calculated level of free testosterone, free oestradiol, the free testosterone/free oestradiol ratio or the follicle-stimulating hormone/inhibin B ratio. Total testosterone and total oestradiol was 16% (p = 0.01) and 14% (p = 0.06), respectively, lower among men never breastfed in comparison with men breastfed exclusively for 1 month or longer. When taking SHBG into account, neither free testosterone nor free oestradiol was different between the two groups. This study shows no association between breastfeeding and sperm quality or reproductive hormones and a strong association is unlikely. A larger study would be needed to detect more subtle effects.

  8. The ketotic effects of glucocorticoid and growth hormone in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D S; Eaton, R P; Peake, G T

    1980-01-01

    The ketotic effects of both glucocorticoid and growth hormone were assessed in normal man. Experimental protocols, previously shown to induce marked ketosis in diabetic man, were utilized to explore the metabolic effects of these two stress hormones in subjects with normal insulin secretory capacity. Glucocorticoid was administered orally as 1 mg of dexamethasone at 24 and 8 h prior to study. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously at a dosage of 1 mg, 12 h prior to study. During the 90-min study of the ketotic activity of these hormones, plasma nonesterified fatty acids were acutely increased by heparin administration to support hepatic ketogenesis. This technique permitted an assessment of the ketotic activity of glucocorticoid and growth hormone independent of their lipolytic activity. The results of this study demonstrate that glucocorticoid may cause minimal hyperketonemia in spite of hyperinsulinemia in normal man. However, this effect is accompanied by a glucocorticoid-induced instability in basal ketone body and nonesterified fatty acid concentration. In contrast, no effect of growth hormone on plasma ketone body concentration or insulin levels was observed. These results in normal man contrast to the marked ketosis previously induced by these two stress hormones in diabetic man. PMID:7004043

  9. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces secretion of anorexigenic gut hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Young; Aihara, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Mizuno, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    The anorexigenic gut hormones, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), are released in response to food intake from the intestines. Dietary nutrients have been shown to stimulate these hormones. Some non-nutrients such as polyphenols show anorexigenic effects on humans. In the present study, we examined whether dietary polyphenols can stimulate secretion of these gut hormones. Caco-2 cells expressed mRNA of the gut hormones, CCK, PC1 (prohormone convertase 1), GCG (glucagon) and PYY. CCK, GLP-1 and PYY were secreted from Caco-2 cells after adding sugars, amino acids or fatty acids. Using Caco-2 cells, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid induced secretion of anorexigenic gut hormones. Particularly, EGCG induced secretion of all three hormones. In an ex vivo assay using murine intestines, EGCG also released CCK from the duodenum, and GLP-1 from the ileum. These results suggest that EGCG may affect appetite via gut hormones. PMID:26388676

  10. (?)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces secretion of anorexigenic gut hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Young; Aihara, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Mizuno, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    The anorexigenic gut hormones, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), are released in response to food intake from the intestines. Dietary nutrients have been shown to stimulate these hormones. Some non-nutrients such as polyphenols show anorexigenic effects on humans. In the present study, we examined whether dietary polyphenols can stimulate secretion of these gut hormones. Caco-2 cells expressed mRNA of the gut hormones, CCK, PC1 (prohormone convertase 1), GCG (glucagon) and PYY. CCK, GLP-1 and PYY were secreted from Caco-2 cells after adding sugars, amino acids or fatty acids. Using Caco-2 cells, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid induced secretion of anorexigenic gut hormones. Particularly, EGCG induced secretion of all three hormones. In an ex vivo assay using murine intestines, EGCG also released CCK from the duodenum, and GLP-1 from the ileum. These results suggest that EGCG may affect appetite via gut hormones. PMID:26388676

  11. Endogenous hormones as a major factor in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B E; Ross, R K; Pike, M C; Casagrande, J T

    1982-08-01

    Hormone-related cancers account for almost 30% of all cancer cases in the United States. Data from animal experiments and from epidemiological and endocrinological studies in humans support the hypothesis that the individual hormones which control normal growth of target organs can also create the proper conditions for neoplastic transformation. The concept that hormones can cause, i.e., increase the incidence of, human cancer is most developed for the four hormone-related cancers which are numerically the most important, namely, breast, prostate, endometrium, and ovary. Even for these sites, large gaps remain in our knowledge of the responsible hormones and the conditions which create the optimal opportunity for carcinogenesis. Although scanty, the available epidemiological evidence also suggests a hormonal role in the pathogenesis of testis cancer, thyroid cancer, and osteosarcoma. We believe that the primary prevention of all these cancers will probably depend on modification of the factors which affect the secretion and metabolism of the responsible hormones rather than on control of exposure to classical exogenous initiators. PMID:7046921

  12. Hatching the cleidoic egg: the role of thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VeerleM.Darras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A major life stage transition in birds and other oviparous sauropsids is the hatching of the cleidoic egg. Not unlike amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in these species can be regarded as a transition from a relatively well-protected “aqueous” environment to a more hazardous and terrestrial life outside the egg, a transition in which thyroid hormones (often in concert with glucocorticoids play an important role. In precocial birds such as the chicken, the perihatch period is characterised by peak values of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are implicated in the control of muscle development, lung maturation and the switch from chorioallantoic to pulmonary respiration, yolk sac retraction, gut development and induction of hepatic genes to accommodate the change in dietary energy source, initiation of thermoregulation, and the final stages of brain maturation as well as early posthatch imprinting behavior. There is evidence that, at least for some of these processes, thyroid hormones may have similar roles in non-avian sauropsids. In altricial birds such as passerines on the other hand, thyroid hormones do not rise significantly until well after hatching and peak values coincide with the development of endothermy. It is not known how hatching-associated processes are regulated by hormones in these animals or how this developmental mode evolved from thyroid hormone-dependent precocial hatching.

  13. [Our experience with hormonal therapy in transsexual patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Vladimír; Weiss, Petr; Fifková, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Hormonal therapy in transsexual patients (TS) includes sexagens administration: androgens in female-to-male transsexual patients (FtM) and oestrogens and antiandrogens in male-to-female transsexual patients (MtF). Duration of hormonal therapy should continue at least 1 year before gender reassignment surgery. Hormonal therapy supresses former gender and induces partially new gender changes. Hormonal therapy continues subsequently after surgery during life. Hormonal therapy in MtF TS includes oestrogens and antiandrogens application. In very young persons in both groups blocking gonadoliberin analogues can be used. In FtM TS testosterone oneself is given (orally and/or parenterally). Authors describe their own experiences with hormonal treatment in 282 TS (163 FtM and 119 MtF). During hormonal therapy statistically significant weight increasing was found in both groups. Total cholesterol increased in FtM. In MtF during hormonal therapy average prolactin level increased from 350.1 to 570.5 mU/l without clinical significance. Total average hormonal therapy duration was 6.73 years in FtM and 4.64 years in MtF and so overall therapy safety assessment is not possible. Any endocrinopathy occurence in the beginning of surveillance was found in 35 persons (12.4 %): simple goiter, autoimmune thyreoiditis, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, gynecomastia, DM type 1, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), Klinefelter syndrome and nonfunctional pituitary adenoma. It is appropriate as well as in other rare medicine conditions to manage diagnosing and therapy in centers with experience with these issues. PMID:25873114

  14. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comasco, Erika; FrØkjær, Vibe

    2014-01-01

    The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. The present review summarizes the findings of thirty-five studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women's brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in several cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal variations on the brain.

  15. Enzyme- and radioimmunoassay techniques for hormone determination in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormone determination in livestock is an important research tool to improve both production and reproduction of domestic animals. For instance, measurement of growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid hormones, insulin, glucocorticoids, androgens, etc. is used to evaluate traits for meat and milk production, whereas measurement of luteinizing hormone, testosterone, progesterone, oestronesulphate, etc. is used to evaluate reproductive capacity. Techniques for measurement of hormones are based mainly on the principle of immunoassay, and a wide variety of labelling substances is used as markers for endpoint determination. Radioactive isotopes are probably the most widely used markers, but other substances such as enzymes, fluorochromes, chemiluminescent precursors, etc. are increasingly gaining acceptance as valuable alternatives. Currently, practical application of hormone measurement in livestock is limited mainly to animal reproduction, and the hormones most frequently measured are progesterone and oestronesulphate. Many attempts have been made to improve the sensitivity, speed and reliability of the assay systems for these hormones. An increasing number of assays is based on the enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) technique, amd many further simplifications of these assays are currently being developed. This is reflected in the rapid increase of 'test-kits' being brought on to the market by pharmaceutical companies, with the ultimate aim of providing the farmer with 'cow-side' tests which can be applied on the farm. Future trends in immunoassay will most likely proceed in two directions, with the development of easy to apply 'dry chemistry systems' on the one hand, and highly sophisticated and easy to automatize biosensor systems for in vivo hormone measurement on the other. (author)

  16. Responsiveness of human male volunteers to immunization with ovine follicle stimulating hormone vaccine: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudgal, N R; Murthy, G S; Prasanna Kumar, K M; Martin, F; Suresh, R; Medhamurthy, R; Patil, S; Sehgal, S; Saxena, B N

    1997-03-01

    A study of 140 days duration was performed to examine if human male volunteers (n = 5) respond to ovine follicle stimulating hormone (oFSH) immunization (administered adsorbed on Alugel on days 1, 20, 40 and 70) by producing antibodies capable of both binding and neutralizing bioactivity of human FSH. The kinetics of antibody production for both the immunogen (oFSH) and the cross-reactive antigen (hFSH) were essentially similar. The volunteers responded only to the first two immunizations. The boosters given on days 40 and 70 were ineffective, probably because of the presence of substantial amounts of circulating antibody to oFSH. Of the antibodies generated to oFSH, 25-45% bound hFSH with a mean binding affinity of 0.65 x 10(9) +/- 0.53 M(-1). The binding capacities at the time of high (30-80 days of immunization) and low (>110 days) titres were 346 +/- 185 and 10.5 +/- 5.8 ng hFSH/ml respectively. During the period of high titre, free serum FSH (value in normal males 1-5 ng/ml) was not monitorable. A 50 microl aliquot of the antiserum obtained from different volunteers between days 30 and 80 and on day 140 blocked binding of (125)I-labelled hFSH to its receptor by 82 +/- 9.7 and 53 +/- 12.2% respectively. The antibody produced was specific for FSH, and no significant change in the values of related glycoprotein hormones (luteinizing hormone/testosterone and thyroid stimulating hormone/thyroxine) were recorded. Seminal plasma transferrin, a marker of Sertoli cell as well as of seminiferous tubular function, showed marked reduction (30-90%) following immunization with oFSH. Considering that endogenous FSH remained neutralized for approximately one sperm cycle only (65 days), the reduction in sperm counts (30-74%) exhibited by some volunteers is encouraging. Immunization with oFSH did not result in any significant changes in haematology, serum biochemistry or hormonal profiles. There was no production of antibodies capable of interacting with non-specific tissues. It is concluded that it should be possible to obtain a sustained long-term blockade of endogenous FSH action in men by using oFSH as an immunogen. This is a prerequisite for obtaining significant reduction in the quality and quantity of spermatozoa produced, thus leading to infertility. PMID:9130740

  17. Hormonal protection of spermatogenic stem cells during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis it is examined if by hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis the disadvantageous side-effects of radiation therapy on the gonads can be reduced. Therefore a rat model was investigated, where hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis during irradiation was achieved and stem cell survival was measured. Attention was focussed on the stem cell, because this cell is primarily responsible for the late effects of radiation on fertility. Flow cytometrical and histological techniques were used as parameters for measuring stem cell survival. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were measured to evaluate the hormonal suppression. (Auth.)

  18. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn; Hansen, Harald S.; Din, N.

    2003-01-01

    Lipid storage and breakdown is mainly controlled by lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. The aim of this work was to elucidate whether growth hormone mediated loss of adipose tissue involves a concerted action on tissue lipases, and to what degree such events are modulated by dietary regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with...

  19. Growth hormone replacement in patients with Langerhan's cell histiocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, S.; Wilton, P.; SHALET;, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the impact of growth hormone on growth and the underlying disease in children with growth hormone deficiency as a result of Langerhan's cell histiocytosis.?STUDY DESIGN—Retrospective analysis of data from the Kabi (Pharmacia & Upjohn) international growth database (KIGS) for 82 children with Langerhan's cell histiocytosis treated with recombinant growth hormone.?RESULTS—At the start of treatment the median (10-90th centile) age was 9.0 (5.2 to 14.7) year...

  20. Growth hormone (GH-releasing hormone and GH secretagogues in normal aging: Fountain of Youth or Pool of Tantalus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, George R MerriamVA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington School of Medicine, Tacoma and Seattle, Washington USAAbstract: Although growth hormone (GH is primarily associated with linear growth in childhood, it continues to have important metabolic functions in adult life. Adult GH deficiency (AGHD is a distinct clinical entity, and GH replacement in AGHD can improve body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, and mood, and may reduce vascular disease risk. While there are some hormone-related side effects, the balance of benefits and risks is generally favorable, and several countries have approved GH for clinical use in AGHD. GH secretion declines progressively and markedly with aging, and many age-related changes resemble those of partial AGHD. This suggests that replacing GH, or stimulating GH with GH-releasing hormone or a GH secretagogue could confer benefits in normal aging similar to those observed in AGHD – in particular, could reduce the loss of muscle mass, strength, and exercise capacity leading to frailty, thereby prolonging the ability to live independently. However, while most GH studies have shown body composition effects similar to those in AGHD, functional changes have been much less inconsistent, and older adults are more sensitive to GH side effects. Preliminary reports of improved cognition are encouraging, but the overall balance of benefits and risks of GH supplementation in normal aging remains uncertain.Keywords: growth hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, growth hormone secretagogues, aging, sarcopenia, frailty

  1. "THE EFFECT OF HORMONAL AND NON-HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT CONTENT OF HUMAN MILK"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Khaghani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Different contraceptive methods are used by breastfeeding mothers. In general, these methods are classified into two major groups, hormonal and non-hormonal. A number of studies have shown that combined oral contraceptive pills may adversely affect the quality and the quantity of human milk. In other studies it has been shown that estrogen and progesterone seem to reduce the risk of cardiac and ischemic brain injury by enhancing anti-oxidant mechanisms. Since infants are at increased risk of oxidative stress and free-radical mediated diseases are partly related to deficient antioxidant state, we performed a study to investigate if contraceptive method has any effect on the maternal milk total antioxidant content. A cross-sectional study of total antioxidant capacity of mature human milk of two groups of healthy breastfeeding mothers who were on the hormonal (Lynestrol or non-hormonal contraceptive regimen with 92 mothers in each group was performed. The total antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power method. The body mass indexes (BMI of hormonal and non-hormonal groups were 23.67±2.88 and 22.93±3.33 kg/m2,respectively, with no significant difference. The hemoglobin concentrations of hormonal versus nonhormonal groups were 12.94±0.90 and 13.14± 0.76 g/dl which were not significantly different. The mean total antioxidant contents of the hormonal and non-hormonal groups were 575±139 and 583±135 µmol/l, respectively, with no significant difference. It seems that progesterone has no effect on the antioxidant contents of mature human milk; in other words, the Lynestrol has neither positive nor negative effect on the antioxidant capacity of the human milk.

  2. Metabolism of growth hormone releasing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andreas; Delahaut, Philippe; Krug, Oliver; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-12-01

    New, potentially performance enhancing compounds have frequently been introduced to licit and illicit markets and rapidly distributed via worldwide operating Internet platforms. Developing fast analytical strategies to follow these new trends is one the most challenging issues for modern doping control analysis. Even if reference compounds for the active drugs are readily obtained, their unknown metabolism complicates effective testing strategies. Recently, a new class of small C-terminally amidated peptides comprising four to seven amino acid residues received considerable attention of sports drug testing authorities due to their ability to stimulate growth hormone release from the pituitary. The most promising candidates are the growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, hexarelin, alexamorelin, and ipamorelin. With the exemption of GHRP-2, the entity of these peptides represents nonapproved pharmaceuticals; however, via Internet providers, all compounds are readily available. To date, only limited information on the metabolism of these substances is available and merely one metabolite for GHRP-2 is established. Therefore, a comprehensive in vivo (po and iv administration in rats) and in vitro (with human serum and recombinant amidase) study was performed in order to generate information on urinary metabolites potentially useful for routine doping controls. The urine samples from the in vivo experiments were purified by mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction and analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation followed by high-resolution/high-accuracy mass spectrometry. Combining the high resolution power of a benchtop Orbitrap mass analyzer for the first metabolite screening and the speed of a quadrupole/time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instrument for identification, urinary metabolites were screened by means of a sensitive full scan analysis and subsequently confirmed by high-accuracy product ion scan experiments. Two deuterium-labeled internal standards (triply deuterated GHRP-4 and GHRP-2 metabolite) were used to optimize the extraction and analysis procedure. Overall, 28 metabolites (at least three for each GHRP) were identified from the in vivo samples and main metabolites were confirmed by the human in vitro model. All identified metabolites were formed due to exopeptidase- (amino- or carboxy-), amidase-, or endopeptidase activity. PMID:23101768

  3. Thyroid abnormalities in the McCune-Albright syndrome: ultrasonography and hormonal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillan, P P; Shawker, T; Rose, S R; Jones, J; Jeevanram, R K; Nisula, B C

    1990-12-01

    Hyperthyroidism and goiter have been reported frequently in association with the McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). To assess the prevalence and extent of thyroid abnormalities in girls with MAS, we studied 19 patients [mean age, 6.6 +/- 1 (+/- SE) yr; mean bone age, 9.5 +/- 1 yr] and 18 normal control girls (mean age, 10.3 +/- 0.5 yr). All patients appeared euthyroid when examined; 1 was taking antithyroid medication. Ultrasonography revealed thyroid abnormalities in 7 patients, including generalized inhomogeneity, small (2-4 mm) and large (greater than 10 mm) hypoechoic regions, and echogenic nodule-like regions. Repeat ultrasonography after intervals of 9-18 months showed enlargement of large hypoechoic regions in 2 patients. In the patients with abnormal ultrasound findings, serum TSH was uniformly low or suppressed both at baseline and after administration of 7 micrograms/kg TRH. The mean serum T3 level in this group was significantly higher than that in controls (2.9 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.3 +/- 0.1 nmol/L; P less than 0.05), whereas mean serum T4, free T4, and T4-binding globulin levels did not differ from those of controls. In the remaining 11 patients, thyroid ultrasonography was normal, and the serum levels of T3, T4, free T4, and TSH were normal. Bioassay showed no detectable thyroid-stimulating activity in the plasma of the MAS patients with suppressed TSH levels. None of the patients became overtly thyrotoxic over 3-6 yr of observation, and their serum iodothyronine levels remained stable. We conclude that thyroid dysfunction is common in girls with MAS, but that it may be clinically occult and not rapidly progressive. The thyroid dysfunction, like that of the ovaries, is associated with structural abnormalities in the gland itself, together with suppressed levels of the respective stimulating hormones. PMID:2229316

  4. Need for Comprehensive Hormonal Workup in the Management of Adrenocortical Tumors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gönç, E. Nazl?; Özön, Zeynep Alev; Çak?r, Meltem Didem; Alika?ifo?lu, Ayfer; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2014-01-01

    Ob­jec­ti­ve: Clinical findings do not reflect the excess hormonal status in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) in children. Identification of abnormal hormone secretion may help provide the tumor marker and delineate those patients with a risk of adrenal suppression following tumor removal. To analyze the impact of complete hormonal assessment regardless of the clinical presentation in hormone-secreting ACTs in childhood.

  5. Diversity in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of antibodies from mice with evolving anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Osvaldo; Gangi, Eryn; Mordi, David; Gupta, Sonal; Dorevitch, Samuel; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2007-02-01

    In a mouse model of autoimmune Graves' disease, stimulatory anti-TSH receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TSAbs) slowly evolve upon repeated immunization with TSHR and lead to hyperthyroidism. Although all immunized mice developed high levels of TSH-binding inhibitory Ig (TBII), only a subset of these mice become hyperthyroid, suggesting that the generation of pathogenic antibodies (Abs) may require affinity maturation. We analyzed the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of IGHV1 and IGHV5 heavy chains from mice at different stages of disease development. Subcloned CDR3 PCR products were amplified from RNA isolated from enriched splenic B/plasma cells of a control mouse, and mice with low TBII and normal T(4) levels (LTNT(4)), high TBII and normal T(4) levels (HTNT(4)), and high TBII and high T(4) levels (HTHT(4)). Using statistical analyses, we correlated usage of D and J genes and the amino acid composition and length of and mutations within the CDR3 with different outcomes after TSHR immunization. CDR3 sequences from TSHR-immunized mice contained a higher frequency of D gene SP2.9 relative to control, whereas sequences from HTHT(4) contained a higher frequency of D gene Q52 compared with sequences from LTNT(4). Furthermore, HTHT(4) sequences also contained higher CDR3 replacement mutations, relative to LTNT(4) and HTNT(4) mice, that are indicative of somatic hypermutation. Collectively, our results suggest that higher somatic mutations within the CDR3 may correlate with pathogenic antibodies against the TSHR. PMID:17068139

  6. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increases through the quartiles of thyroid stimulating hormone in a population-based sample of euthyroid subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shinkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its elements in relation to TSH in euthyroid subjects. Materials and methods In the cross-sectional study, 2,153 euthyroid adults, 47.2 ± 14.5 years (20-94 with no current antithyroid or thyroid replacement therapy were enrolled. All participants filled a questionnaire on past and current morbidities, medication and smoking. Body weight, height, waist circumference, serum TSH, glucose and lipids were measured. The subjects were stratified by quartiles of TSH (QTSH and the prevalence of the MetS elements was calculated. MetS was determined by the IDF 2005 criteria. Results Overweight prevalence was 37.2% (35.2-39.2, obesity in 25.1% (23.3-26.9, abdominal obesity – 61.4% (59.3-63.5, hypertension – 42.1% (38.9-43.1, diabetes/increased fasting glucose – 13.6% (12.1-15, low HDL-cholesterol – 27.6% (25.7-29.5, hypertriglyceridemia – 24.1% (22.3-25.9, MetS – 32.2% (30.2-34.2. MetS was more prevalent in the highest QTSH (34.9%, 30.9-38.9 than the lowest (27%, 23.3-30.9, p < 0.001, as were low HDL-C (32%, 28-35.9 vs. 25%, 21.3-28.7, p < 0.001 and hypertriglyceridemia (26.8%, 23-30.5 vs. 20.4%, 17-23.8, p = 0.015. Each QTSH increased the risk of MetS by 14%, p < 0.001, of hypertriglyceridemia by 20%, p = 0.001 and of low LDL-C by 9%, p = 0.042. Other significant factors for MetS were age, male gender and obesity. Conclusion The prevalence of MetS increased with higher QTSH within the euthyroid range, mostly by an increase in the dyslipidemia. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(9:926-32

  7. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs: Understanding advantages and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary stimulation with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogs induces both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH. Pituitary gonadotropin secretions are blocked upon desensitization when a continuous GnRH stimulus is provided by means of an agonist or when the pituitary receptors are occupied with a competitive antagonist. GnRH antagonists were not available originally; therefore, prolonged daily injections of agonist with its desensitizing effect were used. Today, single- and multiple-dose injectable antagonists are also available to block the LH surge and thus to cause desensitization. This review provides an overview of the use of GnRH analogs which is potent therapeutic agents that are considerably useful in a variety of clinical indications from the past to the future with some limitations. These indications include management of endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, hirsutism, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, assisted reproduction, and some hormone-dependent tumours, other than ovulation induction.

  8. Neuroprotective actions of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Frago

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The brain incorporates and coordinates information based on the hormonal environment, receiving information from peripheral tissues through the circulation. Although it was initially thought that hormones only acted on the hypothalamus to perform endocrine functions, it is now known that they in fact exert diverse actions on many different brain regions including the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH secretion and food intake to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight by binding to its receptor, GHS-R1a, which is most highly expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. In addition, ghrelin has effects on learning and memory, reward and motivation, anxiety and depression, and could be a potential therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disorders where excitotoxic neuronal cell death and inflammatory processes are involved.

  9. Application of hormone receptor assay for clinical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conception of hormone receptors was explained to understand radioreceptor assay (RRA), and various problems in the operation of this method were described mainly. The principle of RRA is the same as that of RIA and CPBA, and measured values by RRA resembled to those by bioassay more closely than those by RIA. However, the sensitivity of RRA was inferior to that of RIA. It was important in using this method especially for measurement of peptide hormone not to deactivate biological the base by radioactivation. As the significance of this method in clinical chemistry, it was mentioned that this method was one kind of experiment to observe the biological activity of hormones, and that properties analysis of receptors, studies on action mechanism, the structure and function of hormone, the pathological analysis of endocrine abnormalities, and the development of drugs and treatment methods for receptors may become possible by this method. The other usefulness of this method was also mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  10. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing ...

  11. Skin morphological changes in growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Merete Wolder; Thulesen, J

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the histomorphology of skin and its appendages, especially eccrine sweat glands, in patients with GH disorders, because reduced sweating ability in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased risk of hyperthermia under stressed conditions.

  12. Role of insulin hormone in modulation of inflammatory phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Petta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence demonstrates the involvement of hormones in thedevelopment of inflammatory response. Inflammation evokes markedstructural alterations of microvasculature, besides migration ofleukocytes from microcirculation to the site of lesion. These alterations are caused primarily by release or activation of endogenous mediators, in which hormones play an integral role in this regulatory system. Binding sites for many hormones may be characterized by vascular structures and hematogenous cells involved with the inflammatory response. Quantitative alterations of inflammatory events involving the decrease in microvascular response to inflammatory mediators, deficiency in the leukocyte-endothelium interaction, reduction of cell concentration in the inflammatory exudate, and failure of the phagocyte function of mononuclear cells were observed in insulindeficient states. Therefore, inflammation is not merely a local response, but rather a process controlled by hormones in which insulin plays an essential role in modulation of these phenomena, and assures tissue repair and remodeling within the limits of normality.

  13. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Tuesday, April 15, 2014 Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility ... form cyst-like structures. A variant in a gene active in cells of the ovary may lead ...

  14. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fissore MariaF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  15. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  16. [Conventional hormonal replacement therapy in treatment of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, B?azej; Czyzyk, Adam

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis and osteoporotic bone fractures becomes a serious life threat for women after menopause. Estrogens, mainly through alpha type receptor, act on immunological cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, causing increase of bone mineral density and decline of risk of fractures. Conventional hormonal replacement therapy (in peculiarity its estrogens) is effective regimen, applied in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Observational studies carried out in past revealed its beneficial influence on cardiovascular disease. However, randomized clinical trials and newer observational studies neglected those conclusions. It was shown that hormonal replacement therapy has adverse effects on: risk of heart disease among older women, thromboemolic disease, stroke and breast cancer among some groups of women. On the other hand, hormonal therapy is effective for menopause symptoms, risk of death and in some clinical cases it might be used in osteoporosis treatment. On base of precise scientific data, particular group of patients may be selected, for which use of hormonal replacement therapy will be especially valuable. PMID:19650436

  17. The role of steroid hormones in breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Bruno M; Alferez, Denis G; Howell, Sacha J; Clarke, Robert B

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are potent tumor-initiating cells in breast cancer, the most common cancer among women. BCSCs have been suggested to play a key role in tumor initiation which can lead to disease progression and formation of metastases. Moreover, BCSCs are thought to be the unit of selection for therapy-resistant clones since they survive conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy, irradiation, and hormonal therapy. The importance of the role of hormones for both normal mammary gland and breast cancer development is well established, but it was not until recently that the effects of hormones on BCSCs have been investigated. This review will discuss recent studies highlighting how ovarian steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone, as well as therapies against them, can regulate BCSC activity. PMID:26381288

  18. Improving compliance with hormonal replacement therapy in primary osteoporosis prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P; Gram, J; Jensen, L B; Kolthoff, Niels-Ulrik; Abrahamsen, Bo; Brot, C; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule.

  19. Light from Smartphones, Tablets May Lower Sleep Hormone in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... From Smartphones, Tablets May Lower Sleep Hormone in Kids Finding suggests use of electronic devices before bedtime ... prompts sleep. The effect was most pronounced for kids just entering puberty, with nighttime melatonin levels suppressed ...

  20. Endocrine therapy use among elderly hormone receptor-pos...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Clinical guidelines recommend that women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer receive endocrine therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase...

  1. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  2. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility disorder Discovery by NIH-supported researchers may lead ... androgens, symptoms of PCOS include irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, and insulin resistance (difficulty using insulin.) The condition ...

  3. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenic gene transcription in the liver

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nirmala Yabaluri; Murali D Bashyam

    2010-09-01

    Glucose homeostasis in mammals is achieved by the actions of counterregulatory hormones, namely insulin, glucagon and glucocorticoids. Glucose levels in the circulation are regulated by the liver, the metabolic centre which produces glucose when it is scarce in the blood. This process is catalysed by two rate-limiting enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) whose gene expression is regulated by hormones. Hormone response units (HRUs) present in the two genes integrate signals from various signalling pathways triggered by hormones. How such domains are arranged in the regulatory region of these two genes, how this complex regulation is accomplished and the latest advancements in the field are discussed in this review.

  4. Activation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor stimulates cardiac reverse remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M; Takeuchi, Lauro M; Rick, Ferenc G; Dulce, Raul; Treuer, Adriana V; Florea, Victoria; Rodrigues, Claudia O; Paulino, Ellena C; Hatzistergos, Konstantinos E; Selem, Sarah M; Gonzalez, Daniel R; Block, Norman L; Schally, Andrew V; Hare, Joshua M

    2012-01-10

    Both cardiac myocytes and cardiac stem cells (CSCs) express the receptor of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), activation of which improves injury responses after myocardial infarction (MI). Here we show that a GHRH-agonist (GHRH-A; JI-38) reverses ventricular remodeling and enhances functional recovery in the setting of chronic MI. This response is mediated entirely by activation of GHRH receptor (GHRHR), as demonstrated by the use of a highly selective GHRH antagonist (MIA-602). One month after MI, animals were randomly assigned to receive: placebo, GHRH-A (JI-38), rat recombinant GH, MIA-602, or a combination of GHRH-A and MIA-602, for a 4-wk period. We assessed cardiac performance and hemodynamics by using echocardiography and micromanometry derived pressure-volume loops. Morphometric measurements were carried out to determine MI size and capillary density, and the expression of GHRHR was assessed by immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR. GHRH-A markedly improved cardiac function as shown by echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters. MI size was substantially reduced, whereas myocyte and nonmyocyte mitosis was markedly increased by GHRH-A. These effects occurred without increases in circulating levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I and were, at least partially, nullified by GHRH antagonism, confirming a receptor-mediated mechanism. GHRH-A stimulated CSCs proliferation ex vivo, in a manner offset by MIA-602. Collectively, our findings reveal the importance of the GHRH signaling pathway within the heart. Therapy with GHRH-A although initiated 1 mo after MI substantially improved cardiac performance and reduced infarct size, suggesting a regenerative process. Therefore, activation of GHRHR provides a unique therapeutic approach to reverse remodeling after MI. PMID:22203988

  5. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone as a potent stimulator of the thyroidal axis in ranid frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G F; Goyvaerts, M P; Vandorpe, G; Quaghebeur, A M; Kühn, E R

    1988-05-01

    Plasma concentrations of T4, measured by radioimmunoassay, were raised significantly 2 and 4 hr after intravenous injection of synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in Rana ridibunda (1 and 10 micrograms on 2 consecutive days) and in Rana esculenta (10 micrograms). A dose of 1 microgram LHRH was not so effective as 50 micrograms synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) when injected in Rana ridibunda in November. However 10 micrograms LHRH was equipotent to 50 micrograms TRH. In February somewhat less than half of the Rana temporaria group was responsive to LHRH. There is no clear indication that fluctuating plasma T3 concentrations were caused by LHRH or TRH. Preinjection levels of T3 and T4 were higher during the breeding season (April) in R. esculenta (resp. 35.4 +/- 1.4 pg/ml; 744 +/- 134 pg/ml; n = 22) compared to the basal concentrations in the very closely related Rana ridibunda (November) (resp. 15.2 +/- 1.1; 162 +/- 24 pg/ml; n = 28). Four days after removal of the pars distalis plasma T4 concentrations were significantly decreased in Rana esculenta, whereas T3 could stay longer in circulation. T3 and T4 content of the thyroids was not altered by the short-term hypophysectomy. Injection of 10 micrograms LHRH had no influence on plasma T4 nor testosterone concentrations in these frogs, contrary to the sham-ectomized animals in which plasma testosterone remained elevated longer than T4. The results suggest that the stimulatory effect of intravenous injected LHRH on thyroid (and gonadal) activity in the frog is primarily mediated through the hypophysis. They also point to a possible correlation between the gonadal and thyroidal axis. PMID:3133281

  6. Parathyroid hormone: radioimmunoassay and clinical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), which has had widespread clinical use for five years, is described in detail. The iPTH results in large groups of patients are reported, and are discussed in relation to the specificity of the assay and in relation to other assays. The assay has excellent precision and is highly proficient in discrimination of groups of patients. Ninety-three percent of 412 patients with surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism were confidently separated from normal subjects or patients with hypercalcemia owing to other causes, while 86 percent of 160 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism had iPTH values more than 2 S.D. above the normal mean. Results in patients with ectopic hyperparathyroidism were lower than in primary hyperparathyroidism although these groups showed considerable overlap. The antiserum used in this assay for iPTH appears to be specific for the carboxy-terminal region of the secreted or intact form of PTH but recognizes predominantly the secreted form rather than carboxy-terminal fragments believed to be in the circulation. It does not recognize amino terminal fragments. The assay is useful in selective venous catheterization for preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue

  7. Hormone replacement therapy: boon or bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, H R

    1995-10-01

    The steadily increasing frequency of breast cancer, especially in elderly women, may be owing to the following three factors, among others: natural aging, the increased use of mammography leading to earlier diagnosis of in-situ carcinoma and occult carcinoma, and the indiscriminate use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). That there is a correlation of estrogen with breast cancer cannot be refuted. Early menarche, late menopause, late first pregnancy, obesity and dietary factors are directly or indirectly connected with an increased likelihood of breast cancer. The recent flurry of interest in attempting to prevent osteoporosis-induced bony fractures and coronary artery disease among elderly women has not been fully tested as to its efficacy by a scientific, prospectively randomized clinical trial. Therefore, it seems timely to indicate clearly that the use of HRT should be made on an individual basis, with the tacit understanding and approval of the patients, some of whom are symptomatic but the majority of whom have no signs or symptoms of the diseases for which prevention is being advocated. PMID:7553463

  8. Long-Acting Growth Hormone: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Paul H; Mejia-Corletto, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    After the introduction of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in 1985, a myriad of children and adults have benefited from its growth-promoting and metabolic effects. Nowadays, current therapeutic regimens rely on daily subcutaneous GH injections that could be burdensome and inconvenient to pediatric patients. As expected with any long-term parenteral pharmacological treatment, these daily regimens may promote nonadherence, poor compliance, treatment abandonment and/or suboptimal clinical outcomes. In order to improve patient and caregiver acceptance of proposed regimens, simplified dosing schedules could potentially aid in reducing poor compliance and maximize the therapeutic end results. Long-acting GH formulations have been designed and perfected over the last two decades, and currently there are several formulations in advanced stages of research as a reasonable attempt to improve patient's adherence to GH treatment. A long-acting GH preparation allowing for reduced injection frequency is likely to improve treatment adherence and to decrease the distress and inconvenience associated with daily injections. This review presents an update about the status of current and recent efforts that have enabled the formulation of sustained-release, long-acting rhGH as it has been longed for many years in the pediatric endocrinology field. PMID:26683877

  9. FOXA1 mutations in hormone dependent cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JessicaLouise LouvainRobinson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The forkhead protein, FOXA1, is a critical interacting partner of the nuclear hormone receptors, oestrogen receptor-? (ER and androgen receptor (AR, which are major drivers of the two most common cancers, namely breast and prostate cancer. Over the past few years, progress has been made in our understanding of how FOXA1 influences nuclear receptor function, with both common and distinct roles in the regulation of ER or AR. Recently, another level of regulation has been described, with the discovery that FOXA1 is mutated in 1.8% of breast and 3-5 % prostate cancers. In addition, a subset of both cancer types exhibit amplification of the genomic region encompassing the FOXA1 gene. Furthermore, there is evidence of somatic changes that influence the DNA sequence under FOXA1 binding regions, which may indirectly influence FOXA1-mediated regulation of ER and AR activity. These recent observations provide insight into the heterogeneity observed in ER and AR driven cancers.

  10. Female hormone utilisation and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tavani, A.; NEGRI, E; Parazzini, F.; Franceschi, S; La Vecchia, C

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between female hormone use and primary liver cancer was analysed using data from a case-control study conducted between 1984 and 1992 in Milan on 82 female incident cases with histologically or serologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma and 368 controls admitted to hospital for acute non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases. An elevated relative risk (RR) or primary liver cancer was observed in oral contraceptive (OC) users (RR 2.6, for ever versus never users, 95% ...

  11. Endogenous sex hormone and estrogen binding activity in thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Yutaka; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Matsuda, Mikio; Takeshi, Kasajima

    1989-01-01

    Summary. The reactions of four anti-sex hormone (Estrone, Estradiol, Estriol and Testosterone) antisera were immunohistochemically examined in 109 cancerous and 80 normal and benign thyroid tissues. Four kinds of sex hormones were detected in the tumour cells of 61 cases (56%) of thyroid cancer and in the follicular epithelial cells of 4 cases (5%) of normal and benign thyroid tissues. Among the thyroid cancers, 54 female (61%) and 7 cases in males (33%) were p...

  12. Smoking Out Reproductive Hormone Actions in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Siegfried, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and population-based evidence has been steadily accumulating that steroid hormones are fundamentally involved in the biology of the lung. Both estrogen and progesterone receptors are present in normal and malignant lung tissue, and the reproductive hormones that bind these receptors have a role in lung development, lung inflammation, and lung cancer. The estrogen receptor ? (ER?) was discovered in the 1990's as a novel form of ER that is transcribed from a gene distinct from ER?,...

  13. Radioactive polypeptidic hormones: what for, by which way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling processes should prevent any alteration of the molecule, if one wishes to deal with the behavior of the original hormone. For this purpose various labelling techniques have been suggested. Particlar emphasis is given to the tritiation method. The following steps are described: tritiation by catalytic hydrogenolysis of hormones containing tyrosine or histidine residue; tritiation on tyrosine residue from azoic derivatives; tritiation by photolysis of tyrosine iodinated derivatives; tritiation on methionine residue. New prospect for labelling (ioduration, photoaffinity labelling) are considered

  14. Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Staubli, Frank; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Lenz, Camilla; Søndergaard, Leif; Roepstorff, Peter; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.

    2002-01-01

    The insect adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are a large family of peptide hormones that are involved in the mobilization of sugar and lipids from the insect fat body during energy-requiring activities such as flight and locomotion, but that also contribute to hemolymph sugar homeostasis. Here, we have identified the first insect AKH receptors, namely those from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the silkworm Bombyx mori. These results represent a breakthrough for insect molecular endocrinol...

  15. Pathophysiological Role of Hormones and Cytokines in Cancer Cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, HYUN JUNG; Kim, Han Jo; Yun, Jina; KIM, KYOUNG HA; KIM, SE HYUNG; LEE, SANG-CHEOL; BAE, SANG BYUNG; Kim, Chan Kyu; LEE, NAM SU; LEE, KYU TAEK; PARK, SEONG KYU; Won, Jong Ho; PARK, HEE SOOK; HONG, DAE SIK

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the role of fasting hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines in cancer patients. Hormones (ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin) and cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-6) were measured by ELISA or RIA in lung cancer and colorectal cancer patients before the administration of cancer therapy, and measurements were repeated every 2 months for 6 months. From June 2006 to August 2008, 42 patients (19 with colorectal cancer and 23 with lung cancer) were enrolled. In total, 21 patients were ...

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    T. Susanti; L.H. Prasetyo; Noor, R R; P. S. Hardjosworo

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ? with Peking ?) and PA (crossbred of Peking ? and Alabio ? ducks) with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molt...

  17. Defining bioidentical hormones for menopause-related symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan AM; Jurgens TM; Trinacty M

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, the use of bioidentical hormones (BHs) to treat menopause-related symptoms has become increasingly popular. However, the many different definitions of BHs have led to a great deal of confusion often making it difficult for health care providers to discuss this area with patients.Objective: The purpose of this paper was to produce a concise definition of bioidentical hormones, based on a review of the literature.Methods: Searches, using systematic review methodology, were c...

  18. Recherche de nouvelles hormones peptidiques codées par le génome humain

    OpenAIRE

    Mirabeau, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Cette thèse porte sur la découverte de gènes humains non caractérisés codant pour des précurseurs à hormones peptidiques. Les hormones peptidiques (PH) ont un rôle important dans la plupart des processus physiologiques du corps humain. Ce sont de petites protéines sécrétées générées après clivage de précurseurs plus larges codés par le génome. Dans la première partie de la thèse, l'on introduit des algorithmes, basés sur les chaînes de Markov cachées (HMM), qui vont nous permettent de modélis...

  19. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Gabel, P; Toft, G; Bonde, J P; Olsen, J; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    No human study has investigated the possible impact of breastfeeding on semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones, but a recent study of another hypothesis indicated an association with oligozoospermia. We investigated the association between breastfeeding, semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 sons were selected according to maternal smoking during pregnancy and followed up with questionnaires, semen analysis and ...

  20. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Thulstrup, A M; Gabel, P; Toft, G; Bonde, J P; Olsen, Jørn; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Summary No human study has investigated the possible impact of breastfeeding on semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones, but a recent study of another hypothesis indicated an association with oligozoospermia. We investigated the association between breastfeeding, semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 sons were selected according to maternal smoking during pregnancy and followed up with questionnaires, semen analy...

  1. Hormone levels and cognitive function in postmenopausal midlife women.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Joanne; Stanczyk, Frank; DENNERSTEIN, LORRAINE; Mack, Wendy; Clark, Margaret; Szoeke, Cassandra; Kildea, Daniel; Henderson, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Gonadal hormones may influence cognitive function. Postmenopausal midlife women in the population-based Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project cohort were administered a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests on two occasions 2 years apart. Participants (n = 148, mean age 60 years) had undergone natural menopause and were not using hormone therapy. Estrone, total and free estradiol, and total and free testosterone levels were measured at time of the first testing. Principal-compo...

  2. Plasma thyroid hormones and physical stress tolerance in coronary patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of radioimmunoassay blood thyroid hormones were measured before and after the rationed exercise test in 79 patients with angiographically verified diagnosis of coronary heart disease. A relationship was demonstrated between postexercise blood T3 variation and functional coronary circulation reverse. Hormonal baselines, and exercise-induced blood T4 changes were basically similar in patients with coronary disease of different severity. The results are suggestive of pathogenetic importance of thyroid function in these patients

  3. Effect of Aluminium on Testosterone Hormones in Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Shahraki Mohammad Reza; M.J. Palan

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was performed to study the effect of aluminum on FSH, LH and Testosterone hormones in male rat. The experiment was performed on two groups of male rats; test group received 50 mg kg-1 aluminium chloride (ip) for 20 days. Control group received the same volume phosphate buffer at this period. At the end of experiment, animals were anesthetized with Nesdonal (Sodium thiopental) over dose and sacrificed blood samples were collected and the hormones FSH, LH, Testosterone were meas...

  4. Estrogen and thyroid hormone interaction on regulation of gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Y S; Yen, P M; Chin, W W; Pfaff, D W

    1996-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factors that can bind to an identical half-site, AGGTCA, of their cognate hormone response elements. By in vitro transfection analysis in CV-1 cells, we show that estrogen induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in a construct containing a CAT reporter gene under the control of a minimal thymidine kinase (tk) promoter and a copy of the consensus ER response element was a...

  5. Breast milk hormones and their protective effect on obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Liguori, Stefania Alfonsina; FISSORE, MARIA FRANCESCA; OGGERO, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, ...

  6. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Fissore MariaF; Liguori StefaniaA; Savino Francesco; Oggero Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity,...

  7. Analgesic use and sex steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Missmer, Stacey A.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Prior epidemiologic studies suggest that regular use of analgesics may decrease risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We explored possible hormone-mediated mechanisms for these associations by examining the relationship between use of aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen and sex steroid hormone concentrations among 740 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. All women reported their analgesic use in 1988 or 1990 and provided a blood samp...

  8. Correlation between Hormonal Statuses and Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh Ziaei; Hajar Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the hormonal status in postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome.Materials and methods: In this cross sectional study 110 postmenopausal women were enrolled. Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent a medical exam and serum evaluation for serum lipids including cholesterol (Chol), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), estradio...

  9. Growth hormone prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Although the relationship between endocrine and immune systems is well documented, few studies have been performed on autoimmune disorders other than those that are sex hormone-related. We studied a murine model of autoimmune diabetes, showing that growth hormone (GH) modifies the immune response to render diabetic mice resistant to disease development. The mechanism involves a GH-mediated effect on ?-cell survival and/or proliferation and a direct effect on immune cells. GH triggers a cytoki...

  10. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    MULAK, Agata; TACHÉ, YVETTE; LARAUCHE, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, d...

  11. Neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xu; Zhou, Tie; Tang, Yuan-Jie; Lu, Xin; Sun, Ying-hao

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of radical prostatectomy combined with preoperative neoadjuvant hormonal ablation therapy for prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, a total of 31 patients with local PCa underwent radical prostatectomy; of these, 12 patients underwent preoperative hormonal deprivation with a combination of goserelin and flutamide for a period of 5.6 months. Data regarding clinical characteristics were compared between the neoadjuvant therapy and ...

  12. Physiology of Bone Metabolism and Effect of Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    MH Moradi Nezhad

    1998-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of physiology of bone metabolism and effect of hormones on its metabolism. Bone is a living and metabolically active tissue consisting of matrix and cells-osteoblasts, osteoblasts and osteocyts. It serves as a mineral reservoir containing 99% of the bodys total calcium and 85% of its phosphor. The three major functions of bone consist of locomotion, pretectin and metabolic. The most important hormones that affect bone metabolism are parathormon, 1,25-cholecal...

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Plant Hormones by GC-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallarino, José G; Osorio, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones are key signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and development through a range of complex interactions. Since the vast majority of plant responses to given stimuli result, amongst other factors, from a crosstalk between hormones, simultaneous analysis of multiple hormones is vital to improve our understanding of these interactions. This chapter describes a sensitive, reliable, and inexpensive method for quantification of multiple phytohormones by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:26577794

  14. Cloning of partial putative gonadotropin hormone receptor sequence from fish

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Kumaresan; T Venugopal; A Vikas; T J Pandian; S M Athavan

    2000-03-01

    A search for the presence of mariner-like elements in the Labeo rohita genome by polymerase chain reaction led to the amplification of a partial DNA sequence coding for a putative transmembrane domain of gonadotropin hormone receptor. The amplified DNA sequence shows a high degree of homology to the available turkey and human luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone receptor coding sequences. This is the first report on cloning such sequences of piscine origin.

  15. Lipoproteína a, aterosclerosis y terapia hormonal de reemplazo / Lipoprotein a, atherosclerosis and replacement hormone therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Lugones Botell; Daysi A., Navarro Despaigne.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre la lipoproteína plasmática, Lp(a), cuyo papel fisiológico es poco conocido. Se ha descrito una asociación entre las concentraciones aumentadas de Lp(a) y el proceso aterosclerótico. Además, su exceso podría inducir una disminución de la actividad fibrinolítica y, por ta [...] nto, favorecer la trombosis. También analizamos la terapia hormonal de reemplazo. En relación con los efectos positivos, mejora los síntomas climatéricos y previene la osteoporosis, aunque entre los efectos adversos en las mujeres que la siguen, se ha descrito un ligero aumento del riesgo del tromboembolismo venoso, y más recientemente, en estudios realizados en EE.UU. en los años 2002 y 2004, en el ya conocido estudio (Women´s Health Initiative Study), se reportó mayor incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares para la terapia combinada con estrógenos conjugados equinos y medroxiprogesterona, y de stroke para la terapia estrogénica. Estos estudios pusieron en su lugar los efectos de esta terapia, que no es totalmente inocua. Se precisan estudios más amplios para definir el papel de la terapia hormonal de reemplazo y otras medidas terapéuticas sobre el sistema hemostático, el metabolismo lipídico y la enfermedad cardiovascular. Abstract in english A review of plasmatic lipoprotein, Lp(a), whose physiological role is little known, was made. An association between the augmented concentrations of Lp(a) and the atherosclerotic proccess has been described. Besides, its excess may lead to a reduction of the fibrinolytic activity and, therefore, fav [...] or thrombosis. The replacement hormone therapy was also analyzed. In relation to its positive effects, it improves the climacteric symptoms and prevents osteoporosis. Among its adverse effects, it has been observed a mild increase of the risk for venous thromboembolism and, more recently, in the aleady known Women's Health Initiative Study, it was reported a higher incidence of cardiovascular events for the combined therapy with equine conjugated estrogens and medroxiprogesterone, and of stroke for the estrogenic therapy. These studies put in their place the effects of this therapy that is not totally innocuous. . Wider studies are necessary to determine the role of replacement hormone therapy and other therapeutic measures on the hemostatic system, lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

  16. Lipoproteína a, aterosclerosis y terapia hormonal de reemplazo Lipoprotein a, atherosclerosis and replacement hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre la lipoproteína plasmática, Lp(a, cuyo papel fisiológico es poco conocido. Se ha descrito una asociación entre las concentraciones aumentadas de Lp(a y el proceso aterosclerótico. Además, su exceso podría inducir una disminución de la actividad fibrinolítica y, por tanto, favorecer la trombosis. También analizamos la terapia hormonal de reemplazo. En relación con los efectos positivos, mejora los síntomas climatéricos y previene la osteoporosis, aunque entre los efectos adversos en las mujeres que la siguen, se ha descrito un ligero aumento del riesgo del tromboembolismo venoso, y más recientemente, en estudios realizados en EE.UU. en los años 2002 y 2004, en el ya conocido estudio (Women´s Health Initiative Study, se reportó mayor incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares para la terapia combinada con estrógenos conjugados equinos y medroxiprogesterona, y de stroke para la terapia estrogénica. Estos estudios pusieron en su lugar los efectos de esta terapia, que no es totalmente inocua. Se precisan estudios más amplios para definir el papel de la terapia hormonal de reemplazo y otras medidas terapéuticas sobre el sistema hemostático, el metabolismo lipídico y la enfermedad cardiovascular.A review of plasmatic lipoprotein, Lp(a, whose physiological role is little known, was made. An association between the augmented concentrations of Lp(a and the atherosclerotic proccess has been described. Besides, its excess may lead to a reduction of the fibrinolytic activity and, therefore, favor thrombosis. The replacement hormone therapy was also analyzed. In relation to its positive effects, it improves the climacteric symptoms and prevents osteoporosis. Among its adverse effects, it has been observed a mild increase of the risk for venous thromboembolism and, more recently, in the aleady known Women's Health Initiative Study, it was reported a higher incidence of cardiovascular events for the combined therapy with equine conjugated estrogens and medroxiprogesterone, and of stroke for the estrogenic therapy. These studies put in their place the effects of this therapy that is not totally innocuous. . Wider studies are necessary to determine the role of replacement hormone therapy and other therapeutic measures on the hemostatic system, lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

  17. Three years of growth hormone treatment in growth hormone-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J O; Thuesen, L; Müller, J; Ovesen, Per Glud; Skakkebaek, N E; Christiansen, J S

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in several controlled short-term trials have shown unanimous beneficial effects on body composition and other features. To evaluate more long-term effects we report data from 3 years of uninterrupted GH therapy in 10 GH-deficient adults who had all completed a previous double-blind placebo-controlled study and who also had been studied after 16 months of open GH therapy. No further increase in linear height was observed. The initial increase in thigh muscl...

  18. Serum anti mullerian hormone levels: A better hormonal marker of ovarian reserve

    OpenAIRE

    RadhaVembu, Sanjeeva Reddy Nellapalli, Anjalakshi Chandrashekar, Nalini Ganesan R

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether Serum AMH is a better hormonal marker of Ovarian Reserve. Objectives: 1. To correlate AMH with FSH and maternal Age and whether AMH is a better predictor of ovarian response than FSH. Materials & Methods: A total of 246 women enrolled for IVF-ICSI fulfilling the selection criteria were recruited for the study at a tertiary ART centre. On day 3 of the cycle serum AMH, FSH were assayed along with LH, E2, TSH and Prolactin. Within 3 months they were subjected to IVF-ICS...

  19. Hormônios femininos e hemostasia / Female hormones and hemostasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Sales, Vieira; Luciana Correa Oliveira de, Oliveira; Marcos Felipe Silva de, Sá.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Os hormônios femininos exógenos utilizados para contracepção ou para terapia hormonal (TH) no climatério estão associados a aumento de risco para tromboembolismo venoso (TEV), principalmente por provocarem alterações pró-coagulantes na hemostasia. Este risco não é cumulativo e parece ser maior no pr [...] imeiro ano de uso. A dose de estrogênio, o tipo de estrogênio e progestagênio utilizados, a via de administração hormonal e os fatores de risco hereditários para trombose venosa de cada paciente interferem no risco final para trombose venosa. O conhecimento dos efeitos na hemostasia inerentes a cada composto hormonal é essencial para uma prescrição adequada. Abstract in english Exogenous female hormones used for contraception or postmenopausal hormonal replacement therapy are associated with an increase of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk, mainly because they cause a hypercoagulable state. The risk is highest during the first year of use and it is not cumulative. The dose [...] of estrogen, the type of estrogen and progestogen, the route of administration of female sex steroid hormones, and the hereditary risk factors for VTE of each patient can interfere on the final risk for VTE. The knowledge of their effect on hemostasis is essential for a correct prescription.

  20. Effects of hyperthyroidism on binding proteins for steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, P; Bennet, A; Barousse, C; Nisula, B C; Louvet, J P

    1989-08-01

    Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) binding capacities were examined weekly in eight normally cycling women and three women taking birth control pills during a 5-week baseline period and after daily ingestion of 75 micrograms of L-triiodothyronine (T3) for 30 days. The SHBG binding capacity increased whereas the CBG binding capacity decreased after T3 therapy. The binding capacities of proteins for steroid hormones were measured in 18 hyperthyroid subjects (Graves' disease) prior to and after 3 months of antithyroid drug therapy. SHBG binding capacity in hyperthyroid men or women was higher, and CBG binding capacity lower than those in euthyroid subjects. Thus, during hyperthyroidism, binding capacities of sex hormone binding globulin and corticosteroid binding globulin vary in opposite directions. A statistically significant correlation between the ratio of the sex hormone binding globulin to the corticosteroid binding globulin and triiodothyronine levels was found (P less than 0.01). Therefore the ratio of the sex hormone binding globulin to the corticosteroid binding globulin might be potentially useful as a biochemical index of thyroid hormone action in peripheral tissues. PMID:2605796