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1

Radioimmunoassay for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention provides a method for the radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone which utilizes a rapid and convenient version of a double antibody procedure. Highly purified second antibody is bound, by means of covalent bonds, to hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles to produce a two-phase system. The solid phase comprises immobilized second antibody bound to the reaction product of labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone with the first antibody (first antibody-antigen complex) and the liquid phase comprises free (unbound) labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone. The two phases are separated and the radioactivity of either phase is measured

1978-01-01

2

Radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved double antibody radioimmunoassay method is described for the determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in biological and other fluids. Highly purified second antibody is immobilised on to hydrophilic, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles of a suspendable size to form a solid phase second antibody reagent. The immobilised second antibody reagent is used to precipitate the reaction product of the first antibody with labelled and unlabelled thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-anti-TSH-complex) so as to produce a two-phase system which permits rapid and efficient separation of bound TSH in the solid phase from free TSH in the liquid phase. Details of the preparation of this novel second antibody-polyacrylamide reagent and of the assay procedure for human TSH are described. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

3

Rabbits immunized with thyroid-stimulating hormone produce autoantiidiotypic thyroid-stimulating antibodies.  

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We immunized rabbits with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to investigate the hypothesis that such immunization could result in production of thyroid-stimulating autoantiidiotypic antibodies to anti-TSH. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) appeared in the serum of several rabbits after immunization. At 160 d, TSI equivalent to 6-18 microU TSH/1.5 mg IgG was present in two of six human (h)TSH-, two of six hTSH beta chain-, and two of the four surviving bovine (b)TSH-immunized animals. Co...

Beall, G. N.; Rapoport, B.; Chopra, I. J.; Kruger, S. R.

1985-01-01

4

Organochlorine compounds and concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone in newborns  

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Methods: A total of 98 mother-infant pairs (83.1% of all children born during the period 1997–99 in a specific area polluted with HCB) were recruited. Levels of organochlorine compounds were measured in 70 cord serum samples. Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in plasma of all newborns three days after birth.

Ribas-fito?, Nu?ria; Sala, Mari?a; Cardo, Esther; Mazo?n, Carlos; Muga, M. Eula?lia; Verdu?, Antoni; Marco, Esther

2003-01-01

5

Thyroid ultrasonography in congenital isolated thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency.  

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The effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency on thyroid development was examined using ultrasonography in a child with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Ultrasound revealed the thyroid gland was one sixth normal volume, suggesting that TSH plays an important part in thyroid growth, but not a critical role in differentiation.

Wakamoto, H.; Miyazaki, M.; Tatsumi, K.; Amino, N.

1995-01-01

6

Inappropriate Secretion of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid is an important endocrine gland. It maintains the level of metabolism in the tissues that is optimal for their normal function. Normally in euthyroid state T3, T4 and TSH values remains within normal physiological limit. In hypothyroid state T3 and T4 values are low with high TSH value. On the other hand in hyperthyroid state T3 and T4 values are high with low TSH value. However, in one interesting group of patients, there are high T3, T4 with normal or high TSH. With the greater availability of sensitive and specific TSH assays, now increasing number of the case in the last group are being recognized. In this retrospective study the number of patients with such type of hormone picture of high T3, T4 with normal or high TSH were found out from the assay done in Institute of Nuclear Medicine (INM) and the related literatures were searched. (author) 3 tabs., 21 refs

2001-07-01

7

Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

8

Newly reported roles of thyroid-stimulating hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in bone remodelling  

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have both been recently implicated in bone remodelling. Clinical evidence, as well as data from TSH receptor and thyroid hormone receptor knockout mice, suggest that TSH has a direct effect on skeletal homeostasis, although some data are conflicting. Recently, the exogenous administration of TSH has been shown to positively impact bone in oophrectomised rats. These data, along with their potential implications for the tr...

Sendak, Rebecca A.; Sampath, T. Kuber; Mcpherson, John M.

2007-01-01

9

Genetic associations with neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone levels  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Elevations or deficits in thyroid hormone levels are responsible for a wide range of neonatal and adult phenotypes. Several genome-wide, candidate gene and meta-analysis studies have examined thyroid hormones in adults; however, to our knowledge no genetic association studies have been performed with neonatal thyroid levels. Methods A population of Iowa neonates; term (n=827) and preterm (n=815), were genotyped for 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values were obtained from the Iowa Neonatal Metabolic Screening Program. Analysis of variance was performed to identify genetic associations with TSH concentrations. Results The strongest association was rs4704397 in the PDE8B gene (p=1.3×10?4), followed by rs965513 (p=6.4×10?4) on chromosome 9 upstream of the FOXE1 gene. Both of these SNPs met statistical significance after correction for multiple testing. Six other SNPs were marginally significant (p<0.05). Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time two genetic associations with neonatal TSH levels that replicate findings with adult TSH levels. These SNPs should be considered as early predictors of risk for adult diseases and conditions associated with thyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, this provides a better understanding of the thyroid profile and potential risk for thyroid disorders in newborns.

Alul, Farah Y.; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Berberich, Stanton L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Ryckman, Kelli K.

2013-01-01

10

I-123 uptake by mediastinal goiter after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioiodine scintigraphy is useful to confirm the presence of mediastinal thyroid tissue. However, the degree of iodine avidity of mediastinal goiters varies. Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone given to stimulate iodine uptake by thyroid remnants and thyroid cancer metastases can now replace thyroid hormone withdrawal scanning of selected patients who have well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. A case of mediastinal goiter visualized with I-123 after the administration of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone is reported. PMID:11564915

Achong, D M; Tenorio, L E

2001-10-01

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Use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyrotropin stimulation test in euthyroid dogs.  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) on serum total thyroxine (TT4) concentration in euthyroid dogs. Six healthy beagle dogs were used in each of the 3 phases of this study. Phase I: thyroid-stimulating hormone response tests were performed by using a total dose of 25 micrograms, 50 micrograms, and 100 micrograms of rhTSH, administered intravenously. Phases II and III: thyroid-stimulating hormone response tests were...

Sauve?, F.; Paradis, M.

2000-01-01

12

Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism by measurement of plasma thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations.  

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Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism was introduced in the City of Birmingham in 1980 by measuring concentrations of both thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroxine in plasma. Over two years 30 108 babies were tested. Thirty one babies were recalled because of thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations greater than 40 mU/l, of whom 12 were treated with replacement thyroxine. Six babies were found to have low thyroxine concentrations because of reduced thyroxine binding globulin and...

Griffiths, K. D.; Virdi, N. K.; Rayner, P. H.; Green, A.

1985-01-01

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Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Measurement of Intracellular, Secreted, and Circulating Hormone in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis .  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced in the pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormone (TH). The concentration of TH controls developmental changes that take place in a wide variety of organisms. Many use the metaphoric ch...

14

MRI of the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) -secreting pituitary adenoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To demonstrate and evaluate the value of MRI findings of the TSH(Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, TSH, Thyrotropin)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 4 patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Evaluation of the anatomical location, signal characteristics, enhancement patterns, size, shape and circunferential changes were made. No characteristic common MR findings in size, shape, signal intensity, and circumferential changes of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma waere observed among 4 cases (size; 5 x 7 mm to 10 x 11 mm, shape; ovoid to round signal intensity; high in 1 case on T1 and T2WI, isosignal intensity in the other 3 cases, circumferential change; stalk deviation in 1 case, no stalk deviation in 3 cases). But, the tumors were centrally located at the anterior pituitary gland and showed relatively homogeneous signal intensity on MR images of all 4 patients. We conclude that centrally-located mass at the anterior pituitary gland with homogeneous signal intensity on MR image may be suggestive of the TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, although the MR findings are not specific for the disease

1995-01-01

15

Measurement of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) In Vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the methods of assay proposed for the quantitative measurement of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (H-TSH) have encountered major difficulties in relation to sensitivity and specificity. The development of radioimmunoassay techniques for the measurement of H-TSH not only resulted in increased sensitivity over the majority of existing techniques, but led to improvements in specificity and practicability. The purpose of this communication is to compare serum TSH values measured by a method of bioassay in vitro with those obtained by a radioimmunoassay developed in this laboratory using reagents provided by the National Pituitary Agency, United States of America. In the bioassay technique goitrous guinea-pig thyroid tissue is incubated in vitro with 131I and H-TSH during which time the tissue takes up 131I and binds it in organic combination. Measurements of the radioactive content of the culture medium are made before and after the addition of KSCN in order to discharge any 131I present in the tissue as iodide, the difference in count-rate being indirectly proportional to the amount of H-TSH present in the incubation fluid. The method can detect as little as 1.0 mU/100 ml serum. The radioimmunoassay technique used was that described by Odell and Garigan in instructions accompanying the reagents. However, modifications to their technique included the use of antiserum at a final dilution of 1/120 000 and the addition of H-TSH at a final concentration of 0.4 ng/ml to mixtures of antiserum and the standard preparation after an incubation period of five days. After a further five days incubation period, the separation of bound and free 131I-H-TSH was carried out by precipitating the bound hormone with NaCl and ethanol. The lower limit of detection in terms of the H-TSH standard A (MRC) is 5 ?U/ml serum (0.5 mU/100 ml). Serum was obtained from children aged one month to 16 years, adults aged 18-40 years and 66-85 years, patients subjected to either pituitary stalk section on 90Y implantation during treatment for advanced diabetic retinopathy, and one patient suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis during periods of suppression by T3 and stimulation by TSH, Assessments of thyroid function were made either by the triiodothyronine uptake test using coated charcoal or by the estimation of the protein-bound iodine content of serum. The correlation between the TSH assay results obtained by the two methods are discussed. (author)

1970-02-01

16

Effects of long-term nadolol treatment on serum thyroidal hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone in patients with hypertensive disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 20 males with Stage 2 hypertensive disease, effects of 2-week-, 2-, and 6-month monotherapy with nadolol given in doses 40 to 160 mg daily were examined on the levels of thyroidal hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone by means of radioimmunoassay. At the all stages of the therapy, the mean values of the examined parameters were significantly unchanged. Nadolol was found to cause a decrease in T3 concentrations at its high baseline values (r=-0.57; p3 levels in most cases. An inverse relationship was established between the altered serum T3 levels and the thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration

1990-01-01

17

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Is Significantly Associated with Bone Health Status in Men  

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Background and Aim: Recent studies revealed a novel association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and bone health status in healthy male populations. The present study aimed to validate this association and provide new information on the relationship between TSH levels and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in men.

Chin, Kok-yong; Ima-nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

2013-01-01

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A novel thyroid stimulating hormone ?-subunit isoform in human pituitary, peripheral blood leukocytes, and thyroid  

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Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced by the anterior pituitary and is used to regulate thyroid hormone output, which in turn controls metabolic activity. Currently, the pituitary is believed to be the only source of TSH used by the thyroid. Recent studies in mice from our laboratory have identified a TSH isoform that is expressed in the pituitary, in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), and in the thyroid. To determine whether a human TSH splice variant exists that is analogous to the ...

Schaefer, Jeremy S.; Klein, John R.

2009-01-01

19

Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone in 2008: focus on thyroid cancer management  

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Radioiodine (RAI) ablation following thyroidectomy is standard of care treatment for patients with intermediate or high risk differentiated thyroid cancer. Traditionally, this has been achieved by forgoing thyroid hormone replacement postoperatively, allowing endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels to rise. This rise in TSH provides the stimulus for RAI uptake by the thyroid remnant, but is associated with clinical hypothyroidism and its associated morbidities. Recombinant human T...

Gramza, Ann; Schuff, Kathryn G.

2009-01-01

20

Effect of Age, Sex and Seasons on the Concentration of Thyroid and Thyroid Stimulating Hormones  

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Effect of age, sex and seasons on the concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was studied in 25237 thyroid patients who were referred to the radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar during 1984-1990 (except 1987) and 1995-1996. T3 and T4 of all of these patients were determined by RIA and TSH was determined by immuno-radiometric assay (IRMA)....

Alam Khan; Shahmim Akhter; Muhammad Mohsin Siddiqui; Muzaffar Ali Khan, M.; Gul Nawab

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Neonatal Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Concentrations in Belgium: A Useful Indicator for Detecting Mild Iodine Deficiency?  

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It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period ...

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Coucke, Wim; Vanderpas, Jean; Trumpff, Caroline; Fauvart, Maarten; Meulemans, Ann; Marie, Sandrine; Vincent, Marie-franc?oise; Schoos, Roland; Boemer, Franc?ois; Vanwynsberghe, Timothy; Philips, Eddy; Eyskens, Franc?ois; Wuyts, Brigitte; Selimaj, Valbona

2012-01-01

22

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?  

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Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99m...

Kota, Sunil Kumar; Modi, Kirtikumar; Kumaresan, Karuppiah

2011-01-01

23

Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases  

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CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the possible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-rando...

Laura Sterian Ward; Ilda Shizue Kunii; Rui Monteiro de Barros Maciel

2000-01-01

24

Preparation of quality control samples in radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To days, the radioimmunoassay is becomes the best technique to analysis different concentrations of substance, especially in medical and research laboratories. Although the specificity of RIA techniques, the quality controls must takes place to give good results as possible. In this dissertation i prepared quality control samples of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), to use it in RIA techniques and to control the reliability results of those laboratories which used these methods. We used China production kits of RIA method to determine the level of hormone (low-normal-high) concentration. Statistical parameters were used to drown the control chart of the mean to these data.(Author)

2006-01-01

25

Prenatal Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants and Neonatal Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels in the CHAMACOS Study  

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Studies published in the last 3 decades have demonstrated global human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. A growing body of literature suggests that PBDEs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. Although thyroid hormones play an essential role in brain development, few studies have investigated relations between prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neonatal thyroid hormone levels, and none have measured thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in neonates. The autho...

Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Sjo?din, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda

2011-01-01

26

Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone in 2008: focus on thyroid cancer management  

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Full Text Available Ann Gramza1, Kathryn G Schuff21Division of Medical Oncology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USAAbstract: Radioiodine (RAI ablation following thyroidectomy is standard of care treatment for patients with intermediate or high risk differentiated thyroid cancer. Traditionally, this has been achieved by forgoing thyroid hormone replacement postoperatively, allowing endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels to rise. This rise in TSH provides the stimulus for RAI uptake by the thyroid remnant, but is associated with clinical hypothyroidism and its associated morbidities. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, thyrotropin alfa [Thyrogen®], Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA was developed to provide TSH stimulation without withdrawal of thyroid hormone and clinical hypothyroidism. Phase III studies reported equivalent detection of recurrent or residual disease when rhTSH was used compared with thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW. These trials led to its approval as an adjunctive diagnostic tool for serum thyroglobulin (Tg testing with or without RAI imaging in the surveillance of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Recently, rhTSH was given an indication for adjunctive preparation for thyroid remnant ablation after phase III studies demonstrated comparable outcomes for rhTSH preparation when compared with THW. Importantly, rhTSH stimulation has been found to be safe, well tolerated, and to result in improved quality of life. Here, we review the efficacy and tolerability studies leading to the approval for the use of rhTSH in well-differentiated thyroid cancer management.Keywords: recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid cancer, radioiodine, ablation, Thyrogen®, thyrotropin alfa

Ann Gramza

2009-01-01

27

Paracrine interactions of thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulation hormone in the female reproductive tract have an impact on female fertility  

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Full Text Available Thyroid disease often causes menstrual disturbances and infertility problems. Thyroid hormone (TH acts through its receptors, transcription factors present in most cell types in the body. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH stimulates TH synthesis in the thyroid gland, but seems to have other functions as well in the female reproductive tract. The receptors of both TH and TSH increase in the receptive endometrium, suggesting that they are important for implantation, possible by influencing inflammatory mediators such as LIF. The roles of these receptors in the ovary need further studies. However, it is likely that the thyroid system is important for both follicular and embryo development. The association between thyroid disease and infertility indicate that TH and TSH affect the endometrium and ovary on the paracrine level.

AnneliStavreus-Evers

2012-03-01

28

Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

Kunii Yasuto

2011-09-01

29

Development of magnetic solid phase immunoradiometric assay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid-stimulating homone (SH), or thyrotropin, is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 28.000 secreted by the pituitary gland. TSH is composed of tow subnits of approximately equalsize, called ? and ?. Other hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), both secerted by the pituitary, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the placenta, have ? subunits virtually identical to that of TSH, but there are important differences in their ? subunits. These differences confer biological specificity on the complete molecules and allow them to be distinguished in immunassays. The TSH magnetic soild phase immunoradiometric technique incorporates two high affinity monoclonal antibodies one of which is labeled with 125I which attached quickly to a unique site on the TSH motecule, while the second monoclonal antibody immobilized onto magnetic cellulose iron oxide particles, linked to other distinct site on the TSH molecule forming a sandwich. In this study the magnetic particles were firstly activated by carbonyl dimedazole then coupled with anti-TSH monoclonal antibodies which then allowedto bind with TSH hormone. The TSH magnetic soild phase immunoradiometric system, will be optimized where the characterization of the system including accuracy, specificity, sensitivity an dcomparative studies by compare the results of the prepared system with that of commericially used system

2005-05-01

30

Clinical evaluation of highly sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone immunoradiometric assay (RIABEAD II) kit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To clarify clinical evaluation of highly sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using RIABEAD II kit, we measured serum TSH and its changes after TRH test in normal subjects and patients with hyper- or hypo-thyroidism due to Grave's disease, TSH producing pituitary adenoma and chronic thyroiditis or Refetoff's syndrome. In 12 normals, basal TSH (0.23 - 1.85 ?IU/ml) increased in 2.29 - 18.85 ?IU/ml 30 min after TRH test. In patients whose serum TSH and thyroid hormone showed less than 0.10 ?IU/ml and more than normal level, respectively, no response of TSH to TRH was observed, while in patients whose serum TSH and thyroid hormone showed more than 3.5 ?IU/ml and less than normal level, respectively, hyperresponse of TSH to TRH was observed. In patients with hyper- or hypo-thyroidism, changes in serum TSH after treatment were normalized a few months later after normalizing of thyroid hormone. In patients with TSH-producing pituitary tumor or Refetoff's syndrome, serum TSH increased. These results show that serum TSH using IRMA-(RIABEAD II) kit indicates a precise function of pituitary TSH. (author)

1988-01-01

31

Clinical evaluation of highly sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone immunoradiometric assay (RIABEAD II) kit  

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To clarify clinical evaluation of highly sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using RIABEAD II kit, we measured serum TSH and its changes after TRH test in normal subjects and patients with hyper- or hypo-thyroidism due to Grave's disease, TSH producing pituitary adenoma and chronic thyroiditis or Refetoff's syndrome. In 12 normals, basal TSH (0.23 - 1.85 ..mu..IU/ml) increased in 2.29 - 18.85 ..mu..IU/ml 30 min after TRH test. In patients whose serum TSH and thyroid hormone showed less than 0.10 ..mu..IU/ml and more than normal level, respectively, no response of TSH to TRH was observed, while in patients whose serum TSH and thyroid hormone showed more than 3.5 ..mu..IU/ml and less than normal level, respectively, hyperresponse of TSH to TRH was observed. In patients with hyper- or hypo-thyroidism, changes in serum TSH after treatment were normalized a few months later after normalizing of thyroid hormone. In patients with TSH-producing pituitary tumor or Refetoff's syndrome, serum TSH increased. These results show that serum TSH using IRMA-(RIABEAD II) kit indicates a precise function of pituitary TSH.

Kamoi, Kyuzi; Kaneko, Kenzo; Matsunaga, Katsumi; Yamazaki, Michiko; Murayama, Shoei; Sato, Toshiro

1988-02-01

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THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AS MARKER IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SUB CLINICAL THYROID DISORDERS  

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Full Text Available Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most frequent endocrine conditions that clinicians estimate and treat. Such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism which affects mostly adults in India. Mildly elevated or decreased serum thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] or thyrotropin levels are the most common abnormalities related to thyroid function. The present study undergone to determine the relationship between serum T3, T4 and TSH levels from the samples both in sub clinical hypothyroidism and sub clinical hyperthyroidism patients with normal healthy controls under the age group level between 20-65 years. By using Elisa method, the parameters T3, T4 & TSH have been extensively studied on individuals of each disorder and healthy controls. Among these, TSH is a valuable predictive marker for the subclinical hypothyroid and subclinical hyper thyroid disorders.

Narasimharao B, Sivanageswararao Mekala Venkatarao Vulli and Umaramani Ganta

2013-08-01

33

Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24836306

Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

2014-08-01

34

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?  

Science.gov (United States)

Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99mTc thyroid scan. Disproportionately high TSH in comparison to low maternal antithyroid drug dosage and further elevation of TSH after stopping mother's antithyroid drugs ruled out maternal antithyroid drug-induced congenital hypothyroidism in the baby. Early institution of therapy in these patients can prevent mental retardation and other features of hypothyroidism.

Kota, Sunil Kumar; Modi, Kirtikumar; Kumaresan, Karuppiah

2011-01-01

35

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?  

Science.gov (United States)

Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12(th) day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99mTc thyroid scan. Disproportionately high TSH in comparison to low maternal antithyroid drug dosage and further elevation of TSH after stopping mother's antithyroid drugs ruled out maternal antithyroid drug-induced congenital hypothyroidism in the baby. Early institution of therapy in these patients can prevent mental retardation and other features of hypothyroidism. PMID:21966652

Kota, Sunil Kumar; Modi, Kirtikumar; Kumaresan, Karuppiah

2011-07-01

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Simple, rapid, and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone immunoassay using europium(III) nanoparticle label  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is widely used as a marker of thyroid function. A rapid TSH assay enables diagnosis during the first visit at the doctor's office aiding to faster and cost-effective medical treatment. To accomplish such an assay method europium(III) chelate nanoparticles were coated with anti-TSH monoclonal antibody. Captured anti-TSH monoclonal antibody was immobilized onto single wells by streptavidin-biotin chemistry and the assay was carried out in dry chemistry format using 5 {mu}l of sample in a 30 {mu}l assay volume in the commercial AiO immunoassay system. The developed TSH nanoparticle assay was performed in a kinetic mode using a 10-min incubation time. The analytical sensitivity of the developed assay was 0.0012 mIU l{sup -1} corresponding to the fourth generation TSH assay and less than 0.02 mIU l{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators. The dynamic range of the assay was more than three orders of magnitude and no high-dose hook effect was observed at 100 mIU l{sup -1} of TSH. Correlation with an automated commercial assay was good (y = 0.96 {+-} 0.02, intercept = 0.12 {+-} 0.09, S{sub yverticalbarx} = 0.49, R = 0.988). Intra- and inter-assay variations were 4-14 and 6-17%, respectively. The developed quantitative one-step all-in-one dry reagent time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay has great potential for rapid analysis of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in a point-of-care environment when antibody-coated high specific activity Eu(III) nanoparticles were used as labels.

Pelkkikangas, Anne-Maria; Jaakohuhta, Sinikka; Loevgren, Timo; Haermae, Harri

2004-07-26

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Immunological Cross-Reactivity Between Monkey and Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone as Determined by Radioimmunoassay: A Rapid Procedure for Purifying Labeled 125I-Tsh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurement of endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in monkey plasma by radioimmunoassay technique is described. This method exploits the ability of endogenous monkey TSH to inhibit competitively the binding of 125I-labeled human TSH to antibodies...

F. E. Wherry L. L. Pennington R. W. Bates M. M. Garrison A. L. Ehle

1969-01-01

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Evidence That the Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) Receptor Transmembrane Domain Influences Kinetics of TSH Binding to the Receptor Ectodomain*  

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-induced reduction in ligand binding affinity (negative cooperativity) requires TSH receptor (TSHR) homodimerization, the latter involving primarily the transmembrane domain (TMD) but with the extracellular domain (ECD) also contributing to this association. To test the role of the TMD in negative cooperativity, we studied the TSHR ECD tethered to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that multimerizes despite the absence of the TMD. ...

Chen, Chun-rong; Mclachlan, Sandra M.; Rapoport, Basil

2011-01-01

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Thyroxine prescription in the community: serum thyroid stimulating hormone level assays as an indicator of undertreatment or overtreatment.  

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Examination of thyroxine usage in a study in the United States of America revealed that many patients were prescribed thyroxine for non-thyroid indications, such as obesity and fatigue. Many of those receiving thyroxine had high or low serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels, indicating prescription of incorrect doses or lack of patient compliance with therapy. Long term thyroxine therapy may have effects upon the risk of osteoporosis. The aims of this study were to investigate indications f...

Parle, J. V.; Franklyn, J. A.; Cross, K. W.; Jones, S. R.; Sheppard, M. C.

1993-01-01

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Screening for thyroid disease in a primary care unit with a thyroid stimulating hormone assay with a low detection limit.  

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In a study at a primary care centre in a predominantly rural area of Sweden the records of all patients with established thyroid disease were scrutinised and 2000 consecutive adult patients screened with an immunoenzymometric thyroid stimulating hormone assay. The aims of the study were fourfold: firstly, to assess the total burden of thyroid disease in primary care centres in Sweden; secondly, to assess the efficacy of clinical diagnosis of the disease in unselected populations of patients; ...

Eggertsen, R.; Petersen, K.; Lundberg, P. A.; Nystro?m, E.; Lindstedt, G.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Do abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone level values result in treatment changes? A study of patients on thyroxine in one general practice.  

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BACKGROUND. Hypothyroidism is a common disorder, easily treated with thyroxine therapy. Thyroid stimulating hormone level assay can detect under- or overtreatment. AIM. A study was carried out in one general practice to discover the number of people on thyroxine therapy, their care, and whether abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone level values resulted in alterations to their thyroxine dose. METHOD. The study was undertaken in a north Suffolk general practice of 7640 patients. A computer sear...

Whalley, P.

1995-01-01

42

Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To prepare quality monoclonal antibodies against thyroid stimulating hormone for highly sensitive assay. Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized with synthetic TSH polypeptide. Spleen cells from the immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells of sp2/0, and cultured to produce hybridomas producing anti-human TSH monoclonal antibody. Results: During cell fusion and screening, the rate of fusion was 100% and the positive rate of antibody producing was 15%. Five murine hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies against TSH were established. All McAbs were of IgG1 subclass and showed no cross reactivity with FSH, HCG and LH. The titers of the McAb ascitic fluid varied from 1:5 x 105 -1:1 x 107. All murine hybridomas retained great stability after the freezing-thawing process. Conclusion: The rate of cell fusion was high and the rate of positive antibody was good. Five species-specific murine hybridomas were established, producing McAbs of high titer. The McAbs could be excellent components in TSH assay with high sensitivity and simplicity. (authors)

2005-04-01

43

Autonomous adenomas caused by somatic mutations of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

In adults, autonomous adenomas of the thyroid causing hyperthyroidism are relatively common and are most often due to somatic mutations that increase the constitutive activity of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). By contrast, autonomous adenomas in hyperthyroid children are exceptional and reports of their clinical and molecular characteristics are few. We reviewed papers describing 16 autonomous adenomas due to a somatic mutation activating the TSHR and diagnosed in patients younger than 18 years, to which we added two of our own unpublished observations in a 4- and 8-year-old with the same TSHR mutation (c.CAG>CAC; p.Asp633His). This revealed that (a) autonomous adenomas occur more often in the right lobe (11 of 14 with available information) and the associated hyperthyroidism tends to be more severe, possibly reflecting the richer vascular supply of the right thyroid lobe, and (b) mutations found in benign adenomas in children have been associated with cancer in adults, suggesting that malignancy requires a second 'hit' at a later age. PMID:24480816

Grob, Francisca; Deladoëy, Johnny; Legault, Laurent; Spigelblatt, Linda; Fournier, Anne; Vassart, Gilbert; Van Vliet, Guy

2014-01-01

44

Effect of Age, Sex and Seasons on the Concentration of Thyroid and Thyroid Stimulating Hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of age, sex and seasons on the concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH was studied in 25237 thyroid patients who were referred to the radioimmunoassay (RIA laboratory of the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM, Peshawar during 1984-1990 (except 1987 and 1995-1996. T3 and T4 of all of these patients were determined by RIA and TSH was determined by immuno-radiometric assay (IRMA. The difference in mean concentration of T3, T4 and TSH in infants and children was non-significant at p<0.05. Comparing all age groups together, higher mean concentration of T3 was found in old age group followed by infants, adults and children. Similarly, the mean concentration of T4 was higher in old age group followed by adults, infants and children. While higher mean values for TSH were observed in infants followed by children, adult and old age group. The infants and children were having significantly higher values of TSH than the old age group and adults at p< 0.05. Concentration of T3 and T4 was significantly higher (p<0.05 in females than males, while TSH concentration was not significantly different (P>0.05 in both sexes. Mean concentration of T3 in summer and autumn was significantly higher than the other seasons and mean concentration of T4 in winter and summer was higher. The mean concentration of TSH in spring and autumn was significantly higher than the mean concentration of TSH in winter and summer at p<0.05.

Alam Khan

2001-01-01

45

Effects of cinobufacini injection on contents of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and adrenaline in rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of cinobufacini injection on serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and adrenaline (ADR in rats, and to speculate the property (cold or heat of the drug.Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group, cinobufacini injection group, cold syndrome group and heat syndrome group. The rats in the four groups were administered with normal saline, cinobufacini injection, and compound of traditional Chinese drugs with heat or cold property. The weights, and the serum TSH and ADR levels of the rats were measured before and after the interventions.Results: The weights of the rats in heat syndrome group markedly decreased after 14-day administration when compared with the normal control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences among the normal control group, heat syndrome group and the cinobufacini injection group. Although no statistical difference was noted, the serum TSH levels of the cold syndrome group and cinobufacini injection group were slightly lower than that in the normal control group after 14-day administration, and the heat syndrome group showed a slightly higher serum TSH level. After administration, the serum ADR levels of the cold syndrome group and cinobufacini injection group were significantly lower than that in the normal control group (P<0.05, and the serum ADR level in the heat syndrom group was higher than that in the normal control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Cinobufacini injection seemed to be able to suppress the thyrotrophin-releasing hormone-TSH-thyroxine system and sympathetic nervous system, matching up with the characteristics of the Chinese herbs of cold property. And the study provided initial experiment evidence for the conclusion that the property of cinobufacini might be cold.

Shuang-shuang WANG

2009-03-01

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Increased plasma thyroid stimulating hormone in treated congenital hypothyroidism: relation to severity of hypothyroidism, plasma thyroid hormone status, and daily dose of thyroxine.  

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Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations obtained during the first four years of treatment in 418 children with congenital hypothyroidism, identified by neonatal screening, were examined in relation to paired measurements of plasma thyroxine (n = 1945), free thyroxine (n = 836), triiodothyronine (n = 480), and free triiodothyronine (n = 231), and estimated daily dose of thyroxine at the time of blood sampling. Overall, plasma TSH was above 7 mU/l in 1280 out of 2960 samples (43...

Grant, D. B.; Fuggle, P. W.; Smith, I.

1993-01-01

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Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

2011-01-01

48

Elevation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Upon Accidental Hypothermia in an Elderly Man.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Background: Although 'polar triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome' in chronic dwellers/workers in Antarctica has been established, alteration of the pituitary thyroid-axis upon accidental hypothermia is not well recognized. We report here a rare case of elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) upon accidental hypothermia. Patient Findings: A 75-yr-old man was admitted because of consciousness disturbance. The mean outside temperature was approximately -2.0ºC but his house was inadequately heated. His rectal temperature was 29.5ºC. Goiter was not palpable and pitting edema, not myxedema, was present. Serum TSH was elevated (28.3 mU/l, reference range 0.27-4.2), and free T3 (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) lowered (FT3, 3.25 pmol/l with a reference range of 4.00-7.85, and FT4, 9.18 pmol/l with a reference range of 12.87-23.179), but thyroid-related autoantibodies were all negative. By the next morning, body temperature had risen to >36ºC and there was no further recurrence of hypothermia. Serum TSH decreased exponentially and the patient's condition had become normal by Day 22. FT3 and FT4 were found to be slightly lowered and elevated, respectively, during the same period, in the subnormal range. At the end of the observation period, the patient settled into the state known as "non-thyroidal illness syndrome". Summary: Elevation of TSH in an elderly patient with accidental hypothermia was normalized after restoration of normal body temperature. Elevation of TSH upon accidental hypothermia was probably an adaptive response. Conclusions: In patients with accidental hypothermia, the possibility of an adaptive elevation of TSH should be born in mind. There is a clear warrant for further studies of the adaptation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in patients with accidental hypothermia. PMID:22866965

Yamashita, Koh; Suganuma, Kazuki; Funase, Yoshiko; Yamauchi, Keishi; Aizawa, Toru

2012-08-01

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A statistical basis for harmonization of thyroid stimulating hormone immunoassays using a robust factor analysis model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: Between-method equivalence ideally is achieved by calibration against an SI-traceable reference measurement procedure. For measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), it is unlikely to accomplish this goal in mid-term. Therefore, we investigated a statistical alternative based on a factor analysis (FA) model. Methods: The FA model was applied to TSH results for 94 samples generated by 14 immunoassays (concentration range: 0.0005-78 mIU/L). The dataset did not fulfill the assumption of a homogeneous sample from an elliptically symmetric distribution, and, therefore, required standardization prior to application of the FA model. As outliers and missing values also occurred, the key quantities of the FA model had to be estimated with a method that can handle these complications. We selected a robust alternating regressions (RAR) method, which replaces in the minimization criterion of the fitting process the squared differences between results xij and model fit x^ij ${\\hat x_{ij}}$ by a weighted absolute difference. The weights are adaptively determined in successive regressions, which down weighs the outliers. The weights for missing values are set to zero. Results: The quality of the estimated targets was reflected by their central position in the distributions, and description of the relationship between results and targets by a simple two-parameter regression equation with high correlation coefficients and low SDs of the percentage-residuals. Mathematical recalibration eliminated the method differences and improved the between-method CV from 11% to 6%. Conclusions: RAR applied to a multimethod comparison dataset hampered by outliers and missing values, is fit to the purpose of harmonization. PMID:24566365

Stöckl, Dietmar; Van Uytfanghe, Katleen; Van Aelst, Stefan; Thienpont, Linda M

2014-07-01

50

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Thyroglobulin, and Thyroid Hormones and Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma : The EPIC Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Increased levels of thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) risk, but strong epidemiological evidence is lacking. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-seven incident TC case patients (n = 300 women and 57 men; mean age at blood collection = 51.5 years) were identified in the EPIC cohort study and matched with 2 (women) or 3 (men) control subjects using incidence density sampling. Matching included study center, sex, age, date, time, and fasting status at blood collection. Levels of total and free (f) thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-thyronine (T3), TSH, Tg, and anti-Tg antibodies (TgAb) were measured by commercially available immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: TC risk was positively associated with Tg (OR for the highest vs lowest quartile = 9.15; 95% CI = 5.28 to 15.90; P < .001) and negatively associatedwith TSH level (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.81; P = .001). Odds ratios were not modified by adjustment for weight and height and were consistent across sexes, age groups, and countries. The association with Tg was stronger in follicular than papillary TC. The odds ratio for TgAb-positivity was 1.50 (95% CI = 1.05 to 2.15; P = .03). Among case patients, TSH level was stable over time, whereas Tg level was higher in proximity to TC diagnosis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 57% and 74% for TSH and Tg level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: High Tg levels precede by up to 8 years the detection of TC, pointing to a long sojourn time of the disease. Low TSH levels may predispose to TC onset. Neither marker has sufficient accuracy to be a screening test.

Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

2014-01-01

51

Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with prolactin but not thyroid stimulating hormone among nonsmoking women seeking in vitro fertilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prolactin (PRL) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) serve important roles in the reproductive and other systems. Active smoking is associated with changes in PRL and TSH secretion, but the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and these hormones is unclear. We measured PRL and TSH in serum as well as cotinine in follicular fluid (to estimate STS exposure) among 314 nonsmoking women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment. We observed a significant increase in PRL concentrations (p=0.03) among STS-exposed nonsmokers compared to unexposed nonsmokers. There was no significant difference in TSH concentration (p>0.4) among those exposed to STS compared to those who were unexposed. STS exposure is associated with an increase in circulating PRL but not TSH levels. Future studies are needed to confirm our results, identify biological mechanisms involved, and better understand the potential clinical and public health implications. PMID:23046534

Benedict, Merle D; Missmer, Stacey A; Ferguson, Kelly K; Vitonis, Allison F; Cramer, Daniel W; Meeker, John D

2012-11-01

52

Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma presenting with recurrent hyperthyroidism in post-treated Graves’ disease: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The coexistence of autoimmune hyperthyroid disease and thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma is rare. The simple presumption of coincidence of these two diseases has a calculated incidence of less than one/several hundred million, and only four cases with histological confirmation have been reported. A rapid decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone level after pituitary tumor removal may induce subsequent activation of autoimmune responses against the thyroid gland. We report the first case of a sequential and paradoxical occurrence of Graves’ disease and a thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. Case presentation A 32-year-old Japanese woman had recurrent hyperthyroidism. She had a history of Graves’ hyperthyroidism, which had been successfully treated with propylthiouracil. A head magnetic resonance imaging showed a less enhanced area in the left lateral wing of her sella turcica. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed, and the diagnosis was established as thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting plurihormonal adenoma. A rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels was achieved, and her blood pressure was normalized after the operation. Conclusion Although incidental occurrence is the most probable etiology, long and repeated followup examinations of both thyroid and pituitary gland should be performed in patients with an atypical clinical course.

Ogawa Yoshikazu

2013-01-01

53

Assignment of the gene for the ? subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone to the short arm of human chromosome 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chromosomal locations of the genes for the ? subunit of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and the glycoprotein hormone ? subunit have been determined by restriction enzyme analysis of DNA extracted from rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) ?-subunit cDNA and a cloned 0.9-kilobase (kb) fragment of the human TSH ?-subunit gene were used as hybridization probes in the analysis of Southern blots of DNA extracted from rodent-human hybrid clones. Analysis of the segregation of 5- and 10-kb EcoRI fragments hybridizing to CG ?-subunit cDNA confirmed the previous assignment of this gene to chromosome 6. Analysis of the patterns of segregation of a 2.3-kb EcoRI fragment containing human TSH ?-subunit sequences permitted the assignment of the TSH ?-subunit gene to human chromosome 1. The subregional assignment of TSH ? subunit to chromosome 1p22 was made possible by the additional analysis of a set of hybrids containing partially overlapping segments of this chromosome. Human TSH ? subunit is not syntenic with genes encoding the ? subunits of CG, luteinizing hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone and is assigned to a conserved linkage group that also contains the structural genes for the ? subunit of nerve growth factor (NGFB) and the proto-oncogene N-ras (NRAS)

1986-01-01

54

Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identificadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA, PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA, FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA. Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo.

Jesús Alvarado-Flores

2009-12-01

55

Nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab{sub 2}) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2} as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab{sub 2}. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab{sub 2}, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab{sub 2} to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} TSH at the 3s{sub B} criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

Cui Yuling; Chen Huafeng; Hou Li; Zhang Bing; Liu Bingqian; Chen Guonan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

2012-08-13

56

Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

2009-01-01

57

Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78?years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OH)D, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s), and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Zhixiao; Cao, Mengdie; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Jia; Li, Yanyun; Shi, Yun; Yang, Fan; Zheng, Shuai; Tang, Wei; Duan, Yu; Huang, Xiaoping; He, Wei

2014-01-01

58

Association of high vitamin d status with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone independent of thyroid hormone levels in middle-aged and elderly males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41-78?years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OH)D, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s), and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:24693286

Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Zhixiao; Sun, Min; Cao, Mengdie; Zhu, Zhenxin; Fu, Qi; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Jia; Li, Yanyun; Shi, Yun; Yang, Fan; Zheng, Shuai; Tang, Wei; Duan, Yu; Huang, Xiaoping; He, Wei; Yang, Tao

2014-01-01

59

Genetic confirmation for a central role for TNF? in the direct action of thyroid stimulating hormone on the skeleton  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical data showing correlations between low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and high bone turnover markers, low bone mineral density, and an increased risk of osteoporosis-related fractures are buttressed by mouse genetic and pharmacological studies identifying a direct action of TSH on the skeleton. Here we show that the skeletal actions of TSH deficiency are mediated, in part, through TNF?. Compound mouse mutants generated by genetically deleting the Tnf? gene on a Tshr?/? (homozygote) or Tshr+/? (heterozygote) background resulted in full rescue of the osteoporosis, low bone formation, and hyperresorption that accompany TSH deficiency. Studies using ex vivo bone marrow cell cultures showed that TSH inhibits and stimulates TNF? production from macrophages and osteoblasts, respectively. TNF?, in turn, stimulates osteoclastogenesis but also enhances the production in bone marrow of a variant TSH?. This locally produced TSH suppresses osteoclast formation in a negative feedback loop. We speculate that TNF? elevations due to low TSH signaling in human hyperthyroidism contribute to the bone loss that has traditionally been attributed solely to high thyroid hormone levels.

Sun, Li; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Lu, Ping; Yuen, Tony; Li, Jianhua; Ma, Risheng; Baliram, Ramkumarie; Moonga, Surinder S.; Liu, Peng; Zallone, Alberta; New, Maria I.; Davies, Terry F.; Zaidi, Mone

2013-01-01

60

Effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995 on a growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone-producing pituitary tumor.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 46-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary adenoma. She had high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels and very high serum growth hormone (GH levels. Transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, post-operative irradiation, frontal craniotomy for removal of residual tumor and large-dose bromocriptine therapy were carried out consecutively. After therapy, serum GH levels gradually decreased, but not to the normal range, and serum TSH levels remained at inappropriately normal levels. Using immunoperoxidase techniques, GH-, TSH- and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-containing cells were demonstrated in the adenoma. A long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995, 600 micrograms/day suppressed the serum GH level to the normal range with a concomitant suppression of TSH. Furthermore, the paradoxical serum GH responses to TRH and LH-RH were slightly improved. No important subjective side-effects were noted. Therefore, SMS 201-995 appeared to be a very effective drug in this patient with a GH- and TSH-producing pituitary tumor.

Hirasawa,Ryoto

1991-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone in 2008: focus on thyroid cancer management  

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Ann Gramza1, Kathryn G Schuff21Division of Medical Oncology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USAAbstract: Radioiodine (RAI) ablation following thyroidectomy is standard of care treatment for patients with intermediate or high risk differentiated thyroid cancer. Traditionally, this has been achieved by forgoing thyroid hormone replacement postoperatively, allowing endogenous thyroid stimulati...

Ann Gramza; Schuff, Kathryn G.

2009-01-01

62

Do Thyroxine and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels Reflect Urinary Iodine Concentrations?  

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The toxicity of environmental chemicals such as nitrates, thiocynates, and perchlorates, some therapeutics, and dietary goitrogens can lower thyroidal iodine uptake and result in hypothyroidism and goiter. Iodine sufficiency, essential for normal thyroid hormone synthesis, is critical during gestation to assure that sufficient thyroxine (T4) and iodine reach the developing fetus. Spot urinary iodide (UI) measurements are used globally to indicate and monitor iodine sufficiency of populations....

Soldin, Offie P.; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Pezzullo, John C.

2005-01-01

63

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Assay as the First Line Biochemical Parameter to Determine Thyroid Gland Abnormalities  

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Increased cellular catabolic activities observed in hyperthyroid state had been established. This is consequent to excessive hormones secreted by the thyroid gland during this condition. A total of 60 subjects comprising of 45 females mean age 43.02±1.90 (range 22-70 years) and 15 males mean age 50.40±3.59 (range 25-68) and 60 controls comprising of 45 females mean age 41.18±1.68 (range 22-68 years) and 15 males mean age 40.53±2.88 (range 25-65) were recruited for the study. The plasma le...

Wasiu Eniola Olooto; Adebambo Olufemi Adeleye; Adebayo Adetola Amballi; Ademola Oladipupo Mosuro; Taiwo Abayomi Banjo

2014-01-01

64

Purification of bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone by a monoclonal antibody  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A monoclonal antibody directed against bovine TSH was obtained by hybridoma technology. This antibody was specific for TSH and did not react with bovine LH and FSH. Affinity chromatography of crude TSH was performed on anti-TSH Sepharose. Bovine TSH was purified in a single step to near homogeneity by this technique, as shown by cation exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified TSH. The biological activity of the hormone was not affected during the purification, as determined by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation of the TSH-dependent FRTL5 cell line. The results indicate that affinity purification of TSH by means of a monoclonal antibody is a simple one-step procedure for the production of biologically active, highly purified TSH.

Lock, A.J.; van Denderen, J.; Aarden, L.A.

1988-01-01

65

Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level in a euthyroid neonate caused by macro thyrotropin-IgG complex  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was discovered by routine neonatal screening in a newborn with no clinical symptoms. Thyroid function tests were repeated and confirmed a high TSH value but normal total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). However, the mother also had elevated serum TSH with normal levels of T4 and T3. The results suggested a transmitted maternal interfering factor, and no treatment was started while further investigation was performed. Gel filtration chromatography of serum from both the infant and the mother showed a peak TSH with molecular mass consistent with a TSH-IgG complex (macro-TSH). TSH in the infant decreased to a normal level within 8â??months in accordance with a normal rate of elimination of maternal IgG, whereas the TSH level of the mother remained high. Conclusion:â?? This case suggests that interfering macro-TSH should be considered in a euthyroid neonate with elevated serum TSH and normal T4 and T3 levels to avoid unnecessary treatment.

Rix, Mariane; Laurberg, Peter

2011-01-01

66

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Sevent [...] een patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P

G.J., Paz-Filho; C.O., Mesa-Junior; M., Olandoski; L.C., Woellner; C.A., Goedert; C.L., Boguszewski; G.A., Carvalho; H., Graf.

67

Detection of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) by radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) were determined in 100 patients using radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of RRA and ELISA were found to be 70.6% and 88.2% respectively (n=51). The specificity of both assays were 100% (n=16). With RRA as the standard test the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 75.8% and 86.8%. In the untreated hyperthyroid the RRA result which expressed as % specific "1"2"5I-TSH inhibition was 33.6% (n=51), decline to 26.9% in the treated hyperthyroid (n=33) and 14.1% in the euthyroid (n=16). The mean 0.D_4_9_2_n_m of TRAb-ELISA were 0.861 in untreated hyperthyroid, 0.437 in treated hyperthyroid and 0.135 in euthyroid Phi coefficient analysis show that the RRA was 60.4% correlated to hyperthyroidism where as TRAb-ELISA was 80.1%

1990-04-23

68

Electron Capture Dissociation of Divalent Metal-adducted Sulfated N-Glycans Released from Bovine Thyroid Stimulating Hormone  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfated N-glycans released from bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) were ionized with the divalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Co by electrospray ionization (ESI). These metal-adducted species were subjected to infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) and the corresponding fragmentation patterns were compared. IRMPD generated extensive glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, but most product ions suffered from sulfonate loss. Internal fragments were also observed, which complicated the spectra. ECD provided complementary structural information compared with IRMPD, and all observed product ions retained the sulfonate group, allowing sulfonate localization. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of ECD towards metal-adducted sulfated N-glycans released from a glycoprotein. Due to the ability of IRMPD and ECD to provide complementary structural information, the combination of the two strategies is a promising and valuable tool for glycan structural characterization. The influence of different metal ions was also examined. Calcium adducts appeared to be the most promising species because of high sensitivity and ability to provide extensive structural information.

Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

2013-11-01

69

Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and developmental regulation of a novel receptor from Drosophila melanogaster structurally related to members of the thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor family from mammals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using oligonucleotide probes derived from consensus sequences for glycoprotein hormone receptors, we have cloned an 831-amino acid residue-long receptor from Drosophila melanogaster that shows a striking structural homology with members of the glycoprotein hormone (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG)) receptor family from mammals. This homology includes a very large, extracellular N terminus (20% sequence identity with rat TSH, 19% with rat FSH, and 20% with the rat LH/CG receptor) and a seven-transmembrane region (53% sequence identity with rat TSH, 50% with rat FSH, and 52% with the rat LH/CG receptor). The Drosophila receptor gene is >7.5 kilobase pairs long and contains 17 exons and 16 introns. Seven intron positions coincide with introns in the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes and have the same intron phasing. This indicates that the Drosophila receptor is evolutionarily related to the mammalian receptors. The Drosophila receptor gene is located at position 90C on the right arm of the third chromosome. The receptor is strongly expressed starting 8-16 h after oviposition, and the expression stays high until after pupation. Adult male flies express high levels of receptor mRNA, but female flies express about 6 times less. The expression pattern in embryos and larvae suggests that the receptor is involved in insect development. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a glycoprotein hormone receptor family member from insects.

Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P

1997-01-01

70

Comparison of radioiodine biokinetics following the administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and after thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iodine kinetics were studied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer while euthyroid under exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and while hypothyroid to detect differences in radioiodine uptake, distribution and elimination. Nine patients with total or near-total thyroidectomy on thyroid hormone suppressive therapy received two or three daily doses of 0.9 mg recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) followed by administration of a diagnostic activity of 2 mCi (74 MBq) iodine-131. After the biokinetics assessments had been performed, patients stopped taking thyroid hormones to become hypothyroid. A second 2 mCi (74 MBq) diagnostic activity of {sup 131}I was administered, followed by a second set of biokinetics assessments. One week later the patients underwent remnant ablation with a therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I. A comparison of the {sup 131}I kinetics in the patients while euthyroid and while hypothyroid showed major differences in the doses to the remnant as well as in residence times and radiation exposure to the blood. In the first diagnostic assessment the remnant dose was higher in eight of the nine patients and clearance of the activity from the blood was faster in all of them. The data from this study suggest that radioiodine administration is potent and safe when administered to euthyroid patients following rhTSH administration. Enhanced residence time in the remnant and decreased radiation exposure to the blood were noted when patients were euthyroid compared to when they were rendered hypothyroid. However, all patients received diagnostic activities in the same order: first while euthyroid, followed by hypothyroidism. It is quite possible that ''stunning'' from the radioiodine administered in the initial uptake study inhibited the subsequent uptake of radioiodine by the remnant lesions in the second uptake study. (orig.)

Luster, Markus; Lassmann, Michael; Haenscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sherman, Steven I. [Section of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Skarulis, Monica C. [Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Reynolds, James R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren Grant Magnusen Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

2003-10-01

71

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Assay as the First Line Biochemical Parameter to Determine Thyroid Gland Abnormalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased cellular catabolic activities observed in hyperthyroid state had been established. This is consequent to excessive hormones secreted by the thyroid gland during this condition. A total of 60 subjects comprising of 45 females mean age 43.02±1.90 (range 22-70 years and 15 males mean age 50.40±3.59 (range 25-68 and 60 controls comprising of 45 females mean age 41.18±1.68 (range 22-68 years and 15 males mean age 40.53±2.88 (range 25-65 were recruited for the study. The plasma level of T4, T3 and TSH were determined in both the experiment group and the controls. A significant increase (p<0.05 in plasma T4, T3 and a significant decrease (p<0.05 in plasma TSH were observed in the experiment group in comparison to the controls. Also, an inverse relationship was noted to exist between the plasma T4 and T3; and TSH in primary hyperthyroid state.

Taiwo Abayomi Banjo

2014-01-01

72

Reliability of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies level determination in diagnosing and prognosing of immunogenic hyperthyroidism  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Graves disease (GD is defined as hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter caused by immunogenic disturbances. Antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors of thyroid gland (TRAb have crucial pathogenetic importance in the development and maintenance of autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to identify sensitivity, specificity, positive an negative predictive value of TRAb level in sera of patients with GD as well as to estimate significance of TRAb level for remission and GD relapses occurrence. Methods. We studied prospectively and partly retrospectively 149 patients, 109 female and 40 male patients, 5-78 years old, in the period 1982-2007. There were 96 patients with GD. The control group consisted of 53 patients, 21 with hyperthyroidism of second etiology and 32 patients on amiodarone therapy, with or without thyroid dysfunction TRAb was measured by radioreceptor assay (TRAK Assay and DYNO Test TRAK Human Brahms Diagnostica GMBH. Results. According to the results the sensitivity (Sn of TRAb test was 80%, specificity (Sp 100%, positive predictive value (PP 100% and negative predictive value (NP 83%. Also, the Sn of hTRAb test was 94%, Sp 100%, PP 100% and NP 94%. Our results show that an increased level of TRAb/hTRAb at the beginning of the disease and the level at the end of medical therapy is associated with an increased number of GD relapses and a shorter remission duration. Conclusion. Detection and measurement of TRAb in serum is a very sensitive method for diagnosing GD and very highly specific in vitro method for differential diagnosis of various forms of hyperthyroidism. Clinical significance of differentiating various forms of hyperthyroidism, using this in vitro assay, lays in adequate therapeutic choice for these entities.

Aleksi? Aleksandar Z.

2009-01-01

73

Comparative assessment of quality of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and chemiluminescence immunometric assay (CHEIMA) for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological substances like hormones, vitamins and enzymes are found in minute quantities in blood. Their estimation requires very sensitive and specific methods. The most modern method for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone in serum is non-isotopic enzyme enhanced chemiluminescence immunometric method. In our laboratory immunoradiometric assay is in routine for the last many years. Recently interest has grown to establish non-isotopic techniques in laboratories of PAEC. However, the main requirement to adopt the new procedures is to compare their results, cost and other benefits with the existing method. Immunoassay laboratory of MINAR, therefore, conducted a study to compare the two methods. A total of 173 (males: 34 females: 139 age: between 1 and 65 years) cases of clinically confirmed thyroid status were included in the study. Serum samples of these cases were analyzed by two methods and results were compared by plotting precision profiles, correlation plots and calculating sensitivities and specificities of the methods. As the results in all the samples were not normally distributed Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied to compare the analytical results of two methods. The comparison shows that the results obtained in two methods are not completely similar (p=0.0003293), although analysis of samples in groups shows that some similarity exists between the results of hypo and hyperthyroid patients (p<=0.156 and p<=0.6138). This shows that results obtained in these two methods could sometimes disagree in final diagnosis. Although TSH-CHEIMA is analytically more sensitive than TSH-IRMA the clinical sensitivities and specificities of two methods are not significantly different. TSH-CHEIMA test completes in almost 2 hours whereas TSH-IRMA takes about 6 hours to complete. Comparison of costs shows that TSH-CHIEMA is almost 5 times more expensive than TSH-IRMA. We conclude that the two methods could sometimes disagree but the two techniques have almost same clinical efficacy (clinical usefulness). The clinical sensitivities and specificities are similar and TSH-IRMA is in no way inferior to the non-isotopic method. It is, therefore, not reasonable to abandon a good technique only for relatively speedy results. (author)

2009-01-01

74

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances {sup 131}I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 {+-} 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to {sup 131}I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 {+-} 64.4 mL. {sup 131}I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean {sup 131}I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 {+-} 9.7 to 49.6 {+-} 13.4% (P < 0.001), a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2). Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 {+-} 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase), 1.80 {+-} 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 {+-} 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%), painful thyroiditis (29.4%) and hypothyroidism (52.9%). Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 {+-} 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001) and by 46.0 {+-} 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of {sup 131}I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

Paz-Filho, G.J.; Mesa-Junior, C.O.; Boguszewski, C.L.; Carvalho, G.A.; Graf, H. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; Olandoski, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Bioestatistica; Woellner, L.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Goedert, C.A. [Centro de Tomografia Computadorizada, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2007-12-15

75

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years, who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P < 0.001, a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2. Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 ± 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase, 1.80 ± 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 ± 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%, painful thyroiditis (29.4% and hypothyroidism (52.9%. Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 ± 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001 and by 46.0 ± 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001. Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects.

G.J. Paz-Filho

2007-12-01

76

[The influence of acupuncture on the quality of life and the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in patients presenting with subclinical hypothyroidism].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study included 27 female patients who applied for medical treatment of arthralgias and myalgias. They were found to have elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone in conjunction with the normal concentrations of thyroid hormones. The therapeutic procedures included corporal and auricular acupuncture, introduction of needles into the reflexogenic scalp and wrist zones (depending on clinical symptoms) and into the thyroid gland projection zones on the skin, massage of paravertebral regions of the cervical and thoracic spine using a bone scraper (the Gua Sha healing technique). Twenty of the 27 patients completed two therapeutic courses with a 3-4 month interval between them. The treatment resulted in a significant decrease of the number and severity of the initial clinical symptoms; the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone fell down to the physiological values, characteristics of the quality of life became comparable with those of healthy subjects. It is concluded that acupuncture may be regarded as an alternative to substitution therapy of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:22165143

Luzina, K É; Luzina, L L; Vasilenko, A M

2011-01-01

77

Stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone and Grave's immunoglobulin G of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression in human thyroid follicles in vitro and flt mRNA expression in the rat thyroid in vivo.  

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To elucidate the pathogenesis of thyroid gland hypervascularity in patients with Graves' disease, we studied the expression of mRNAs for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor, Flt family, using human thyroid follicles in vitro and thiouracil-fed rats in vivo. Human thyroid follicles, cultured in the absence of endothelial cells, secreted de novo-synthesized thyroid hormone in response to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and Graves' IgG. The thyroid follicles produced VEG...

Sato, K.; Yamazaki, K.; Shizume, K.; Kanaji, Y.; Obara, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Demura, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Shibuya, M.

1995-01-01

78

Relapse of Graves disease after medical therapy: predictive value of thyroidal technetium-99m uptake and serum thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 49 patients with Graves disease, the 20-min thyroidal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc and serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody were estimated at presentation and at intervals during a 1-yr course of carbimazole and triiodothyronine. In the 12 mo after cessation of therapy, 29 patients developed recurrent thyrotoxicosis. Thyroidal /sup 99m/Tc uptake had a poor predictive value for recurrence of thyrotoxicosis, both at presentation and during therapy. A very high level of TSH receptor antibody was present in seven patients at presentation, all of whom relapsed on withdrawing therapy. An abnormal value of TSH receptor antibody at the end of the course of medical therapy was present in 24/29 (83%) patients who relapsed and in 1/20 (5%) patients who remained euthyroid 1 yr after stopping antithyroid drugs

1985-01-01

79

Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered when evaluating the cause of hyperthyroidism. Early diagnosis and treatment of such adenomas is critical in reducing neurological and endocrine complications.

George Jyothis T

2008-02-01

80

The direct cooling of the preoptic-hypothalamic area elicits the release of thyroid stimulating hormone during wakefulness but not during REM sleep.  

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Thermoregulatory responses to temperature changes are not operant during REM sleep (REMS), but fully operant in non-REM sleep and wakefulness. The specificity of the relationship between REMS and the impairment of thermoregulation was tested by eliciting the reflex release of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH), which is integrated at hypothalamic level. By inducing the sequential secretion of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Thyroid Hormone, TRH intervenes in the regulation of obligatory and non-shivering thermogenesis. Experiments were performed on male albino rats implanted with epidural electrodes for EEG recording and 2 silver-copper wire thermodes, bilaterally placed in the preoptic-hypothalamic area (POA) and connected to small thermoelectric heat pumps driven by a low-voltage high current DC power supply. In preliminary experiments, a thermistor was added in order to measure hypothalamic temperature. The activation of TRH hypophysiotropic neurons by the thermode cooling of POA was indirectly assessed, in conditions in which thermoregulation was either fully operant (wakefulness) or not operant (REMS), by a radioimmunoassay determination of plasmatic levels of TSH. Different POA cooling were performed for 120 s or 40 s at current intensities of 80 mA and 125 mA, respectively. At both current intensities, POA cooling elicited, with respect to control values (no cooling current), a significant increase in plasmatic TSH levels in wakefulness, but not during REMS. These results confirm the inactivation of POA thermal sensitivity during REMS and show, for the first time, that this inactivation concerns also the fundamental endocrine control of non-shivering thermogenesis. PMID:24498374

Martelli, Davide; Luppi, Marco; Cerri, Matteo; Tupone, Domenico; Mastrotto, Marco; Perez, Emanuele; Zamboni, Giovanni; Amici, Roberto

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Establishment of a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference interval in healthy adults. The importance of environmental factors, including thyroid antibodies.  

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It has previously been shown that thyroid antibodies affect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in men and women and that TSH levels are predictive of future thyroid disease. We investigated the validity of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines regarding the TSH reference interval by studying 1512 individuals. Two hundred and fifty had at least one thyroid antibody, 121 were taking medications other than estrogens and occasional analgesics, and 105 reported a family history of thyroid disease. Serum TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab) and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tgab) were determined on AutoDELFIA and TSHRab by a radioreceptor assay (RRA) from Brahms Diagnostica. For individuals without thyroid antibodies and other risk factors, no effect of age and gender was seen for serum TSH. Neither medication nor the presence of Tgab alone had any influence on serum TSH. TPOab alone or in combination with Tgab were associated with an increased serum TSH level. The 'cumulative percentage distributions' of subgroups, as well as the combined population, was In-Gaussian distributed. The central 95% of the population was within the 95% CI in rankit-plots. Consequently, a common reference interval for serum TSH of 0.58-4.07 mlU/l for all adults between 17 and 66 years of age was established. This reference interval is much higher than expected from the NACB-guidelines. PMID:15327019

Jensen, Esther; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Hansen, Pia Skov; Brix, Thomas H; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hegedüs, Laszlo

2004-01-01

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The Effects of Simvastatin on the Serum Concentrations of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Free Thyroxine in Hypothyroid Patients Treated with Levothyroxine  

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Full Text Available Background: Statins, such as simvastatin, are the drugs of choice for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. On the other hand hypercholesterolmia can occur in hypothyroid patients, who receive levothyroxine. There are few clinical case reports in regards to drug interaction between levothyroxine and lovastatin or simvastatin, indicating decreased levothyroxine effects. This study aimed at determining possible interaction between simvastatin and levothyroxine in hypothyroid patients by assessing serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (FT4, the two important laboratory indices for levothyroxine therapy. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 41 eligible hypothyroid patients receiving levothyroxine (50-150 µg/d were selected. Blood samples were taken before and after three months of simultaneous treatment with simvastatin (20 mg/d and levothyroxine to determine the serum levels of TSH and FT4. Results: There was no significant difference between the serum levels of TSH (P=0.77 or FT4 (P=0.76 before and after three months of simultaneous treatment. Also, there was no aggravation or initiation of any sign or symptom of hypothyroidism in the patients during the study period. Conclusion: Considering that FT4 and TSH are the most reliable indicators for the levothyroxine treatment, the findings of the present study suggest that there may not be any significant interaction between simvastatin and levothyroxine

Mohammad Abbasinazari

2011-06-01

83

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone.  

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Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L(-1) and became 0.003 mIU L(-1) when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L(-1) of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. PMID:22444539

Zhou, Yulin; Xia, Xiaohu; Xu, Ye; Ke, Wei; Yang, Wei; Li, Qingge

2012-04-13

84

The Effectiveness of Recombinant Human Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone versus Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal Prior to Radioiodine Remnant Ablation in Thyroid Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.  

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We evaluated the efficacy of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) versus thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) prior to radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) in thyroid cancer. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS was performed. Randomized controlled trials that compared ablation success between rhTSH and THW at 6 to 12 months following RRA were included in this study. Six trials with a total of 1,660 patients were included. When ablation success was defined as a thyroglobulin (Tg) cutoff of 1 ng/mL (risk ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.03) or a Tg cutoff of 1 ng/mL plus imaging modality (RR 0.97; 0.90-1.05), the results of rhTSH and THW were similar. There were no significant differences when ablation success was defined as a Tg cutoff of 2 ng/mL (RR 1.03; 0.95-1.11) or a Tg cutoff of 2 ng/mL plus imaging modality (RR 1.02; 0.95-1.09). When a negative (131)I-whole body scan was used solely as the definition of ablation success, the effects of rhTSH and THW were not significantly different (RR 0.97; 0.93-1.02). Therefore, ablation success rates are comparable when RRA is prepared by either rhTSH or THW. PMID:24932083

Pak, Kyoungjune; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, In-Joo; Kim, E Edmund; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

2014-06-01

85

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

2012-04-13

86

Comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Background: The physiological changes in thyroid gland during pregnancy have been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic causes of preeclampsia.Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this case?control study, 40 normal pregnant women and 40 cases of preeclampsia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated. They were compared for serum levels of Free T3 (FT3, Free T4 (FT4 and TSH. The data was analyzed by SPSS software with the use of t?student, Chi?square, Independent sample T-test and Bivariate correlation test. p?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was not statistically different between two groups (p=0.297. No significant difference was observed in terms of parity between two groups (p=0.206. Normal pregnant women were not significantly different from preeclampsia cases in the view of FT3 level (1.38 pg/ml vs. 1.41 pg/ml, p=0.803, FT4 level (0.95 pg/ml vs. 0.96 pg/ml, p=0.834 and TSH level (3.51 ?IU/ml vs. 3.10 ?IU/ml, p=0.386. Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the hypothesis that changes in FT3, FT4 and TSH levels could be possible etiology of preeclampsia

Nayereh Khadem

2012-01-01

87

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ? The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ? method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L?1 and became 0.003 mIU L?1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L?1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

2012-04-13

88

Thyroid stimulating hormone, independent of thyroid hormone, can elevate the serum total cholesterol level in patients with coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional design  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between TSH and the lipid profile is contradictory because few studies have excluded the potential influence of the thyroid hormones (TH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH levels and the lipid profile independent of TH. Methods 1302 CHD patients diagnosed by coronary angiography were retrospectively studied. The prevalence and distribution of thyroid dysfunction were analyzed first. To assess the impact of TSH on serum lipids, Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed after adjustments for classic factors and TH. To calculate the extent of the effect of TSH on the serum cholesterol level, the partial least squares method and additional statistical methods were used. Results After the exclusions, a total of 568 patients (270 males and 298 females with a mean age of 63.56?±?11.376?years were selected. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among the patients was 18.66%, and the prevalence of hypothyroidism (15.32% was higher than that of hyperthyroidism (3.34%. Even after adjusting for confounding factors, such as sex, age, smoking status, fasting plasma glucose levels and TH, a significant positive impact of TSH on the serum total cholesterol (TC level was revealed (r?=?0.095, p?=?0.036. Each 1 mIU/L increase in the TSH level might be linked to a 0.015580712?mmol/L elevation of the serum TC value. Conclusions TSH can increase the TC level in CHD patients independent of TH. The present study suggests a potential physiological role of TSH and the importance of maintaining an appropriate TSH level in CHD patients.

Xu Chao

2012-05-01

89

Thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 synergize to elevate 1,2-diacylglycerol in rat thyroid cells. Stimulation of DNA synthesis via interaction between lipid and adenylyl cyclase signal transduction systems.  

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) synergistically stimulate DNA synthesis in thyroid cells. In this report, a novel mechanism for mediation of this synergistic interaction is described in rat thyroid (FRTL-5) cells. Because phorbol myristate acetate stimulates DNA synthesis, the effects of TSH, IGF-1 and insulin on FRTL-5 cell content of 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DG), the endogenous activator of protein kinase C, were measured. After 6 d, TSH, IGF-1 and ...

Brenner-gati, L.; Berg, K. A.; Gershengorn, M. C.

1988-01-01

90

Casos clínicos en Endocrinología (n.º 2): niña de diez años con alteraciones de la hormona estimulante del tiroides / Clinical cases in Endocrinology (nº 2): a ten year old girl with thyroid stimulating hormone alteration  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Continuando con los casos clínicos de Endocrinología, se presenta una niña de diez años derivada de un centro de salud por alteraciones de la hormona estimulante del tiroides. En este artículo trataremos especialmente de la disminución de la función tiroidea (hipotiroidismo). [...] Abstract in english Continuing with clinical cases in endocrinology we report the case of a 10 years old girl referred from a primary care center with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) alteration. In this paper we'll specially address the reduction in thyroid function (hypothyroidism). [...

N., Álvarez Gil; T., Angulo Sacristán.

91

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-directed induction of the CREM gene in the thyroid gland participates in the long-term desensitization of the TSH receptor.  

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Thyroid gland function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis via the secretion of TSH, according to environmental, developmental, and circadian stimuli. TSH modulates both the secretion of thyroid hormone and gland trophism through interaction with a specific guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor (TSH receptor; TSH-R), which elicits the activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. After TSH stimulation, the levels of TSH-R RNA are known to decrease dramatically ...

Lalli, E.; Sassone-corsi, P.

1995-01-01

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Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone beta-subunit of common duck and mule duck pituitaries: in vitro regulation of steady-state TSHbeta mRNA level.  

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For better understanding of phylogenetic diversity and evolution of pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in birds, we have cloned the cDNAs encoding TSH beta subunit (TSHbeta), by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) from two species of domestic ducks, common duck (Tsaiya duck and Pekin duck) (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) and mule duck (hybrid of male muscovy duck Cairina moschata and female A. platyrhynchos domesticus). The nucleotide sequences of isolated TSHbeta cDNAs of the two species of ducks are identical, with each including 66 bp of 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 402 bp of coding region, and 82 bp 3'-UTR followed by 18 bp poly A tract. The deduced TSHbeta subunit of the ducks contains 134 amino acids consisting of a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids and a putative mature protein of 115 amino acids. However, the TSHbetas of common duck and mule duck differ from the TSHbeta of muscovy duck in one amino acid at position 97 of the mature protein: isoleucine for common duck and mule duck, and valine for muscovy duck. Our findings thus demonstrate that inter-genus variation of TSHbeta exists in Family Anatidae, and that TSHbeta gene in the mule duck is preferentially transcribed from the maternal genome rather than from the paternal genome. TSHbeta mRNA expressions were investigated by culturing common duck pituitaries with various doses of hormones. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulated, while thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)), inhibited the TSHbeta mRNA levels, in dose-related manners. The findings thus support that the mode of regulation of TSH gene expression in hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis in birds is similar to that in mammals. Cortisol and corticosterone decreased the steady-state TSHbeta mRNA levels at the pituitary level, in a dose-related manner, the first-time demonstration in vertebrates. The results may suggest that glucocorticoids exert suppressive action directly at pituitary level in modulation of steady-state TSHbeta mRNA level. PMID:17215160

Hsieh, Ya-Lun; Chowdhury, Indrajit; Chien, Jung-Tsun; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

2007-03-01

93

Elevação de hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH após as lobectomias: incidência e fatores associados Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH rising following hemithyroidectomy: incidence and adjuvant factors  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de elevação da dosagem sérica do hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH em pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide, em um período de até 12 semanas após a operação, buscando fatores associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODO: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 88 pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, no período de setembro de 2002 a setembro de 2004. Realizaram-se dosagens de hormônios tireoideanos a partir de quatro semanas após a cirurgia. Excluíram-se os pacientes com dosagens hormonais pré-operatórias alteradas, os casos que necessitaram de totalização da tireoidectomia e também aqueles em que houve perda do seguimento pós-operatório. Foram analisados os dados quanto à idade e ao sexo dos pacientes, quanto à presença de tireoidite no estudo histopatológico da tireóide e quanto ao tempo de aparecimento do hipotireoidismo. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos foi realizada através do teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Dos 88 pacientes, 71 (80,7% eram mulheres. A idade média foi de 41,7 anos. Observou-se elevação do TSH em 20 (22,73% dos 88 pacientes estudados. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de elevação do TSH, quando analisados quanto ao sexo, à idade ou à presença de tireoidite. CONCLUSÃO: A elevação do TSH é freqüente após lobectomias da tireóide e ocorre, muitas vezes, precocemente após a cirurgia. Não se encontraram, neste estudo, fatores que pudessem predizer sua ocorrência a curto prazo.BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency of serum elevations of thyrotropin in patients submitted to lobectomy within a period of up to 12 weeks after surgery, in the search for factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients submitted to thyroid lobectomy from September 2002 to September 2004 in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery - University of São Paulo Medical School were retrospectively analyzed. Thyroid hormone determinations were performed from 4 weeks on after the surgery. Cases of patients with altered preoperative hormone determination, need for total thyroidectomy, and loss of postoperative follow-up were excluded. Data regarding age and gender of patients, presence of thyroiditis on histopathologic analysis of the thyroid and time of emergence of hypothyroidism were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: Of the 88 patients, 71 (80.7% were women. The mean age was of 41.7 years. Elevation of thyrotropin was observed in 20 (22.73% of the 88 studied patients. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding its incidence in relation to gender, age or the presence of thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: Elevation of thyrotropin is frequent after thyroid lobectomy and it may occur early after surgery. In this study, no factor that could predict its occurrence in the short term were found.

Vergillius José Furtado de Araújo Filho

2007-04-01

94

Elevação de hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH) após as lobectomias: incidência e fatores associados / Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) rising following hemithyroidectomy: incidence and adjuvant factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de elevação da dosagem sérica do hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH) em pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide, em um período de até 12 semanas após a operação, buscando fatores associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODO: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 88 pacientes [...] submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, no período de setembro de 2002 a setembro de 2004. Realizaram-se dosagens de hormônios tireoideanos a partir de quatro semanas após a cirurgia. Excluíram-se os pacientes com dosagens hormonais pré-operatórias alteradas, os casos que necessitaram de totalização da tireoidectomia e também aqueles em que houve perda do seguimento pós-operatório. Foram analisados os dados quanto à idade e ao sexo dos pacientes, quanto à presença de tireoidite no estudo histopatológico da tireóide e quanto ao tempo de aparecimento do hipotireoidismo. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos foi realizada através do teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Dos 88 pacientes, 71 (80,7%) eram mulheres. A idade média foi de 41,7 anos. Observou-se elevação do TSH em 20 (22,73%) dos 88 pacientes estudados. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de elevação do TSH, quando analisados quanto ao sexo, à idade ou à presença de tireoidite. CONCLUSÃO: A elevação do TSH é freqüente após lobectomias da tireóide e ocorre, muitas vezes, precocemente após a cirurgia. Não se encontraram, neste estudo, fatores que pudessem predizer sua ocorrência a curto prazo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency of serum elevations of thyrotropin in patients submitted to lobectomy within a period of up to 12 weeks after surgery, in the search for factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients submitted to thyroid lobectomy from September 2002 to [...] September 2004 in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery - University of São Paulo Medical School were retrospectively analyzed. Thyroid hormone determinations were performed from 4 weeks on after the surgery. Cases of patients with altered preoperative hormone determination, need for total thyroidectomy, and loss of postoperative follow-up were excluded. Data regarding age and gender of patients, presence of thyroiditis on histopathologic analysis of the thyroid and time of emergence of hypothyroidism were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: Of the 88 patients, 71 (80.7%) were women. The mean age was of 41.7 years. Elevation of thyrotropin was observed in 20 (22.73%) of the 88 studied patients. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding its incidence in relation to gender, age or the presence of thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: Elevation of thyrotropin is frequent after thyroid lobectomy and it may occur early after surgery. In this study, no factor that could predict its occurrence in the short term were found.

Vergillius José Furtado de, Araújo Filho; Lenine Garcia, Brandão; Dorival, Carlucci Jr; Raquel Ajub, Moysés; Marília D' Elboux Guimarães, Brescia; Alberto Rosseti, Ferraz.

95

Haplotype Analysis of the Promoter Region of Phosphodiesterase Type 8B (PDE8B) in Correlation with Inactivating PDE8B Mutation and the Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels  

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Background Human phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 8B (PDE8B) is located at 5q14.1 and is known as the PDE with the highest affinity to cAMP. We recently described a family with bilateral micronodular adrenocortical disease that was apparently caused by an inactivating PDE8B mutation (H305P). As a result of a genome-wide study, a strong association between six polymorphic variants in the PDE8B promoter and serum levels of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been recently reported. Despite an extended analysis of the regions surrounding 5q14.1, no other potential genetic variants that could be responsible for the associated TSH levels were found. Methods In this study, we genotyped by polymerase chain reaction the described six polymorphic variants in the PDE8B promoter in the family with micronodular adrenocortical disease and inactivating PDE8B mutation and analyzed their correlation with individual TSH values in the family members. Results We observed complete segregation between the reported association and individual TSH values in the family we studied. Haplotype analysis showed that the haplotype associated with the high TSH levels is different from the one that segregated with H305P, suggesting that the mutation most probably has arisen on an allele independent of the high TSH-associated allele. Conclusions The proposed mechanism by which PDE8B may influence TSH levels is through control of cAMP signaling. Our analysis revealed separate segregation of an inactivating PDE8B allele from the high-TSH-allele and showed low TSH levels in persons who carry an inactivating PDE8B allele. These data suggest that, indeed, PDE8B may be involved in regulation of TSH levels.

Horvath, Anelia; Faucz, Fabio; Finkielstain, Gabriela P.; Nikita, Maria Eleni; Rothenbuhler, Anya; Almeida, Madson; Mericq, Veronica

2010-01-01

96

Hormone levels  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

97

Reference interval of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine in a reference population over 60 years old and in very old subjects (over 80 years): comparison to young subjects  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Studies based on laboratory data about thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) reference interval (RI) show conflicting results regarding the importance of using specific values by age groups with advancing age. Retrospective laboratory data or non-specific criteria in the selection of subjects to be studied may be factors leading to no clear conclusions. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that TSH and FT4 have specific RI for subjects over 60 to 80 years. Methods We evaluated prospectively 1200 subjects of both sexes stratified by age groups, initially submitted to a questionnaire to do the first selection to exclude those with factors that could interfere in TSH or FT4 levels. Then, we excluded those subjects with goiter or other abnormalities on physical examination, positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), and other laboratory abnormalities. Results TSH increased with age in the whole group. There was no statistical difference in the analysis of these independent subgroups: 20–49 versus 50–59 years old (p?>?0.05), and 60–69 versus 70–79 years old (p?>?0.05). Consequently, we achieved different TSH RI for the three major age groups, 20 to 59 years old: 0.4 - 4.3 mU/L, 60 to 79 years old: 0.4 - 5.8 mU/L and 80 years or more: 0.4 - 6.7 mU/L. Conversely, FT4 progressively decreases = significantly with age, but the independent comparison test between the sub-groups showed that after age 60 the same RI was obtained (0.7 - 1.7 ng/dL) although the minimum value was smaller than that defined by manufacturer. In the comparison between TSH data obtained by this study and those defined by the manufacturer (without segmentation by age) 6.5% of subjects between 60 and 79 years and 12.5% with 80 years or more would have a misdiagnosis of elevated TSH. Conclusions TSH normal reference range increases with age, justifying the use of different RI in subjects 60 years old and over, while FT4 decreases with age. Using specific-age RI, a significant percentage of elderly will not be misdiagnosed as having subclinical hipothyroidism.

2013-01-01

98

Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides / Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma pap [...] ilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares). El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %), en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 %) y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %). En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia. Abstract in english The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular a [...] nd undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

María Teresa, Marrero Rodríguez.

99

Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares. El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %, en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 % y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %. En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia.The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas. The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %, in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %, and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %. No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

2007-12-01

100

TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? TSH Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... and an ultrasensitive TSH? 1. Do doctors test TSH during pregnancy? Doctors do not generally test asymptomatic ...

 
 
 
 
101

Bromine and thyroid hormone activity.  

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AIMS--To examine the possible consequences of high plasma concentrations of bromine on thyroid hormone. METHODS--Bromine was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the plasma of 799 patients consulting for thyroid disorders. Because the mean (SD) bromine concentration in the plasma of healthy subjects is 4 (1) mg/l, concentrations above 6 mg/l were regarded as outside the normal range. Bromine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values were compar...

Allain, P.; Berre, S.; Krari, N.; Laine, P.; Barbot, N.; Rohmer, V.; Bigorgne, J. C.

1993-01-01

102

Hormone assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

1977-01-01

103

A Newly Identified Insertion Mutation in the Thyroid Hormone Receptor-? Gene in a Korean Family with Generalized Thyroid Hormone Resistance  

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Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome (RTH) is a rare disorder and is characterized by elevated levels of circulating free thyroid hormones, inappropriate secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and reduced peripheral tissue response to thyroid hormone. 90% of RTH subjects, when studied at the level of the gene, have been found to harbor mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor-? (THRB) gene. These affected individuals have been shown to possess a variety of missense mutations, result...

Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Tae Sun; Baek, Hong Sun; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Park, Ji Hyun

2007-01-01

104

Growth Hormone  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hormone Releasing Hormone); Glucose Tolerance Test ; Cortisol ; ACTH ; TSH ; Glucose ; Prolactin ; IGF BP- 3 (Insulin-like growth ... that reflect pituitary function, such as free T4 , TSH , cortisol , FSH , LH , and testosterone (in men), are ...

105

HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

Mallick, U. [Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Harmer, C.; Clarke, S.; Moss, L.; Nicol, A.; Clarke, P.; Smellie, J.; McCready, R.; Farnell, K.; Franklyn, J.; John, R.; Nutting, C.; Yap, B.; Lemon, C.; Wadlsey, J.; Gerrard, G.; Roques, T.; Macias, E.; Whitaker, S.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Alvarez, P.; Kadalayil, L.; Hackshaw, A.

2012-07-01

106

Thyroid hormone resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a rare syndrome of reduced end organ sensitivity. Patients with THR have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), but normal or slightly elevated serum thyrotropin values. The characteristic clinical feature is goitre without symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. THR can be classified on the basis of tissue resistance into pituitary, peripheral or generalised (both pituitary and peripheral) types. Mutations in the TRbeta gene, cell membrane transporter and genes controlling intracellular metabolism of thyroid hormone have been implicated. THR is differentiated from thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting pituitary adenoma by history of THR in the family. No specific treatment is often required for THR; patients with features of hypo- or hyperthyroidism are appropriately treated with levo-triiodothyronine (L-T3), levo-thyroxine (L-T4), dextro-thyroxine(D-T4) or 3,3,5 triiodo-thyroacetic acid (TRIAC). The diagnosis helps in appropriate genetic counselling of the family. PMID:18940949

Agrawal, N K; Goyal, R; Rastogi, A; Naik, D; Singh, S K

2008-09-01

107

TSH Prevents Bone Resorption and with Calcitriol Synergistically Stimulates Bone Formation in Rats with Low Levels of Calciotropic Hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone exerts both antiresorptive and anabolic effects on bone remodeling in aged ovariectomized rats and thyroid stimulating hormone-receptor null mice, supported by clinical results demonstrating that low thyroid-stimulating hormone level is associated with increased bone loss. To further explore the effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone on bone metabolism we introduced here a rat model with removed thyroid and parathyroid glands to obtain low serum concentrations of thyroid and parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and 1,25(OH)2D3. Surgery resulted in hypocalcemia, low parathyroid and thyroid hormone, 1,25(OH)2D3, C-telopeptide, and osteocalcin serum level. Intermittent administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone resulted in a further decrease of serum calcium and decreased level of serum C-telopeptide due to the suppression of bone resorption, while in the same animals osteocalcin in serum was higher indicating an increased bone formation rate. A combination of thyroid-stimulating hormone and 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased the serum Ca2+, C-telopeptide and serum osteocalcin values. MicroCT analyses of the distal femur and proximal tibia showed that rats treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone or in a combination with thyroid-stimulating hormone had an increased trabecular bone volume, and enhanced trabecular bone quality. Biomechanical testing of the trabecular bone showed an increased maximal load for 105% and 235%, respectively, in rats treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone, or in a combination with thyroid-stimulating hormone. We suggest that thyroid-stimulating hormone independently of calciotropic hormones suppressed bone resorption and stimulated bone formation, while in combination with 1,25(OH)2D3 acted synergistically on bone formation resulting in an increased bone volume. PMID:24446158

Dumic-Cule, I; Draca, N; Luetic, A T; Jezek, D; Rogic, D; Grgurevic, L; Vukicevic, S

2014-05-01

108

Resistance to thyroid hormone in a Chinese family with R429Q mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The combination of elevated serum levels of free thyroid hormones with non-suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone suggests the differential diagnoses of resistance to thyroid hormone or thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary tumour. Clinical differentiation of these two conditions can be difficult, because patients with thyroid hormone resistance may exhibit various combinations of hypermetabolic and hypometabolic features, and laboratory results have limited sensitivity and specificity. We report a case of resistance to thyroid hormone in a Chinese family that illustrates this difficulty. The diagnosis could only be confirmed by the identification of a known disease-causing mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene in peripheral leukocytes. Availability of genetic tests will identify more cases in the future and improve our understanding of this condition. PMID:15815068

Kong, A P S; Lam, C W; Chan, A O K; Yiu, S F; Tiu, S C

2005-04-01

109

Recognition by the glycoprotein hormone-specific N-acetylgalactosaminetransferase is independent of hormone native conformation.  

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Some members of the glycoprotein hormone family [luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and free alpha subunit] bear unique asparagine-linked oligosaccharides with the terminal sequence SO4-Gal-NAc beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,2Man alpha, whereas other members [human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)] bear predominantly oligosaccharides terminating in the sequence sialic acid alpha-Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1,2Man alpha. We previously identified ...

1990-01-01

110

Efectos del fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental en los niveles plasmáticos de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH) / Phothoperiod and Environmental Temperature Effects on Plasmatic Levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Estudios realizados en el Alto Valle del R ío Negro, Patagonia Argentina, indican que existe una prevalencia de bocio ligeramente superior a la línea de corte establecida por el Internacional Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders con un grado de nutrición de yodo apropiado; prevalen [...] cia que podría ser atribuida a factores ambientales y/o nutricionales que interfieren con el metabolismo tiroideo. La concentración de TSH circulante responde a variaciones circadianas y es influenciada por las estaciones y la temperatura ambiental. Las características geográficas, el clima semidesértico o la presencia de sustancias que actúan como disruptores endocrinos, son factores que podrían relacionarse a modificaciones en la producción hormonal en zonas urbanas o rurales. Objetivos: a) Evaluar la posible asociación entre la variación anual de los valores de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH), el fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental. b) Estimar si los valores plasmáticos de TSH son significativamente diferentes en poblaciones rurales y urbanas de Alto Valle del Río Negro. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 1393 pacientes sanos residentes en el Alto Valle: 226 masculinos y 1167 femeninos, que acudieron por control clínico en el año 2010. Se utilizó para el análisis el software SPSS 17.0. Se encontraron variaciones significativas en el Log-TSH con un pico máximo al comienzo del otoño-invierno y un pico mínimo en primavera-verano. Se obtuvo una diferencia significativa en valores de Log-TSH en área rural: 0,46 uUI/ml (0,30-0,61) contra 0,28 uUI/ml (0,26-0,30) con p Abstract in english Studies carried out in Alto Valle del Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina, show a prevalence of goiter slightly above the cut-off line established by the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IC-CIDD), with an appropriate iodine nutrition grade; such prevalence could be at [...] tributed to environmental and/ or nutritional factors that interfere with thyroid metabolism. Blood TSH concentration responds to circadian variations and is influenced by seasonality and environmental temperature. The geographic characteristics, semi-desert climate or the presence of endocrine disruptors are factors that could be related to hormonal production modifications in urban or rural areas. Objectives: a) To evaluate the potential association between annual variation in TSH levels, photoperiod and environmental temperature. b) To estimate if plasma TSH values are significantly different in populations from rural and urban areas in Alto Valle del Rio Negro. We retrospectively evaluated 1393 healthy patients living in Alto Valle del Río Negro: 226 males and 1167 females, who presented for routine clinical check-up during 2010. SPSS 17.0 software was used for the analysis. Significant variations were found in Log-TSH, with a maximal peak at the beginning of the fall-winter and a minimal peak in spring-summer. There is a significant difference in the values of TSH between rural and urban areas, (values of Log-TSH in rural area: 0.46 uUI/ml (0.30-0.61) vs. urban area: 0.28 uUI/ml (0.26-0.30) with p

Villagrán, De Rosso; CM, Elizondo; Posadas, Martinez; D, Giunta; EI, Barragán.

111

Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010 Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

Lorena Mosso

2013-01-01

112

Novel insight from transgenic mice into thyroid hormone resistance and the regulation of thyrotropin  

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Patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) exhibit elevated thyroid hormone levels and inappropriate thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, or TSH) production. The molecular basis of this disorder resides in the dominant inhibition of endogenous thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) by a mutant receptor. To determine the relative contributions of pituitary versus hypothalamic resistance to the dysregulated production of thyroid hormone in these patients, we developed a transgenic mouse mo...

1999-01-01

113

High-performance liquid chromatography of human glycoprotein hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chromatographic behavior of the glycoprotein hormones from human pituitary glands and of placental origin [thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin (CG)] was studied. It was shown that hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a microparticulate packing and anion-exchange HPLC can be applied for the purification of these hormones. Reversed-phase HPLC on wide-pore C4-bonded silica at neutral pH can be applied for the determination of the above hormones and for the isolation of pure CG and its subunits. PMID:8450019

Chlenov, M A; Kandyba, E I; Nagornaya, L V; Orlova, I L; Volgin, Y V

1993-02-12

114

Hormones and cancer 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains the proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Hormones and Cancer. Topics covered include: Hormone receptors; Antibodies to hormone receptors; Hormonal regulation of gene expression; Control of cell proliferation; Growth factor; Lung, kidney and gastrointestinal cancer.

Bresciani, F. (Institute of General Pathology and Oncology, First Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Univ. of Naples, Naples (IT)); King, R.J.B. (Hormone Biochemistry Dept., Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (GB)); Lippman, M.E. (Medicine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (US)); Raynaud, J.P. (Roussel-UCLAF, 75 - Paris (France))

1988-01-01

115

Israel EQAS (External Quality Assessment Scheme) for Thyroid Related Hormones. Final Report for the Period June 1984 - February 1988.  

Science.gov (United States)

An External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) radioimmunoassay (RIA) was operated in 36 laboratories. The 17 serum pools distributed covered analyte concen...

L. Kahana

1988-01-01

116

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

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Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregn...

Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.; Marcia Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins Pessoa

2010-01-01

117

Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age [Corrigendum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CorrigendumJolobe OM. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:299–301.On page 299, note that the title was incorrectly listed as "Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". The correct title is "Upper limit of the normal range for thyroid-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". On line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".On page 301, line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".Read the original letter

Jolobe OM

2013-04-01

118

EFFECTS OF METAL CATIONS ON PITUITARY HORMONE SECRETION IN VITRO (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine, in vitro, the effects of nickel, cadmium, and zinc (50 microM) on both baseline and potassium chloride (KCl)-stimulated pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (Prl), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release. Baseline and stim...

119

Thyroid Hormone Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: to replace the function of the thyroid ... organs working as they should. Definition, Therapy & Treatment Thyroid hormone replacement therapy Many people have a thyroid ...

120

Pharmacotherapeutic uses of hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the use of hormones and related molecules in pharmacology. Examples of hormones in the treatment of specific diseases is presented, including those where normal physiologic levels of hormones are restored, and others where supraphysiologic levels are used to achieve a therapeutic effect. Examples of the abuse of hormones are also described. PMID:17270586

Hyman, Paul; Kelner, Paul

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

[Hormonal dysnatremia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. PMID:24356291

Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

2013-10-01

122

Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormones: pathophysiology and therapeutic options.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone secretion suppresses the expression of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), both of which are strictly controlled by a negative feedback loop between the hypothalamus-pituitary and thyroid. Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone (PRTH) is defined as resistance to the action of thyroid hormone that is more severe in the pituitary than at the peripheral tissue level. Although the molecular basis of PRTH is not well understood, the clinical issue mainly involves imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary and peripheral thyroid hormone responsivity, which may induce peripheral thyrotoxic phenomena. Here, we review the pathogenesis and molecular aspects of PRTH, present a single case with inappropriate TSH secretion suffering from thyrotoxicosis treated with PTU, and discuss the possible choice of therapeutic options to correct the imbalance of thyroid hormone responsivity in both the hypothalamus-pituitary and peripheral tissues. PMID:21956518

Suzuki, Satoru; Shigematsu, Satoshi; Inaba, Hidefumi; Takei, Masahiro; Takeda, Teiji; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

2011-12-01

123

Thyroid Hormone Regulation by Stress and Behavioral Differences in Adult Male Rats  

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Thyroid hormones are essential regulators of growth, development and normal bodily function and their release is coordinated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. While the HPT axis has been established as an acutely stress-responsive neuroendocrine system, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of its stress-regulation. The present study examined acute stress-induced changes in peripheral hormone levels [triiodothyronine (T3); thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone ...

Helmreich, Dana L.; Tylee, Daniel

2011-01-01

124

Exaggerated and prolonged thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) test responses in tertiary hypothyroidism.  

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A 60 year old man with panhypopituitarism due to a large meningioma and prolonged and exaggerated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) responses is described. Initial investigations showed a subnormal urinary free cortisol concentration, a low serum cortisol taken at 0900 hours, and a low free T4 concentration. The TSH was towards the upper end of the normal range. Subsequently pituitary function tests showed subnormal production of luteinising hormone in response to luteinising hormone releasin...

Mills, G. H.; Ellis, R. D.; Beck, P. R.

1991-01-01

125

A functional transmembrane complex: The luteinizing hormone receptor with bound ligand and G protein  

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The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is one of eight members in a cluster of the rhodopsin family of the large G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily that contains some 800–900 genes in the human genome. LHR, along with its paralogons, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, form one of the three classes in this cluster; the two other classes contain the relaxin-binding GPCRs and orphan GPCRs. These GPCRs are characterized by a relativ...

Puett, D.; Li, Y.; Demars, G.; Angelova, K.; Fanelli, F.

2007-01-01

126

Hormone therapy in acne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne. PMID:23619437

Lakshmi, Chembolli

2013-01-01

127

Hormones and the Skin  

Science.gov (United States)

... care Hormones and the skin Hormones and the skin Young Adulthood Acne Acne is the term for ... is returning to its normal growth cycle. Menopause Skin care changes Thinning of the skin with loss ...

128

Hormone Health Network  

Science.gov (United States)

... Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health Pituitary ... Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health Pituitary ...

129

Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause  

Science.gov (United States)

... Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health Pituitary ... Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health Pituitary ...

130

Hormones and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health Pituitary ... Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health Pituitary ...

131

A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody  

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Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) negative Graves’s disease (GD) is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia forty years ago. She did not show characteristic symptoms for hyperthyroidism, such as swelling of thyroid, exophthalmos, tachycardia and tremor, however, she showed only psychomotor agit...

Hamasaki Hidetaka; Yoshimi Taro; Yanai Hidekatsu

2012-01-01

132

A woman with Pituitary Microadenoma: May Thyroid Hormone Resistance be a Cause? A case report and Review of the Literature  

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Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is an inherited syndrome characterized by reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone. It is usually first suspected due to findings of high serum free thyroxine (T4) and free triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations and normal or slightly high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Herein, we report a 37-year-old woman presented with anxiety and sleeplessness. She was found to have elevated free T3 and T4 plasma concentrations ...

2011-01-01

133

Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age [Corrigendum  

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CorrigendumJolobe OM. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:299–301.On page 299, note that the title was incorrectly listed as "Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". The correct title is "Upper limit of the normal range for thyroid-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". On line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid...

Om, Jolobe

2013-01-01

134

The chicken pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of pituitary hormones  

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Pit-1 is a pituitary-specific POU-domain DNA binding factor, which binds to and trans-activates promoters of growth hormone- (GH), prolactin- (PRL) and thyroid stimulating hormone-beta- (TSHbeta) encoding genes. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is located in the hypothalamus and stimulates TSH, GH and PRL release from the pituitary gland. In the present study, we successfully used the cell aggregate culture system for chicken pituitary cells to study the effect of TRH administration on the...

As, P.; Janssens, K.; Pals, K.; Groef, B.; Onagbesan, O. M.; Bruggeman, V.; Darras, V. M.; Denef, C.; Decuypere, E.

2006-01-01

135

Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients — at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that hormonal changes in papillary thyroid cancer include the reduction of thyroxine in blood. In case of papillary thyroid cancer the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is increased at various stages of the spread of neoplasia

Zyablov ?. V.

2011-09-01

136

Regulation of seasonal reproduction by hypothalamic activation of thyroid hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organisms living outside the tropics measure the changes in the length of the day to adapt to seasonal changes in the environment. Animals that breed during spring and summer are called long-day breeders, while those that breed during fall are called short-day breeders. Although the influence of thyroid hormone in the regulation of seasonal reproduction has been known for several decades, its precise mechanism remained unknown. Recent studies revealed that the activation of thyroid hormone within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH plays a key role in this phenomenon. This localized activation of the thyroid hormone is controlled by thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH secreted from the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland. Although seasonal reproduction is a rate-limiting factor in animal production, genes involved in photoperiodic signal transduction pathway could emerge as potential targets to facilitate domestication.

TakashiYoshimura

2014-02-01

137

Does High Quality Fat Diet Cause Hormonal Level Changes?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty adult male albino rats arranged into three equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of adding 15% oil, normal or fried, to the rat diet for two months on the levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), corticosterone, testosterone and progesterone. Addition of 15% normal oil to the rat diet for two months caused non-significant changes in all these hormones while fried oil (thermally oxidized fat) caused increases in T4, testosterone and decrease in corticosterone. These results denoted that although high fat diet affect numerous blood components, adding 15% of normal oil to the diet had no affect on thyroid, stress or sex hormones while fried oil disturbed some hormones, most probably due to high lipid peroxides found in fried oil.

2009-01-01

138

Thyroid Hormone Changes in Early Kidney Transplantation and Its Correlation with Delayed Graft Function  

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Introduction: Thyroid hormones affect kidney function and may alter with changes in kidney function, as well. We evaluated changes in serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) early after kidney transplantation and their relationship with delayed graft function (DGF). Materials and Methods: Fifty-five consecutive kidney allograft recipients were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of T3, T4, and TSH were measured on the day before transplantat...

2010-01-01

139

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and levels of thyroid hormones in children.  

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As part of an epidemiologic study on exposure to a toxic waste incineration plant we investigated whether blood concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and cadmium, as well as concentration of mercury in 24-hr urine samples were associated with thyroid hormone status. As an indication of status, we determined levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT(4)), and free triiodothyronine (FT(3)) in children living in households where [less than/equal to] 10 ci...

Osius, N.; Karmaus, W.; Kruse, H.; Witten, J.

1999-01-01

140

Influence of Nonthyroidal Illnesses on Serum Thyroid Hormone Indices in Hyperthyroidism  

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Severe intercurrent nonthyroidal illnesses (diabetic ketoacidosis, myocardial infarction, fulminant hepatitis and bacterial pneumonia) in four thyrotoxic patients were associated with depression of total serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) values into the normal or even subnormal range. A diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was established by a combination of elevated radioactive iodine uptake, absent thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone or an elevated fre...

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Hormone treatment of depression  

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There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these ho...

Joffe, Russell T.

2011-01-01

142

Growth hormone and malignancy.  

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The finding of raised growth hormone concentrations in patients with secondary malignancy in the liver is reported. These concentrations were significantly higher than those found in patients with primary malignancy only or in those with non-hepatic secondaries. A wide range of malignancies was investigated and the high growth hormone concentration was not specific for any type of tumour. This suggested that the increased hormone was not the product of the tumour cells but due to altered live...

Andrews, G. S.

1983-01-01

143

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcium homeostasis is quite a complex process, but it is harmoniously regulated by hormonal and nonhormonal components of the blood and tissues. Recently with the tremendous advances achieved in RIAs and competitive protein binding assays of hormones besides multiple analysis of blood components, the interest in calcium metabolism has greatly expanded resulting in a vast number of publications. Due to the extensive literature material, the author has tried to discuss in general, the main regulatory hormone in man, which is parathyroid hormone (PTH). Emphasis is placed on subjects pertinent mainly to the clinical laboratory cited in recent literature

1983-01-01

144

Resistance to thyroid hormone--an incidental finding.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 16-year-old female with mild hirsutism was noted to have a small, smooth, non-tender goitre. A resting peripheral tremor, but no other symptoms or signs of thyroid dysfunction were present. Her only medication was the contraceptive pill. There was no family history of thyroid disease. Investigation showed elevated free thyroxine (28 pmol/l) and total triiodothyronine (3.4 nmol/l) with non-suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (1.4 mU/l). Radioiodine uptake scan of the thyroid showed bilateral increased tracer uptake, suggestive of Graves' disease, however thyroid peroxidase and antithyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody testing was negative and sex hormone binding globulin concentration was normal. Laboratory analyses excluded assay artefact or abnormal circulating thyroid hormone binding proteins. Genetic analysis identified a thyroid hormone receptor gene mutation (T277I), making a diagnosis of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). RTH is a disorder characterised by elevated thyroid hormones, failure to suppress pituitary TSH secretion and variable refractoriness to hormone action in peripheral tissues. PMID:22605824

Chantler, Donna; Moran, Carla; Schoenmakers, Erik; Cleland, Stephen; Panarelli, Maurizio

2012-01-01

145

Hormonal changes in secondary impotence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

1985-01-01

146

Hormonal Regulators of Appetite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

Austin Juliana

2009-01-01

147

Hormones and female sexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional-motivational and social factors.

Bjelica Artur L.

2003-01-01

148

Maternal thyroid hormonal status in preeclampsia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The physiological changes in the thyroid gland during pregnancy are well understood but only a few reports provide information about thyroid function in complicated pregnancies. AIMS: The present study evaluates thyroid hormonal levels in cases of preeclampsia in the third trimester of pregnancy. SETTINGS & DESIGN: A case-control study was conducted in the antenatal clinic of a public hospital of Delhi. METHOD & MATERIALS: Thyroid hormones, namely triiodothyronine (Free T3, thyroxine (Free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were evaluated at the time of diagnosis of preeclampsia in 82 pregnant women and equal number of matched controls. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The demographic data and hormone levels were analyzed using students? t test, Mann-Whitney test and chi-square test. Pearson two-tailed analysis was used for correlation. RESULTS: Mean TSH levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic group as compared to controls (p<0.001. However, mean values of thyroid hormones were in the normal range. Approximately 40% preeclamptic women had TSH titres > 5mIU/ml in the study group as compared to 12.2% in the controls. Approximately 76.7% of 43 pregnant women with abnormal TSH titres and 40% of 121 pregnant women with normal TSH titres belonged to the study group (p< 0.001. The odd ratio corresponding to TSH titres > 5mIU/ml in preeclamptic women was 4.85 (95% CI 2.19-10.74. CONCLUSIONS: Mean serum TSH levels were significantly increased without concomitant changes in free T3 and T4, in preeclampsia compared to normal pregnancy. Abnormal TSH titres might be associated with a risk for occurrence of preeclampsia.

Kumar Ashok

2005-02-01

149

Growth hormone releasing hormone or growth hormone treatment in growth hormone insufficiency?  

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Sixteen prepubertal children who were insufficient for growth hormone were treated with growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) 1-40 and GHRH 1-29 for a mean time of nine months (range 6-12 months) with each peptide. Eleven children received GHRH 1-40 in four subcutaneous nocturnal pulses (dose 4-8 micrograms/kg/day) and eight (three of whom were also treated with GHRH 1-40) received GHRH 1-29 twice daily (dose 8-16 micrograms/kg/day). Altogether 73% of the children receiving GHRH 1-40 and 63...

1988-01-01

150

Elevated prealbumin level following high thyroid hormones levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is the first to report about a patient with high prealbumin level [56.8 mg/dL (reference range 22.0-40.0 mg/dL] following elevation in thyroid hormones levels. Among the thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine (free T4 and total T4 level showed an elevation. Triiodothyronine (free T3 and total T3 level was within normal limits. Since prealbumin mainly transports T4, the elevation of prealbumin level along with T4 level is reaso- nable. When patients have chronic hyperthyroidism without thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb, a diagnosis will be Negative Graves’ disease. However, a part of patients with Negative Graves’ disease may be High prealbumin syndrome.

Fumiatsu Yakushiji

2013-01-01

151

Localization and synthesis of the hormone-binding regions of the human thyrotropin receptor.  

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Two regions of human thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor (TSHR) (residues 12-44 and 308-364) were selected on the basis that they exhibit no sequence resemblance to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor. Five synthetic overlapping peptides (12-30, 24-44, 308-328, 324-344, and 339-364) were studied for their ability to bind 125I-labeled human TSH (hTSH), its isolated alpha and beta subunits, bovine TSH, ovine TSH, human luteinizing hormone, and human follicle-...

Atassi, M. Z.; Manshouri, T.; Sakata, S.

1991-01-01

152

Blood-plasma hormone response to a range of gamma-ray doses in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At 22 hours after exposing rats to acute gamma-ray doses ranging from 0.0129 K/kg to 0.1032 K/kg (4 dose levels), plasma concentrations were assayed of the following hormones: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T_4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone, and prolactin. Radiation was found to raise the levels of TSH and prolactin. Changes in contents of ACTH, aldosterone, cortisol, and T_4 failed to show any distinct relation to radiation dose. Neither was a relation discernible between changes in TSH and ACTH levels, on the one hand, and those in T_4, aldosterone, and cortisol levels, on the other

1980-01-01

153

The sport hormone?  

Science.gov (United States)

A review argues that the hormone oxytocin affects athletic performance, because of its role in modulation of emotional and social processes important to team sports. Jill Jouret reports. PMID:24622600

Jouret, Jill

2013-08-01

154

Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause  

Science.gov (United States)

... estrogen plus progesterone HT had a slightly increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease, stroke, and blood clots. As a result, many women stopped taking these hormones and began looking for other treatments, such as ...

155

LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... a 24-hour urine collection may be taken Test Preparation Needed? None, but the timing of a ... will be correlated with her menstrual cycle. The Test Sample What is being tested? Luteinizing hormone (LH) ...

156

Hormones and female sexuality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

2003-01-01

157

Treatment with thyroid hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses. PMID:24433025

Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

2014-06-01

158

Urinary growth hormone estimation in diagnosing severe growth hormone deficiency.  

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Urinary growth hormone was measured in 54 children with short stature who had growth hormone deficiency that was initially diagnosed pharmacologically (arginine and L-dopa) and physiologically (mean growth hormone concentration during sleep evaluated twice). Based on the growth hormone response to pharmacological tests the subjects were subdivided into three groups: group A, 20 subjects with normal response (peak concentration > 8 micrograms/l); group B, 20 subjects with response between 4 an...

Pirazzoli, P.; Mandini, M.; Zucchini, S.; Gualandi, S.; Vignutelli, L.; Capelli, M.; Cacciari, E.

1996-01-01

159

Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test  

Science.gov (United States)

ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

160

Controversies in hormone replacement therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteo...

Baziad, A.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Hormonal influences on osteoporosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis has recently received increased attention in both the medical and lay literature. It is estimated that there are more than one million osteoporosis-related fractures yearly in the United States, which are responsible for between three and four billion dollars in health care expenditures. A discussion of osteoporosis requires consideration of both the physiology and pathophysiology of bone tissue. In a structural sense, bone exists in two forms, the outer compact cortex accounting for 80 percent of total bone volume, and the more porous inner trabecular bone. Bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts are responsible for the ongoing, life-long process of formation and resorption of bone. Sex hormone deficiency, as well as chronic illness, malnutrition, and childhood immobilization, has deleterious effects on growth and modeling, ultimately reducing peak bone mass and setting the stage for osteoporosis in later life. Estrogen is known to have a protective effect on the female skeleton. The mechanisms of this effect are unknown, although estrogen may protect against parathyroid hormone-mediated bone loss. There may be a particular subset of postmenopausal women who are particularly susceptible to estrogen deficiency. Calcitonin levels, which decrease postmenopausally, return to normal with estrogen; other hormones may also play important roles. Osteoporosis is not the result of a single hormonal deficiency or excess; it must be considered in relation to other pathogenetic and risk factors. PMID:3544834

McKenna, M J; Frame, B

1987-01-26

162

Deciding about hormone therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

... in the form of a pill, patch, injection, vaginal cream or tablet, or ring. Taking hormones can have some risks. ... pills. Your risk is lower if you use vaginal creams and tablets and the low-dose estrogen ring. BREAST CANCER ...

163

Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

1975-01-01

164

Thyroid Hormones Are Associated with Poorer Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

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Background: Alterations in interrelated endocrine axes may be related to the pathogenesis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Methods: Salivary cortisol before and after a 0.5-mg dexamethasone test, and serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine (T(4)), free T(4), total triiodothyronine (TT(3)), estradiol, testosterone and insulinlike growth factor 1 were measured in 43 MCI cases and 26 healthy controls. All participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychologi...

Quinlan, Patrick; Nordlund, Arto; Lind, Karin; Gustafson, Deborah; Edman, A?ke; Wallin, Anders

2010-01-01

165

Autoantibodies against thyroid hormones and their influence on thyroxine determination with chemiluminescence immunoassay in dogs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Autoantibodies against thyroxin (T4AA) and triiodothyronine (T3AA) are present in dogs with autoimmune thyroiditis and have been reported to interfere with immunoassays. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of autoantibodies and to determine whether interference occurs by T4AA, using a non-immunological method (high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) for thyroxin (T4) measurement. Based on clinical symptoms, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration,...

2010-01-01

166

Serum Thyroid Hormone Level in Women with Nausea and Vomiting in Early Pregnancy  

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The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and thyroxin (T4) which reflect thyroid function assessment, with nausea and vomiting, among pregnant women in early pregnancy. In present study 60 pregnant women without nausea and vomiting compared with 60 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting during 2007-2008. Two groups of case and control were matched. Patients with nausea and vomiting did not have significant differences w...

2008-01-01

167

Thyroid hormone resistance and increased metabolic rate in the RXR-?–deficient mouse  

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Vitamin A and retinoids affect pituitary-thyroid function through suppression of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and TSH-? subunit gene expression. We have previously shown that retinoid X receptor–selective (RXR-selective) ligands can suppress serum TSH levels in vivo and TSH-? promoter activity in vitro. The RXR-? isotype has limited tissue distribution that includes the thyrotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. In this study, we have performed a detailed analysi...

2000-01-01

168

Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... hormone therapy as initial treatment for men with hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer. Currently, chemotherapy is not used in these men ... Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)—suggest that men with hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer who receive the chemotherapy drug docetaxel at the ...

169

Terapia hormonal da menopausa / Menopausal hormone therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM), estrogênica (TE) ou estro-progestagênica (TEP). A principal indica [...] ção para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida. Abstract in english Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET), and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT). The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal w [...] omen remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual?s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman?s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT) of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

Pardini, Dolores.

170

Terapia hormonal da menopausa Menopausal hormone therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM, estrogênica (TE ou estro-progestagênica (TEP. A principal indicação para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida.Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT, estrogen therapy (ET, and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT. The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal women remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

Dolores Pardini

2007-08-01

171

Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer  

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Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin fold-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i) they ma...

2012-01-01

172

[Efficacy of quinagolide in the treatment of a patient with hypophyseal resistance to thyroid hormones].  

Science.gov (United States)

The pituitary resistance to thyroid hormones (PRTH) is not very frequent and well-known entity, their treatment it continues being topic of controversy. In this work we have evaluated the quinagolida effectiveness in the treatment of it unites patient with (PRTH). The relationship among thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) it was used as marker of the thyroid resistance and of the response to the treatment. The concentrations of TSH and FT3 were normalized after adding quinagolida to methimazole. These results suggest that the quinagolida could be an useful drug in the treatment of this pathology, next to the classic treatments. PMID:11496561

De Luis, D A; Lahera, M; Botella, J I; Valero, M A; Varela, C

2001-05-01

173

Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice  

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OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormonereleasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormonereceptors, were compared to those ob...

Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nancy Nascimento; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Paolo Bartolini; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P. A.

2012-01-01

174

Hormones in pregnancy  

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The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated...

Kumar, Pratap; Magon, Navneet

2012-01-01

175

Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis  

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The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse tr...

2008-01-01

176

Thyroid hormone transporters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone is important for development of various tissues, in particular brain, and for regulation of metabolic processes throughout life. The follicular cells of the thyroid gland produce predominantly T4 (thyroxine), but the biological activity of thyroid hormone is largely exerted by T3 (3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine). The deiodinases involved in T4-to-T3 conversion or T4 and T3 degradation, as well as the T3 receptors, are located intracellularly. Therefore the action and metabolism of thyroid hormone require transport of iodothyronines across the cell membrane via specific transporters. Recently, a number of transporters capable of cellular uptake of iodothyronines have been identified. The most specific transporters identified so far are OATP1C1 and MCT8, which appear to be involved in T4 transport across the blood-brain barrier, and in T3 transport into brain neurons, respectively. The MCT8 gene is located on human chromosome Xq13, and mutations in MCT8 are associated with X-linked severe psychomotor retardation and elevated serum T3 levels. PMID:15667314

Friesema, E C H; Jansen, J; Visser, T J

2005-02-01

177

PREVALENCE OF SERUM THYROID HORMONES AND MENSTRUAL IRREGULARETIES WITH INFERTILITY IN UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA  

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Full Text Available It is important to predict the serum thyroid hormones level in females during infertility to prevent its occurrence later on. In this study, we studied serum thyroid hormones and menstrual irregularities during infertility. A case control study was performed in 75 infertile patients with menstrual irregularities and 50 healthy matched women. Three biochemical parameters were measured in serum, hormones triiodothyronine (T3, tetra-iodothyronine (T4 and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH by TOSOH-AIA-360, immunoassay method. Out of 75 infertile women sixteen percent (16% had menstrual irregularities with hypothyroidism. The mean serum thyroid level in 75 infertile women were 0.88±0.34 ng/ml, 7.69±2.87 ?Iu/dl and 5.43±6.88 ?Iu/ml, respectively. Serum T3, T4 and TSH level were statistically highly significant in infertile women. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was found at higher side in infertile women. High incidence of hypothyroidism was found in infertile women and it shows a positive correlation with menstrual disorder.

Neha Sharma et al

2012-09-01

178

Israel EQAS for thyroid related hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free Thyroxine (FT4) radioimmunoassay (RIA) was operated in 36 laboratories. The 17 serum pools distributed covered analyte concentrations from subnormal to elevated values. Five of these were based on ''zero analyte'' pools artificially prepared by treatment with Amberlite. ''Spiked'' sera was used for recovery studies. Eleven pools were analyzed more than once. Abnormal, method dependent results with large interlaboratory variation was observed in the Amberlite treated pools. A ''matrix effect' was suspected and the results excluded from analysis. The All Laboratory Trimmed Mean (ALTM) was stable to within 4% for each analyte and taken as target value. Overall recovery for T3, T4, and TSH was 101, 91, and 89 per cent. Laboratory performance was assessed from the bias of each result and the variability of bias (as CV of bias for each test), over one year. Performance has improved, especially for TSH, where median bias decreased to 1% from 39%. Percentage of laboratories with unacceptable performance fell from 79% to 32%. A trend towards increased use of IRMA for TSH and of F-T4 was observed. However, F-T4 results proved method dependent. TSH IRMA is suggested as the best supplementary test to T4 for thyroid function testing. Refs, figs and tabs

1988-01-01

179

[The effect of recombinant human growth hormone on thyroid function in patients with growth hormone deficiency].  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the effect of growth hormone treatment on thyroid function of growth hormone deficient children, 19 (18M/1F) euthyroid children of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were treated with Genotropin, a recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) for 12 months. rhGH was injected subcutaneously with a daily dosage of 0.1 IU/kg. All the patients were diagnosed by two GH provocative stimulating tests with the serum GH peak level < 7 micrograms/L. During the treatment, blood was drawn before or 6 and 12 months after the initiation of therapy to measure serum T3, T4, FT3, FT4, rT3 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In the meantime, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulating test was performed by an i.v. injection of 200 micrograms synthetic TRH. The results showed that (1) the average serum levels of T4 and FT4 decreased significantly 6 at the 6th and 12th month (P < 0.001), while the serum FT3 level decreased only at the 6th month (P < 0.05). The serum T3, rT3 and TSH concentrations remained unchanged. (2) 8 euthyroid patients (45%) became subclinical hypothyroidism after 12 months' treatment with rhGH for their serum FT4 levels fell to below the normal range. The 19 patients were divided into thyroid function normal (n = 11) and subnormal group (n = 8) according to their posttreatment thyroid functions. (3) The TSH response to TRH was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of serum TSH. The average AUC was greater in the subnormal group than in the normal group whether before or 6 and 12 months after the treatment. The greater TSH response to TRH among patients with decreased posttreatmental FT4 levels suggests that latent TRH deficiency has already existed, which may be the pathogenetic basis of the hypothyroidism developped after rhGH treatment. Thus the thyroid function of GHD patients should be monitored during rhGH treatment in order that the thyroxine replacement therapy can be given in time. PMID:10451949

Tang, D; Wang, J; Wu, C

1997-11-01

180

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), ch. 19  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioimmunoassay of PTH and the complications arising from both the relatively low sensitivity of most of the antisera being used and the hormonal heterogeneity are discussed. After labelling of PTH with 125I by the chloramine-T method, the labelled hormone is purified by QUSO granules. The requirements for the assay including a sample protocol for the incubation mixtures are described. The bound and free hormones are separated by adsorption, using talc, charcoal or QUSO pellets

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Hormones and Borderline Personality Features  

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Borderline personality is diagnosed in clinical settings three times more often in women than in men, and symptom severity in women appears sensitive to circulating sex steroid levels. In non-human mammals, prenatal hormones contribute to the development of sex-linked behavior and their responsiveness to postnatal hormones. Therefore, this study examined the hypothesis that prenatal hormones may influence the development of borderline personality traits by measuring a marker of perinatal andr...

Evardone, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Morey, Leslie C.

2008-01-01

182

Thyroid Hormones and Methylmercury Toxicity  

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Thyroid hormones are essential for cellular metabolism, growth, and development. In particular, an adequate supply of thyroid hormones is critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Thyroid hormone tissue activation and inactivation in brain, liver, and other tissues is controlled by the deiodinases through the removal of iodine atoms. Selenium, an essential element critical for deiodinase activity, is sensitive to mercury and, therefore, when its availability is reduced, brain development might be ...

Soldin, Offie P.; O’mara, Daniel M.; Aschner, Michael

2008-01-01

183

Thyroid hormones and male sexual function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of thyroid hormones in the control of erectile functioning has been only superficially investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between thyroid and erectile function in two different cohorts of subjects. The first one derives from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS study), a multicentre survey performed on a sample of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years (mean 60 ± 11 years). The second cohort is a consecutive series of 3203 heterosexual male patients (mean age 51.8 ± 13.0 years) attending our Andrology and Sexual Medicine Outpatient Clinic for sexual dysfunction at the University of Florence (UNIFI study). In the EMAS study all subjects were tested for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4). Similarly, TSH levels were checked in all patients in the UNIFI study, while FT4 only when TSH resulted outside the reference range. Overt primary hyperthyroidism (reduced TSH and elevated FT4, according to the reference range) was found in 0.3 and 0.2% of EMAS and UNIFI study respectively. In both study cohorts, suppressed TSH levels were associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with an increased risk of severe erectile dysfunction (ED, hazard ratio = 14 and 16 in the EMAS and UNIFI study, respectively; both p < 0.05), after adjusting for confounding factors. These associations were confirmed in nested case-control analyses, comparing subjects with overt hyperthyroidism to age, BMI, smoking status and testosterone-matched controls. Conversely, no association between primary hypothyroidism and ED was observed. In conclusion, erectile function should be evaluated in all individuals with hyperthyroidism. Conversely, assessment of thyroid function cannot be recommended as routine practice in all ED patients. PMID:22834774

Corona, G; Wu, F C W; Forti, G; Lee, D M; O'Connor, D B; O'Neill, T W; Pendleton, N; Bartfai, G; Boonen, S; Casanueva, F F; Finn, J D; Giwercman, A; Han, T S; Huhtaniemi, I T; Kula, K; Lean, M E J; Punab, M; Vanderschueren, D; Jannini, E A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

2012-10-01

184

Growth hormone-releasing hormone and growth hormone secretagogue-receptor ligands: focus on reproductive system  

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Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin are the most important hypothalamic neurohormones controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion. Several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides also play an important role in the control of GH secretion, mainly acting via modulation of GHRH and somatostatin. In the past two decades, particular attention has been given to a new family of substances showing a strong GH-releasing effect: GH secretagogues (GHSs). GHSs increase GH secretion in a do...

Muccioli, Giampiero; Ghigo, Ezio; Papotti, Mauro Giulio; Lanfranco, Fabio; Broglio, Fabio; Giordano, Roberta; Arvat, Emanuela; Maccario, Mauro

2001-01-01

185

Recent advances in hormonal contraception.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report reviews some of the new studies regarding new hormonal contraceptive formulations (e.g., Yaz, Qlaira(®), extended-cycle or continuous combined contraceptives, subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive). Recent data on the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and bone health are also reviewed. PMID:21173872

Li, Hw Raymond; Anderson, Richard A

2010-01-01

186

Recent advances in hormonal contraception  

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This report reviews some of the new studies regarding new hormonal contraceptive formulations (e.g., Yaz, Qlaira®, extended-cycle or continuous combined contraceptives, subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive). Recent data on the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and bone health are also reviewed.

Li, Hw Raymond; Anderson, Richard A.

2010-01-01

187

Hormone crosstalk: directing the flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymmetric distribution of the hormone auxin organizes plant cell fate and drives specification of new organs. Such asymmetries are regulated by polarized auxin transporters called PINs. But what controls PIN polarity? A new study shows that another hormone, cytokinin, degrades PINs on specific membranes to direct auxin flux. PMID:24801187

Bishopp, Anthony; Bennett, Malcolm J

2014-05-01

188

Effects of EDTA and Sodium Citrate on hormone measurements by fluorometric (FIA and immunofluorometric (IFMA methods  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurements of hormonal concentrations by immunoassays using fluorescent tracer substance (Eu3+ are susceptible to the action of chemical agents that may cause alterations in its original structure. Our goal was to verify the effect of two types of anticoagulants in the hormone assays performed by fluorometric (FIA or immunofluorometric (IFMA methods. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 30 outpatients and were drawn in EDTA, sodium citrate, and serum separation Vacutainer®Blood Collection Tubes. Samples were analyzed in automatized equipment AutoDelfia™ (Perkin Elmer Brazil, Wallac, Finland for the following hormones: Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle stimulating homone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, growth hormone (GH, Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, insulin, C peptide, total T3, total T4, free T4, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. Statistical analysis was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis method and Dunn's test. Results No significant differences were seen between samples for LH, FSH, PRL and free T4. Results from GH, TSH, insulin, C peptide, SHBG, total T3, total T4, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone were significant different between serum and EDTA-treated samples groups. Differences were also identified between serum and sodium citrate-treated samples in the analysis for TSH, insulin, total T3, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Conclusions We conclude that the hormonal analysis carried through by FIA or IFMA are susceptible to the effects of anticoagulants in the biological material collected that vary depending on the type of assay.

Lando Valeria

2002-05-01

189

Normal values of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxin in pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Objective: To prepare a chart for normal values of thyroid-stimulatinghormone (TSH and free thyroxin (free T4 and to verify the correlationbetween them, in pregnant women. Methods: A prospective crosssectionalstudy was performed on 850 pregnant women of thePrenatal Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual– Francisco Morato de Oliveira (HSPE – FMO, from August 2003 toAugust 2005. Serum TSH and free T4 levels were determined usingmicroparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA. Maternal age ranged from18 to 47 years, mean of 32.5 ± 6.9 years. Mean gestational age was19.1 ± 8.5 weeks. With linear regression analysis, the 50th and 97.5thpercentiles for TSH and the 2.5th, 50th and 97.5th percentiles for free T4,at weeks 6 to 42 were calculated. The possible correlation betweenthese two indicators was analyzed. Results: Mean TSH and free T4values were 2.14 ± 1.51 ?IU/ml and 0.98 ± 0.30 ng/dl, respectively.The correlation between free T4 and TSH levels was positive andstatistically significant according to the Pearson’s correlation coefficient(r = 0.069, p = 0.044. Conclusion: Identifying the normal TSH andfree T4 limits during pregnancy is the first step to safely determine thereal need for thyroid dysfunction treatment.

Marcelo Antonini

2007-03-01

190

A Study On Thyroxine and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Women During Pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Study on 50 pregnant women in Allied Hospital, Faisalabad revealed non significant difference in T4 and TSH levels between women of 2nd and 3rd trimester. Similarly, T4 and TSH levels showed no statistical difference between those women used multivitamins and iodine supplements and those did not used. The correlation between T4 and TSH was higher and negative in women having normal body weight to their height and those did not used multivitamins tablets. However, a positive correlation between T4 and TSH was observed in women those used iodine and negative in women those did not used iodine.

Amna Habib

1999-01-01

191

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone is associated with elevated cortisol in healthy young men and women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attention has been given to subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevation of TSH (4.5-10 uIU/L with T4 and T3 levels still within the normal range. Controversy exists about the proper lower limit of TSH that defines patients in the subclinical hypothyroidism range and about if/when subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated. Additional data are needed to examine the relationship between markers of thyroid function in the subclinical hypothyroidism range, biomarkers of health and ultimately health outcomes. Objective We aimed to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels in the 0.5-10 uIU/L range and serum cortisol in a cohort of healthy young men and women without clinical evidence of hypothyroidism. Based on data in frank hypothyroidism, we hypothesized that serum TSH levels would be positively correlated with serum cortisol levels, suggesting derangement of the cortisol axis even in subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in 54 healthy, young (mean 20.98 +/? 0.37 yrs men (19 and women (35. Lab sessions took place at 1300 hrs where blood was drawn via indwelling catheter for later assessment of basal serum TSH, free T3, free T4, and cortisol levels. Results All but 1 participant had free T3 levels within the normal reference intervals; free T4 levels for all participants were within the normal reference intervals. Linear regression modeling revealed that TSH levels in the 0.5-10 uIU/L were significantly and positively correlated with cortisol levels. This positive TSH-cortisol relationship was maintained below the accepted 4.5 uIU/L subclinical hypothyroid cutoff. Separate regression analyses conducted by systematically dropping the TSH cutoff by 0.50 uIU/L revealed that the TSH-cortisol relationship was maintained for TSH levels (uIU/L ?4.0, ?3.5, ?3.0, and ?2.5 but not ?2.0. Linear regression modeling did not reveal a relationship between free T3 or free T4 levels and cortisol levels. Conclusions Results suggest a positive relationship between TSH and cortisol in apparently healthy young individuals. In as much as this relationship may herald a pathologic disorder, these preliminary results suggest that TSH levels > 2.0 uIU/L may be abnormal. Future research should address this hypothesis further, for instance through an intervention study.

Walter Kimberly N

2012-10-01

192

Iodine therapy for thyroidectomy patients exhibiting high thyroid-stimulating hormone values: a randomised study.  

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After thyroidectomy there is an appreciable incidence of hypothyroidism as judged by FT4I estimates. Pharmacological doses of iodine (10-300 mg/day) usually suppress, whereas physiological doses of iodine ( 6 mU/l 1 month after bilateral subtotal thy...

Taylor, J. D.; Radcliffe, S. N.; Basu, P. K.; Atkins, P.

1993-01-01

193

A Study On Thyroxine and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Women During Pregnancy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Study on 50 pregnant women in Allied Hospital, Faisalabad revealed non significant difference in T4 and TSH levels between women of 2nd and 3rd trimester. Similarly, T4 and TSH levels showed no statistical difference between those women used multivitamins and iodine supplements and those did not used. The correlation between T4 and TSH was higher and negative in women having normal body weight to their height and those did not used multivitamins tablets. However, a positive correlation betwee...

Amna Habib; Bhatti, N.; Gilani, A. H.; Khan, M. A.; Javed, M. T.; Zaidi, S. B.

1999-01-01

194

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone is associated with elevated cortisol in healthy young men and women  

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Abstract Background Recent attention has been given to subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevation of TSH (4.5-10 uIU/L) with T4 and T3 levels still within the normal range. Controversy exists about the proper lower limit of TSH that defines patients in the subclinical hypothyroidism range and about if/when subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated. Additional data are needed to examine the relationship between markers of thyroid function in the subclinical hypothy...

Walter Kimberly N; Corwin Elizabeth J; Ulbrecht Jan; Demers Laurence M; Bennett Jeanette M; Whetzel Courtney A; Klein Laura

2012-01-01

195

A Small Molecule Inverse Agonist for the Human Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor  

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Small molecule inverse agonists for the TSH receptor (TSHR) may be used as probes of the role of basal (or agonist-independent or constitutive) signaling and may have therapeutic potential as orally active drugs to inhibit basal signaling in patients with thyroid cancer and in some patients with hyperthyroidism. We describe the first small-molecule ligand [1;2-(3-((2,6-dimethylphenoxy)methyl)-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one] that exhibits inverse agonist ...

Neumann, Susanne; Huang, Wenwei; Eliseeva, Elena; Titus, Steve; Thomas, Craig J.; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

2010-01-01

196

Influence of perinatal factors on thyroid stimulating hormone level in cord blood  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of various perinatal factors on cord blood TSH among newborns in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive–analytic cross sectional study which performed in Isfahan Iran. During a period of four months, since February to May 2012 a total number of 440 newborns delivered in Alzahra and Shahid beheshti hospitals were enrolled in the study. For all newborns one mL blood sample from umbilical vein was obtained by one of the project investigators and sent to laboratory for further examinations. Cord blood TSH and birth body weight (BBW), gestational age, history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), apgar at one minute, apgar at five minute, newborn gender and the mother's age were documented. Differences considered statistically significant if P < 0.01. Results: 440 newborns enrolled in the study, 221 (50.2%) were male and 219 (49.8%) were female. Among study parameters, method of delivery had statistically significant relation with cord blood TSH (P < 0.001), and other factors such as BBW, gestational age, GDM, apgar at one minute, apgar at five minute, newborn gender and the mother's age didn’t have statistically significant relationship with cord TSH level. Conclusion: In conclusion we deduce that the only factor that can affect cord blood TSH was method of delivery. Infant with vaginal delivery has higher TSH level in cord blood. Other factors that were evaluated in this study didn’t have any statistically significant relationship.

Armanian, Amir-Mohammad; Hashemipour, Mahin; Esnaashari, Azadeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Farajzadegan, Ziba

2013-01-01

197

Negative Feedback Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis  

Science.gov (United States)

A basic understanding of the endocrinology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of anuran larvae is necessary for predicting the consequences of HPT perturbation by thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) on the whole organism. This project examined negative feedback con...

198

Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

2013-05-01

199

Hormonal programming across the lifespan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormones influence countless biological processes across an animal's lifespan. Many hormone-mediated events occur within developmental sensitive periods, during which hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous selective critical periods in development with different targets being affected during different periods. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal steroid hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of critical hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be an important mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. Brain targets of hormonal programming, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, may be critical in influencing the development of peripheral targets, such as the ovary. Exposure to excess hormones can cause abnormalities in the ovary during development leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased activity of the sympathetic nerve and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441

Nugent, B M; Tobet, S A; Lara, H E; Lucion, A B; Wilson, M E; Recabarren, S E; Paredes, A H

2012-07-01

200

Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab, and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab. Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (36 weeks; for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (36 weeks; and for TSH, values were (?IU/mL: 1.12 ± 0.69 (36 weeks. Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain.

Bocanegra-García Virgilio

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

New Solid Phases for Estimation of Hormones by Radioimmunoassay Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efforts in this study were initiated to develop and validate new solid phases for estimation of hormones by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The study argued the successful application of different hydroxy apatites (HAP) as new solid phases for estimation of Alpha fetoprotein (AFP), Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) in human serum. Hydroxy apatites have different alkali earth elements were successfully prepared by a well-controlled co-precipitation method with stoichiometric ratio value 1.67. The synthesized barium and calcium hydroxy apatites were characterized using XRD and Ftir and data clarified the preparation of pure structures of both BaHAP and CaHAP with no evidence on presence of other additional phases. The prepared solid phases were applied in various radioimmunoassay systems for separation of bound and free antigens of AFP, TSH and LH hormones. The preparation of radiolabeled tracer for these antigens was carried out using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. The influence of different parameters on the activation and coupling of the used apatite particles with the polyclonal antibodies was systematically investigated and the optimum conditions were determined. The assay was reproducible, specific and sensitive enough for regular estimation of the studied hormones. The intra-and inter-assay variation were satisfactory and also the recovery and dilution tests indicated an accurate calibration. The reliability of these apatite particles had been validated by comparing the results that obtained by using commercial kits. The results finally authenticates that hydroxyapatite particles would have a great potential to address the emerging challenge of accurate quantitation in laboratory medical application

2013-05-01

202

Serum hormone levels in humans with low serum concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured current serum hormone and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) concentrations in 37 men who sprayed 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) in the State of Victoria, Australia. TCDD levels were consistently significantly inversely related to prolactin levels in all analyses. In correlation analyses, TCDD levels were also inversely related to triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and testosterone levels, and positively associated with glucagon levels. The mean serum TCDD concentration in these sprayers was between 2.6 and 8.1 parts per trillion (ppt). Since such TCDD levels are commonly found in the general population in countries such as the US, the results could suggest that background levels of TCDD in the general population could have an effect on hormone levels. The findings are preliminary and need to be replicated in order to evaluate their full public health significance. PMID:12479506

Johnson, E; Shorter, C; Bestervelt, L; Patterson, D; Needham, L; Piper, W; Lucier, G; Nolan, C

2001-05-01

203

Discovery of substituted benzamides as follicle stimulating hormone receptor allosteric modulators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), acting on its receptor (FSHR), plays a pivotal role in the stimulation of follicular development and maturation. Multiple injections of protein formulations are used during clinical protocols for ovulation induction and for in vitro fertilization that are followed by a selection of assisted reproductive technologies. In order to increase patient convenience and compliance several research groups have searched for orally bioavailable FSH mimetics for innovative fertility medicines. We report here the discovery of a series of substituted benzamides as positive allosteric modulators (PAM) targeting FSHR. Optimization of this series has led to enhanced activity in primary rat granulosa cells, as well as remarkable selectivity against the closely related luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). Two modulators, 9j and 9k, showed promising in vitro and pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:24685543

Yu, Henry N; Richardson, Thomas E; Nataraja, Selva; Fischer, David J; Sriraman, Venkataraman; Jiang, Xuliang; Bharathi, Pandi; Foglesong, Robert J; Haxell, Thomas F N; Heasley, Brian H; Jenks, Mathew; Li, Jane; Dugas, Melanie S; Collis, Regina; Tian, Hui; Palmer, Stephen; Goutopoulos, Andreas

2014-05-01

204

Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropiony...

Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V. J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T. W.; Schally, A. V.

1989-01-01

205

EDU-Snippets: Hormonally Yours  

Science.gov (United States)

EDU-Snippets is a column designed to let the members of HAPS, share personal or institutional educational experiences. This issues focuses on the Endocrine System and the many different hormonal ideas being presented online and in various educational settings.

PhD Richard Faircloth (Anne Arundel Community College Dept. of Biology)

2008-04-01

206

Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... per year among those taking the placebo ( 9 ). Lung cancer . Women who took combined hormone therapy had the same ... 10 ). However, among those who were diagnosed with lung cancer, women who took estrogen plus progestin were more likely ...

207

Peripheral Metabolism of Parathyroid Hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been many years since the discovery of the heterogeneity of circulating, immunologicaly detectable parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and the demonstration that the structural requirements for biologic activity of PTH reside in the first 34 amino acid resi...

W. F. Neuman N. Schneider R. Doolittle

1980-01-01

208

Network Identification of Hormonal Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

Vis, Daniel J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Greef, Jan

2014-01-01

209

Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) has been shown to increase breast cancer risk as well as to increase breast density. Breast density, a reflection of the histologic composition of the breast, is one factor shown to affect mammographic sensitivity and spe...

J. K. Simpson F. Modugno J. L. Weissfeld L. Kuller V. Vogel

2004-01-01

210

Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

A fact sheet that describes hormone therapy (including antiestrogens, LH-RH agonists, aromatase inhibitors, and SERMs) and its role in preventing and treating breast cancer. Includes information about possible side effects.

211

Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... bulk. They come from two sources: the testicles (accounting for 90 to 95 percent of the male ... the adrenal glands that produce several other androgens (accounting for 5 to 10 percent of male hormones). ...

212

Hormonal postcoital contraception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wide availability of hormonal postcoital contraception (HPC) is likely to reduce the incidence of unplanned pregnancies. The two most common indications for HPC are unprotected intercourse and 'condom accidents'. The combined estrogen/progestogen HPC described by Yuzpe is the most widely used method. It is given within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. The efficacy of combined HPC is high. The crude failure rate is 1-5 per 100 woman-months while the true reduction in pregnancy risk is over 75%. Efficacy is not influenced by the exposure-treatment interval within the 72-h 'window'. The mechanisms of action is multifocal and depends on the cycle phase at which treatment is instituted. Data are presented suggesting a consistent endometrial effect. None of the side-effects of HPC are serious. When HPC fails, there is so far no evidence of an adverse effect of the treatment on the outcome of pregnancy. Counselling should include all the above together with discussion of possible side-effects such as nausea and vomiting. The clinician should ensure that the woman uses an effective contraceptive thereafter. There is renewed interest in progestogen-only postcoital contraception. Varying doses of levonorgestrel have been used. The efficacy of some regimens is similar to that of the combined HPC. Danazol has not proved to be as effective. Antiprogestins hold the greatest promise of emergency contraception with high efficacy and low side-effects. PMID:9678097

Kubba, A A

1997-06-01

213

Plant hormone receptors: new perceptions  

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Plant growth and development require the integration of a variety of environmental and endogenous signals that, together with the intrinsic genetic program, determine plant form. Central to this process are several growth regulators known as plant hormones or phytohormones. Despite decades of study, only recently have receptors for several of these hormones been identified, revealing novel mechanisms for perceiving chemical signals and providing plant biologists with a much clearer picture of...

Spartz, Angela K.; Gray, William M.

2008-01-01

214

Revisiting Thyroid Hormones in Schizophrenia  

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Thyroid hormones are crucial during development and in the adult brain. Of interest, fluctuations in the levels of thyroid hormones at various times during development and throughout life can impact on psychiatric disease manifestation and response to treatment. Here we review research on thyroid function assessment in schizophrenia, relating interrelations between the pituitary-thyroid axis and major neurosignaling systems involved in schizophrenia's pathophysiology. These include the seroto...

Santos, Nadine Correia; Costa, Patri?cio; Ruano, Dina; Macedo, Anto?nio; Soares, Maria Joa?o; Valente, Jose?; Pereira, Ana Telma; Azevedo, Maria Helena; Palha, Joana Almeida

2012-01-01

215

Revisiting thyroid hormones in schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thyroid hormones are crucial during development and in the adult brain. Of interest, fluctuations in the levels of thyroid hormones at various times during development and throughout life can impact on psychiatric disease manifestation and response to treatment. Here we review research on thyroid function assessment in schizophrenia, relating interrelations between the pituitary-thyroid axis and major neurosignaling systems involved in schizophrenia’s pathophysiology. These include the s...

Santos, Nadine Correia; Costa, Patri?cio Soares; Ruano, Dina; Macedo, Anto?nio; Soares, Maria Joa?o; Valente, Jose?; Pereira, Ana Telma; Azevedo, Maria Helena; Palha, Joana Almeida

2012-01-01

216

Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Sex Hormones  

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The liver is morphologically and functionally modulated by sex hormones. Long-term use of oral contraceptives and androgenic steroids can induce benign and malignant hepatocellular tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is more prevalent in men than in women. The role of sex hormones and their receptors in the development of HCC was reviewed. Some HCCs may be androgen dependent but others may be estrogen or even both dependent. Further studies are mandatory in order to utilize ...

Nagasue, Naofumi; Kohno, Hitoshi

1992-01-01

217

Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years  

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After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

1978-01-01

218

Thyroid hormone deiodinases and cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin fold-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i) they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii) could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)-13 cells is threefold to fourfold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh)-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a fivefold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma, and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches. PMID:22675319

Casula, Sabina; Bianco, Antonio C

2012-01-01

219

Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

AntonioBianco

2012-06-01

220

A newly identified insertion mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor-beta gene in a Korean family with generalized thyroid hormone resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome (RTH) is a rare disorder and is characterized by elevated levels of circulating free thyroid hormones, inappropriate secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and reduced peripheral tissue response to thyroid hormone. 90% of RTH subjects, when studied at the level of the gene, have been found to harbor mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor-beta(THRB) gene. These affected individuals have been shown to possess a variety of missense mutations, resulting from changes in a single nucleotide in the THRB gene that corresponds to amino acid alternation. However, insertion or deletion mutations in the THRB gene sequence are quite rare, and have been observed in only a very few cases. In this study, we describe two such cases, in which two members of the same family were determined to harbor an insertion mutation in exon 10, and had also been diagnosed with generalized RTH. This insertion mutation, specifically the insertion of a cytosine at nucleotide 1358 of the THRB gene, is, to the best of our knowledge, the first such mutation reported among RTH patients in Korea. PMID:17596672

Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Tae Sun; Baek, Hong Sun; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Park, Ji Hyun

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin  

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Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of syntheti...

Lengyel, A. -m J.

2006-01-01

222

A novel mutation (E333D) in the thyroid hormone beta receptor causing resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is an inherited syndrome characterized by elevated serum thyroid hormones (TH), failure to suppress pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion, and variable peripheral tissue responsiveness to TH. The disorder is associated with diverse mutations in the thyroid hormone beta receptor (TRbeta). Here, we report a novel natural RTH mutation (E333D) located in the large carboxy-terminal ligand binding domain of TRbeta. The mutation was identified in a 22-year-old French woman coming to medical attention because of an increasing overweight. Biochemical tests showed elevated free thyroxine (T4: 20.8 pg/ml (normal, 8.5-18)) and triiodothyronine (T3: 5.7 pg/ml (normal, 1.4-4)) in the serum, together with an inappropriately nonsuppressed TSH level of 4.7 mU/ml (normal, 0.4-4). Her father and her brother's serum tests also showed biochemical abnormalities consistent with RTH. Direct sequencing of the TRbeta gene revealed a heterozygous transition 1284A>C in exon 9 resulting in substitution of glutamic acid 333 by aspartic acid residue (E333D). Further functional analyses of the novel TRbeta mutant were conducted. We found that the E333D mutation neither significantly affected the affinity of the receptor for T3 nor modified heterodimer formation with retinoid X receptor (RXR) when bound to DNA. However, in transient transfection assays, the E333D TRbeta mutant exhibited impaired transcriptional regulation on two distinct positively regulated thyroid response elements (F2- and DR4-TREs) as well as on the negatively regulated human TSHalpha promoter. Moreover, a dominant inhibition of the wild-type TRbeta counterpart transactivation function was observed on both a positive (F2-TRE) and a negative (TSHalpha) promoter. These results strongly suggest that the E333D TRbeta mutation is responsible for the RTH phenotype in the proposita's family. PMID:17177139

Maraninchi, M; Bourcigaux, N; Dace, A; El-Yazidi, C; Malezet-Desmoulins, C; Krempf, M; Torresani, J; Margotat, A

2006-11-01

223

Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

1986-01-01

224

Prader-willi syndrome and growth hormone deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare multisystem genetic disorder demonstrating great variability with changing clinical features during patient's life. It is characterized by severe hypotonia with poor sucking and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity in later infancy or early childhood. The phenotype is most probably due to hypothalamic dysfunction which is also responsible for growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies, central adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadism. The multidimensional problems of patients with PWS can be managed with multidisciplinary approach. Reduced GH secretion, low peak GH response to stimulation, decreased spontaneous GH secretion and low serum IGF-1 levels in PWS patients have been documented in many studies. GH therapy has multiple beneficial effects on growth and body composition, motor and mental development in PWS patients. The recommended dosage for GH is 0.5-1 mg/m2/day. GH therapy should not be started in the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, severe obesity and diabetes mellitus. GH treatment should be considered for patients with genetically confirmed PWS in conjunction with dietary, environmental and life-style measures. PMID:24932597

Aycan, Zehra; Ba?, Veysel Nijat

2014-06-01

225

Clinical Consequences of Mutations in Thyroid Hormone Receptor-?1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone (TH) exerts its biological activity via the TH receptors TR?1 and TR?1/2, which are encoded by the THRA and THRB genes. The first patients with mutations in THRB were identified decades ago. These patients had a clinical syndrome of resistance to TH associated with high serum TH and nonsuppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Until recently, no patients with mutations in THRA had been identified. In an attempt to predict the clinical phenotype of such patients, different TR?1 mutant mouse models have been generated. These mice have a variable phenotype depending on the location and severity of the mutation. Recently, the first humans with mutations in THRA were identified. Their phenotype consists of relatively low serum T4 and high serum T3 levels (and thus an elevated T3/T4 ratio), growth retardation, delayed mental and bone development, and constipation. While, in retrospect, certain features present in humans can also be found in mouse models, the first humans carrying a defect in TR?1 were not suspected of having a THRA gene mutation initially. The current review focuses on the clinical consequences of TR?1 mutations. PMID:24847461

van Mullem, Alies A; Visser, Theo J; Peeters, Robin P

2014-03-01

226

The Children Reference Range of Thyroid Hormones in Northern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is associated with mental and growth abnormality in children. The aim of this study was to determine the reference range of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH. Thyroxin (T4 and triodothyronine (T3 of children in Northern Iran. The sample population for this study consists of subjects of 4 age groups up to 21 years. The subjects were selected randomly from people referred to Danesh Medical Diagnostic Laboratory in Gorgan Northern Iran. Thyroid hormone level were investigated with Radio immunoassay. The mean concentration for T4, T3, TSH for the sample population of 4 groups were as follow (113.5, 107.4, 102.9, 99.2 nmol L-1, (1.9, 1.7, 1.9, 1.6 nmol L-1 and (2.1, 3.5, 2.9, 2.7 mIu L-1. The mean value of T3, TSH were higher for females but the mean value of T4 was slightly higher in males. The findings of this investigation indicated that there is an inverse age correlation in particular for T4 in all age groups. On the bases of the results from this study, we conclude that reference range, in all age groups and lower, upper limits of our reference range are not universally similar; therefore determination of reference range in each region is a critical need for clinical practice.

A. Saifi

2010-01-01

227

Noncontraceptive uses of hormonal contraception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormonal contraceptives are not only effective methods of birth control but also are effective at treating and/or preventing a variety of gynecologic and general disorders. Hormonal contraceptives can decrease the severity of acne, correct menstrual irregularities, treat endometriosis-associated pain, decrease bleeding associated with uterine myomas, decrease pain associated with menstrual periods, moderate symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome, reduce menstrual migraine frequency, and increase bone mineral density as well as decrease the risk of specific cancers such as endometrial and ovarian cancer. Women need to receive this information to guide them in their decisions regarding choice of contraception as well as treatment options for gynecologic disorders. PMID:22060223

King, Joyce

2011-01-01

228

Überlegungen zum Luteinisierenden Hormon (LH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Bedeutung des Luteinisierenden Hormons (LH in der Reproduktionsmedizin wird seit langem kontrovers diskutiert. Widersprüchliche Meinungen bestehen sowohl im Bereich der Diagnostik wie im Bereich der Therapie. Biologische Abläufe vor dem Hintergrund der Evolution zu betrachten, um sie zu verstehen, macht nirgendwo mehr Sinn als beim Analysieren der Fortpflanzungsphysiologie. Wenn der Sexualtrieb die grundlegendste Voraussetzung der sexuellen Fortpflanzung darstellt, so liegt es nahe, daß das ovulationssynchrone Auftreten von Hormonen mit der weiblichen Libido korrelieren müßte. LH nimmt hierbei eine zentrale Stellung ein. Seine Bedeutung als Hormon zur Steuerung der Libido würde die Rechtfertigung anderer Funktionen erübrigen.

Jemec M

2005-01-01

229

Developing a model of plant hormone interactions  

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Plant growth and development is influenced by mutual interactions among plant hormones. The five classical plant hormones are auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. They are small diffusible molecules that easily penetrate between cells. In addition, newer classes of plant hormones have been identified such as brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and various small proteins or peptides. These hormones also play important roles in the regulation of plant growth...

Wang, Yu Hua; Irving, Helen R.

2011-01-01

230

Hormone Action in the Mammary Gland  

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A woman’s breast cancer risk is affected by her reproductive history. The hormonal milieu also influences the course of the disease. The female reproductive hormones, estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin, have a major impact on breast cancer and control postnatal mammary gland development. Analysis of hormone receptor mutant mouse strains combined with tissue recombination techniques and proteomics revealed that sequential activation of hormone signaling in the mammary epithelium is requi...

2010-01-01

231

Hormone Action in the Mammary Gland  

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A woman's breast cancer risk is affected by her reproductive history. The hormonal milieu also influences the course of the disease. The female reproductive hormones, estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin, have a major impact on breast cancer and control postnatal mammary gland development. Analysis of hormone receptor mutant mouse strains combined with tissue recombination techniques and proteomics revealed that sequential activation of hormone signaling in the mammary epithelium is require...

2010-01-01

232

Endocrine disruptors and thyroid hormone physiology  

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Abstract Endocrine disruptors are man-made chemicals that can disrupt the synthesis, circulating levels, and peripheral action of hormones. The disruption of sex hormones was subject of intensive research, but thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling are now also recognized as important targets of endocrine disruptors. The neurological development of mammals is largely dependent on normal thyroid hormone homeostasis, and it is likely to be particularly sensitive to disruption of the...

2010-01-01

233

Sorption of steroidal hormones by electrodialysis membranes  

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The mechanisms of sorption of four steroidal hormones – estradiol, estrone, progesterone and testosterone – to electrodialysis (ED) membranes were investigated as a function of solution pH and presence of humic acid (HA). Hormone-membrane partition coefficients (log KAEM/CEM) determined through sorption isotherm experiments suggested that hormone sorption was due to hydrogen bonding and cation–? interactions between hormone and membrane functional groups. Progesterone sorption at pH 7 ...

Banasiak, Laura Joan; Scha?fer, Andrea

2010-01-01

234

Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the sto [...] mach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a) discovery of this peptide, b) mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c) regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

Lengyel, A.-M.J..

235

Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition  

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Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pParathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

2009-01-01

236

Assay for parathyroid hormone receptors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents methods used to identify and quantify parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in kidney and bone. Experimental details are provided for the preparation of radioiodinated PTH, purification of labeled PTH, and PTH binding assays using renal plasma membranes and cultured cells from embryonic chick bone cells

1985-01-01

237

Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer DiD you knoW? Breast pain alone is not ...

238

Thyroid hormone action on skin  

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The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name “myxedema” refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure.

Safer, Joshua D.

2011-01-01

239

Disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats by microsomal enzyme inducers is not due to enhanced thyroxine glucuronidation?  

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Microsomal enzyme inducers (MEI) that increase UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are thought to increase glucuronidation of thyroxine (T4), thus reducing serum T4, and subsequently increasing thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a6 mediate T4 glucuronidation. Therefore, this experiment determined the involvement of Ugt1a enzymes in increased T4 glucuronidation, decreased serum T4, and increased TSH after MEI treatment. Male Wistar and Ugt1a-deficient Wistar (Gunn) rats were fed...

Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

2010-01-01

240

Hormonal Treatment of Acne in Women  

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Acne vulgaris is a common and chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit. Standard treatment protocols include topical retinoids, topical and oral antimicrobials, and isotretinoin. Hormonal therapies can be added to the regimen in some patients. This article will review the hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discuss the basics of an endocrine evaluation, and provide an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women.

Ebede, Tobechi L.; Arch, Emily L.; Berson, Diane

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Special Listing of Current Cancer Research on Role of Hormones in Carcinogenesis and Related Studies of Hormone Receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Role of hormones in etiology of human cancer; Role of hormones in experimental mammary carcinogenesis (Interaction of hormones and chemical agents in experimental mammary carcinogenesis, Interaction of hormones with radiation or viruses in exper...

1976-01-01

242

Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T4) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), tri iodine thyronine (T3) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

2012-12-23

243

Resistance to thyroid hormone is modulated in vivo by the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR1).  

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Mutations in the ligand-binding domain of the thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) lead to resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). These TR? mutants function in a dominant-negative fashion to interfere with the transcription activity of wild-type thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), leading to dysregulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis and resistance in peripheral tissues. The molecular mechanism by which TR? mutants cause RTH has been postulated to be an inability of the mutants to properly release the nuclear corepressors (NCORs), thereby inhibiting thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated transcription activity. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we crossed Thrb(PV) mice (a model of RTH) expressing a human TR? mutant (PV) with mice expressing a mutant Ncor1 allele (Ncor1(?ID) mice) that cannot recruit a TR or a PV mutant. Remarkably, in the presence of NCOR1?ID, the abnormally elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone and TH levels found in Thrb(PV) mice were modestly but significantly corrected. Furthermore, thyroid hyperplasia, weight loss, and other hallmarks of RTH were also partially reverted in mice expressing NCOR1?ID. Taken together, these data suggest that the aberrant recruitment of NCOR1 by RTH TR? mutants leads to clinical RTH in humans. The present study suggests that therapies aimed at the TR-NCOR1 interaction or its downstream actions could be tested as potential targets in treating RTH. PMID:21987803

Fozzatti, Laura; Lu, Changxue; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Jeong Won; Astapova, Inna; Gavrilova, Oksana; Willingham, Mark C; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Cheng, Sheue-yann

2011-10-18

244

Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

1971-01-01

245

Growth hormone state after completion of treatment with growth hormone.  

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After completion of treatment with growth hormone (GH) 19 patients with isolated 'idiopathic' GH deficiency and 15 with post-irradiation GH deficiency underwent retesting of GH secretion with an insulin tolerance test or an arginine stimulation test, or both. Patients with post-irradiation GH deficiency comprised 13 patients with central nervous system tumours distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and two with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, who had received cranial or craniospinal irrad...

Clayton, P. E.; Price, D. A.; Shalet, S. M.

1987-01-01

246

Silk moth neuropeptide hormones: prothoracicotropic hormone and others.  

Science.gov (United States)

The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a very useful model species, especially in genetics, biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology, helping researchers unravel the many mysteries involved in the insect life process. The present review describes our early contributions as chemists to the study of the molting and metamorphosis of B. mori. We also present research by Japanese scientists that contributed to the isolation and characterization of peptide hormones from B. mori. PMID:15891004

Nagata, Shinji; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akinori

2005-04-01

247

The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension  

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Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. ...

2011-01-01

248

Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular / Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system / Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, reali [...] zamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem. Abstract in spanish La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujere [...] s con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven. Abstract in english Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascu [...] lar disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

Brito, Milena Bastos; Nobre, Fernando; Vieira, Carolina Sales.

249

Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.

Sermin Kesebir

2010-12-01

250

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes th [...] e levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

Jose Carlos, Pereira Jr.; Marcia, Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins, Pessoa.

251

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.

2010-01-01

252

Thyroid hormone and dehydroepiandrosterone permit gluconeogenic hormone responses in hepatocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of the sn-glycerol- 3-phosphate (G-3-P) electron transfer shuttle in hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis was examined in hepatocytes from rats with decreased mitochondrial G-3-P dehydrogenase activity (thyroidectomized) or increased G-3-P dehydrogenase activity [triiodothyronine (T(3)) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treated]. Rates of glucose formation from 10 mM lactate, 10 mM pyruvate, or 2.5 mM dihydroxyacetone were somewhat less in hypothyroid cells than in cells from normal rats but gluconeogenic responses to calcium addition and to norepinephrine (NE), glucagon (G), or vasopressin (VP) were similar to the responses observed in cells from normal rats. However, with 2. 5 mM glycerol or 2.5 mM sorbitol, substrates that must be oxidized in the cytosol before conversion to glucose, basal gluconeogenesis was not appreciably altered by hypothyroidism but responses to calcium and to the calcium-mobilizing hormones were abolished. Injecting thyroidectomized rats with T(3) 2 days before preparing the hepatocytes greatly enhanced gluconeogenesis from glyc erol and restored the response to Ca(2+) and gluconeogenic hormones. Feeding dehydroepiandrosterone for 6 days depressed gluconeogenesis from lactate or pyruvate but substantially increased glucose production from glycerol in euthyroid cells and restored responses to Ca(2+) in hypothyroid cells metabolizing glycerol. Euthyroid cells metabolizing glycerol or sorbitol use the G-3-P and malate/aspartate shuttles to oxidize excess NADH generated in the cytosol. The transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA) decreased gluconeogenesis from glycerol 40%, but had little effect on responses to Ca(2+) and NE. However, in hypothyroid cells, with minimal G-3-P dehydrogenase, AOA decreased gluconeogenesis from glycerol more than 90%. Thus, the basal rate of gluconeogenesis from glycerol in the euthyroid cells is only partly dependent on electron transport from cytosol to mitochondria via the malate/aspartate shuttle and almost completely dependent in the hypothyroid state, and the hormone enhancement of the rate in euthyroid cells involves primarily the G-3-P cycle. These data are consistent with Ca(2+) being mobilized by gluconeogenic hormones and G-3-P dehydrogenase being activated by Ca(2+) so as to permit it to transfer reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondria. PMID:10683260

Kneer, N; Lardy, H

2000-03-01

253

[Sex hormones and cognitive function].  

Science.gov (United States)

Endogenous estrogen is considered to be protective against cognitive dysfunction. However, clinical trials examining the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women showed rather deteriorating effects of HRT on cognitive function and dementia, resulting in the recommendation of no use of HRT for the prevention of dementia. By contrast, recent advances in androgen research have suggested the effects of androgen on cognitive function in older men with mild cognitive impairment, pending the mechanistic clarification and clinical trials. Also, the protective role of androgen in cognitive and physical function in older women has been highlighted. Recent topics on the relationship between sex hormones and cognitive function were overviewed in this paper. PMID:24796093

Akishita, Masahiro

2014-04-01

254

Modelling hormonal response and development?  

Science.gov (United States)

As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin–cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges.

Voss, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J.

2014-01-01

255

Sex, Hormones and Neuroeffector Mechanisms  

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Incidence and rate of cardiovascular disease differ between men and women across the life span. Although hypertension is more prominent in men than women, there is a group of vasomotor disorders [i.e. Raynaud’s disease, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes) of menopause and migraine] with a female predominance. Both sex and hormones interact to modulate neuroeffector mechanisms including integrated regulation of the Sry gene and direct effect ...

Hart, Emma C.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Miller, Virginia M.

2011-01-01

256

Growth hormone-releasing peptides.  

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Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence str...

Ghigo, Ezio; Arvat, Emanuela; Muccioli, Giampiero; Camanni, Franco

1997-01-01

257

Hormonal modulation of plant immunity  

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Plant hormones have pivotal roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and reproduction. Additionally, they emerged as cellular signal molecules with key functions in the regulation of immune responses to microbial pathogens, insect herbivores, and beneficial microbes. Their signaling pathways are interconnected in a complex network, which provides plants with an enormous regulatory potential to rapidly adapt to their biotic environment and to utilize their limited resources for gr...

Pieterse, C. M. J.; Does, A.; Zamioudis, C.; Leon Reyes, H. A.; Wees, S. C. M.

2012-01-01

258

Osteoporotic fracture and parathyroid hormone  

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Osteoporosis and age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption, resulting in bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. Stimulating the function of bone-forming osteoblasts, is the preferred pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. Recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH), PTH(1-34), is an anabolic agent with proven benefits to bone strength and has been characterized as a potential therapy for...

Datta, Nabanita S.

2011-01-01

259

Identification of thyroid hormone transporters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone action and metabolism are intracellular events that require transport of the hormone across the plasma membrane. We tested the possible involvement of the Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and organic anion transporting polypeptide (oatp1) in the hepatic uptake of the prohormone T4, the active hormone T3, and the metabolites rT3 and 3,3'-T2. Xenopus laevis oocytes were injected with 2.3 ng Ntcp or oatp1 cRNA and, after 2-3 days, incubated for 1 h at 25 degrees C with usually 0.1 microM 125I-labeled ligand. Uninjected oocytes showed marked uptake of iodothyronines and this was further increased by Ntcp and oatp1 cRNA, i.e., 1.9- and 2.8-fold for T4, 1.7- and 1.7-fold for T3, 1.8- and 6.0-fold for rT3, and 1.3- and 1.4-fold for 3,3'-T2, respectively. Mostly due to much lower uptake by uninjected oocytes, Ntcp and oatp1 cRNA induced larger, 12- to 76-fold increases in uptake of iodothyronine sulfates. The Ntcp cRNA-induced iodothyronine uptake was completely inhibited in Na+-deplete medium, whereas the oatp1 cRNA-induced uptake was not affected. These results suggest that hepatic uptake of thyroid hormones and their metabolites is mediated at least in part by Ntcp and oatp1. PMID:9918867

Friesema, E C; Docter, R; Moerings, E P; Stieger, B; Hagenbuch, B; Meier, P J; Krenning, E P; Hennemann, G; Visser, T J

1999-01-19

260

Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

HuguesDardente

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Growth hormone, inflammation and aging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

Michal M. Masternak

2012-04-01

262

Hormone symphony during root growth and development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormones regulate plant growth and development in response to external environmental stimuli via complex signal transduction pathways, which in turn form complex networks of interaction. Several classes of hormones have been reported, and their activity depends on their biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, accumulation in the vacuole, and degradation. However, the activity of a given hormone is also dependent on its interaction with other hormones. Indeed, there is a complex crosstalk between hormones that regulates their biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling functionality, although some hormones have overlapping or opposite functions. The plant root is a particularly useful system in which to study the complex role of plant hormones in the plastic control of plant development. Physiological, cellular, and molecular genetic approaches have been used to study the role of plant hormones in root meristem homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the synthesis, signaling, transport of hormones and role during root development and examine the role of hormone crosstalk in maintaining homeostasis in the apical root meristem. PMID:23027524

Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; De La Paz Sánchez, María; García-Ponce, Berenice; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

2012-12-01

263

Arginine potentiates but does not restore the blunted growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone in obesity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A blunted growth hormone (GH) response to several stimuli, including growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), has been shown in obesity. Arginine (ARG) has been demonstrated to potentiate the GHRH-induced GH increase in normal subjects, likely acting via inhibition of hypothalamic somatostatin release. To shed further light onto the mechanisms underlying the blunted GH secretion in obesity, we studied the effect of ARG (0.5 g/kg infused intravenously [IV] over 30 minutes) on both basal and GH...

Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Camanni, Franco

1992-01-01

264

Arginine abolishes the inhibitory effect of glucose on the growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone in man.  

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Acute hyperglycemia inhibits the growth hormone (GH) response to several stimuli including growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), likely acting by stimulation of endogenous somatostatin release. The aim of our study was to verify whether arginine ([Arg] 30 g intravenously [IV] in 30 minutes), a well-known GH secretagogue likely acting via inhibition of hypothalamic somatostatin release, counteracts the inhibitory effect of oral glucose (OG) administration (100 mg orally) on the GH response ...

Ghigo, Ezio; Camanni, Franco; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Arvat, Emanuela

1992-01-01

265

Acute administration of recombinant human growth hormone inhibits the somatotrope responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone in childhood.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In adulthood the growth hormone (GH) response to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is inhibited by previous acute administration of either GH or GHRH and it is restored by substances that inhibit hypothalamic somatostatin release. Because in children the GH response to GHRH is not affected by previous neurohormone administration, it has been suggested that in childhood a GH increase is not able to trigger the somatostatin-mediated negative GH autofeedback mechanism. To verify this hypot...

Aimaretti, Gianluca; Camanni, Franco; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio

1996-01-01

266

Disfunción eréctil de origen hormonal / Hormonal etiology in erectile dysfunction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adecuado funcionamiento del mecanismo de la erección depende de la correcta interrelación de factores psicológicos, vasculares, neurológicos y hormonales. Las enfermedades endocrinas afectan a la función sexual y la disfunción sexual puede ser uno de los síntomas de alguna alteración hormonal. La [...] diabetes mellitus es la alteración endocrina que con más frecuencia causa disfunción eréctil debido a las frecuentes complicaciones vasculares y neurológicas que conlleva. Es importante la determinación de glucosa en la evaluación inicial del varón con disfunción eréctil, así como intentar un adecuado control de los niveles de glucemia para evitar el empeoramiento. La disfunción eréctil del diabético es multifactorial, de mayor severidad y responde peor al tratamiento oral. La hiperprolactinemia es causante de alteraciones en la esfera sexual, ya que provoca descenso de la testosterona. En estos casos, la sintomatología sexual se trata corrigiendo los niveles de prolactina. La determinación rutinaria de la prolactina no está clara y parece que debe determinarse cuando las cifras de testosterona están disminuidas. Las alteraciones de la hormona tiroidea (tanto el hiper como el hipotiroidismo) se asocian a disfunción eréctil, que en la mitad de los casos remitirá con la normalización de la hormona tiroidea. No está claro el papel que juegan las hormonas suprarrenales en la función eréctil y su determinación rutinaria no se contempla en la evaluación diagnóstica de la disfunción eréctil. Tampoco se conoce bien el papel del estradiol en la regulación del mecanismo de la erección, aunque se sabe que cifras elevadas de este pueden provocar disfunción eréctil. Dentro de las alteraciones endocrino-metabólicas reseñar las dislipemias, con la hipercolesterolemia como factor de riesgo importante de disfunción eréctil y aunque su corrección puede prevenir el deterioro del sistema vascular, no está claro el papel de las estatinas en la disfunción eréctil. Abstract in english The proper function of erection mechanisms depend on correct interrelationship between psychological, vascular, neurological and hormonal factors. Endocrine diseases affect sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may be one of the symptoms of some hormonal anomalies. Diabetes mellitus is the endocri [...] ne disease most frequently causing erectile dysfunction due to the frequent vascular and neurological complications associated. It is important to determine blood glucose in the initial evaluation of a male with erectile dysfunction, as well as to try an adequate control of blood glucose levels to avoid worsening. Diabetic male erectile dysfunction is multifactorial, more severe and has worse response to oral treatment. Hyperprolactinemia causes disorders of the sexual sphere because it produces a descent of testosterone. In these cases, sexual symptoms are treated by correcting the levels of prolactin. Routine determination of prolactin is not clear and it seems it should be determined when testosterone levels are diminished. Thyroid hormone disorders (both hyper and hypotyroidism) are associated with erectile dysfunction, which will subside in half the patients with thyroid hormone normalization. The role of adrenal hormones in erectile function is not clear and their routine determination is not considered in the diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction. The role of estradiol in the regulation of the erection mechanism is not well known either, although it is known that high levels may cause erectile dysfunction. Among endocrine-metabolic disorders we point out dyslipemias, with hypercholesterolemia as an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction and, though its correction may prevent vascular system deterioration, the role of statins in erectile dysfunction is not clear.

Martínez Jabaloyas, José María.

267

Association between Maternal Serum Perfluoroalkyl Substances during Pregnancy and Maternal and Cord Thyroid Hormones: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic compounds that are widely used in industry and are often detectable in humans. In pregnant rats and their pups, PFASs can interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In humans, maternal thyroid hormones supply the fetus throughout pregnancy, and thyroid hormones play a critical role in fetal growth and neurodevelopment.Objectives: We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and thyroid hormone status in pregnant women and neonates.Methods: In a study of environmental exposure and health in Taiwan, we measured serum concentrations of nine PFASs and four thyroid hormones for 285 pregnant women in their third trimester, and also measured cord serum thyroid hormones for 116 neonates. Associations between maternal PFASs and maternal and cord thyroid hormones were examined in multiple linear regression models.Results: Perfluorohexanesulfonic acid concentrations were positively associated with maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Pregnant women with higher levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) had lower free thyroxine (T4) and total T4 levels. For example, we estimated that maternal free T4 levels decreased 0.019 ng/dL (95% CI: -0.028, -0.009) with each nanogram per milliliter increase in maternal PFNA. Finally, maternal PFNA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA levels were associated with lower cord total triiodothyronine (T3) and total T4 levels, and maternal perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA) was associated with lower cord total T3.Conclusions: Our results suggest that exposure to some PFASs during pregnancy may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis in pregnant women and fetuses.Citation: Wang Y, Rogan WJ, Chen PC, Lien GW, Chen HY, Tseng YC, Longnecker MP, Wang SL. 2014. Association between maternal serum perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and maternal and cord thyroid hormones: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:529-534;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306925. PMID:24577800

Wang, Yan; Rogan, Walter J; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lien, Guang-Wen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Tseng, Ying-Chih; Longnecker, Matthew P; Wang, Shu-Li

2014-05-01

268

Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

1989-01-01

269

Study on changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrome due to the stagnation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrom due to the stagnation of liver-qi. Methods: Serum thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), free thyroxine (FT4), cortisol levels were measured with immunoradioassay (IMRA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 30 patients with this type of insomnia and 30 controls. Results: The serum TSH levels were significantly lower and serum TRH, GH, cortisol FT4 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: This insomnia syndrome was closely related to the dysfunction of mpothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and adrenal axis. (authors)

2007-12-01

270

Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin: structural elucidation of the sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides on bovine, ovine, and human pituitary glycoprotein hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have elucidated the structures of the anionic asparagine-linked oligosaccharides present on the glycoprotein hormones lutropin (luteinizing hormone), follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone), and thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone). Purified hormones, isolated from bovine, ovine, and human pituitaries, were digested with N-glycanase, and the released oligosaccharides were reduced with NaB[3H]4. The 3H-labeled oligosaccharides from each hormone were then fractionated by anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into populations differing in the number of sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties. The sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures, which together comprised 67-90% of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the pituitary glycoprotein hormones, were highly heterogeneous and displayed hormone- as well as animal species-specific features. A previously uncharacterized dibranched oligosaccharide, bearing one residue each of sulfate and sialic acid, was found on all of the hormones except bovine lutropin. In this study, they describe the purification and detailed structural characterizations of the sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated oligosaccharides found on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin from several animal species

1988-01-05

271

Interaction of copper with iron, iodine, and thyroid hormone status in goitrous patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many developing countries, men and women are at high risk of goiter and iron deficiency. The aim of the recent study is to assess the interaction of (Cu), with iron (Fe), iodine/iodide (I), and thyroid hormones in goitrous patients. Sixty goitrous male (GMPs) and 72 female patients (GFPs) were evaluated for the Cu, Fe, I, and thyroid hormones status in biological samples (serum and urine), and compared to non-goitrous subjects of both genders (M = 106, F = 120). The biological samples were analyzed for Cu and Fe concentration using atomic absorption spectrometer, while I was measured by the potentiometric method, prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion (MD). Quality control for the method was established with certified samples. Significantly higher mean values of Cu in serum, and urine samples of GMPs and GFPs, while lower value of Fe and I were observed as compared to control subjects (p < 0.015), respectively. The mean values of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) were found to be lower in goitrous patients of both genders than in the age-matched healthy controls (p < 0.006 and 0.002), respectively, in contrast high mean values of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were detected in patients (p < 0.009), as compared to non-goitrous subjects. It was observed that the deficiencies of Fe, I, and thyroid hormone in goitrous patients could be influenced by efficiency of Cu. PMID:19693445

Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Syed, Nasreen; Kumar, Sham; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Khan, Sumaira

2010-06-01

272

Effect of salinity level on TSH and thyroid hormones of grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (T3, T4 have marked effect on body metabolism and in controlling osmoregulation activity in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water salinity changes on thyroid hormones level and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH of grass carp. For this purpose 120 grass carp were divided randomly in to four groups (10 fish in each group and three replicates per treatment. Three groups were held in three different salinities at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1. The fourth group was reared in fresh water and considered as control. After three weeks blood samples were collected from the caudal peduncle vein. Then serum was separated and serum thyroid hormones and TSH were measured by LISA on Microwell plates. Our results indicated that the average of T3 levels in 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 groups were 0.43 ± 0.11, 0.22 ± 0.04 and 0.21 ± 0.04 ?g dL-1, respectively. T3 levels in all experimental groups were significantly lower than those of control group (p 0.05. The level of TSH in salinities of 4 and 8 g L-1 groups was significantly higher than that of control group (p < 0.05. The results showed that increasing water salinity can have significant effect on thyroid activity by decreasing T3 and increasing T4 level in serum of grass carp in experimental condition.

Rahim Peyghan

2013-09-01

273

VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyroxine (T3. The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4, Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3?IU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 57-59

Pallavi Chaurasia

2011-04-01

274

Association of Psoriasis Severity with Serum Prolactin, Thyroid Hormones, and Cortisol before and after Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Prolactin (PRL) level is proposed to be associated with the severity of psoriasis although the previous studies reported different results. Objective. To find the association between PRL levels and severity of psoriasis before and after treatment. In addition, we aimed to find a difference in prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), and cortisol levels between patients with psoriasis and normal controls. Methods. First, the levels of hormones were measured in 30 patients with psoriasis and 30 matched controls. The severity was assessed by psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). Then, patients were treated, and PASI was assessed every week until achieving PASI-75 response. At this time, the hormones were measured again and compared to the baseline. Results. No statistical significant difference was observed in the mean PRL, T3, T4, TSH, and cortisol levels between cases and controls. Comparing to the baseline, a significant decrease in PRL levels and a significant increase in T3 and serum cortisol levels were observed after treatment (P PASI score existed.

Robati, Reza M.; Toossi, Parviz; Rahmati-Roodsari, Mohammad; Khalilazar, Sara; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Namazi, Nastaran; Younespour, Shima

2013-01-01

275

ISOLATION OF RAT PITUITARY GRANULES AND THE STUDY OF THEIR BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND HORMONAL ACTIVITIES  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and rapid method is described for the isolation of the acidophilic and basophilic granules from the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. The method involves chromatography of pituitary particulates on columns of No. 545 Celite equilibrated and developed with 0.25 M sucrose. Mitochondria are retained quantitatively on the column. The granules and microsomes which are not retained on the Celite are further fractionated on a discontinuous density sucrose gradient and by differential centrifugation. Essentially homogeneous populations of acidophilic and basophilic granules were obtained as indicated by 1) extensive electron microscopic studies, 2) enzymatic determinations, and 3) fatty acid and RNA analyses on the granule pellets. Microfiltration studies indicated that the acidophilic granules were smaller than 450 mµ, but greater than 300 mµ in diameter. They were found, unlike the basophilic granules, to be partially stable to extraction with water, but were unstable on incubation in 1 mM EDTA at 37°. Magnesium ions were not detected in the granules. The acidophilic and basophilic granules contained, respectively, 5 and 8 per cent of the protein present in the whole homogenate. Extensive hormone studies showed that growth and lactogenic hormones were associated with the acidophilic granules, while thyroid-stimulating hormone and gonadotropin were associated with the basophilic granules. ACTH was not present in significant amounts in either of the granule fractions, but was localized in a particulate fraction which contained microsomes and small granules. The association of the pituitary hormones with specific granules and cell types is discussed.

Hymer, W. C.; McShan, W. H.

1963-01-01

276

The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

Behan, Lucy Ann

2012-02-01

277

The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

Behan, Lucy Ann

2011-03-01

278

Prenatal pyrethroid insecticide exposure and thyroid hormone levels and birth sizes of neonates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyrethroid insecticides have been shown to possess thyroid hormone disrupting properties in previous animal studies. In this study, the relationship between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides during pregnancy and neonatal thyroid hormone status (free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in whole blood) and birth sizes were explored in 147 mother-neonate pairs in Tokyo. The concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) in maternal urine, sampled in the first trimester of gestation, was used for pyrethroid exposure assessment. Neonatal fT4 and TSH were within the normal range except for one elevated TSH (but normal fT4) in a neonate. Multiple regression analyses with stepwise variable selection did not extract maternal 3-PBA as significant for neonatal fT4 and TSH, indicating that maternal pyrethroid exposure had no apparent effect on the neonatal thyroid hormone status of the neonate subjects. For birth weight and head circumference, maternal 3-PBA was selected as significant with a positive partial regression coefficient along with other factors known to increase birth sizes of neonates (gestational weeks or maternal BMI). It was not clear if this was causal because no biological mechanism was apparent. PMID:24836137

Zhang, Jie; Yoshinaga, Jun; Hisada, Aya; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Koyama, Maiko; Watanabe, Noriko; Suzuki, Emiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Komine, Yoko; Ariki, Nagako; Kato, Nobumasa

2014-08-01

279

Thyroid hormone levels in patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted with three main objectives, to study thyroid hormones (T 4, T 3) and TSH levels in patients with CRF under haemodialysis and to compare them with normal subjects, to study best means of treatment and to compare these findings with results from other parts of the world. This study was done on 61 patients with renal failure in Khartoum dialysis and kidney transplant centre U of K, 45 males and 16 females with ages ranging from 17-75 years and 42 symptoms-free subjects 14 males and 23 females with age ranging from 16-60 years. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used for the determination of serum T 4, T 3 and TSH. By using t-test found that the mean concentrations of T 4, T 3 of normal subjects were much higher than those of the patients (p0.05). These results also illustrated that 45.9% of patients with renal failure of low T 4, and 91.8%, 90.26 of patients had T 3 and TSH hormone levels in the normal range, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean of thyroid hormones (T 4, T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormones between males and females (p>0.05). The T 3 and T '4 concentrations in patients at all age groups (year) was less than the age groups of the control group, and this decrease was statistically significant (p0.05).(Author)

1998-01-01

280

The hormonal control of regeneration in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant cells have a profound capacity to regenerate their full array of tissues from already differentiated organs, as best demonstrated in in vitro regeneration systems. Although critical breakthroughs in in vitro organogenesis have outlined the role of hormones and their interactions in determination of cultured plant cell developmental fates, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unexplored. Investigations have recently been empowered by the identification of key genes that function in regeneration, involved in hormonal biosynthesis, transport, signaling, and hormone interactions. The establishment of differential hormone-responsive patterns in organ regeneration zones is critical for de novo organ initiation. The present review focuses on recent findings providing insights into hormone-regulated plant regeneration at the molecular level and the formation of hormonal-response environments required for de novo regeneration. PMID:24512705

Su, Ying Hua; Zhang, Xian Sheng

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Free thyroid hormones in health and disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T3 is slightly enhanced. Free T4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T4 substitution free T4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.)

1984-06-01

282

Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet therapy, physical activity, medical and surgical approaches. The specialists and obese patients prefer the first and second approaches. Physical activity helps to control and treat this disorder by influencing on obesity-related hormones. The main obesity-related hormones are ghrelin, agouti, obestatin, leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and resistin. In this review, the effect of physical activity on 10 major obesity-related hormones has been discussed.

Mehdi Hedayati

2014-08-01

283

Thyroid hormones and the central nervous system of mammals (Review).  

Science.gov (United States)

The thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine (T4) and L-triiodothyronine (T3) have a profound influence on the development and maturation of the mammalian brain, both before and after birth. Any impairment in the supply of THs to the developing nervous system leads to severe and irreversible changes in both the overall architecture and functions of the brain and causes, in humans, neurological and motor deficits known as cretinism. Pronounced neurological symptoms are also commonly observed in adult patients suffering from both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and it has recently emerged that certain symptoms might result from the reduced brain uptake, rather than the insufficient production, of THs. Most of the effects of THs are mediated by two classes of nuclear receptors (? and ? isoforms), which belong to the c-erbA superfamily of transcriptional regulators and are expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated manner. Interestingly, the nuclear TH receptors (nTRs) act as both ligand-independent gene repressors and ligand-dependent gene activators. On the other hand, negatively-regulated genes, which can be stimulated in the absence of THs and repressed by THs, have also been observed. Due to this complex pattern of regulation, the effects of receptor dysfunction do not exactly overlap the effects of hormone deficiency or excess. Moreover, non-genomic mechanisms of TH action have been described in many tissues, including the brain, some of which seem to be mediated by integrins and to be calcium-dependent. Intracellular receptors, distinct from nTRs, are present in the mitochondria, where a matrix-associated, T3-dependent transcriptional regulator of approximately 43 kDa has been described. Finally, complex patterns of pituitary and/or peripheral resistance to thyroid hormones (RTH), characterized by elevated plasma levels of THs and non-suppressible thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), have been identified. This review summarizes the major advances in knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of TH action and their implication for the effects of THs on the developing, as well as the adult mammalian, nervous system. PMID:21479409

Di Liegro, Italia

2008-01-01

284

Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

2009-01-01

285

Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in zebrafish  

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Across vertebrates, spermatogenesis is under the endocrine control of two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androgens; the testicular production and secretion of the latter are controlled by luteinizing hormone. In fish, also the strong steroidogenic potency of Fsh should be taken into consideration indicating that a large part of Fsh action in fish spermatogenesis is mediated by androgens. In the studies encompassing this thesis, we aimed at elucidating the mechanisms, by whic...

Waal, P. P.

2009-01-01

286

ROLE OF THYROID HORMONES IN FISHES  

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Abstract Literature review is devoted to analysis of role of thyroid hormones in fishes. Structural features of secretory epithelium and neuro-endocrine control of thyroid status in fishes are described. Function of thyroid hormones in development of biorhythms as well as in molecular mechanisms of maintenance of cellular and tissue chronobiological activities in fishes are characterized. Issue about role of thyroid hormones in fish adaptation in response to changes of intensity of abioti...

Dolomatov, S. I.; Kubyshkin, ?. V.; Kutia, S. A.; Zukow, W.

2013-01-01

287

Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This critical review focuses on the role of steroid hormones and their receptors in the development and treatment of breast cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor-ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal therapy against breast cancer, in conjunction with other modalities like surgery and chemotherapy. Tamoxifen is used in hormonal treatment of breast cancer for up to five years, depending on the presentation. However, there have been recent developments in hormonal therapy of breast cancer in the last ten years, with the introduction of many different alternative therapies for this condition. A critical review of published articles in Pubmed/Medline, Athens, AJOL, NHS Evidence, Science Direct and Google, relating to hormonal treatment of breast cancer, was undertaken, in order to evaluate the mechanisms of estrogen receptor-ligand interactions, their involvement in the etio-pathogenesis of breast cancer, resistance of breast cancer cells to anti-hormonal agents, as well as ways of treating breast cancer using anti-hormone drugs like tamoxifen. Although tamoxifen is the established drug for hormonal treatment of breast cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and suggest other novel alternative hormonal therapies that can be tried, which may overtake tamoxifen in the future. We also seek to emphasize that hormonal therapy has a definite place in the treatment of breast cancer along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as the disease is often considered to be multi-systemic even from the beginning. PMID:22437080

Abdulkareem, I H; Zurmi, I B

2012-01-01

288

Pharmacologic Development of Male Hormonal Contraceptive Agents  

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The world population continues to increase dramatically despite the existence of contraceptive technology. The use of male hormonal contraception may help in preventing unintended pregnancies and managing future population growth. Male hormonal contraception relies on the administration of exogenous hormones to suppress spermatogenesis. Clinical trials have tested several regimens using testosterone, alone or in combination with a progestin. These regimens were shown to be >90% effective in p...

2011-01-01

289

Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach  

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Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious app...

2012-01-01

290

Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

Goswami, Soumik; Ghosh, Sujoy; Chowdhury, Subhankar

2012-01-01

291

The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two. PMID:22145139

Chopra, Sandeep; Cherian, Davis; Jacob, Jubbin J

2011-10-01

292

Cardiac hypertrophy and thyroid hormone signaling.  

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Thyroid hormone exerts a large number of influences on the cardiovascular system. Increased thyroid hormone action increases the force and speed of systolic contraction and the speed of diastolic relaxation and these are largely beneficial effects. Furthermore, thyroid hormone has marked electrophysiological effects increasing heart rate and the propensity for atrial fibrillation and these effects are largely mal-adaptive. In addition, thyroid hormone markedly increases cardiac angiogenesis and decreases vascular tone. These multiple thyroid hormone effects are largely mediated by the action of nuclear based thyroid hormone receptors (TR) the thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta. TRalpha is the predominant isoform in the heart. Rapid nongenomic thyroid hormone effects also occur, which can be clearly demonstrated in ex-vivo experiments. Some of the most marked thyroid hormone effects in cardiac myocytes involve influences on calcium flux, with thyroid hormone promoting expression of the gene encoding the calcium pump of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCa2). In contrast, in hypothyroid animals phospholamban levels, which inhibit the SERCa2 pump, are increased. In addition, marked effects are exerted on the calcium channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum the ryanodine channel. Related to myofibrillar proteins, myosin heavy chain alpha is increased by T3 and MHC beta is decreased. Complex and interesting interactions occur between cardiac hypertrophy induced by excess thyroid hormone action and cardiac hypertrophy occurring with heart failure. The thyroid hormone mediated cardiac hypertrophy in its initial phases presents a physiological hypertrophy with increases in SERCa2 levels and decreased expression of MHC beta. In contrast, pressure overload induced heart failure leads to a "pathological" cardiac hypertrophy which is largely mediated by activation of the calcineurin system and the MAPkinases signaling system. Recent evidence indicates that heart failure can lead to a downregulation of the thyroid hormone signaling system in the heart. In the failing heart, decreases of thyroid hormone receptor levels occur. In addition, serum levels of T4 and T3 are decreased with heart failure in the frame of the non-thyroidal illness syndrome. The decrease in T3 serves as an indicator for a bad prognosis in the heart failure patient being linked to increased mortality. In animal models, it can be shown that in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy a decrease of thyroid hormone receptor levels occurs. Cardiac function can be improved by increasing expression of thyroid hormone receptors mediated by adeno-associated virus based gene transfer. The failing heart may develop a "hypothyroid" status contributing to diminished cardiac contractile function. PMID:19125327

Dillmann, Wolfgang

2010-03-01

293

Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry  

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Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in TH activity.

Darras V.M.

2000-01-01

294

Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists  

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The cyclic production of estrogen and progesterone by the\t\t\t premenopausal ovary accounts for the steep rise in breast cancer risk in\t\t\t premenopausal women. These hormones are breast cell mitogens. By reducing\t\t\t exposure to these ovarian hormones, agonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing\t\t\t hormone (LHRH) given to suppress ovarian function may prove useful in cancer\t\t\t prevention. To prevent deleterious effects of hypoestrogenemia...

Spicer, Darcy V.; Pike, Malcolm C.

2000-01-01

295

Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for serum luteinizing hormone was established by using the reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide. The measurement range of this method was 1.5 to 200 IU/L, the sensitivity was 0.08 IU/L, the recovery rate was 96.3% to 112.1%, the coefficient correlation of dilution was 0.995, and the intra-and inter-assay coefficient of variability were 4.09%-8.36% and 5.14%-10.23%, respectively.Compared with Beckman CLIA system, the coefficient correlation was 0.975. (authors)

2010-02-01

296

Hormonal therapy of prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of all cancers, prostate cancer is the most sensitive to hormones: it is thus very important to take advantage of this unique property and to always use optimal androgen blockade when hormone therapy is the appropriate treatment. A fundamental observation is that the serum testosterone concentration only reflects the amount of testosterone of testicular origin which is released in the blood from which it reaches all tissues. Recent data show, however, that an approximately equal amount of testosterone is made from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) directly in the peripheral tissues, including the prostate, and does not appear in the blood. Consequently, after castration, the 95-97% fall in serum testosterone does not reflect the 40-50% testosterone (testo) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) made locally in the prostate from DHEA of adrenal origin. In fact, while elimination of testicular androgens by castration alone has never been shown to prolong life in metastatic prostate cancer, combination of castration (surgical or medical with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist) with a pure anti-androgen has been the first treatment shown to prolong life. Most importantly, when applied at the localized stage, the same combined androgen blockade (CAB) can provide long-term control or cure of the disease in more than 90% of cases. Obviously, since prostate cancer usually grows and metastasizes without signs or symptoms, screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is absolutely needed to diagnose prostate cancer at an 'early' stage before metastasis occurs and the cancer becomes non-curable. While the role of androgens was believed to have become non-significant in cancer progressing under any form of androgen blockade, recent data have shown increased expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in treatment-resistant disease with a benefit of further androgen blockade. Since the available anti-androgens have low affinity for AR and cannot block androgen action completely, especially in the presence of increased AR levels, it becomes important to discover more potent and purely antagonistic blockers of AR. The data obtained with compounds under development are promising. While waiting for this (these) new anti-androgen(s), combined treatment with castration and a pure anti-androgen (bicalutamide, flutamide or nilutamide) is the only available and the best scientifically based means of treating prostate cancer by hormone therapy at any stage of the disease with the optimal chance of success and even cure in localized disease. PMID:20541672

Labrie, Fernand

2010-01-01

297

A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb negative Graves’s disease (GD is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia forty years ago. She did not show characteristic symptoms for hyperthyroidism, such as swelling of thyroid, exophthalmos, tachycardia and tremor, however, she showed only psychomotor agitation. Serum free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels were elevated and TSH level was suppressed, suggesting the existence of hyperthyroidism. However, both the first generation TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb1 and the thyroid stimulating autoantibody (TSAb were negative. Slightly increased blood flow and swelling was detected by thyroid echography. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse and remarkably elevated uptake of 123I uptake. Finally, we diagnosed her as having GD. She was treated by using methimazole, and hyperthyroidism and her psychiatric symptoms were promptly ameliorated. Discussion We experienced a patient with GD who did not show characteristic symptoms except for psychiatric symptoms, and also showed negativity for both TRAb1 and TSAb. Thyroid autoantibody-negative GD is extremely rare. Thyroid scintigraphy was useful to diagnose such a patient.

Hamasaki Hidetaka

2012-12-01

298

Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

2005-01-01

299

Lack of Association Between Peripheral Activity of Thyroid Hormones and Elevated TSH Levels in Childhood Obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is a frequent finding in obese children, but its association with peripheral hormone metabolism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that in obesity, the changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in peripheral tissues might lead to dysregulation in the thyroid axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of TSH with thyroid hormones in a group of obese children as compared to normal-weight controls. Methods: Serum TSH, free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were measured in 101 obese children and in 40 controls. Serum reverse T3 (rT3) levels were also measured in a subgroup of 51 obese children and in 15 controls. Results: Serum TSH level was significantly higher in obese children compared to controls (2.78 vs. 1.99 mIU/L, p<0.001), while no difference was found in fT4, fT3, rT3 levels and in fT3/rT3 ratio. In the obese group, fT3 level positively correlated with fT4 (r=0.217, p=0.033) and inversely with rT3 (r=-0.288, p=0.045). However, thyroid hormone levels and TSH levels were not correlated. Conclusion: In obese children, normal fT4, fT3 and rT3 levels suggest an undisturbed peripheral hormone metabolism. These levels show no correlation with elevated TSH levels. PMID:24932603

Lobotková, Denisa; Staníková, Daniela; Staník, Juraj; Cervenová, Ol'ga; Bzdúch, Vladimír; Tichá, L'ubica

2014-06-01

300

Ontogeny of pituitary thyrotrophs and regulation by endogenous thyroid hormone feedback in the chick embryo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased thyroid hormone production is essential for hatching of the chick and for the increased metabolism necessary for posthatch endothermic life. However, little is known about the ontogeny and distribution of pituitary thyrotrophs during this period or whether pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production is regulated by endogenous thyroid hormones during chick embryonic development. This study assessed the abundance and location of pituitary thyrotrophs and the regulation of TSH(beta) peptide and mRNA levels by endogenous thyroid hormones prior to hatching. TSH(beta)-containing cells were first detected on embryonic day (e) 11, and the thyrotroph population increased to maximum levels on e17 and e19 and then decreased prior to hatching (d1). Thyrotroph distribution within the cephalic lobe of the anterior pituitary was determined on e19 by whole-mount immunocytochemistry for TSH(beta) peptide and by whole-mount in situ hybridization for TSH(beta) mRNA. Thyrotroph distribution within the cephalic lobe was heterogeneous among embryos, but most commonly extended from the ventral medial region to the dorsal lateral regions, along the boundary of the cephalic and caudal lobes. Inhibition of endogenous thyroid hormone production with methimazole (MMI) decreased plasma thyroxine (T4) levels and increased pituitary TSH(beta) mRNA levels on e19 and d1. However, control pituitaries contained significantly more TSH(beta) peptide than MMI-treated pituitaries on e17 and e19, suggesting higher TSH secretion into the blood in MMI-treated groups. We conclude that thyrotroph abundance and TSH production increase prior to hatching, that thyrotrophs are localized heterogeneously within the cephalic lobe of the anterior pituitary at that time, and that TSH gene expression and secretion are under negative feedback regulation from thyroid hormones during this critical period of development. PMID:15684348

Muchow, Michael; Bossis, Ioannis; Porter, Tom E

2005-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts  

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Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

Shen Wen-Jun

2006-02-01

302

The Hormonal Control of Food Intake  

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Numerous circulating peptides and steroids produced in the body influence appetite through their actions on the hypothalamus, the brain stem, and the autonomic nervous system. These hormones come from three major sites—fat cells, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreas. In this Review we provide a synthesis of recent evidence concerning the actions of these hormones on food intake.

Coll, Anthony P.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; O Rahilly, Stephen

2007-01-01

303

A conformational switch in nuclear hormone receptors is involved in coupling hormone binding to corepressor release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear hormone receptors are ligand-regulated transcription factors that modulate gene expression in response to small, hydrophobic hormones, such as retinoic acid and thyroid hormone. The thyroid hormone and retinoic acid receptors typically repress transcription in the absence of hormone and activate it in the presence of hormone. Transcriptional repression is mediated, in part, through the ability of these receptors to physically associate with ancillary polypeptides called corepressors. We wished to understand the mechanism by which corepressors are recruited to unliganded nuclear hormone receptors and are released on the binding of hormone. We report here that an alpha-helical domain located at the thyroid hormone receptor C terminus appears to undergo a hormone-induced conformational change required for release of corepressor and that amino acid substitutions that abrogate this conformational change can impair or prevent corepressor release. In contrast, retinoid X receptors appear neither to undergo an equivalent conformational alteration in their C termini nor to release corepressor in response to cognate hormone, consistent with the distinct transcriptional regulatory properties displayed by this class of receptors. PMID:9315673

Lin, B C; Hong, S H; Krig, S; Yoh, S M; Privalsky, M L

1997-10-01

304

Transport of thyroid hormones is selectively inhibited by 3-iodothyronamine  

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Thyroid hormone transporters are responsible for the cellular uptake of thyroid hormones, which is a prerequisite for their subsequent metabolism and action at nuclear thyroid hormone receptors. A recently discovered thyroid hormone derivative, 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), has distinct biological effects that are opposite those of thyroid hormone. Here we investigate the effects of T1AM on thyroid hormone transporters using COS-1 cells transfected with the multispecific organic anion transportin...

Ianculescu, Alexandra G.; Friesema, Edith C. H.; Visser, Theo J.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Scanlan, Thomas S.

2010-01-01

305

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

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Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

Paul Saenger

2009-01-01

306

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

Saenger Paul

2009-08-01

307

Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of secretion of parathyroid hormone during tests of stimulation and suppression of hormone-secretory activity using infusions of EDTA and calcium, respectively, have established that, in contrast to previous views, secretion of the hormone is not autonomous in many patients that have adenomatous hyperparathyroidism, but is responsive to changes in blood-calcium concentration. These findings have led to a new understanding of the pathophysiology of hormone production in hyperparathy-roidism. A related application of the diagnostic use of the radioimmunoassay is the preoperative localization of parathyroid tumors and the distinction between adenomas and chief-cell hyperplasia. Work involving catheterization and radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from the subclavin and innominate veins and the venae cavae, led to localization in a high percentage of patients. However, this procedure has been adopted recently to detect hormone concentration in the small veins directly draining the parathyroid glands.

Potts, J. T.

1972-01-01

308

Insulin--a growth hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin is a peptide hormone with a high degree of homology with the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Its biological actions are interlaced with those of GH and IGF-I. The objective of this study is to review the growth promoting actions of insulin. The experimental evidence consists of the use of organ cultures of neonatal mice condilar cartilage insulin which stimulates the cartilage cell differentiation and maturation. Injection of insulin to hypohysectomized rats stimulated tibial growth. Clinical evidence is manifold. Babies with diabetes and hypoinsulinemia are short, whereas babies with hyperinsulinism are big. Children with idiopathic short stature have low insulin whereas obese children with hyperinsulinism are tall. Hypo-insulinized children with diabetes slow their growth until the insulin dose is optimized. It remains to be clarified whether insulin exerts its growth promoting actions via its own receptors, via the IGF-I receptors, or via a hybrid (insulin--IGF-I) receptor. PMID:18465354

Laron, Zvi

2008-02-01

309

Radioimmunological determination of parathyroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Angiographic or scintigraphic localization of parathyroid adenomas is successful in only a small number of patients with hypercalcaemic hyperparathyroidism. This report is concerned with the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas by regional catheterization of the thyroid veins in patients with hypercalcaemic hyperparathyroidism ( n = 7). PTH was determined radioimmunologically, using an antiserum specific for PTHsub(1-84) and the carboxyl-terminal fragment of the hormone. Determination of regional differences in the plasma concentration of PTH permitted the preoperative localization of PTH secreting adenomas. The preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas was confirmed in each instance by surgery. Thus, the regional determination of plasma PTH represents a tool to improve the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with hypercalcaemic hyperparathyroidism and, hence, to reduce the risk of an unsuccessful operation. (author)

1979-06-22

310

Changes in mood and hormone levels after rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the prefrontal cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was administered to 10 healthy volunteers on different days over the right or left prefrontal cortex, midfrontal cortex, occipital cortex, or cerebellum. Mood (self-rated), reaction time, and hormone levels were serially measured. Consistent with a previous study, comparison of hemispheres revealed significant associations with decreased happiness after left prefrontal rTMS and decreased sadness after right prefrontal rTMS. Stimulation of all three prefrontal regions, but not the occipital or cerebellar regions, was associated with increases in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. There was no effect on serum prolactin. rTMS applied to prefrontal cortex is safe and well tolerated and produces regionally and laterally specific changes in mood and neuroendocrine measures in healthy adults. rTMS is a promising tool for investigating prefrontal cortex functions. PMID:9081553

George, M S; Wassermann, E M; Williams, W A; Steppel, J; Pascual-Leone, A; Basser, P; Hallett, M; Post, R M

1996-01-01

311

Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity is localized in luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to determine the cell type of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK)-immunoreactive cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Immunoreactive cells were scattered throughout the pars distalis except for the dorso-caudal portion. These cells were immuno-positive for luteinizing hormone (LH), but they were immuno-negative for adrenocorticotrophic, growth, and thyroid-stimulating hormones, as well as prolactin. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that Leu-ENK-like substance and LH co-localized within the same secretory granules. Leu-ENK secreted from gonadotrophs may participate in LH secretion in an autocrine fashion, and/or may participate in the release of sex steroids together with LH. PMID:24034715

Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

2014-02-01

312

Serum Thyroid Hormone Level in Women with Nausea and Vomiting in Early Pregnancy  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and thyroxin (T4 which reflect thyroid function assessment, with nausea and vomiting, among pregnant women in early pregnancy. In present study 60 pregnant women without nausea and vomiting compared with 60 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting during 2007-2008. Two groups of case and control were matched. Patients with nausea and vomiting did not have significant differences when compared with control subjects in TSH level, the data from this investigation indicated that, T4 level elevated among 34 subjects (56.6% with nausea and vomiting compared to 20 subjects (33.3% of women without nausea and vomiting. These data suggest that there is a role for elevated T4 in nausea and vomiting among pregnant women, in early pregnancy.

F. Shahmohammdi

2008-01-01

313

A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist decreases biological activity and modifies chromatographic behavior of luteinizing hormone in man.  

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The effect of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, [D-Trp6,Pro9-NEth]LHRH (LHRHA), on luteinizing hormone (LH) bioactivity was assessed with a rat interstitial cell assay in four men during a 14-d treatment period. Biologic/immunologic (B/I) ratios were unchanged initially with treatment but by day 12 had fallen to levels lower than basal values. Frequent sampling on day 12 revealed blunted gonadotropin responsiveness to LHRHA and absence of spontaneous LH pulsations. Des...

Evans, R. M.; Doelle, G. C.; Lindner, J.; Bradley, V.; Rabin, D.

1984-01-01

314

Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18–357 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23–435 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

2013-01-15

315

A case of myxedema coma caused by isolated thyrotropin stimulating hormone deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myxedema coma (MC) is a rare, but often fatal endocrine emergency. The majority of cases that occur in elderly women with long-standing primary hypothyroidism are caused by particular triggers. Conversely, MC of central origin is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of MC with both central and primary origins. A 56-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital due to loss of consciousness; a chest x-ray demonstrated severe cardiomegaly. Low body temperature, bradycardia, and pericardial effusion suggested the presence of hypothyroidism. Endocrinological examination revealed undetectable levels of serum free thyroxine (T(4)) and free triiodothyronine (T(3)), whereas serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were not elevated. The woman's serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and anti-thyroglobulin antibody tests were positive, indicating that she had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Provocative tests to the anterior pituitary revealed that she had TSH and growth hormone (GH) deficiency; however, GH levels were restored after supplementation with levothyroxine for 5 months. This was not only a rare case of MC with TSH deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis; the patient also developed severe osteoporosis and possessed transient elevated levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). This atypical case may suggest the role of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, as well as hypothyroidism, in the regulation of bone metabolism. PMID:21206138

Iida, Keiji; Hino, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Takeshi; Chihara, Kazuo

2011-01-01

316

Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18-357 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23-435 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

Tietge, Joseph E., E-mail: tietge.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Degitz, Sigmund J., E-mail: degitz.sigmund@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Haselman, Jonathan T., E-mail: haselman.jon@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Butterworth, Brian C., E-mail: butterworth.brian@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Korte, Joseph J., E-mail: korte.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Kosian, Patricia A., E-mail: kosian.pat@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie J., E-mail: lind1020@d.umn.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); and others

2013-01-15

317

Inter-relationship of plasma markers of oxidative stress and thyroid hormones in schizophrenics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship of oxidative stress to thyroid hormones has not been studied in the schizophrenics. The present study determined the status and interrelationship of plasma markers of oxidative stress, nitric oxide and thyroid hormones in thirty (17 males and 13 females newly diagnosed patients with acute schizophrenia before initiation of chemotherapy. Twenty five (13 males and 12 females mentally healthy individuals served as controls. Patients and controls with history of hard drugs (including alcohol and cigarette, pre-diagnosis medications (e.g. antiparkinsonian/antipsychotic drugs, chronic infections, liver disease and diabetes mellitus were excluded from the study. Plasma levels of total antioxidant potential (TAP, total plasma peroxides (TPP, nitric oxide (NO, malondialdehyde (MDA, thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyronine (T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were determined in all participants using spectrophotometric and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods respectively. Oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated as the percent ratio of total plasma peroxides and total antioxidant potential. Findings Significantly higher plasma levels of MDA (p Conclusions Higher level of TPP may enhance thyroid hormogenesis in schizophrenics. Adjuvant antioxidant therapy may be a novel approach in the treatment of schizophrenic patients.

Akiibinu Moses O

2012-03-01

318

Characterization of recombinant human and bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone preparations by mass spectrometry and determination of their endotoxin content  

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BACKGROUND: The TSH stimulation test to confirm canine hypothyroidism is commonly performed using a recombinant human TSH (rhTSH), as up to date, canine TSH is not yet commercially available. Limiting factors for the use of rhTSH are its high costs and occasional difficulties in product availability. Less expensive bovine TSH preparations (bTSH) purified from bovine pituitary glands are readily commercially available. The aim of this study was to evaluate two different bTSH products as altern...

Schaefer, S.; Hassa, P. O.; Sieber-ruckstuhl, N. S.; Piechotta, M.; Reusch, C. E.; Roschitzki, B.; Boretti, F. S.

2013-01-01

319

Radioligand receptor assay (RRA) for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using Triton X-100 solubilized receptor preparation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioligand receptor assay (RRA) was evaluated by working with solubilized TSH receptor from human thyroid. Solubilization of the receptor was achieved by incubation with 1% Triton X-100. This solubilized receptor bound _1_2_5I-TSH. This binding could be inhibited by unlabelled TSH and by thyrotropin-binding-inhibiting antibody (TBIAb), which plays a role in the diagnosis and prognosis of Graves' disease. With the RRA, it was possible to measure down to 10 ?U TSH. For the measurement of TBIAb, this assay has the advantages of being easier to do and more sensitive. (author)

1982-06-21

320

A study on the diagnostic significance of measurement of serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in various thyroid states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioimmunoassay of TSH (human thyrotropin) was performed by utilizing anti-h-TSH antibody and purified human thyrotropin supplied from Daiichi Radioisotope company in Japan. From Jan. 1978 through Aug. 1980 the serum concentration of TSH was measured on 41 cases with various thyroid diseases, and 22 normal persons. Among 41 cases, 9 (22%) were primary hypothyroidism, 17 (41%) Graves' disease, 8 (20%) subacute or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, and 7 (17%) nodular goiter. (author)

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine on the ADVIA Centaur immunoassay system: A multicenter assessment of analytical performance.  

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Objectives: We assessed the analytical performance of the TSH and FT4 assays on ADVIA Centaur in a multicenter national evaluation. Design and methods: A precision study and a method comparison were performed. Reference values stated by the manufacturer were checked from 379 normal subjects. Results: For TSH and FT4, the intra-assay CVs were below 2.3 and 5.2%, respectively, and the inter-assay CVs below 4.4% and 7.2%, respectively. Therefore, the precision and reproducibility were acceptable...

Reix, Nathalie; Massart, Catherine; D Herbomez, Miche?le; Gasser, Franc?oise; Heurtault, Be?atrice; Agin, Arnaud

2013-01-01

322

Regulation of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Release from the Pituitary by Thyroxine during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmentally-relevant chemicals such as perchlorate have the ability to disrupt the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of exposed individuals. Larval anurans are a particularly suitable model species for studying the effects of thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) becaus...

323

Iodine Deficiency Induces a Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-Independent Early Phase of Microvascular Reshaping in the Thyroid  

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Expansion of the thyroid microvasculature is the earliest event during goiter formation, always occurring before thyrocyte proliferation; however, the precise mechanisms governing this physiological angiogenesis are not well understood. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to measure gene expression and laser Doppler to measure blood flow in an animal model of goitrogenesis, we show that thyroid angiogenesis occurred into two successive phases. The fi...

Ge?rard, Anne-catherine; Poncin, Sylvie; Caetano, Bertrand; Sonveaux, Pierre; Audinot, Jean-nicolas; Feron, Olivier; Colin, Ides M.; Soncin, Fabrice

2008-01-01

324

Iodine deficiency induces a thyroid stimulating hormone-independent early phase of microvascular reshaping in the thyroid  

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Expansion of the thyroid microvasculature is the earliest event during goiter formation, always occurring before thyrocyte proliferation; however, the precise mechanisms governing this physiological angiogenesis are not well understood. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to measure gene expression and laser Doppler to measure blood flow in an animal model of goitrogenesis, we show that thyroid angiogenesis occurred into two successive phases. The fi...

Ge?rard, Anne-catherine; Poncin, Sylvie; Caetano, Bertrand; Sonveaux, Pierre; Audinot, Jean-nicolas; Feron, Olivier; Colin, Idesbald; Soncin, Fabrice

2008-01-01

325

Hormonal therapy and genital tract cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of hormonal replacement therapy following genital tract cancer is often denied to women because of the fear of increasing the risk of recurrence or new growth. The paucity of articles written on this subject during the past decade is an indication of the attitude of the medical profession to the needs of women suffering from symptoms of sex hormone deficiency. During 1994-1995 there were few articles published on the use of hormonal therapy to treat menopausal symptoms following genital tract cancer. Several articles, however, reviewed the relationship between hormones and genital tract cancer, some explored the value of antioestrogens in controlling recurrent or secondary disease, and a few others discussed the risk of developing uterine cancer when tamoxifen was used to manage postmenopausal breast cancer. Some suggestions are made that will allow women suffering from symptoms of hormone deficiency to receive alternative regimens of hormonal therapy. Maintaining quality of life without reducing the potential length of life is paramount in reaching a decision on the use of hormonal therapy following genital tract cancer. PMID:8777257

Wren, B

1996-02-01

326

Reproductive hormone influences on thermoregulation in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present discussion reviews current knowledge regarding influences of the primary reproductive hormones on mechanisms of thermoregulatory control in women. The human body is remarkably capable of maintaining body temperature within a few tenths of a degree of normal (37°C) over a wide range of activity and environmental exposures; this regulation is accomplished via integration of central and peripheral thermal information at the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH). We describe both central and peripheral mechanisms involved in controlling thermoregulation in humans, and how these mechanisms are affected by sex and hormone exposure. Estrogens generally promote vasodilation, heat dissipation, and lower body temperature and progesterone or progestins generally have the opposite effect. Estrogens and progesterone/progestins can also interact with androgens; this is an important point because androgens in the body can increase in both older and younger women. The study of reproductive hormone (estrogens, progesterone, luteinizing, and follicle stimulating hormones) effects on body systems is challenging because of the complex and multifaceted influences of these hormones, both individually and in combination. Thus, a number of methods to alter hormone exposure are explained in this article. We conclude that men and women do not exhibit major quantitative differences in physiological thermoregulatory responses to exercise and/or body heating when factors such as fitness and body size are taken into account. However, female and male reproductive hormones have important influences that can significantly alter individual thermoregulatory responses at various points throughout the lifespan. PMID:24715568

Charkoudian, Nisha; Stachenfeld, Nina S

2014-04-01

327

Incretin hormone secretion over the day  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies, although some studies have demonstrated reduced incretin hormone secretion in type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes our knowledge on regulation of incretin hormone secretion and its potential changes in disease states.

Ahren, B; Carr, RD

2010-01-01

328

Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

Krauss, R.M.

1991-12-01

329

Mechanisms of genotoxic effects of hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A concept that compounds commonly present in biological systems lack genotoxic and mutagenic activities is generally in use, hence a low number of endogenous substances have ever been tested to mutagenicity. Epidemiological and experimental analyses indicated, however, that sexual steroids could contribute to initiation and/or continuation of malign diseases. Detailed studies using methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, cytogenetics and other branches, showed that not only epigenetic mechanisms, such as a stimulation of cell proliferation, but also certain hormones, that can express genotoxic effects, such as covalent DNA modification, then chromosomal lesions and chromosomal aberrations, are in the background of malign transformation under activities of hormones. In the case of oestrogens, it was shown that excessive hormonal stimulation led to a metabolic conversion of these hormones to reactive intermediates with formation of reactive oxygenic derivates, so that cells were virtually under conditions of oxidative stress. Individual and tissue susceptibility to occurrence of deterioration of DNA and other cell components generally results from the differences in efficiency of enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms of resistance against oxidative stress. Besides, steroid thyeroid hormones and catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine and adrenaline can express genotoxic effects in some test-systems. It is interesting that all above mentioned hormones have a phenolic group. Data on possible genotoxic effects of peptide and protein hormones are very scarce, but based on the available literature it is considered that this group of hormones probably lacks mutagenic activities. The possibility that hormones, as endogenous substances, express mutagenic activities results from the fact that DNA is, regardless of chemical and metabolic stability susceptible, to a certain extent, to changeability compatible with the processes of the biological evolution.

?eli? Ninoslav J.

2002-01-01

330

Parathyroid hormone binding to cultured avian osteoclasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases serum calcium concentration via a controversial cellular mechanism. We investigated whether PTH binds avian osteoclasts. Isolated hypocalcaemic hen osteoclasts were incubated with ({sup 125}I)--bovine PTH (1-84). Specific binding of the hormone to the cells, which reached the equilibrium within 60 min, was observed. Half maximal binding was reached by 10 min. Binding was competitively inhibited by increasing doses of unlabeled PTH, and was about 55% displaced by adding, at the equilibrium, 10(-6) M unlabeled PTH. Autoradiography demonstrated specific label on the osteoclast. The cellular mechanism activated by the hormone remains to be elucidated.

Teti, A.; Rizzoli, R.; Zambonin Zallone, A. (Univ. of Bari (Italy))

1991-02-14

331

Parathyroid hormone binding to cultured avian osteoclasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases serum calcium concentration via a controversial cellular mechanism. We investigated whether PTH binds avian osteoclasts. Isolated hypocalcaemic hen osteoclasts were incubated with [125I]--bovine PTH (1-84). Specific binding of the hormone to the cells, which reached the equilibrium within 60 min, was observed. Half maximal binding was reached by 10 min. Binding was competitively inhibited by increasing doses of unlabeled PTH, and was about 55% displaced by adding, at the equilibrium, 10(-6) M unlabeled PTH. Autoradiography demonstrated specific label on the osteoclast. The cellular mechanism activated by the hormone remains to be elucidated

1991-02-14

332

Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: unusual oral manifestations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children with significant growth retardation and normal levels of growth hormone are diagnosed with growth hormone insensitivity. The main oral findings observed in patients with growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS) are underdeveloped jaws, crowded teeth and delayed eruption of permanent teeth. This manuscript describes a 9-year-old child diagnosed with GHIS, who had delayed eruption of permanent teeth and 14 unerupted supernumerary teeth. All supernumerary teeth were extracted except for two maxillary and one mandibular teeth which were difficult to identify and access. Multiple supernumerary teeth have never been reported before in patients with GHIS. PMID:24351697

Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Siqueira, Carlos Rodrigo Barros; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Palma, Vinícius Canavarros; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

2013-01-01

333

Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy. This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin. Physical activity should be promoted, and cigarette smoking reduced if possible. Women at risk of cardiovascular disease will also benefit from hormone replacement therapy. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone therapy will protect against both coronary heart disease and stroke, and there is no increased risk of venous thrombosis or hypertension. A disadvantage of hormone replacement therapy is an increased risk of forming gall-bladder stones and undergoing cholecystectomy. Unopposed estrogen therapy gives a higher incidence of endometrial cancer in women with an intact uterus, but the contribution of progestins for about 10 days every month excludes this risk. Breast cancer in relation to estrogen-progestogen therapy has been given much concern, and the problem is still not fully solved. If there is a risk, it is small, and only after prolonged use of estrogen (15-20 years). The decision whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy should, of course, be taken by the individual woman in question, but her decision should be based on the available scientific information. It is the opinion of the authors that the advantages of hormone replacement therapy far exceed the disadvantages. We suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J

1994-01-01

334

Reproducibility of the growth hormone response to stimulation with growth hormone-releasing hormone plus arginine during lifespan.  

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The reliability and reproducibility of provocative stimuli of growth hormone (GH) secretion in the diagnosis of GH deficiency are still controversial both in childhood and in adulthood. The combined administration of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and arginine (ARG), which likely acts via inhibition of hypothalamic somatostatin release, is one of the most potent stimuli known so far and has been proposed recently as the best test to explore the maximal somatotrope capacity of somatotrope cells. ...

Camanni, Franco; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Ghigo, Ezio; Arvat, Emanuela

1996-01-01

335

Evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and somatomedin-C (IGF-1) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relation with the severity of the disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has recently become a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of the disease and levels of serum thyroid hormones and somatomedin-C [Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF-1)]. Sixty one COPD cases (group 1) were enrolled. Control group (group 2) consisted of 20 healthy individuals. Blood samples were obtained for the analysis of arterial blood gases and hormone levels and respiratory function tests were performed on the same day. Measured hormone levels were compared between group 1 and group 2. Among thyroid hormone levels, there was no significant difference in thyroid stimulating hormone and free T3 between group 1 and 2 whereas free T4 levels were significantly higher in group 1 (p< 0.01). Additionally, mean IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in group 1 (p< 0.005). When three groups, classified according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria, were compared, significant differences were observed between mild-moderate COPD cases and severe patients with respect to free T3 and IGF-1 levels (p< 0.05). Hormone levels in COPD patients change depending on the severity of the disease. In the future hormone therapies can use for the COPD treatments. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm our conclusions. PMID:20037851

Co?kun, Funda; Ege, Ercüment; Uzaslan, Esra; Ediger, Dane; Karada?, Mehmet; Gözü, Oktay

2009-01-01

336

Thyroid Hormone Stimulates Renin Gene Expression Through the Thyroid Hormone Response Element  

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We previously reported that thyroid hormone stimulates renin synthesis in vivo and in vitro. Here, we analyzed the 5?-flanking sequence of the human renin gene for promoter activity responsive to thyroid hormone using Calu-6 cells, which secrete renin endogenously and express thyroid hormone receptor-?. The luciferase reporter gene was cloned together with 5?-flanking portions of the human renin gene of various lengths into the pGL3-Basic vector. Luciferase activity assays were performed...

Kobori, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Matsuhiko; Saruta, Takao

2001-01-01

337

Inhibitory activity of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone on tumor growth and progression  

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Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is the key hormone in the control of reproductive functions. In recent years, it has become evident that LHRH might act as a growth modulatory factor in tumors of the reproductive system. We have shown that in prostate cancer cells LHRH is expressed, together with its receptors, to negatively regulate cell proliferation. In these cells, LHRH acts as an antimitogenic factor through the activation of the Gi-cAMP intracellular signaling pathway. More ...

Moretti, Roberta Manuela; Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Motta, Marcella; Limonta, Patrizia

2003-01-01

338

Polypeptide Derivatives of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH).  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel parathyroid hormone (PTH) polypeptide derivatives are disclosed, as are pharmaceutical compositions containing said polypeptides, and synthetic and recombinant methods for producing said polypeptides. Also disclosed are methods for treating mammalia...

H. Juppner H. M. Kronenberg J. T. Potts T. J. Gardella

2005-01-01

339

IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

340

'Love Hormone' May Help Those with Anorexia  

Science.gov (United States)

... enable JavaScript. 'Love Hormone' May Help Those With Anorexia Small, preliminary study found it lowered levels of ... obsessions with food and obesity in people with anorexia. "Patients with anorexia have a range of social ...

 
 
 
 
341

[Hormones and Cytokines in Bone Metabolism. Thyroid hormone and skeletal metabolism].  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is important in normal skeletal development, gain of bone mass, and regulation of adult bone metabolism. Hypothyroidism in childhood causes delayed bone maturation and growth disturbance and thyroid dysfunction in adult induces altered bone remodeling and an increased risk of bone fracture. Thyroid hormone actions in skeletal cells are mainly mediated by thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) . The responses to thyroid hormone are regulated by type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2 and DIO3) , which convert prohormone (T4) to active hormone (T3) . Euthyroid status is necessary for the homeostasis of human bone metabolism. PMID:24870832

Onigata, Kazumichi

2014-06-01

342

Hormonal Treatment and Pelviscopic Myomectomy  

Science.gov (United States)

In cases of benign lesions, pelviscopy is used in about 70% of all abdominal operations at our Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. From 1990 to 1992, 851 patients with myomas were treated by surgery. In 57% pelviscopy, in 2% laparotomy, and in 1% hysteroscopic myomectomies were treated. In 11%, a CISH (Classical Intrafascial SEMM—serrated edged macro morcellator—Hysterectomy) without colpotomy was applied using the operative technique of pelviscopy or laparotomy. The application of this new surgical technique preserves the patient's pelvic floor (diaphragm pelvis and urogenitalis), its blood supply, and neural function. Details of the surgical techniques used in pelviscopic myomaenucleations are described. One hundred sixteen patients were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) before the pelviscopic myomaenucleation took place. In this study, 64 (55%) patients received 3,75 mg leuprorelin, and 52 (45%), patients 3.75 mg triptorelin. The monthly injections took place over a period of 3 to 6 months. After 3 months, an identical reduction of the myomas of about 10% to 50% was observed in 103 patients (88%) in both therapy groups. The preservation of the uterus by this minimal invasive surgery technique was generally accepted. No serious complications occurred.

Alvarez-Rodas, E.; Semm, K.

1995-01-01

343

Osteoporotic fracture and parathyroid hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteoporosis and age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption, resulting in bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. Stimulating the function of bone-forming osteoblasts, is the preferred pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. Recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH, PTH(1-34, is an anabolic agent with proven benefits to bone strength and has been characterized as a potential therapy for skeletal repair. In spite of PTH’s clinical use, safety is a major consideration for long-term treatment. Studies have demonstrated that intermittent PTH treatment enhances and accelerates the skeletal repair process via a number of mechanisms. Recent research into the molecular mechanism of PTH action on bone tissue has led to the development of PTH analogs to control osteoporotic fractures. This review summarizes a number of advances made in the field of PTH and bone fracture to combat these injuries in humans and in animal models. The ultimate goal of providing an alternative to PTH, currently the sole anabolic therapy in clinical use, to promote bone formation and improve bone strength in the aging population is yet to be achieved.

Nabanita S Datta

2011-01-01

344

Growth hormone doping: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

Erotokritou-Mulligan I

2011-07-01

345

Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation, and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone (TH) conversion. Here, we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of TH signaling within the medio-basal hypothalamus (MBH) through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, TH might also be involved in longer-term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the MBH, in seasonal rhythmicity. PMID:24616714

Dardente, Hugues; Hazlerigg, David G; Ebling, Francis J P

2014-01-01

346

Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular ["1"2"5I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore ["1"2"5I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

1981-01-01

347

Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T4 and T3. In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T4 and T3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T4 and T3. Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

1984-02-03

348

Growth hormone response to GHRH during lifespan.  

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Recent evidence has shown that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) enables investigation of the pathophysiology of GH secretion in a variety of different states, but it cannot be used as a test for probing pituitary somatotrophic function, due to the extreme inter- and intra-subject variability in normal subjects. This task is better accomplished when compounds which deprive the pituitary of inhibitory (somatostatinergic) influences, e.g. pyridostigmine, arginine, etc., are given in combi...

Ghigo, Ezio; Camanni, Franco; Arvat, Emanuela

1993-01-01

349

Growth hormone-releasing hormone combined with arginine or growth hormone secretagogues for the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in adults.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (ITT) is currently the 'gold-standard' test for the diagnosis of adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD). ITT is often contraindicated, however, particularly in conditions that are also common in patients with suspected GHD. Used alone, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) has no diagnostic value owing to within-subject variability and the inability to distinguish GHD from normal subjects. When combined with arginine, however, GHRH becomes a potent and reproducible test, whi...

Ghigo, Ezio; Camanni, Franco; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Arvat, Emanuela

2001-01-01

350

Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli. Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs is not only associated with less GH secreted per pulse but also with an impaired response to synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) (Chapter 3 a...

Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

2006-01-01

351

Thyroid Hormones in Rats with Hyperluteinized Ovaries  

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The findings of research work showed that animals with hyperluteinized ovaries (HL) obtained after mechanical lesions in the posterior hypothalamus, the circulatory patterns of pituitary and ovarian steroid hormones were disturbed. In these animals the pre-ovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) was lower and prolactin (Prl) was higher, while in early proestrus estradiol was higher, and progesterone in late proestrus was lower when compared to the intact controls. It is recognized t...

Demajo, M.; Plamenac, P.; Karakasevic, A.; Pantic, V.; Ivanisevic-milovanovic, O.

2001-01-01

352

Localization and functions of steroid hormone receptors  

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This review focuses on the subcellular localization of steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), taking into account the technical problems of immunohistochemistry and the characteristics of nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of each receptor, on the interaction between SHKs and cellular components, and on the possible roles of sex SHRs in the reproductive organs. It is concluded that SHRs are basically localized in the nucleus, regardless of hormonal status, and that...

Yamashita, S.

1998-01-01

353

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric in...

Saenger Paul

2009-01-01

354

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric indicatio...

Saenger, Paul

2009-01-01

355

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric indication...

Paul Saenger

2009-01-01

356

Sex Steroidal Hormones and Respiratory Control  

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There is a growing public awareness that sex hormones can have an impact on a variety of physiological processes. Yet, despite almost a century of research, we still do not have a clear picture as to the effects of sex hormones on the regulation of breathing. Considerable data has accumulated showing that estrogen, progesterone and testosterone can influence respiratory function in animals and humans. Several disorders of breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death...

Behan, Mary; Wenninger, Julie M.

2008-01-01

357

A rare syndrome: Thyroid hormone resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTH is a rare disorder, usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Patients with RTH are usually euthyroid but can occasionally present with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis or rarely with hypothyroidism. We present a patient with interesting syndrome as RTH but no family history. Goiter, increased weight gain and normal mental status were observed despite high serum thyroid hormones and normal TSH levels

Yunus ?lyas Kibar

2011-09-01

358

Menopausal hormone therapy after breast cancer  

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The use of postmenopausal hormone therapy after breast cancer remains controversial. Evidence shows variation by study design, and even among three randomized controlled trials there is substantial heterogeneity of results. Two Swedish trials of comparable size show relative risks of recurrence of 3.3 and 0.82 on comparing women receiving postmenopausal hormone therapy with control women. The extent of use of tamoxifen and concomitant use of progestins in combination with estrogen, although r...

2005-01-01

359

Menopausal Hormone Therapy after Breast Cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of postmenopausal hormone therapy after breast cancer remains controversial. Evidence shows variation by study design, and even among three randomized controlled trials there is substantial heterogeneity of results. Two Swedish trials of comparable size show relative risks of recurrence of 3.3 and 0.82 on comparing women receiving postmenopausal hormone therapy with control women. The extent of use of tamoxifen and concomitant use of progestins in combination with estrogen, although r...

2005-01-01

360

Thyroid Hormone Control of Cardiac Substrate Metabolism  

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Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an important role in maintaining a homeostasis in all the cells of our body. It also has significant cardiovascular effects, and abnormalities of its concentration can cause cardiovascular disease and even morbidity. Especially development of heart failure has been connected to low levels of thyroid hormone. A decrease in TH levels or TH-receptor binding adversely effects cardiac function. Although, this occurs in part through alterations in excitation-contraction a...

Hyyti Villet, Outi

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Screening methods for thyroid hormone disruptors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The U.S. Congress has passed legislation requiring the EPA to implement screening tests for identifying endocrine-disrupting chemicals. A series of workshops was sponsored by the EPA, the Chemical Manufacturers Association, and the World Wildlife Fund; one workshop focused on screens for chemicals that alter thyroid hormone function and homeostasis. Participants at this meeting identified and examined methods to detect alterations in thyroid hormone synthesis, transport, and catabolism. In ad...

Devito, M.; Biegel, L.; Brouwer, A.; Brown, S.; Brucker-davis, F.; Cheek, A. O.; Christensen, R.; Colborn, T.; Cooke, P.; Crissman, J.; Crofton, K.; Doerge, D.; Gray, E.; Hauser, P.; Hurley, P.

1999-01-01

362

Gut hormone release after intestinal resection.  

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To investigate the possible role of gut and pancreatic hormones in the adaptive responses to gut resection, plasma concentrations of the circulating hormones were measured, in response to a test breakfast, in patients with either small or large intestinal resection and in healthy control subjects. In 18 patients with partial ileal resection a significant threefold rise was found in basal and postprandial levels of pancreatic polypeptide, a fourfold increase in motilin, and more than a twofold...

Besterman, H. S.; Adrian, T. E.; Mallinson, C. N.; Christofides, N. D.; Sarson, D. L.; Pera, A.; Lombardo, L.; Modigliani, R.; Bloom, S. R.

1982-01-01

363

Oral manifestations in growth hormone disorders  

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Growth hormone is of vital importance for normal growth and development. Individuals with growth hormone deficiency develop pituitary dwarfism with disproportionate delayed growth of skull and facial skeleton giving them a small facial appearance for their age. Both hyper and hypopituitarism have a marked effect on development of oro-facial structures including eruption and shedding patterns of teeth, thus giving an opportunity to treating dental professionals to first see the signs and sympt...

2012-01-01

364

Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T_3) and thyroxine (T_4), various experiments such as "1"2"5I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

1980-01-01

365

Hormones and prostate carcinogenesis: Androgens and estrogens  

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Prostate cancer is the leading non-skin malignancy detected in US males and the second cause of death due to male cancer in the US. Androgenic hormones are generally believed to be causatively associated with prostate carcinogenesis, but human evidence, mostly epidemiological, for this is minimal. Circulating hormone levels are not associated with the risk of prostate cancer and neither are polymorphisms in various genes encoding the androgen metabolizing enzymes or androgen receptors. Eviden...

Bosland, Maarten C.; Mahmoud, Abeer M.

2011-01-01

366

Serum antimüllerian hormone in healthy premenopausal women  

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Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is extensively studied in ovarian aging and pathology; however, little is known about correlates in healthy premenopausal women. We found that AMH levels are strongly inversely associated with age and differed significantly between oral contraceptive pill users and nonusers, whereas no significant associations were seen between AMH and other clinical, behavioral, and anthropometric characteristics and laboratory variables, making it an attractive hormone for clini...

Shaw, Christiana M.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Egleston, Brian L.; Kahle, L. L.; Spittle, Cynthia S.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Brinton, Louise A.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

2011-01-01

367

Sex hormones and the dry eye.  

Science.gov (United States)

The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye. PMID:24689906

Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

2014-07-01

368

Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor antagonists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the pituitary secretion of both luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and thus controls the hormonal and reproductive function of the gonads. Blockade of GnRH effects may be wanted for a variety of reasons-eg, to prevent untimely luteinisation during assisted reproduction or in the treatment of sex-hormone-dependent disorders. Selective blockade of LH/FSH secretion and subsequent chemical castration have previously been achieved by desensitising the pituitary to continuously administered GnRH or by giving long-acting GnRH agonists. Only recently have GnRH-receptor antagonists, that immediately block GnRH's effects, been developed for clinical use with acceptable pharmacokinetic, safety, and commercial profiles. In assisted reproduction, these compounds seem to be as effective as established therapy but with shorter treatment times, less use of gonadotropic hormones, improved patient acceptance, and fewer follicles and oocytes. All current indications for GnRH-agonist desensitisation may prove to be indications for a GnRH antagonist, including endometriosis, leiomyoma, and breast cancer in women, benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostatic carcinoma in men, and central precocious puberty in children. However, the best clinical evidence so far has been in assisted reproduction and prostate cancer. PMID:11734258

Huirne, J A; Lambalk, C B

2001-11-24

369

Radioimmunoassay and the hormones of thyroid function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has provided the tools for wide-reaching investigations that have changed and continue to change many important concepts of thyroid physiology and pathophysiology. The RIA for human thyrotropin (TSH) was developed in 1965; development of the RIA for triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine(T4), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), and recently, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) followed. The capacity to measure nanogram and picogram concentrations with relative ease and speed has permitted the demonstration of dynamic relationships of the intrathyroidal and circulating thyroid hormones to each other and to the pituitary and hypothalamic regulating hormones. Evidence for the presence of cross-influences between TRH and other hypothalamic regulating hormones on the secretion of pituitary hormones has accumulated. The impact of the new information on clinical practice is now becoming evident. There is new appreciation of the value of assaying serum T3 and TSH concentrations in the clinical management of patients with disturbed function of the thyroid, pituitary, or hypothalamus. The necessary components for RIA performance can be purchased separately or in kit form from commercial sources. With appropriate quality-control procedures, precise, sensitive, and reliable data can be generated. Awareness of the specific technical problems relating to the RIA of these hormones is absolutely necessary to assure reliable results. The availability of kits or their components permits the performance of these studies in the community hospital and in reliable commercial-service laboratories. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

370

A Multi-faceted, Fat-defending Peptide Hormone: Ghrelin  

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Ghrelin is a novel gastric hormone recognized in 1999 as a mediator of growth hormone release. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone in which the third amino acid usually serine is modified by an acyl acid. This modification is essential for ghrelins activity. Ghrelin may thus be an essential hormone for maintaining growth hormone release and energy homeostasis. Ghrelin has profound orexigenic, adipogenic and somatotrophic properties, increasing food intake and body weight. Secreted predominantly from...

2011-01-01

371

Unraveling the paradoxes of plant hormone signaling integration  

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Plant hormones play a major role in plant growth and development. They affect similar processes but, paradoxically, their signaling pathways act nonredundantly. Hormone signals are integrated at the gene-network level rather than by cross-talk during signal transduction. In contrast to hormone-hormone integration, recent data suggest that light and plant hormone pathways share common signaling components, which allows photoreceptors to influence the growth program. We propose a role for the p...

Jaillais, Yvon; Chory, Joanne

2010-01-01

372

TIME AND DOSE-DEPENDENT THYROID HORMONE RELEASE FROM XENOPUS THYROID GLAND CULTURES IN RESPONSE TO THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND INHIBITION BY METHIMAZOLE  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis....

373

Menopause and hormone replacement therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

Ali Baziad

2001-12-01

374

Thryroid Hormones and Hematological Indices Levels in Thyroid Disorders Patients at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Western Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem Statement. Thyroid disorders are prevalent in western Kenya, but the effects of disorders on thyroid hormones and hematological indices levels have not been documented. Study Population. Patients treated for thyroid disorders at the MTRH between January 2008 and December 2011. Objectives. To determine the thyroid hormones and hematological indices levels in thyroid disorders patients at the MTRH, western Kenya. Methodology. A retrospective study in which patient data and stored samples of patients, who presented with thyroid pathologies, underwent thyroidectomy, and histological examinations are done. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) blood levels, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), platelet counts, and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were analyzed. Results. Male?:?female ratio was 1?:?10.9 with female representing 368 (95%). The median age was 41 (IQR: 32–48) with a range of 14–89 years. HHormonal levels for immunological thyroid disease patients were higher (P = 0.0232; 0.040) for TSH and (T3) for those aged 30–39 years, respectively. The WBCs, RBCs, HGB, and platelets in immunological thyroid disease were not statistically significant with P values of 0.547, 0.205, 0.291, and 0.488 respectively. Conclusion. The presence of anaemia due to low RBCs in thyroid disease is not significantly associated with thyroid hormone with a P value of 0.512.

Iddah, M. A.; Macharia, B. N.; Ng'wena, A. G.; Keter, A.; Ofulla, A. V. O.

2013-01-01

375

Thryroid hormones and hematological indices levels in thyroid disorders patients at moi teaching and referral hospital, Western kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem Statement. Thyroid disorders are prevalent in western Kenya, but the effects of disorders on thyroid hormones and hematological indices levels have not been documented. Study Population. Patients treated for thyroid disorders at the MTRH between January 2008 and December 2011. Objectives. To determine the thyroid hormones and hematological indices levels in thyroid disorders patients at the MTRH, western Kenya. Methodology. A retrospective study in which patient data and stored samples of patients, who presented with thyroid pathologies, underwent thyroidectomy, and histological examinations are done. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) blood levels, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), platelet counts, and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were analyzed. Results. Male?:?female ratio was 1?:?10.9 with female representing 368 (95%). The median age was 41 (IQR: 32-48) with a range of 14-89 years. HHormonal levels for immunological thyroid disease patients were higher (P = 0.0232; 0.040) for TSH and (T3) for those aged 30-39 years, respectively. The WBCs, RBCs, HGB, and platelets in immunological thyroid disease were not statistically significant with P values of 0.547, 0.205, 0.291, and 0.488 respectively. Conclusion. The presence of anaemia due to low RBCs in thyroid disease is not significantly associated with thyroid hormone with a P value of 0.512. PMID:23691348

Iddah, M A; Macharia, B N; Ng'wena, A G; Keter, A; Ofulla, A V O

2013-01-01

376

Effects of commercial formulations of deltamethrin and/or thiacloprid on thyroid hormone levels in rat serum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deltamethrin (DEL) and thiacloprid (THIA) are the two commonly used synthetic insecticides applied either separately or as a mixture. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the serum levels of thyroid hormones exposure to these compounds in rats. The animals were orally gavaged with a single dose of DEL (15 mg/kg), THIA (112.5 mg/kg) or DEL + THIA (15 + 112.5 mg/kg) for 24 h (acute treatments) or DEL (3 mg/kg per day), THIA (22.5 mg/kg per day) or DEL + THIA (3 + 22.5 mg/kg per day) for 30 days (subacute treatments). Although all independent and combined treatments with DEL and THIA changed the levels of TSH, these alterations were not significant. Statistically significant increases in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) serum hormone levels were observed in the independent treatment with THIA and the combined treatment with DEL and THIA for 30 days. The results of this study suggest that in vivo exposure to subacute treatments of commercial formulations of THI and mixture of DEL + THIA increased serum FT3 and FT4 levels in rats. Further studies are required to determine the effects of endocrine disruptors and potential health risks of these insecticides in human, especially in children because of the importance of these hormones during growth and development. PMID:22677783

Sekeroglu, V; Sekeroglu, Z Atli; Demirhan, Es

2014-02-01

377

Plasma zinc, copper, and serum thyroid hormones and insulin levels after zinc supplementation followed by placebo in competitive athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intense physical activity is associated with biological adaptations involving hormones and trace elements. Zinc supplementation may affect plasma copper concentration, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose homeostasis, but data in athletes are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate in competitive athletes (cyclists, n?=?7, 32?±?8 years) the effect of zinc supplementation (22 mg/day as zinc gluconate) during 30 days, and discontinuation using placebo (maltodextrin) during the following 30 days, on plasma zinc and copper concentrations, serum thyroid hormones, insulin and glucose levels, and HOMA2-IR. Compared to baseline, plasma zinc and Zn:Cu plasma ratio increased, but plasma copper decreased after zinc supplementation (day 30) and discontinuation (day 60) (p?

Marques, Lucianna Fernandes J C; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Franco, Juliana Gastao; Pires, Luciane; Luna, Aderval Severino; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Koury, Josely Correa

2011-09-01

378

Thyroid hormone receptor binding to DNA and T3-dependent transcriptional activation are inhibited by uremic toxins  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There is a substantial clinical overlap between chronic renal failure (CRF) and hypothyroidism, suggesting the presence of hypothyroidism in uremic patients. Although CRF patients have low T3 and T4 levels with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), they show a higher prevalence of goiter and evidence for blunted tissue responsiveness to T3 action. However, there are no studies examining whether thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) play a role in thyroid hormone dysfunction in CRF patients. To evaluate the effects of an uremic environment on TR function, we investigated the effect of uremic plasma on TR?1 binding to DNA as heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR?) and on T3-dependent transcriptional activity. Results We demonstrated that uremic plasma collected prior to hemodialysis (Pre-HD) significantly reduced TR?1-RXR? binding to DNA. Such inhibition was also observed with a vitamin D receptor (VDR) but not with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). A cell-based assay confirmed this effect where uremic pre-HD ultrafiltrate inhibited the transcriptional activation induced by T3 in U937 cells. In both cases, the inhibitory effects were reversed when the uremic plasma and the uremic ultrafiltrate were collected and used after hemodialysis (Post-HD). Conclusion These results suggest that dialyzable toxins in uremic plasma selectively block the binding of TR?1-RXR? to DNA and impair T3 transcriptional activity. These findings may explain some features of hypothyroidism and thyroid hormone resistance observed in CRF patients.

Santos, Guilherme M; Pantoja, Carlos J; Costa e Silva, Aluizio; Rodrigues, Maria C; Ribeiro, Ralff C; Simeoni, Luiz A; Lomri, Noureddine; Neves, Francisco AR

2005-01-01

379

Discordances between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in female infertility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) represent the two most frequently utilized laboratory tests in determining ovarian reserve (OR). This study determined the clinical significance of their concordance and discordance in female infertility patients. Methods We investigated 366 consecutive infertility patients (350 reached IVF), excluding women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). They were considered to ha...

Gleicher Norbert; Weghofer Andrea; Barad David H

2010-01-01

380

Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo Hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitarism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada deficiência, dosagens, vias de administração, efeitos colaterais e monitorização clínico-laboratorial durante os diferentes períodos da vida para cada reposição hormonal: hormônio de crescimento na criança e no adulto, hormônios tiroideanos no hipotiroidismo central, glicocorticóides no hipoadrenalismo central, análogos de vasopressina no diabetes insípidus central, esteróides sexuais no homem e na mulher, da puberdade à senescência e gonadotrofinas no tratamento da infertilidade. As informações aqui contidas resultam de uma revisão crítica da literatura aliada à nossa experiência de mais de duas décadas no diagnóstico e tratamento do paciente hipopituitário na Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo.This article brings an updated review of hypopituitarism with emphasis in hormone replacement therapy. The physiological basis of hormone replacement therapy and practical aspects of treating hypopituitary patients were both taken into account to provide a rational strategy for treatment. The review is organized by individual pituitary hormone deficiency and covers epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of hypopituitarism, as well as the most relevant hormone preparations currently available for treating each hormone deficiency. Practical guidelines to hormone dosing, routes of administration, side effects and clinical and laboratory monitoring during the entire lifespan are given for each individual hormone replacement therapy: growth hormone in GH-deficient children and adults, thyroid hormone in central hypothyroidism, glucocorticoid in central hypoadrenalism, vasopressin analogs in diabetes insipidus, sex hormones in man and women from puberty to senescence, and gonadotropins for treating infertility. In addition to the literature review, we took into account our own experience of more than two decades in investigating, diagnosing, and treating hypopituitary patients at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

Julio Abucham

2003-08-01

 
 
 
 
381

Effects of the hormones of the thyroid axis on the vitamin K-dependent plasma factors of blood coagulation (II, VII, IX, and X).  

Science.gov (United States)

The hormonal regulation of haemostasis is a problem which has not received much attention. The data concerning the influence of hormones from the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis are scarce, contradictory and based mainly on clinical observations. The objective of the current research is to study the influence of the Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxin (T4) on the activity level of the vitamin K-dependent plasma factors of blood coagulation--factor II (F II), factor VII (F VII), factor IX (F IX) and factor X (F X). This study was carried out on 40 male Wistar rats. The necessary quantity of blood was obtained by cardiac puncture under ether narcosis. The indicators studied were activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), protothrombin time (PT), F II, F VII, F IX and F X, and were determined by means of Diagnostica Stago tests and with the help of an automatic coagulometer. The hormones studied were: TRH (0.06 mg/kg b.w.), TSH (1 MU/kg b.w.), T3 (0.08 mg/kg b.w.) T4 (0.08 mg/kg b.w.) prolonged aPTT (phypocoagulation observed in the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways under the influence of the hormones of the thyroid axis. PMID:18336749

Negrev, N N; Radev, R Z; Velikova, M S; Anogeianaki, A

2008-01-01

382

Comparison Between the Effects of the Alcholic Extract of Mellissia Officinalis and Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Materials and Methods: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Results: The results showed that in experimental groups receiving the plant extract and atorvastatin, the concentration of thyroid hormones increased, whereas the amount of the thyroid-stimulating hormone showed a significant decrease (p<0.05.Conclusion: Mellissia officinalis extract decreases TSH but it increases T3 and T4. Further studies are required for applying this extract to the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

Ali Zarei

2013-08-01

383

[Hormonal treatments for fertility disorders in cattle].  

Science.gov (United States)

In dairy cows, hormonal treatments are commonly implemented for acyclicity, silent heat and endometritis. Before treatment, causes of infertility need to be detected and severe failures in housing, feeding or other diseases must be eliminated. Without sustainable improvement of herd management, the use of intensive hormonal treatments will not improve reproductive performance. The most common cause of anoestrous is silent heat. In cows with a palpable corpus luteum, injection of prostaglandin F2? (PGF) reliably induces oestrous. A satisfactory treatment for acyclicity (ovarian dystrophy, ovarian cysts) does not exist. Combinations of different hormones have greater treatment success than a single use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Strategic use of PGF during the early postpartum period cannot be recommended because positive effects on uterus involution and resumption of the oestrous cycle after calving have not been verified. In contrast, application of GnRH combined with PGF in the puerperal phase appeared to have positive effects on fertility of cows with endometritis. The same applies to PGF for cows with chronic endometritis. Cases of endometritis with fetid odour of vaginal mucus or isolation of Trueperella pyogenes should be treated with antibiotics. Treatment before the 27th day post partum is not advisable. In conclusion, hormonal treatments can be used to treat fertility disorders. Nevertheless, in order to enhance the reproductive performance at the herd level, a sustainable improvement of the general conditions (housing, feeding, animal health, management) is a prerequisite. PMID:22911233

Gundling, N; Feldmann, M; Hoedemaker, M

2012-01-01

384

Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss in fast muscle function (power), and accumulation of fat in skeletal muscle. Further HRT raises the protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscle after resistance training, and has an anabolic effect upon connective tissue in both skeletal muscle and tendon, which influences matrix structure and mechanical properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal muscle.

Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco

2013-01-01

385

Hormonal responses during early embryogenesis in maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant hormones have been shown to regulate key processes during embryogenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanisms that determine the peculiar embryo pattern formation of monocots are largely unknown. Using the auxin and cytokinin response markers DR5 and TCSv2 (two-component system, cytokinin-responsive promoter version #2), as well as the auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1a (PINFORMED1a), we have studied the hormonal response during early embryogenesis (zygote towards transition stage) in the model and crop plant maize. Compared with the hormonal response in Arabidopsis, we found that detectable hormone activities inside the developing maize embryo appeared much later. Our observations indicate further an important role of auxin, PIN1a and cytokinin in endosperm formation shortly after fertilization. Apparent auxin signals within adaxial endosperm cells and cytokinin responses in the basal endosperm transfer layer as well as chalazal endosperm are characteristic for early seed development in maize. Moreover, auxin signalling in endosperm cells is likely to be involved in exogenous embryo patterning as auxin responses in the endosperm located around the embryo proper correlate with adaxial embryo differentiation and outgrowth. Overall, the comparison between Arabidopsis and maize hormone response and flux suggests intriguing mechanisms in monocots that are used to direct their embryo patterning, which is significantly different from that of eudicots. PMID:24646239

Chen, Junyi; Lausser, Andreas; Dresselhaus, Thomas

2014-04-01

386

Kcne2 deletion uncovers its crucial role in thyroid hormone biosynthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid dysfunction is a global health concern, causing defects including neurodevelopmental disorders, dwarfism and cardiac arrhythmia. Here, we show that the potassium channel subunits KCNQ1 and KCNE2 form a thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated, constitutively active, thyrocyte K+ channel required for normal thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Targeted disruption of Kcne2 in mice impaired thyroid iodide accumulation up to eightfold, impaired maternal milk ejection, halved milk tetraiodothyronine (T4) content and halved litter size. Kcne2-deficient mice had hypothyroidism, dwarfism, alopecia, goiter and cardiac abnormalities including hypertrophy, fibrosis, and reduced fractional shortening. The alopecia, dwarfism and cardiac abnormalities were alleviated by triiodothyronine (T3) and T4 administration to pups, by supplementing dams with T(4) before and after they gave birth or by feeding the pups exclusively from Kcne2+/+ dams; conversely, these symptoms were elicited in Kcne2+/+ pups by feeding exclusively from Kcne2-/- dams. These data provide a new potential therapeutic target for thyroid disorders and raise the possibility of an endocrine component to previously identified KCNE2- and KCNQ1-linked human cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:19767733

Roepke, Torsten K; King, Elizabeth C; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Paroder, Monika; Purtell, Kerry; Koba, Wade; Fine, Eugene; Lerner, Daniel J; Carrasco, Nancy; Abbott, Geoffrey W

2009-10-01

387

Levels of endocrine hormones and lipids in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between endocrine hormones, lipid levels and clinical parameters in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Materials and methods: Fifteen male patients with CTS and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum free T3, free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were analyzed. Symptom severity and hand function were assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire in clinical examination.Results: Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were similar between CTS patients and controls (p> 0.05. Also, there was no statistically significant correlation between laboratory parameters and clinical characteristics in patients with CTS (p> 0.05.Conclusion: The serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels seem within normal range in male CTS patients. Further studies are needed to investigate association endocrine factors, lipid levels such as triglyceride and total cholesterol with CTS in male and female patients.

Hülya Uzkeser

2011-12-01

388

Combined effects of cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on thyroid hormones in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to see how a mixture of cadmium (Cd) and decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE209) affect thyroid function, namely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), free thyroxin (FT4), triiodothyronin (T3), and free triiodothyronin (FT3) in Wistar rats (eight per group) receiving either a single substance or their combination by gavage for 28 days. Three groups were receiving Cd alone in the doses of 2.5 mg kg-1, 7.5 mg kg-1, or 15 mg kg-1 b. w. a day, three groups were receiving BDE209 in the doses of 1000 mg kg-1, 2000 mg kg-1, or 4000 mg kg-1 b. w. a day, while nine groups were receiving different mixtures of Cd and BDE209 in these doses (3x3 design). The results have indicated that the Cd+BDE209 mixtures more potently disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis than would be expected from these chemicals alone. PMID:23152375

Cur?i?, Marijana; Jankovi?, Saša; Ja?evi?, Vesna; Stankovi?, Sanja; Vu?ini?, Slavica; Durgo, Ksenija; Bulat, Zorica; Antonijevi?, Biljana

2012-09-01

389

Secondary amenorrhea in a woman with spinocerebellar degeneration treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone: a case report and in vitro analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While thyrotropin-releasing hormone is known to be a prolactin-release stimulating factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate and its derivative, taltirelin hydrate, are used for the treatment of spinocerebellar degeneration, a degenerative disease characterized mainly by motor ataxia. We report the case of a patient being treated with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation for spinocerebellar degeneration who developed amenorrhea after a dose increase. Her hormonal background was analyzed and the effect of prolonged exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone on pituitary prolactin-producing cells was examined in vitro. Case presentation Our patient was a 36-year-old Japanese woman who experienced worsening of gait disturbance at around 23 years of age, and was subsequently diagnosed as having spinocerebellar degeneration. She had been treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate for four years. Taltirelin hydrate was added to the treatment seven months prior to her presentation, followed by an improvement in gait disturbance. Around the same period, she started lactating and subsequently developed amenorrhea three months later. Taltirelin hydrate was discontinued and she was referred to our hospital. She was found to have normal sex hormone levels. A thyrotropin-releasing hormone provocation test showed a normal response of thyroid-stimulating hormone level and an over-response of prolactin at 30 minutes (142.7 ng/mL. Resumption of menstruation was noted three months after dose reduction of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. In our in vitro study, following long-term exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, cells from the rat pituitary prolactin-producing cell line GH3 exhibited an increased basal prolactin promoter activity but showed a marked decrease in responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Conclusions Physicians should be aware of hyperprolactinemia-associated side effects in patients receiving thyrotropin-releasing hormone treatment. Long-term treatment with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation might cause a large amount of prolactin to accumulate in prolactin-producing cells and be released in response to exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation.

Kanasaki Haruhiko

2011-12-01

390

Interlaboratory comparison of radioimmunological parathyroid hormone determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An inter-laboratory study of serum immunoreactive PTH (iPTH) determination using standardized sera has been performed in order to check the value of the assays for the diagnosis of hyperparathyroid states. The results demonstrate: (1) that most of the cooperating laboratories (eleven of twelve) were able to discriminate between normal and grossly elevated PTH-values; (2) that direct comparison of values from different laboratories indicates very poor agreement; (3) that PTH values cannot be interpreted without a description of the characteristics of the assay used; (4) that the introduction of standard sera is advantageous and should be undertaken; (5) that determination of iPTH in serum samples is far from being a routine method when compared with radioimmunoassays for hormones like insulin, growth hormone, etc.; the difficulties being due to lack of standradized reagents and peculiarities in the metabolism of the hormone. (orig.)

1978-06-01

391

Acquired angioedema secondary to hormone replacement therapy  

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Full Text Available Angioedema is a potentially life threatening condition and may be either inherited or acquired. The latter is rare with only a handful of cases reported in the world literature. Presenting complaints are often vague. Those most commonly described include swelling in the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. Patients presenting with laryngeal edema have high mortality, and high clinical suspicion is necessary to avoid instrumentation, which can precipitate laryngeal spasm. We present a review of reported cases of hormonally induced hereditary angioedema, along with a report of a patient with acquired angioedema secondary to hormone replacement therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this case probably represents the first reported case of acquired angioedema secondary to hormone replacement therapy.

Malani Kumar

2005-10-01

392

Preventing leaf identity theft with hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic analysis of plant development has begun to demonstrate the importance of hormone synthesis and transport in regulating morphogenesis. In the case of leaf development, for example, auxin pooling determines where a primordium will emerge and leads to the activation of transcription factors, which determine leaf identities by modulating abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations. Signal transduction studies suggest that negative regulation of transcription factors through protein turnover is commonly used as a mechanism of hormone action. Together, these findings suggest that auxin might degrade a repressor that allows the activation of genes that modulate ABA/GA ratios in emerging leaves. With our increased understanding of the molecular basis of hormone signaling, it is becoming possible to overlay important regulators onto signaling modules that determine morphological outputs. PMID:16054431

Lumba, Shelley; McCourt, Peter

2005-10-01

393

Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: okbgeni@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

2011-04-15

394

Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. ? Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. ? Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor ?, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

2011-04-15

395

How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective ligands and selective estrogen and androgen receptor modulators (SERMs, SARMs) promise to reduce health risks associated with classical hormonal therapies, whilst maintaining the positive effects on muscle repair. Dietary supplements containing compounds with structural similarity to estrogens (phytoestrogens) are increasingly used as alternatives to classical hormone-replacement therapies (HRT), but the effects on skeletal muscle are currently largely unknown. Research has started to investigate the combined effects of exercise and alternative HRTs, such as soy isoflavones, on skeletal muscle regenerative processes to provide safer and more efficient therapies to promote muscle regeneration and maintenance of muscle mass and strength in the aging population. PMID:23888432

Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

2013-11-01

396

Serum parathyroid hormone: a double antibody radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioimmunoassay for parathyroid hormone (PTH) using a double antibody system is described. Because of the immunological heterogeneity of the hormone in human serum, the standard used has been serum from a patient with parathyroid carcinoma. With the use of the synthetic 34 amino acid N-terminal fragment of PTH, the anti-PTH antiserum was determined to react primarily with the N-terminal end of the molecule. PTH was detectable in the sera of 25 percent of normal subjects and elevated in 18 of 19 patients with parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Serum PTH levels were elevated in 3 of 5 patients with parathyroid hyperplasia

1975-01-01

397

Characterization of thyroid hormone uptake in heart  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transport of T3 and T4 across the plasma membrane is the first step in the sequence of intracellular thyroid hormone action. It is generally accepted that this is mediated by specific carrier proteins. The knowledge about these proteins in liver is abundant, but information about thyroid hormone uptake into the heart is scarce. The aim of this thesis was to characterize the cell physiological properties of T3 and T4 uptake in heart and to obtain information on the molecular structure(s) of th...

Putten, Haidy Hendrica Antonia Gerarda Maria

2002-01-01

398

New active series of growth hormone secretagogues.  

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New growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for growth hormone releasing activity. This series derived from EP-51389 is based on a gem-diamino structure. Compounds that exhibited higher in vivo GH-releasing potency than hexarelin in rat (subcutaneous administration) were then tested per os in beagle dogs and for their binding affinity to human pituitary GHS receptors and to hGHS-R 1a. Compound 7 (JMV 1843, H-Aib-(d)-Trp-(d)-gTrp-formyl) showed high potency i...

Muccioli, Giampiero; Ghe, Corrado

2003-01-01

399

Clinical Trials in Male Hormonal Contraception  

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Full Text Available Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers.

Nieschlag E

2011-01-01

400

Incretin hormones and the satiation signal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 levels and responses to meals may be altered in obese subjects. Clinical trial results have shown further that two GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), exenatide and liraglutide, which are approved for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, also produce weight loss in overweight subjects without diabetes. Thus, GLP-1 RAs may provide a new option for pharmacological treatment of obesity.

Holst, Jens Juul

2013-01-01