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Radioimmunoassay for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention provides a method for the radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone which utilizes a rapid and convenient version of a double antibody procedure. Highly purified second antibody is bound, by means of covalent bonds, to hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles to produce a two-phase system. The solid phase comprises immobilized second antibody bound to the reaction product of labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone with the first antibody (first antibody-antigen complex) and the liquid phase comprises free (unbound) labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone. The two phases are separated and the radioactivity of either phase is measured

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TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test  

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... online at http://www.powerofprevention.com/w_endocrine.php through http://www.powerofprevention.com . Eckman, A. (Updated ... www.thyroid.org . Accessed February 2011. Bissell, M. Editor (2010 August). Lower thyroid-stimulating hormone thresholds in ...

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor structure-function relationships.  

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This review focuses on recent advances in the structure-function relationships of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and its receptor. TSH is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family constituting a subset of the cystine-knot growth factor superfamily. TSH is produced by the pituitary thyrotrophs and released to the circulation in a pulsatile manner. It stimulates thyroid functions using specific membrane TSH receptor (TSHR) that belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). New insights into the structure-function relationships of TSH permitted better understanding of the role of specific protein and carbohydrate domains in the synthesis, bioactivity, and clearance of this hormone. Recent progress in studies on TSHR as well as studies on the other GPCRs provided new clues regarding the molecular mechanisms of receptor activation. Such advances are a result of extensive site-directed mutagenesis, peptide and antibody approaches, detailed sequence analyses, and molecular modeling as well as studies on naturally occurring gain- and loss-of-function mutations. This review integrates expanding information on TSH and TSHR structure-function relationships and summarizes current concepts on ligand-dependent and -independent TSHR activation. Special emphasis has been placed on TSH domains involved in receptor recognition, constitutive activity of TSHR, new insights into the evolution of TSH bioactivity, and the development of high-affinity TSH analogs. Such structural, physiological, pathophysiological, evolutionary, and therapeutic implications of TSH-TSHR structure-function studies are frequently discussed in relation to concomitant progress made in studies on gonadotropins and their receptors. PMID:11917095

Szkudlinski, Mariusz W; Fremont, Valerie; Ronin, Catherine; Weintraub, Bruce D

2002-04-01

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in children from Chernobyl.  

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This study assesses parameters of thyroid function in persons who resided in Ukraine, Belarus, and southern Russia and exposed at 0 to 16 years of age to radioiodine contamination from the Chernobyl accident. Six to eight years after the accident a group of 300 young people who had immigrated to Israel were interviewed, underwent physical and ultrasound thyroid examination, and had their serum tested for thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH), thyroid hormones, thyroglobulin, and antithyroid anti...

Quastel, M. R.; Goldsmith, J. R.; Mirkin, L.; Poljak, S.; Barki, Y.; Levy, J.; Gorodischer, R.

1997-01-01

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), ch. 9  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioimmunoassay for TSH is described. Antisera produced in rabbits were examined by determining the dose response curve for TSH and the immunologically and chemically similar LH, FSH and HCG. By preabsorption with the most disturbing hormone, HCG, a specific antiserum was made. TSH was labelled with 131I or 125I by the chloramine-T method of Greenwood and purified by sephadex gel filtration. After incubation the bound and free labelled hormones were separated by the double antibody technique. Plasma values were obtained from 0.4-2 ng/ml and a rise in the TSH concentration was observed in newborn infants shortly after delivery

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Human thyroid-stimulating hormone: structure-function analysis.  

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This article provides the reader with an overview of methodological strategies to investigate structure-function relationships of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH). Various aspects of hTSH production, purification, and characterization described here in more detail are not only relevant to studies on other members of the glycoprotein hormone family, but also applicable to studies of other glycosylated proteins. Knowledge of structure-function relationships of specific hTSH domains is important for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of its action. New insights from such studies permit the design of glycoprotein hormone analogs with specific pharmacological properties and potential clinical applications. PMID:10764608

Szkudlinski, M W; Grossmann, M; Leitolf, H; Weintraub, B D

2000-05-01

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Sensitive and precise radioimmunoassay for human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high-sensitivity radioimmunoassay for human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) has been developed utilizing a highly specific rabbit antibody (developed by AFP) to hTSH with an affinity constant of 4.4 x 1011M-1. Optimal conditions which minimized both 125I-hTSH radiation damage and 125I dissociation included storage at -60 C in 0.25 percent albumin. Repetitive freezing and thawing did not cause loss of structural integrity or of full immunochemical reactivity of 125I-hTSH. Effects of human and calf sera on the precipitation of first antibody-bound 125I-hTSH by second antibody have been tabulated; the addition of TSH-free human serum to the standard curve is necessary to compensate for the serum effect. The minimum detectable amount of TSH in the new assay at a 1: 1,000,000 final dilution of the hTSH antibody is 0.02 ?U/tube. The mean normal hTSH value of 1.5 +- 1.0 ?U/ml (mean +- SD) fell within the central one-third of the logit (B/B0) plot where antigen concentrations are measured with highest precision. This assay gives good precision and reproducibility of measurements throughout the normal range of serum TSH concentrations

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MRI of the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) -secreting pituitary adenoma  

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To demonstrate and evaluate the value of MRI findings of the TSH(Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, TSH, Thyrotropin)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 4 patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Evaluation of the anatomical location, signal characteristics, enhancement patterns, size, shape and circunferential changes were made. No characteristic common MR findings in size, shape, signal intensity, and circumferential changes of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma waere observed among 4 cases (size; 5 x 7 mm to 10 x 11 mm, shape; ovoid to round signal intensity; high in 1 case on T1 and T2WI, isosignal intensity in the other 3 cases, circumferential change; stalk deviation in 1 case, no stalk deviation in 3 cases). But, the tumors were centrally located at the anterior pituitary gland and showed relatively homogeneous signal intensity on MR images of all 4 patients. We conclude that centrally-located mass at the anterior pituitary gland with homogeneous signal intensity on MR image may be suggestive of the TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, although the MR findings are not specific for the disease.

Kang, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sup; Cho, Yong Kook; Lee, Eun Gig; Jung, Joon Keun [Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1995-01-15

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Measurement of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) In Vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the methods of assay proposed for the quantitative measurement of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (H-TSH) have encountered major difficulties in relation to sensitivity and specificity. The development of radioimmunoassay techniques for the measurement of H-TSH not only resulted in increased sensitivity over the majority of existing techniques, but led to improvements in specificity and practicability. The purpose of this communication is to compare serum TSH values measured by a method of bioassay in vitro with those obtained by a radioimmunoassay developed in this laboratory using reagents provided by the National Pituitary Agency, United States of America. In the bioassay technique goitrous guinea-pig thyroid tissue is incubated in vitro with 131I and H-TSH during which time the tissue takes up 131I and binds it in organic combination. Measurements of the radioactive content of the culture medium are made before and after the addition of KSCN in order to discharge any 131I present in the tissue as iodide, the difference in count-rate being indirectly proportional to the amount of H-TSH present in the incubation fluid. The method can detect as little as 1.0 mU/100 ml serum. The radioimmunoassay technique used was that described by Odell and Garigan in instructions accompanying the reagents. However, modifications to their technique included the use of antiserum at a final dilution of 1/120 000 and the addition of H-TSH at a final concentration of 0.4 ng/ml to mixtures of antiserum and the standard preparation after an incubation period of five days. After a further five days incubation period, the separation of bound and free 131I-H-TSH was carried out by precipitating the bound hormone with NaCl and ethanol. The lower limit of detection in terms of the H-TSH standard A (MRC) is 5 ?U/ml serum (0.5 mU/100 ml). Serum was obtained from children aged one month to 16 years, adults aged 18-40 years and 66-85 years, patients subjected to either pituitary stalk section on 90Y implantation during treatment for advanced diabetic retinopathy, and one patient suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis during periods of suppression by T3 and stimulation by TSH, Assessments of thyroid function were made either by the triiodothyronine uptake test using coated charcoal or by the estimation of the protein-bound iodine content of serum. The correlation between the TSH assay results obtained by the two methods are discussed. (author)

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Effect of Age, Sex and Seasons on the Concentration of Thyroid and Thyroid Stimulating Hormones  

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Effect of age, sex and seasons on the concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was studied in 25237 thyroid patients who were referred to the radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar during 1984-1990 (except 1987) and 1995-1996. T3 and T4 of all of these patients were determined by RIA and TSH was determined by immuno-radiometric assay (IRMA)....

Alam Khan; Shahmim Akhter; Muhammad Mohsin Siddiqui; Muzaffar Ali Khan, M.; Gul Nawab

2001-01-01

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THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND THYROXINE SCREENING IN THE PRETERM NEWBORN: REFERENCE VALUES  

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The screening test for Congenital Hypothyroidism, performed in the 2nd - 3rd day of life, highlighted in the premature infant significant lower levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (tT4) than those found in the full term newborn. Studies carried out after birth in the preterm infant, showed a persistence of low levels of thyroid hormones (TH) in the first two weeks of life, with a tendency toward spontaneous resolution at the end of the first month. This hormone deficienc...

Franco Bagnoli; Giada Montecchiani; Laura Farmeschi; Sara Nappini; Silvia Badii; Sara Cecchi; Annalisa Mori; Barbara Tomasini

2013-01-01

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Effects of cinobufacini injection on contents of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and adrenaline in rats  

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Objective: To observe the effects of cinobufacini injection on serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenaline (ADR) in rats, and to speculate the property (cold or heat) of the drug.Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group, cinobufacini injection group, cold syndrome group and heat syndrome group. The rats in the four groups were administered with normal saline, cinobufacini injection, and compound of traditional Chinese drugs with...

Wang, Shuang-shuang; Li, Bai

2009-01-01

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Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?  

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It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period ...

Vandevijvere, S.; Coucke, W.; Vanderpas, J.; Trumpff, C.; Fauvart, M.; Meulemans, A.; Marie, S.; Vincent, Mf; Schoos, Roland; Boemer, Franc?ois; Vanwynsberghe, T.; Philips, E.; Eyskens, F.; Wuyts, B.; Selimaj, V.

2012-01-01

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Thyroid-stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies as a predictor of thyrosuppressive drug therapy outcome in Graves’ disease patients  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Graves’ disease is autoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by pathological stimulation of thyroid-stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies. The decision on changing the therapy can be made on time by determining the prognostic factors of thyrosuppressive drug therapy outcome. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of thyroid-stimulation hormone-receptor antibodies level on the prediction of therapy outcome. Material and Methods. The study was prospective and involved 106 drug-treated patients with newly diagnosed Graves’ disease. Thyroid- stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies level was measured at the beginning of therapy, during therapy and 12 months after it had been introduced. Results. No statistically significant difference in the level of thyroid-stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies was found at the beginning of disease and 12 months after the introduction of thyrosuppressive drug therapy among the patients who had been in remission and those who had not. Regardless of the outcome, thyroid-stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies level significantly decreased in all patients 12 months after the therapy had been introduced. Conclusion. The level of thyroid-stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies at the beginning of disease and 12 months after the introduction of therapy cannot predict the outcome of thyrosuppressive drug therapy.

Aleksi? Aleksandar Z.

2014-01-01

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Preparation of quality control samples in radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To days, the radioimmunoassay is becomes the best technique to analysis different concentrations of substance, especially in medical and research laboratories. Although the specificity of RIA techniques, the quality controls must takes place to give good results as possible. In this dissertation i prepared quality control samples of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), to use it in RIA techniques and to control the reliability results of those laboratories which used these methods. We used China production kits of RIA method to determine the level of hormone (low-normal-high) concentration. Statistical parameters were used to drown the control chart of the mean to these data.(Author)

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Performance of the two-site immunoradiometric assay for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten solid-phases were evaluated for their usefulness in a two-site immunoradiometric assay for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. The criteria used to assess each reagent included the minimum detection limit attainable, the change of binding over the concentration range (signal:noise ratio), and ease of preparation of the reagents. Of all the solid phases tested, Sepharose CL-4B and activated CH-Sepharose 4B showed the characteristics best suited to IRMA, while epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B and Ultrogel ACA-44 were marginally less effective. 9 refs.; 3 tabs

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor in brown adipose tissue is involved in the regulation of thermogenesis.  

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C.RF- Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice have a mutated thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), and, without thyroid hormone supplementation, these mice develop severe hypothyroidism. When hypothyroid Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice were exposed to cold (4 degrees C), rectal temperature rapidly dropped to 23.9 +/- 0.40 degrees C at 90 min, whereas the wild-type mice temperatures were 37.0 +/- 0.15 degrees C. When we carried out functional rat TSHR gene transfer in the brown adipose tissues by plasmid injection combined with electroporation, there was no effect on the serum levels of thyroxine, although rectal temperature of the mice transfected with pcDNA3.1/Zeo-rat TSHR 90 min after cold exposure remained at 34.6 +/- 0.34 degrees C, which was significantly higher than that of Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice. Transfection of TSHR cDNA increased mRNA and protein levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in brown adipose tissues, and the weight ratio of brown adipose tissue to overall body weight also increased. Exogenous thyroid hormone supplementation to Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice restored rectal temperature 90 min after exposure to cold (36.8 +/- 0.10 degrees C). These results indicate that not only thyroid hormone but also thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)/TSHR are involved in the expression mechanism of UCP-1 in mouse brown adipose tissue. TSH stimulates thermogenesis and functions to protect a further decrease in body temperature in the hypothyroid state. PMID:18559984

Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

2008-08-01

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone induces a Wnt-dependent, feed-forward loop for osteoblastogenesis in embryonic stem cell cultures  

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We have shown that the anterior pituitary hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), can bypass the thyroid to exert a direct protective effect on the skeleton. Thus, we have suggested that a low TSH level may contribute to the bone loss of hyperthyroidism that has been attributed traditionally to high thyroid hormone levels. Earlier mouse genetic, cell-based, and clinical studies together have established that TSH inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption. However, the direct influence of TSH o...

Baliram, Ramkumarie; Latif, Rauf; Berkowitz, Joshua; Frid, Simon; Colaianni, Graziana; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Davies, Terry F.

2011-01-01

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Maternal factors and complications of preterm birth associated with neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone.  

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Thyroid hormones are important regulators of fetal neurodevelopment. Among preterm infants, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is highly variable. Understanding this variability will further improvements in screening for thyroid disorders in preterm infants. We examined 61 maternal and infant clinical and demographic factors for associations with neonatal TSH levels in 698 preterm neonates. TSH was measured as part of routine State-mandated newborn screening in Iowa. Of the maternal characteristics, nulliparous women (p=8×10-4), women with preeclampsia (p=2×10-3), and those with induced labor (p=3×10-3) had infants with higher TSH levels. TSH levels at the time of newborn screening were associated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (pterm infants. We also observed strong relationships between neonatal TSH and complications of prematurity including RDS and sepsis, which have implications for future studies examining this relationship both prenatally and longitudinally after birth. PMID:24854527

Ryckman, Kelli K; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Dagle, John M; Murray, Jeffrey C

2014-09-01

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Paracrine interactions of thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulation hormone in the female reproductive tract have an impact on female fertility  

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Full Text Available Thyroid disease often causes menstrual disturbances and infertility problems. Thyroid hormone (TH acts through its receptors, transcription factors present in most cell types in the body. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH stimulates TH synthesis in the thyroid gland, but seems to have other functions as well in the female reproductive tract. The receptors of both TH and TSH increase in the receptive endometrium, suggesting that they are important for implantation, possible by influencing inflammatory mediators such as LIF. The roles of these receptors in the ovary need further studies. However, it is likely that the thyroid system is important for both follicular and embryo development. The association between thyroid disease and infertility indicate that TH and TSH affect the endometrium and ovary on the paracrine level.

AnneliStavreus-Evers

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

Kunii Yasuto

2011-09-01

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Simple, rapid, and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone immunoassay using europium(III) nanoparticle label  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is widely used as a marker of thyroid function. A rapid TSH assay enables diagnosis during the first visit at the doctor's office aiding to faster and cost-effective medical treatment. To accomplish such an assay method europium(III) chelate nanoparticles were coated with anti-TSH monoclonal antibody. Captured anti-TSH monoclonal antibody was immobilized onto single wells by streptavidin-biotin chemistry and the assay was carried out in dry chemistry format using 5 ?l of sample in a 30 ?l assay volume in the commercial AiO immunoassay system. The developed TSH nanoparticle assay was performed in a kinetic mode using a 10-min incubation time. The analytical sensitivity of the developed assay was 0.0012 mIU l-1 corresponding to the fourth generation TSH assay and less than 0.02 mIU l-1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators. The dynamic range of the assay was more than three orders of magnitude and no high-dose hook effect was observed at 100 mIU l-1 of TSH. Correlation with an automated commercial assay was good (y = 0.96 ± 0.02, intercept = 0.12 ± 0.09, Syverticalbarx = 0.49, R = 0.988). Intra- and inter-assay variations were 4-14 and 6-17%, respectively. The developed quantitative one-step all-in-one dry reagent time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay has great potential for rapid analysis of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in a point-of-care environment when antibody-coated care environment when antibody-coated high specific activity Eu(III) nanoparticles were used as labels

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Do Thyroxine and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels Reflect Urinary Iodine Concentrations?  

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The toxicity of environmental chemicals such as nitrates, thiocynates, and perchlorates, some therapeutics, and dietary goitrogens can lower thyroidal iodine uptake and result in hypothyroidism and goiter. Iodine sufficiency, essential for normal thyroid hormone synthesis, is critical during gestation to assure that sufficient thyroxine (T4) and iodine reach the developing fetus. Spot urinary iodide (UI) measurements are used globally to indicate and monitor iodine sufficiency of populations. In individuals, however, UI are not routinely measured; instead, normal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and T4 concentrations serve as surrogate indicators of iodine sufficiency as well as thyroidal health. Our objective was to examine the relationship between UI concentrations and serum T4 and TSH concentrations in individuals in an ‘‘iodine-sufficient population.’’ Using a cross-sectional sample of the US population (n = 7628) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–1994) database, we examined the relationship among UI, T4, and TSH in pregnant and nonpregnant women and in men (15–44 years). There was a lack of relationship between UI (or UI/Cr) concentrations and serum T4 or TSH concentrations. Therefore, TSH and T4 are not appropriate markers of UI concentrations in this population. Monitoring the status of iodine nutrition of individuals in the United States may be important because serum TSH and T4 concentrations do not indicate low iodine status. PMID:15795649

Soldin, Offie P.; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Pezzullo, John C.

2013-01-01

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma presenting with recurrent hyperthyroidism in post-treated Graves’ disease: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction The coexistence of autoimmune hyperthyroid disease and thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma is rare. The simple presumption of coincidence of these two diseases has a calculated incidence of less than one/several hundred million, and only four cases with histological confirmation have been reported. A rapid decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone level after pituitary tumor removal may induce subsequent activation of autoimmune respons...

Ogawa Yoshikazu; Tominaga Teiji

2013-01-01

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Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

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Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To prepare quality monoclonal antibodies against thyroid stimulating hormone for highly sensitive assay. Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized with synthetic TSH polypeptide. Spleen cells from the immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells of sp2/0, and cultured to produce hybridomas producing anti-human TSH monoclonal antibody. Results: During cell fusion and screening, the rate of fusion was 100% and the positive rate of antibody producing was 15%. Five murine hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies against TSH were established. All McAbs were of IgG1 subclass and showed no cross reactivity with FSH, HCG and LH. The titers of the McAb ascitic fluid varied from 1:5 x 105 -1:1 x 107. All murine hybridomas retained great stability after the freezing-thawing process. Conclusion: The rate of cell fusion was high and the rate of positive antibody was good. Five species-specific murine hybridomas were established, producing McAbs of high titer. The McAbs could be excellent components in TSH assay with high sensitivity and simplicity. (authors)

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Thyroid stimulating hormone and leptin levels and severe growth retardation among beta- thalassaemic patients  

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Objective: It has been proposed that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) influences leptin secretion from adipocytes. We evaluated the association between TSH and leptin levels in thalassaemic patients with growth retardation. Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 30 major thalassaemic patients and 24 normal subjects (range: 12 - 20 y). Both Leptin and TSH were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The anthropomorphic data were collected based on standard methods. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze data. Results: Patients had severe growth retardation. Mean concentration of leptin in thalassaemic mean value of serum TSH concentration of lepton in thalassaemic patients was significantly lower than normal subjects (2.26 +- 2,61 vs 13.14 +- 15.95 ng/ml). The mean value os serum TSH concentration in beta- thalassaemic patients was higher than normal subjects. But the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.146). There was no marked relationship between TSH and leptin concentration in thalassaemic patients (r= -0.022, P =0.909) and in control group (r =0.289, P=0.214). Conclusion: In beta - thalassaemic patients and normal group leptin secretion is a not affected by TSH concentration. (author)

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Inherent Suppression of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Newly Diagnosed Dyslipidemic Patients – Indication for Use of Thyromimetics?  

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Background: Dyslipidemia triggers a sequel of metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via vicious cycle. Dyslipidemia is characterised by elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) which in turn can progress to atherosclerosis a forerunner for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Dyslipidemia is seen even in subclinical hypothyroid patients. Objectives: The aim of the study was to look for thyroid & glycemic abnormalities in dyslipidemic patients and compare it with euthyroid, normolipidemic group. Materials and Methods: Thirty primarily dyslipidemic patients and 30 euthyroid normolipidemic subjects aged 25-55 years were tested for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile, thyroid hormones - T3, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The values were compared with those of age matched euthyroid normolipidemic control group. Results: The dyslipidemic pool showed small but significant decrease in the TSH levels with comparable T3, T4 levels as compared to euthyroid group. The group also had significantly higher FPG, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels as compared to the euthyroid normolipidemic group. The plasma fructosamine levels were similar in both the groups. The observed results reflected a picture of subclinical hyperthyroidism in dyslipidemic patients. Conclusion: The observations of the present study preclude a need to assess the thyroid status in patients of primary dyslipidemia as both conditions per se have an increased risk of cardio vascular diseases. A subclinical hyperthyroid state may essentially be helpful in maintaining the lipid metabolism. The prevailing mild hyperthyroid status also makes it important to reconsider the accuracy of long term glycemic indicators like fructosamine and possibly glycated haemoglobin in these patients. Upon establishment of their efficacy and safety, thyromimetics may have a role in the treatment of dyslipidemia. PMID:25386428

Udupa, Sridevi V.; D’Souza, Vivian; Udupa, Vinit A.

2014-01-01

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Effects of cinobufacini injection on contents of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and adrenaline in rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of cinobufacini injection on serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and adrenaline (ADR in rats, and to speculate the property (cold or heat of the drug.Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group, cinobufacini injection group, cold syndrome group and heat syndrome group. The rats in the four groups were administered with normal saline, cinobufacini injection, and compound of traditional Chinese drugs with heat or cold property. The weights, and the serum TSH and ADR levels of the rats were measured before and after the interventions.Results: The weights of the rats in heat syndrome group markedly decreased after 14-day administration when compared with the normal control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences among the normal control group, heat syndrome group and the cinobufacini injection group. Although no statistical difference was noted, the serum TSH levels of the cold syndrome group and cinobufacini injection group were slightly lower than that in the normal control group after 14-day administration, and the heat syndrome group showed a slightly higher serum TSH level. After administration, the serum ADR levels of the cold syndrome group and cinobufacini injection group were significantly lower than that in the normal control group (P<0.05, and the serum ADR level in the heat syndrom group was higher than that in the normal control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Cinobufacini injection seemed to be able to suppress the thyrotrophin-releasing hormone-TSH-thyroxine system and sympathetic nervous system, matching up with the characteristics of the Chinese herbs of cold property. And the study provided initial experiment evidence for the conclusion that the property of cinobufacini might be cold.

Shuang-shuang WANG

2009-03-01

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[Normality of serum thyroid hormones, thyroxine binding globulin and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations in normal adult men (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The normality of serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse T3, thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations were investigated by using normal probability paper. 107 healthy adult men (age 35-48) were carefully selected; their healthiness was evaluated by physical, biochemical and roentogenologic examinations as well as by intensive interview on their past history. All assays were simultaneously carried out. When each cumulative distribution was plotted on normal probability paper, the straight line was obtained in T4, T3 and TBG but in rT3 and TSH, the lineality was seen only when logarithmic normal probability paper was used. The normal ranges by conventional statistical calculation, i.e., mean +/-2 S.D. was compared with those obtained on normal probability paper. The normal ranges of T4, T3 and TBG agreed well each other, whereas in rT3 and TSH, normal ranges obtained on the probability paper shifted toward higher levels than those by statistical calculations. Thus, it is suggested that the normal ranges of rT3 and TSH should be defined either by statistical calculation of each result after logarithmic transformation or by using logarithmic probability paper. PMID:6773867

Konno, N

1980-03-01

31

Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of comlinear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

32

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Thyroglobulin, and Thyroid Hormones and Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma : The EPIC Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Increased levels of thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) risk, but strong epidemiological evidence is lacking. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-seven incident TC case patients (n = 300 women and 57 men; mean age at blood collection = 51.5 years) were identified in the EPIC cohort study and matched with 2 (women) or 3 (men) control subjects using incidence density sampling. Matching included study center, sex, age, date, time, and fasting status at blood collection. Levels of total and free (f) thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-thyronine (T3), TSH, Tg, and anti-Tg antibodies (TgAb) were measured by commercially available immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: TC risk was positively associated with Tg (OR for the highest vs lowest quartile = 9.15; 95% CI = 5.28 to 15.90; P < .001) and negatively associatedwith TSH level (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.81; P = .001). Odds ratios were not modified by adjustment for weight and height and were consistent across sexes, age groups, and countries. The association with Tg was stronger in follicular than papillary TC. The odds ratio for TgAb-positivity was 1.50 (95% CI = 1.05 to 2.15; P = .03). Among case patients, TSH level was stable over time, whereas Tg level was higher in proximity to TC diagnosis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 57% and 74% for TSH and Tg level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: High Tg levels precede by up to 8 years the detection of TC, pointing to a long sojourn time of the disease. Low TSH levels may predispose to TC onset. Neither marker has sufficient accuracy to be a screening test.

Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

2014-01-01

33

Plasma Retinol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Zinc as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Status  

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Full Text Available Background: Conflicting results on the association between serum retinol level and bone mineral density (BMD have been published. Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and have direct effect on bone formation and resorption. Bone has one of the highest concentrations of zinc of all tissues, and has been shown to release zinc during deficiency for soft tissue metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between plasma levels of retinol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH & zinc and BMD of Egyptian adolescents and adults. Method: The study was a part of a cross sectional national survey conducted by National Nutrition Institute. The sample was a multistage stratified random. Target individuals were classified into two age groups (10- 18 and 28- 59 years. Bone mineral density and plasma levels of retinol, TSH and zinc were determined. Results: Low and high plasma retinol levels were more prevalent among osteoporotic adolescent and adult males respectively than in normal subjects.. The reverse was observed in adult females. Bone mineral density correlated negatively with plasma retinol level in adult males and females and positively in adolescent males, while among females the association was significant (P = 0.030 and stronger. The highest deficiency of TSH was found among adult and adolescent osteoporotic males, followed by osteopenic adult males and adolescent females. Highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001 existed between osteoporotic and normal adult males concerning TSH deficiency. The prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 5.7% to 9.5% for all target individuals. Plasma Zn levels were correlated negatively with bone mineral density in adult males and females. Conclusion: The results of this study reflects the controversy on the association of plasma retinol and BMD. However, the predominant finding revealed that both low and high plasna retinol levels compromise bone health. Bone status and thyroid function support the adverse effect of hyperthyroidism upon either bone osteoporosis or osteopenia and subsequently upon fracture risk. Plasma zinc deficiency correlated negatively with BMD in adult osteoporotic men.

Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny*, Effat A. A., Afifi**, Wafaa M. A. Saleh**, Asmaa, M

2006-12-01

34

THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND THYROXINE SCREENING IN THE PRETERM NEWBORN: REFERENCE VALUES  

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Full Text Available The screening test for Congenital Hypothyroidism, performed in the 2nd - 3rd day of life, highlighted in the premature infant significant lower levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroxine (tT4 than those found in the full term newborn. Studies carried out after birth in the preterm infant, showed a persistence of low levels of thyroid hormones (TH in the first two weeks of life, with a tendency toward spontaneous resolution at the end of the first month. This hormone deficiency has an incidence which is inversely related to gestational age (GA. However, there are no works which have evaluated the levels of TSH and tT4 in an appropriate large population of extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs in the 2nd - 3rd day of life divided by different GAs. To assess the levels of TSH and tT4 in the 2nd - 3rd day of life, from the lowest GA up to the end, in order to indicate the reference values which can be used to establish whether a replacement therapy with thyroid hormones in the premature infant is useful or not. In the present study we examined a total population of 1,671 adapted for gestational age newborns (AGA of which 1,159 resulted in full term and 512 resulted in preterm. The population was divided into eight groups of GAs (23-25, 26-28, 29-30, 31-32, 33-34, 35-36, 37-38, 39-42 wks and for each age group the median values of TSH and tT4 was determined. The TSH and tT4 were obtained in the 2nd - 3rd day of life at the screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism. Looking at the whole population examined, the preterm infant presents sig- nificant lower levels of TSH (p=0,00036 and tT4 (p<0,00001 compared to the full term newborn in the 2nd - 3rd day of life. TSH and tT4 levels increase gradually with the advancing of GA, reflecting the progressive maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. A linear and significant correlation (p=0,001 was found between the levels of tT4 and GA. Instead, the TSH values which show an upward trend with the advancing of the GA, confirm a trend which is less clear. In preterm newborns, significant increases of tT4 levels are found for minimal increases of GA, suggesting that even in extremely pre- mature infants (23-25 wks there is already an appropriate function of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, which matures rapidly and progressively. It is believed that even if the preterm newborn tT4 levels are lower than those found in a full term neonate, the metabolic needs of an ELGAN are sufficient. Our reference values in various GAs in preterm infants may be used to determine whether premature newborns may or not be required to make a substitution therapy, which in our opinion should be implemented when the tT4 levels are <2 SD for that gestational age.

Franco Bagnoli

2013-12-01

35

A novel ultrasensitive re-equilibration immunometric assay. Its application to the measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a growing commercial and profession interest in ultrasensitive immunoassay for the measurement of low levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in thyroid disorders. The currently available supersensitive methodology is based mainly on an immunometric solid phase system using high avidity monoclonal antibodies with or without signal amplification of the label. An alternative method to improve the sensitivity is to shift the equilibration in favour of antigen and antibody reaction. In the paper such a novel ultrasensitive assay for TSH based on re-equilibrium is proposed. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

36

Neonatal iodine status survey by thyroid-stimulating hormone screening in Surabaya  

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Full Text Available Background lodine deficiency disorders (IDD are a significant public health problem globally. Iodine deficiency may cause subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early infancy. Neonatal thyroid screening of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH to detected hypothyroidism may olso be used to determine the prevcalence of IDD in a population. Previous studies reported mild IDD status in differen parts of Indonesia Objective To evaluate the iodine status of neonates born in Mitra Keluarga Surabaya Hospital (MKSH by TSH screening over a 6-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study conducted in MKSH from January 2005 to December 2010. Of the 5,619 infants took part in this study. Blood specimens for TSH measurement were collected from subjects 2 to 6 days after birth, and sent to a reference laboraratory for evaluation. Using the neonatal TSH values, the iodine deficiency level of the group was determined according to the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of IDD criteria Results A total of 3,349 newborn babies underwent neonatal TSH screening in MKSH. Subjects’ mean TSH concentration was 5.14 mIU/L. A TSH concentration > 5mIU/L was found in 1270 (37.9% subjects, 166 (27.6% in 2005, 252 (44.0% in 2006, 331 (47.1% in 2007, 356 (57.7% in 2008, 114 (20.7% in 2009 and 51 (16.8% in 2010. On the basis of the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder criteria, this frequency corresponded to a moderate level of IDD. Twenty-two neonates had TSH > 20 mIU/L from which 2 infants were confirmed positive for hypothyroidism. Conclusion A 6-year study of 3,349 newborns screenerd for TSH revealed that 37.9% of subjects had TSH concentration of more than 5mIU/L. this frequency indicates a moderate level of IDD in the study population.

Connie Untario

2012-09-01

37

Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Os programas de detecção precoce trazem economias ao sistema de saúde e oferecem a oportunidade de rastrear e tratar precocemente casos de hipotiroidismo congênito. OBJETIVO: Determinar influências de doenças que afetam a dinâmica materno-fetal-placentária sobre programas de detecção preco [...] ce de hipotiroidismo congênito que se baseiam na dosagem do hormônio tirotrófico (TSH). TIPO DE ESTUDO: Ensaio clínico prospectivo não-randomizado com, ao menos, três meses de seguimento. LOCAL: Centro Universitário Público de Referência - Centro de Atendimento Integrado a Saúde da Mulher (CAISM). PARTICIPANTES: 415 recém-nascidos de 5 grupos de parturientes: 83 crianças eram filhas de mães cardiopatas; 98 de mães com toxemia gravídica; 54 de mães diabéticas; 40 de mães portadoras de imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV); e 140 de mães hígidas. PROCEDIMENTOS: Todos os recém-nascidos tiveram amostras de sangue de cordão umbilical coletadas em papel de filtro ao nascimento. VARIÁVEIS ESTUDADAS: Dosagem de TSH em sangue coletado em papel de filtro usando um ensaio imunofluorométrico próprio (sensibilidade em manchas de sangue seco = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTADOS: Não encontramos diferença na média de TSH dos 5 grupos. Além disso, os níveis de TSH estavam acima de 5 mU/L em 48% dos bebês, sugerindo que nossa região é severamente deficiente em iodo. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados demonstram que programas de detecção precoce de hipotiroidismo congênito, que utilizam primariamente TSH, não são afetados por doenças maternas não-tiroidianas. Sugerimos que, além das vantagens técnicas sobre a punção de calcanhar com dosagem primária de T4, os programas de detecção precoce que utilizam primariamente TSH de cordão umbilical também podem ser usados como instrumento de avaliação e controle da carências de iodo. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pos [...] sible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

Laura Sterian, Ward; Ilda Shizue, Kunii; Rui Monteiro de Barros, Maciel.

2000-09-07

38

Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identificadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA, PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA, FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA. Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo.

Jesús Alvarado-Flores

2009-12-01

39

Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH), Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH), Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH) y Prolactina (PRL) en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identi [...] ficadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA), PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA), FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA) y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA). Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo. Abstract in english The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect [...] sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA), PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA), FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA) and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA). These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.

Jesús, Alvarado-Flores; María Del Rosario, Montoya-Garcia; Javier, Ventura Juárez; Roberto, Rico-Martínez.

1049-10-01

40

Nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab{sub 2}) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2} as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab{sub 2}. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab{sub 2}, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab{sub 2} to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} TSH at the 3s{sub B} criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

Cui Yuling; Chen Huafeng; Hou Li; Zhang Bing; Liu Bingqian; Chen Guonan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

2012-08-13

 
 
 
 
41

Nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. ? Using nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. ? Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. ? Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab2) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L?1 H2O2 by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2 as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab2. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab2, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab2, and polyaniline2, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab2, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab2 to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 ?IU mL?1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 ?IU mL?1 TSH at the 3sB criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

42

Thyroid function in early normal pregnancy: transient suppression of thyroid-stimulating hormone and stimulation of triiodothyronine.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine the effect of gestation on thyroid function in healthy subjects, we have prospectively evaluated thyroid function in pregnant individuals undergoing termination of pregnancy, and repeated the tests 2-3 months later. Venous blood was tested for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3). Early pregnancy thyroid function tests showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in TSH and a significant increase (p < 0.001) in TT3 as compared to the nonpregnant state; FT4, however, did not change significantly. In 8 (11.2%) pregnant subjects, TT3 levels were above the normal range for nonpregnant controls. Elevated thyroid function in early pregnancy is transient, and does not usually warrant antithyroid treatment. Thus, any conclusion regarding thyroid function in early pregnancy should be based on pregnant controls rather than general population controls. PMID:8979092

Kol, S; Karnieli, E; Kraiem, Z; Itskovitz-Eldor, J; Lightman, A; Ish-Shalom, S

1996-01-01

43

Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

44

Is nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with a high-though-normal thyroid stimulating hormone level and lower cholesterol levels?  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypothyroidism is associated with the risk of development of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and hypercholesterolemia. Direct evidence that hypothyroidism might be associated with advanced chronic liver disease via nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is limited. We studied the relationship between thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), cholesterol, and NASH. In consecutive euthyroid patients with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, TSH and thyroid hormone (FT3 and FT4) concentrations were compared in 25 patients with steatosis and 44 non-cirrhotic NASH patients featuring concurrent ballooning, lobular inflammation and steatosis. The MS was diagnosed according to ATP III criteria. A meta-analysis of previously published studies was performed to evaluate whether NASH, compared to simple steatosis, is associated with lower cholesterol levels. At univariate analysis, compared to those with steatosis, patients with NASH have a wider waist, elevated levels of BMI, ALT, AST, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, ferritin, TSH and a lower serum cholesterol. At stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of NASH are high HOMA and TSH and lower total cholesterol (Model 1); MS and high TSH (Model 2). At meta-analysis, serum total cholesterol levels are significantly lower in predominantly non-cirrhotic NASH than in simple steatosis. This study provides cross-sectional and meta-analytic evidence that, in euthyroid patients, high-though-normal TSH values are independently associated with NASH. Further work is needed to ascertain the role, if any, of lower cholesterol serum levels in assisting in the diagnosis of NASH. PMID:21559749

Carulli, Lucia; Ballestri, Stefano; Lonardo, Amedeo; Lami, Francesca; Violi, Enrico; Losi, Luisa; Bonilauri, Lisa; Verrone, Anna Maria; Odoardi, Maria Rosaria; Scaglioni, Federica; Bertolotti, Marco; Loria, Paola

2013-06-01

45

Nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab(2)) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0mmolL(-1) H(2)O(2) by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab(2) as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab(2). Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab(2), nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab(2), and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab(2), were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab(2). With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab(2) to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20?IUmL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005?IUmL(-1) TSH at the 3s(B) criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH. PMID:22790703

Cui, Yuling; Chen, Huafeng; Hou, Li; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

2012-08-13

46

Development of radioimmunoassay for bullfrog thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): effects of hypothalamic releasing hormones on the release of TSH from the pituitary in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) beta-subunit (TSHbeta) antiserum was produced by employing a C-terminal peptide synthesized on the basis of the amino acid sequence deduced from bullfrog TSHbeta cDNA. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the bullfrog adenohypophyseal cells that immunologically reacted with the anti-bullfrog TSHbeta corresponded to those positively stained with an antiserum against human (h) TSHbeta. The antiserum was used for the development of a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of bullfrog TSH. The sensitivity of the RIA was 0.75+/-0.07ng TSH/100microl assay buffer. The interassay and intraassay coefficients of variation were 7.6 and 5.3%, respectively. Several dilutions of pituitary homogenates of larval and adult bullfrogs, or medium in which bullfrog pituitary cells were cultured, yielded dose-response curves that were parallel to the standard curve. Bullfrog prolactin, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and alpha-subunit derived from glycoprotein hormones did not react in this assay. Immunoassayable TSH in the pituitary culture medium was confirmed to exist in the form of TSHbeta coupled with the alpha-subunit by an immunoprecipitation experiment using the TSHbeta antiserum and an alpha-subunit antiserum. TSH released from pituitary cells into the medium was also confirmed to possess a considerable activity in stimulating the release of thyroxine from the thyroid glands of larval bullfrogs in vitro. The effects of hypothalamic hormones such as mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH), ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the release of TSH by dispersed anterior pituitary cells of the bullfrog larvae and adults were also studied. CRH markedly stimulated the release of TSH from both adult and larval pituitary cells. Both TRH and GnRH moderately stimulated the release of TSH from adult pituitary cells but not from the larval cells. This is the first report on the development of an RIA for amphibian TSH, which has provided the direct evidence that the release of TSH from the amphibian pituitary is enhanced by the hypothalamic releasing hormones such as CRH, TRH, and GnRH. PMID:14644643

Okada, Reiko; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Koda, Aya; Ito, Yoichi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Hanaoka, Yoichi; Kikuyama, Sakaé

2004-01-01

47

A novel mutation in the thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) receptor gene in a case of congenital hypothyroidism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) occurs approximately with a frequency of 1 in 3000-4000 births, being a disease caused by defects in thyroid hormone synthesis associated either with goiter presence or with agenesis or ectopy of the thyroid gland. A study of some familial cases has allowed identification of mutations in several known genes, including that encode the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). We report a familial case of CH that transmitted as a recessive trait and caused by a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in TSHR with an initial diagnosis of thyroid agenesis hypoplasia. Genomic DNA was obtained from two siblings and their parents; TSHR was amplified using pairs of overlapping exonic primers; and polymerase chain reaction products were automatically sequenced. The propositus was homozygous (genotype: M/M) for a novel C to G transversion (1431C>G), producing a nonsense mutation, Y444X, in the first intracellular loop of TSHR, rendering a truncated receptor. Thus, the observed unresponsiveness to TSHR may be due to absent insertion of the truncated receptor into the cell membrane (if it gets translated at all) or the truncation may lead to nonsense-mediated mRNA degradation (its unresponsive to TSH). Both parents were heterozygous (wWt/M) and unrelated, as known from family history. The other daughter was homozygous for both wild-type alleles (wWt/wWt). PMID:17199441

Jeziorowska, A; Pniewska-Siark, B; Brzezia?ska, E; Pastuszak-Lewandoska, D; Lewi?ski, A

2006-12-01

48

Low Vitamin D Status is Associated with Increased Titers of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Graves' Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to link with a variety of autoimmune diseases. However, the relationship between the thyroid autoimmunity in Graves' disease (GD) and vitamin D deficiency is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether increased titers of thyroid autoantibodies were associated with vitamin D deficiency in GD patients.Subjects: Seventy patients with GD and seventy matched control subjects were recruited to our study. The levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), free triodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) in the serum collected from these patients and controls were examined.Results: The levels of 25(OH)D in serum from TRAb positive GD patients were significantly lower than that from healthy controls or TRAb negative patients. However, the levels of PTH in serum were increased in TRAb positive GD patients compared to control subjects. The rates of vitamin D deficiency (defined as serum 25(OH)DGraves' disease, suggesting a possible link between vitamin D status and increased thyroid autoimmunity in GD patients. PMID:25370319

Zhang, Hong; Liang, Lingyun; Xie, Zhongjian

2014-11-01

49

Plasma Retinol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Zinc as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Status  

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Background: Conflicting results on the association between serum retinol level and bone mineral density (BMD) have been published. Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and have direct effect on bone formation and resorption. Bone has one of the highest concentrations of zinc of all tissues, and has been shown to release zinc during deficiency for soft tissue metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between plasma levels of retinol, thyro...

Shawkia S A El-sherbeny, Effat A. A.

2006-01-01

50

Do Thyroxine and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels Reflect Urinary Iodine Concentrations?  

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The toxicity of environmental chemicals such as nitrates, thiocynates, and perchlorates, some therapeutics, and dietary goitrogens can lower thyroidal iodine uptake and result in hypothyroidism and goiter. Iodine sufficiency, essential for normal thyroid hormone synthesis, is critical during gestation to assure that sufficient thyroxine (T4) and iodine reach the developing fetus. Spot urinary iodide (UI) measurements are used globally to indicate and monitor iodine sufficiency of populations....

Soldin, Offie P.; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Pezzullo, John C.

2005-01-01

51

Hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

... can measure the hormone levels in your blood, urine, or saliva. Your health care provider may perform these tests if you have symptoms of a hormone disorder. Home pregnancy tests are similar - they test for pregnancy hormones in your urine.

52

Detection of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) by radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) were determined in 100 patients using radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of RRA and ELISA were found to be 70.6% and 88.2% respectively (n=51). The specificity of both assays were 100% (n=16). With RRA as the standard test the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 75.8% and 86.8%. In the untreated hyperthyroid the RRA result which expressed as % specific 125I-TSH inhibition was 33.6% (n=51), decline to 26.9% in the treated hyperthyroid (n=33) and 14.1% in the euthyroid (n=16). The mean 0.D492nm of TRAb-ELISA were 0.861 in untreated hyperthyroid, 0.437 in treated hyperthyroid and 0.135 in euthyroid Phi coefficient analysis show that the RRA was 60.4% correlated to hyperthyroidism where as TRAb-ELISA was 80.1%

53

High Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Level is Associated with the Risk of Developing Atherosclerosis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of our study was to assess the potential role of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the risk of developing atherosclerosis in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). A cohort of 240 SCH patients and 150 euthyroid volunteers were recruited for the study. SCH patients were stratified into 2 groups according to TSH levels (group A: TSH10?mIU/l). All subjects were examined for clinical and biochemical parameters. Visfatin, omentin-1, and circulating endothelial biomarkers were measured. Patients in group B received l-thyroxine replacement to achieve euthyroidism; after 6 months of euthyroidism all measurements were repeated. Patients with SCH had higher total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lower nitric oxide (NO) and omentin-1 levels compared to euthyroid subjects (all p<0.05). TC, LDL-C, and CRP decreased significantly, while NO and omentin-1 levels increased significantly after l-thyroxine replacement. Based on multivariate liner stepwise regression analysis, omentin-1 was independently correlated with BMI and TSH; NO was independently correlated with age, TSH, LDL-C, and omentin-1. High TSH level contributes to endothelial dysfunction in SCH, while TSH-induced decrease of omentin-1 provides a new link between SCH and atherogenic risk. PMID:25372775

Gao, Cx; Yang, B; Guo, Q; Wei, L H; Tian, Lm

2014-11-01

54

Is suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with subclinical depression in the Danish General Suburban Population Study?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The first phase of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) including 8214 individuals was an attempt to evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism without or with elevated peroxidase antibodies and depression. No such association was found. In the second phase, including 14,787 individuals, we have focused on suppressed TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and depression. Aims: To evaluate to what extent suppressed TSH is associated with subclinical depression. Methods: The total scores of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were used to evaluate subclinical depression, both by its total score and by an algorithm of the subthreshold depressed by presence of at least three of the 10 ICD-10 depression symptoms. Serum levels of TSH were used to classify the individuals into suppressed (TSH Results: We identified 285 individuals with suppressed TSH and 1266 individuals with elevated TSH. The MDI total score was 7.55 in suppressed TSH individuals, 6.22 in elevated TSH individuals and 6.52 in normal reference individuals (P = 0.01). When the MDI was used diagnostically to identify subclinical depression, the prevalence was 8.07% in suppressed TSH individuals, 5.8% in normal reference individuals and 5.29% in elevated TSH individuals. Conclusion: This population-based study supports that persons with suppressed TSH (subclinical hyperthyroidism) seem to have a risk, although small, of subclinical depression. PMID:25377023

Kvetny, Jan; Ellervik, Christina; Bech, Per

2014-11-01

55

Electron Capture Dissociation of Divalent Metal-adducted Sulfated N-Glycans Released from Bovine Thyroid Stimulating Hormone  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfated N-glycans released from bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) were ionized with the divalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Co by electrospray ionization (ESI). These metal-adducted species were subjected to infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) and the corresponding fragmentation patterns were compared. IRMPD generated extensive glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, but most product ions suffered from sulfonate loss. Internal fragments were also observed, which complicated the spectra. ECD provided complementary structural information compared with IRMPD, and all observed product ions retained the sulfonate group, allowing sulfonate localization. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of ECD towards metal-adducted sulfated N-glycans released from a glycoprotein. Due to the ability of IRMPD and ECD to provide complementary structural information, the combination of the two strategies is a promising and valuable tool for glycan structural characterization. The influence of different metal ions was also examined. Calcium adducts appeared to be the most promising species because of high sensitivity and ability to provide extensive structural information.

Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

2013-11-01

56

Level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with acute schizophrenia, unipolar depression or bipolar disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to investigate differences in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in patients with acute schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar depression and bipolar mania. Serum level of TSH was measured in 1,685 Caucasian patients (1,064 women, 63.1%; mean age 46.4). Mean serum TSH concentration was: schizophrenia (n = 769) 1.71 ?IU/mL, unipolar depression (n = 651) 1.63 ?IU/mL, bipolar disorder (n = 264) 1.86 ?IU/mL, bipolar depression (n = 203) 2.00 ?IU/mL, bipolar mania (n = 61) 1.38 ?IU/mL (H = 11.58, p = 0.009). Depending on the normal range used, the overall rate of being above or below the normal range was 7.9-22.3% for schizophrenia, 13.9-26.0% for unipolar depression, 10.8-27.6% for bipolar disorder, 12.2-28.5% for bipolar depression, and 11.4-24.5% for bipolar mania. We have also found differences in TSH levels between the age groups (?20, >20 years and ?40, >40 years and ?60 years and >60 years). TSH level was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.23, p higher prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in patients with mood disorders (both unipolar and bipolar) and that these two diagnostic groups differ in terms of direction and frequency of thyroid dysfunctions. PMID:24723220

Wysoki?ski, Adam; K?oszewska, Iwona

2014-07-01

57

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Inhibits Adipose Triglyceride Lipase in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through the PKA Pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) metabolism in adipose tissue. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a rate-limiting enzyme controlling the hydrolysis of TG. Thus far, it is unclear whether TSH has a direct effect on the expression of ATGL. Because TSH function is mediated through the TSH receptor (TSHR), TSHR knockout mice (Tshr-/- mice) (supplemented with thyroxine) were used in this study to determine the effects of TSHR deletion on ATGL expression. These effects were verified in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and potential underlying mechanisms were explored. In the Tshr-/- mice, ATGL expression in epididymal adipose tissue was significantly increased compared with that in Tshr+/+ mice. ATGL expression was observed to increase with the differentiation process of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, TSH significantly suppressed ATGL expression at both the protein and mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Forskolin, which is an activator of adenylate cyclase, suppressed the expression of ATGL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The inhibitory effects of TSH on ATGL expression were abolished by H89, which is a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. These results indicate that TSH has an inhibitory effect on ATGL expression in mature adipocytes. The associated mechanism is related to PKA activation. PMID:25590597

Jiang, Dongqing; Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Yan, Fang; Wang, Aihong; Zhao, Jiajun

2015-01-01

58

Comparison of radioiodine biokinetics following the administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and after thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid carcinoma  

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Iodine kinetics were studied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer while euthyroid under exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and while hypothyroid to detect differences in radioiodine uptake, distribution and elimination. Nine patients with total or near-total thyroidectomy on thyroid hormone suppressive therapy received two or three daily doses of 0.9 mg recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) followed by administration of a diagnostic activity of 2 mCi (74 MBq) iodine-131. After the biokinetics assessments had been performed, patients stopped taking thyroid hormones to become hypothyroid. A second 2 mCi (74 MBq) diagnostic activity of {sup 131}I was administered, followed by a second set of biokinetics assessments. One week later the patients underwent remnant ablation with a therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I. A comparison of the {sup 131}I kinetics in the patients while euthyroid and while hypothyroid showed major differences in the doses to the remnant as well as in residence times and radiation exposure to the blood. In the first diagnostic assessment the remnant dose was higher in eight of the nine patients and clearance of the activity from the blood was faster in all of them. The data from this study suggest that radioiodine administration is potent and safe when administered to euthyroid patients following rhTSH administration. Enhanced residence time in the remnant and decreased radiation exposure to the blood were noted when patients were euthyroid compared to when they were rendered hypothyroid. However, all patients received diagnostic activities in the same order: first while euthyroid, followed by hypothyroidism. It is quite possible that ''stunning'' from the radioiodine administered in the initial uptake study inhibited the subsequent uptake of radioiodine by the remnant lesions in the second uptake study. (orig.)

Luster, Markus; Lassmann, Michael; Haenscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sherman, Steven I. [Section of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Skarulis, Monica C. [Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Reynolds, James R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren Grant Magnusen Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

2003-10-01

59

Nanogold-functionalized magnetic beads with redox activity for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive determination of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was designed by using redox-active nanogold-functionalized magnetic beads (GoldMag) as signal tags on the nanogold-graphene interface. To construct such GoldMag nanostructures, polyethyleneimine-functionalized magnetic beads (PEI-MBs) were initially prepared by using a wet chemical method, and the electroactive thionine molecules and gold nanoparticles were then alternately immobilized on the surface of PEI-MBs by using an opposite-charged adsorption technique and an in situ synthesis method, respectively. The synthesized GoldMag nanostructures were utilized as signal tags for the label of horseradish peroxidase-anti-TSH conjugates (HRP-anti-TSH). With a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the conjugated signal tags on the transducer were increased with the increasing TSH concentration in the sample, thus enhancing the signal of the electrochemical immunosensor due to the labeled HRP toward the catalytic reduction of H(2)O(2). Under optimal conditions, the current was proportional to the logarithm of TSH concentration ranging from 0.01 to 20 ?IU mL(-1) in pH 6.0 HAc-NaAc containing 6 mM H(2)O(2). The detection limit (LOD) was 0.005 ?IU mL(-1) TSH at 3s(B). The immunosensor displayed an acceptable reproducibility, stability and selectivity. In addition, the methodology was evaluated with human serum specimens, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available electrochemiluminescent analyzer. PMID:22152790

Zhang, Bing; Tang, Dianping; Liu, Bingqian; Cui, Yuling; Chen, Huafeng; Chen, Guonan

2012-01-20

60

Comparative assessment of quality of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and chemiluminescence immunometric assay (CHEIMA) for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological substances like hormones, vitamins and enzymes are found in minute quantities in blood. Their estimation requires very sensitive and specific methods. The most modern method for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone in serum is non-isotopic enzyme enhanced chemiluminescence immunometric method. In our laboratory immunoradiometric assay is in routine for the last many years. Recently interest has grown to establish non-isotopic techniques in laboratories of PAEC. However, the main requirement to adopt the new procedures is to compare their results, cost and other benefits with the existing method. Immunoassay laboratory of MINAR, therefore, conducted a study to compare the two methods. A total of 173 (males: 34 females: 139 age: between 1 and 65 years) cases of clinically confirmed thyroid status were included in the study. Serum samples of these cases were analyzed by two methods and results were compared by plotting precision profiles, correlation plots and calculating sensitivities and specificities of the methods. As the results in all the samples were not normally distributed Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied to compare the analytical results of two methods. The comparison shows that the results obtained in two methods are not completely similar (p=0.0003293), although analysis of samples in groups shows that some similarity exists between the results of hypo and hyperthyroid patients (p<=0.156 and p<=0.6138). This shows that results obtained in th8). This shows that results obtained in these two methods could sometimes disagree in final diagnosis. Although TSH-CHEIMA is analytically more sensitive than TSH-IRMA the clinical sensitivities and specificities of two methods are not significantly different. TSH-CHEIMA test completes in almost 2 hours whereas TSH-IRMA takes about 6 hours to complete. Comparison of costs shows that TSH-CHIEMA is almost 5 times more expensive than TSH-IRMA. We conclude that the two methods could sometimes disagree but the two techniques have almost same clinical efficacy (clinical usefulness). The clinical sensitivities and specificities are similar and TSH-IRMA is in no way inferior to the non-isotopic method. It is, therefore, not reasonable to abandon a good technique only for relatively speedy results. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

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Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years, who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P < 0.001, a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2. Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 ± 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase, 1.80 ± 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 ± 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%, painful thyroiditis (29.4% and hypothyroidism (52.9%. Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 ± 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001 and by 46.0 ± 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001. Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects.

G.J. Paz-Filho

2007-12-01

62

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances {sup 131}I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 {+-} 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to {sup 131}I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 {+-} 64.4 mL. {sup 131}I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean {sup 131}I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 {+-} 9.7 to 49.6 {+-} 13.4% (P < 0.001), a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2). Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 {+-} 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase), 1.80 {+-} 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 {+-} 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%), painful thyroiditis (29.4%) and hypothyroidism (52.9%). Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 {+-} 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001) and by 46.0 {+-} 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of {sup 131}I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

Paz-Filho, G.J.; Mesa-Junior, C.O.; Boguszewski, C.L.; Carvalho, G.A.; Graf, H. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; Olandoski, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Bioestatistica; Woellner, L.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Goedert, C.A. [Centro de Tomografia Computadorizada, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2007-12-15

63

Performance of the two-site immunoradiometric assay for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. Effects of changes in solid-phase matrix and antibody coupling chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten solid-phases were evaluated for their usefulness in a two-site immunoradiometric assay for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. The criteria used to assess each reagent included the minimum detection limit attainable, the change of binding over the concentration range (signal: noise ratio), and ease of preparation of the reagents. Of all the solid phases tested, Sepharose CL-4B and activated CH-Sepharose 4B showed the characteristics best suited to IRMA, while epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B and Ultrogel ACA-44 were marginally less effective. PMID:3316400

McConway, M G; Biggart, E M; Chapman, R S

1987-11-23

64

High-affinity and specific recognition of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) by in vitro-selected 2'-amino-modified RNA.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

RNA sequences containing 2'-amino pyrimidines that bind with high-affinity to human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) were isolated from a random sequence library by an in vitro selection-amplification procedure. A representative RNA ligand (T-15) has an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 2.5 nM for its interaction with hTSH and can discriminate between other members of the glycohormone family; no detectable binding was observed at low micromolar concentrations of hCG (human chorionic...

Lin, Y.; Nieuwlandt, D.; Magallanez, A.; Feistner, B.; Jayasena, S. D.

1996-01-01

65

Assays for thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies employing different ligands and ligand partners may have similar sensitivity and specificity but are not interchangeable  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The best biochemical marker of Graves' disease (GD) is the presence in serum of autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR-Ab). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of two sensitive hTSHR-Ab assays with a specific focus on the clinical importance of differences in results. Both assays are competitive in nature but employ quite different types of ligands. In the "M22-pTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with a labeled monoclonal antibody (M22*) against the thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor for binding to porcine TSH receptors. In the "bTSH-rhTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with labeled bovine TSH for binding to recombinant human TSH receptors.

Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Handberg, Aase

2010-01-01

66

The direct cooling of the preoptic-hypothalamic area elicits the release of thyroid stimulating hormone during wakefulness but not during REM sleep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermoregulatory responses to temperature changes are not operant during REM sleep (REMS), but fully operant in non-REM sleep and wakefulness. The specificity of the relationship between REMS and the impairment of thermoregulation was tested by eliciting the reflex release of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH), which is integrated at hypothalamic level. By inducing the sequential secretion of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Thyroid Hormone, TRH intervenes in the regulation of obligatory and non-shivering thermogenesis. Experiments were performed on male albino rats implanted with epidural electrodes for EEG recording and 2 silver-copper wire thermodes, bilaterally placed in the preoptic-hypothalamic area (POA) and connected to small thermoelectric heat pumps driven by a low-voltage high current DC power supply. In preliminary experiments, a thermistor was added in order to measure hypothalamic temperature. The activation of TRH hypophysiotropic neurons by the thermode cooling of POA was indirectly assessed, in conditions in which thermoregulation was either fully operant (wakefulness) or not operant (REMS), by a radioimmunoassay determination of plasmatic levels of TSH. Different POA cooling were performed for 120 s or 40 s at current intensities of 80 mA and 125 mA, respectively. At both current intensities, POA cooling elicited, with respect to control values (no cooling current), a significant increase in plasmatic TSH levels in wakefulness, but not during REMS. These results confirm the inactivation of POA thermal sensitivity during REMS and show, for the first time, that this inactivation concerns also the fundamental endocrine control of non-shivering thermogenesis. PMID:24498374

Martelli, Davide; Luppi, Marco; Cerri, Matteo; Tupone, Domenico; Mastrotto, Marco; Perez, Emanuele; Zamboni, Giovanni; Amici, Roberto

2014-01-01

67

Influence of thyroid-stimulating hormone on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In poorly differentiated thyroid cancer originating from thyroid follicular cells, the ability to concentrate iodine is lost. This makes recurrence undetectable by 131I whole-body scan. In this situation, other radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI), are used to evaluate recurrence or metastasis. Some reports suggest that 18F-FDG uptake is increased by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation. This study aimed to determine the influence of TSH on 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro. The cells were stimulated with 1000 ?U/ml of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) for 1 day, 3 days, and 5 days. Each cell was incubated with 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 18F-FDG or 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 99mTc-MIBI for 1 h at 37degC. The uptake of each radiopharmaceutical in the cells was quantified as a percent of whole radioactivity per total viable cell number. The quantification of glucose transporter 1, 2, 3 and 4 mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TSH stimulation increased 18F-FDG uptake in a time-dependent manner. Following 5 days of rhTSH stimulation, 18F-FDG uptake was approximately 2.2 times that of the control. The increase in 18F-FDG uptak The increase in 18F-FDG uptake following rhTSH stimulation was correlated to the increase in GLUT4 mRNA level. The GLUT1 mRNA level was unchanged. An increased uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was observed with a pattern similar to that of 18F-FDG. The 99mTc-MIBI uptake was approximately 1.5 times that of the control 5 days later. These results suggest that TSH stimulates 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in poorly differentiated papillary thyroid cancer, and therefore 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) or 99mTc-MIBI scans under TSH stimulation may be more accurate than under suppression. (author)

68

Ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) heterologously stimulates production of thyroid hormones from Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana and Rana rugulosa) thyroids in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones are important for regulating a variety of developmental processes in vertebrates, including growth, differentiation, metamorphosis, and oxidative metabolism. In particular, this study focused on the in vitro production of thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) from thyroids in American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Chinese bullfrogs (Rana rugulosa Wiegmann), and Chinese soft-shell turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) treated with ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) at different culture intervals (2, 4, 8, and 12 h) and dosages (1, 10, 50 or 100 ng). The levels of T(4) and T(3) in the tested animals were elevated upon stimulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating de novo synthesis of T(4) and T(3). Significantly higher hormone levels were observed in the Chinese bullfrog compared to the other two species, for both the time-course and dose-response experiments. Although the bullfrog secreted significantly higher levels of T(4) and T(3), a higher T(4)-conversion capacity was found in the Chinese soft-shell turtle. The highest ratios of T(3) to T(4) were observed in the American bullfrog and Chinese soft-shell turtle for the time-course and dose-response experiments, respectively. These findings suggest that the Chinese soft-shell turtle and bullfrog thyroids can accept ovine TSH for T(4)- and T(3)-formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, supporting the hypothesis that the binding interactions between TSHs and thyroidal receptors are conserved in vertebrates. PMID:19535032

Huang, Wei-Tung; Chien, Jung-Tsun; Weng, Ching-Feng; Jeng, Yung-Yue; Lu, Li-Chia; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

2009-06-01

69

Stimulation of cultured h9 human embryonic stem cells with thyroid stimulating hormone does not lead to formation of thyroid-like cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sodium-iodine symporter (NIS) is expressed on the cell membrane of many thyroid cancer cells, and is responsible for the radioactive iodine accumulation. However, treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer is ineffective due to the low expression of NIS on cell membranes of these tumor cells. Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide a potential vehicle to study the mechanisms of NIS expression regulation during differentiation. Human ESCs were maintained on feeder-independent culture conditions. RT-qPCR and immunocytochemistry were used to study differentiation marker expression, (125)I uptake to study NIS function. We designed a two-step protocol for human ESC differentiation into thyroid-like cells, as was previously done for mouse embryonic stem cells. First, we obtained definitive endoderm from human ESCs. Second, we directed differentiation of definitive endoderm cells into thyroid-like cells using various factors, with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as the main differentiating factor. Expression of pluripotency, endoderm and thyroid markers and (125)I uptake were monitored throughout the differentiation steps. These approaches did not result in efficient induction of thyroid-like cells. We conclude that differentiation of human ESCs into thyroid cells cannot be induced by TSH media supplementation alone and most likely involves complicated developmental patterns that are yet to be understood. PMID:22619683

Onyshchenko, Mykola I; Panyutin, Igor G; Panyutin, Irina V; Neumann, Ronald D

2012-01-01

70

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L(-1) and became 0.003 mIU L(-1) when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L(-1) of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. PMID:22444539

Zhou, Yulin; Xia, Xiaohu; Xu, Ye; Ke, Wei; Yang, Wei; Li, Qingge

2012-04-13

71

Genetic Variants Associated with Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels in European Americans and African Americans from the eMERGE Network.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) hormone levels are normally tightly regulated within an individual; thus, relatively small variations may indicate thyroid disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants in PDE8B and FOXE1 that are associated with TSH levels. However, prior studies lacked racial/ethnic diversity, limiting the generalization of these findings to individuals of non-European ethnicities. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network is a collaboration across institutions with biobanks linked to electronic medical records (EMRs). The eMERGE Network uses EMR-derived phenotypes to perform GWAS in diverse populations for a variety of phenotypes. In this report, we identified serum TSH levels from 4,501 European American and 351 African American euthyroid individuals in the eMERGE Network with existing GWAS data. Tests of association were performed using linear regression and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and principal components, assuming an additive genetic model. Our results replicate the known association of PDE8B with serum TSH levels in European Americans (rs2046045 p?=?1.85×10-17, ??=?0.09). FOXE1 variants, associated with hypothyroidism, were not genome-wide significant (rs10759944: p?=?1.08×10-6, ??=?-0.05). No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in African Americans. However, multiple known associations with TSH levels in European ancestry were nominally significant in African Americans, including PDE8B (rs2046045 p?=?0.03, ??=?-0.09), VEGFA (rs11755845 p?=?0.01, ??=?-0.13), and NFIA (rs334699 p?=?1.50×10-3, ??=?-0.17). We found little evidence that SNPs previously associated with other thyroid-related disorders were associated with serum TSH levels in this study. These results support the previously reported association between PDE8B and serum TSH levels in European Americans and emphasize the need for additional genetic studies in more diverse populations. PMID:25436638

Malinowski, Jennifer R; Denny, Joshua C; Bielinski, Suzette J; Basford, Melissa A; Bradford, Yuki; Peissig, Peggy L; Carrell, David; Crosslin, David R; Pathak, Jyotishman; Rasmussen, Luke; Pacheco, Jennifer; Kho, Abel; Newton, Katherine M; Li, Rongling; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Chute, Christopher G; Chisholm, Rex L; Jarvik, Gail P; Larson, Eric B; McCarty, Catherine A; Masys, Daniel R; Roden, Dan M; de Andrade, Mariza; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana C

2014-01-01

72

Day-night variations in thyroid stimulating hormone and its relation with clinical status and metabolic parameters in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate day-night variations in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and its relation with clinical status and metabolic parameters in patients with cirrhosis. Forty-one patients with negative thyroid antibodies and normal thyroid function tests who were diagnosed with cirrhosis were included. Thirty-five age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were included in control group.TSH, fT3, and fT4 levels, which were measured both in the morning and late evening. The difference between nocturnal TSH and morning TSH (?TSH) were compared between groups. Relation between Child-Turcotte-Pugh, model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and MELD-Na scores and levels of thyroid hormones, ?TSH and serum sodium (Na) levels was investigated. Relation between ?TSH and clinical status and metabolic parameters was also evaluated. The mean morning fT3, nocturnal fT3, nocturnal TSH, and ?TSH levels were significantly lower, morning and nocturnal fT4 levels were higher in patients with cirrhosis (p TSH level and morning TSH level was lower than 1 uIU/mL in patients with cirrhosis with a sensitivity of 92.7 % and specificity of 71.4 % (p serum Na levels and fT3 in patients with cirrhosis (r = 0.479, p = 0.001), and a significant negative correlation was found between the severity of clinical status and low levels of fT3 in patients with cirrhosis (p TSH increase does not occur in cases of cirrhosis without known thyroid disease and with normal thyroid function tests, which may be an early finding of impaired thyroid functions in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:25063309

Atalay, Roni; Ersoy, Reyhan; Demirezer, Aylin Bolat; Ak?n, Fatma Ebru; Polat, Sefika Burcak; Cakir, Bekir; Ersoy, Osman

2014-07-26

73

The effect of changing somatostatin tone on the pituitary growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone responses to their respective releasing factor stimuli.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Somatostatin (SS) inhibits GH and TSH secretion, but its role in modulating their pulsatility is unclear. We studied GH and TSH responses to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and TRH stimulation upon a variable background infusion of saline, SS-(1-14) at 20 and 100 micrograms/m2.h, and oral pyridostigmine (30 and 60 mg) in six adult males. Basal GH levels were unaffected by SS-(1-14). Deconvolution analysis of serum GH values demonstrated that the pituitary responded to two GHRH stimuli 90 min apar...

Spoudeas, Ha; Matthews, Dr; Brook, Cg; Hindmarsh, Pc

1992-01-01

74

Serial changes of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone after total thyroidectomy or withdrawal of suppressive thyroxine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and whole-body scanning are the fundamentals of treatment and follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is generally accepted that a Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level of at least 30 ?U/ml is a prerequisite for the effective use of RAI, and that it requires 4-6 weeks of off-thyroxine to attain these levels. Because thyroxine withdrawal and the consequent hypothyroidism are often poorly tolerated, and occasionally might be hazardous, it is important to be certain that these assumptions are correct. We have measured serial changes in serum TSH after total thyroidectomy or withdrawl of thyroxine in patients with thyroid cancer. Serum TSH levels were measured weekly after thyroidectomy in 10 patients (group A) and after the discontinuation of thyroxine in 12 patients (group B). Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were also evaluated weekly by modified Billewicz diagnostic index. By the second week, 78% of group A patients and 17% of group B patients had serum TSH levels ? 30 ?U/ml. By the third week, 89% of group A patients and 90% of group B patients had serum TSH levels ? 30 ?U/ml. By the fourth week, all patients in two groups achieved target TSH levels and there were no overt hypothyroidism. In all patients, serum TSH elevated to the target concentration (? 30 ?U/ml) within 4 weeks without significant manifestation of hypothyroidism. The schedule of RAI administration could be adjusted to fit. the neeould be adjusted to fit. the needs and circumstances of individual patients with a shorter preparation period than the conventional

75

Serial changes of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone after total thyroidectomy or withdrawal of suppressive thyroxine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and whole-body scanning are the fundamentals of treatment and follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is generally accepted that a Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level of at least 30 {mu}U/ml is a prerequisite for the effective use of RAI, and that it requires 4-6 weeks of off-thyroxine to attain these levels. Because thyroxine withdrawal and the consequent hypothyroidism are often poorly tolerated, and occasionally might be hazardous, it is important to be certain that these assumptions are correct. We have measured serial changes in serum TSH after total thyroidectomy or withdrawl of thyroxine in patients with thyroid cancer. Serum TSH levels were measured weekly after thyroidectomy in 10 patients (group A) and after the discontinuation of thyroxine in 12 patients (group B). Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were also evaluated weekly by modified Billewicz diagnostic index. By the second week, 78% of group A patients and 17% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the third week, 89% of group A patients and 90% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the fourth week, all patients in two groups achieved target TSH levels and there were no overt hypothyroidism. In all patients, serum TSH elevated to the target concentration ({>=} 30 {mu}U/ml) within 4 weeks without significant manifestation of hypothyroidism. The schedule of RAI administration could be adjusted to fit. the needs and circumstances of individual patients with a shorter preparation period than the conventional.

Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae; Seo, Ji Hyoung [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2004-12-01

76

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ? The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ? method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L?1 and became 0.003 mIU L?1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L?1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routirIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

77

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) suppresses thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) release, in vivo and in vitro, via the hypothalamus and the pituitary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic peptide encoded in the pre-pro MCH gene. Targeted deletion of MCH causes a phenotype of hypophagia and leanness with an inappropriately high metabolic rate, suggesting a role for MCH in the control of energy balance. In order to further elucidate the mechanism by which MCH controls, energy expenditure, we have investigated the effects of MCH on the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis. The thyroid axis is important in energy homeostasis and starvation leads to profound suppression of the HPT axis. MCH significantly reduces plasma TSH in vivo at 10 min (0.5 +/- 0.07 ng/ml, p basal = 0.5 +/- 0.06 ng/ml, 100 nM TRH = 0.9 +/- 0.2 ng/ml, p basal release of TSH from these cultures was unaffected. These data suggest a possible role for MCH in the control of energy homeostasis via inhibition of the thyroid axis. PMID:11416052

Kennedy, A R; Todd, J F; Stanley, S A; Abbott, C R; Small, C J; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R

2001-07-01

78

Subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulating test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L. Methods This study was performed in 39 infertile women with ovulatory disorders (group 1) and 27 infertile women with male infertility only (group 2, controls) who had basal serum TSH levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L and a TRH stimulating test. Serum TSH levels were measured before TRH injection (TSH0) and also measured at 20 minutes (TSH1) and 40 minutes (TSH2) following intravenous injection of 400 µg TRH. Exaggerated TSH response above 30 mIU/L following TRH injection was diagnosed as SH. Group 1 was composed of poor responders (subgroup A), patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup B) and patients with WHO group II anovulation except poor responder or polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup C). Results The prevalence of SH was significantly higher in group 1 of 46.2% (18/39) compared with 7.4% (2/27) in group 2 (P=0.001). TSH0, TSH1, and TSH2 levels were significantly higher in group 1 than the corresponding values in group 2 (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001). In group 1, TSH1 and TSH2 levels were significantly lower in subgroup C compared with those in subgroup A and B (P=0.008, P=0.006, respectively). Conclusion TRH stimulation test had better be performed in infertile women with ovulatory disorders who have TSH levels between 2.5 and 5.0 mIU/L for early detection and appropriate treatment of SH. PMID:25469340

Lee, You-Jeong; Kwack, Jae-Young; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

2014-01-01

79

Coexistence of thyroglobulin antibodies and thyroid peroxidase antibodies correlates with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level and advanced tumor stage of papillary thyroid cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The correlation between thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) or thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remains controversial. This histological study aimed to explore the correlation between thyroid autoantibodies (TAb), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and PTC in patients with thyroid nodules (TN). This was a retrospective study. 2,132 non-autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) patients who underwent thyroidectomy were subdivided into: TgAb or TPOAb single positive (TgAb+ or TPOAb+) TN group; TgAb and TPOAb double positive or negative (TAb+ or TAb-) TN group. PTC patients showed a higher rate of TAb+ TN (10.24 vs. 4.89 %; P = 0.000) and a higher TSH level (1.83 ± 0.07 vs. 1.39 ± 0.03 mIU/L; P = 0.000) than patients with benign nodules. TAb+ TN patients showed a higher TSH level and PTC frequency than those with TAb- TN (1.91 ± 0.17 vs. 1.47 ± 0.03 mIU/L; P = 0.011) (41.35 vs. 22.08 %; P = 0.000). In PTC, TAb+ TN patients showed a higher TSH level (2.57 ± 0.35 vs. 1.79 ± 0.07 mIU/L; P = 0.032), a greater frequency of lymph node metastasis (52.73 vs. 36.51 %, P = 0.026), and a lower micro-PTC frequency (16.36 vs. 39.51 %; P = 0.001) than TAb- TN patients. PTC was correlated with TgAb+ TN (OR = 1.921, CI 1.431-2.580; P = 0.000), TPOAb+ TN (OR = 1.945, CI 1.195-3.165; P = 0.007), TAb+ TN (OR = 2.393, CI 1.635-3.501; P = 0.000), and serum TSH >1.35 mIU/L (OR = 1.742, CI 1.089-2.786; P = 0.021). Serum positive TgAb or TPOAb is an independent predictor for PTC regardless of AITD. The coexistence of TgAb and TPOAb confers a greater risk for PTC than isolated positive TgAb or TPOAb, and is correlated with elevated TSH level and advanced PTC stage. PMID:24338678

Wu, Xiaoyu; Lun, Yu; Jiang, Han; Gang, Qingwei; Xin, Shijie; Duan, Zhiquan; Zhang, Jian

2014-08-01

80

Human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) subunit gene fusion produces hTSH with increased stability and serum half-life and compensates for mutagenesis-induced defects in subunit association.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) subunits alpha and beta are transcribed from different genes and associate noncovalently to form the bioactive hTSH heterodimer. Dimerization is rate-limiting for hTSH secretion, and dissociation leads to hormone inactivation. Previous studies on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human follicle-stimulating hormone had shown that it was possible by subunit gene fusion to produce a bioactive, single chain hormone. However, neither the stability nor the clearance from the circulation of such fused glycoprotein hormones has been studied. We show here that genetic fusion of the hTSH alpha- and beta-subunits using the carboxyl-terminal peptide of the hCG beta-subunit as a linker created unimolecular hTSH whose receptor binding and bioactivity were comparable to native hTSH. Interestingly, the fused hTSH had higher thermostability and a longer plasma half-life than either native or dimeric hTSH containing the hCG beta-subunit-carboxyl-terminal peptide, suggesting that dimer dissociation may contribute to glycoprotein hormone inactivation in vivo. In addition, we show for the first time that synthesis of hTSH as a single polypeptide chain could overcome certain mutagenesis-induced defects in hTSH secretion, therefore enabling functional studies of such mutants. Thus, in addition to prolongation of plasma half-life, genetic fusion of hTSH subunits should be particularly relevant for the engineering of novel analogs where desirable features are offset by decreased dimer formation or stability. Such methods provide a general approach to expand the spectrum of novel recombinant glycoprotein hormones available for in vitro and in vivo study. PMID:9261143

Grossmann, M; Wong, R; Szkudlinski, M W; Weintraub, B D

1997-08-22

 
 
 
 
81

Role of the carboxy-terminal residues of the alpha-subunit in the expression and bioactivity of human thyroid-stimulating hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The glycoprotein hormones TSH, CG, LH, and FSH are heterodimers consisting of a hormone-specific beta-subunit and a common alpha-subunit. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the carboxy terminus of the common alpha-subunit (amino acids Tyr89-His90-Lys91-Ser92), which has been shown to be important for human (h) CG and hFSH, for the activity of hTSH. Successive truncations of the alpha-carboxy terminus by site-directed mutagenesis revealed a stepwise reduction of bioactivity occurring at residues alpha Ser92 and alpha His90 to 64% and 13%, respectively. This contrasts with previous findings for hCG and hFSH, where loss of bioactivity occurred in a single step with the deletion of alpha Lys91 but alpha Ser92 was not important. The decreased bioactivities of the hTSH alpha-truncation mutants were reflected by concomitant reductions of cAMP production, thyroid hormone synthesis and cell growth and were accompanied by a loss of receptor binding. Substitution of residues alpha Lys91 or alpha His90 with either a hydrophobic or a bulkier residues resulted in a reduction of receptor binding and signal transduction, indicating that the alpha-carboxy terminus of hTSH may interact with the TSH receptor in a tight contact area. Conversely, substitution of alpha His90 with smaller residues enhanced bioactivity. In addition, the integrity of the alpha-carboxy terminus was essential for hTSH expression. Thus, we showed common and different roles of the alpha-carboxy-terminal residues for the glycoprotein hormones. The unique role of alpha Ser92 in hTSH activity explains the evolutionary constraint to preserve the alpha-carboxy-terminal Ser92 in all glycoprotein hormones. PMID:7476992

Grossmann, M; Szkudlinski, M W; Zeng, H; Kraiem, Z; Ji, I; Tropea, J E; Ji, T H; Weintraub, B D

1995-08-01

82

Substitution of the seat-belt region of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) beta-subunit with the corresponding regions of choriogonadotropin or follitropin confers luteotropic but not follitropic activity to chimeric TSH.  

Science.gov (United States)

The region between the 10th and 12th cysteine (Cys88-Cys105 in human thyroid-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (hTSHbeta)) of the glycoprotein hormone beta-subunits corresponds to the disulfide-linked seat-belt region. It wraps around the common alpha-subunit and has been implicated in regulating specificity between human choriogonadotropin (hCG) and human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH), but determinants of hTSH specificity are unknown. To characterize the role of this region for hTSH, we constructed hTSH chimeras in which the entire seat-belt region Cys88-Cys105 or individual intercysteine segments Cys88-Cys95 and Cys95-Cys105 were replaced with the corresponding sequences of hCG and hFSH or alanine cassettes. Alanine cassette mutagenesis of hTSH showed that the Cys95-Cys105 segment of the seat-belt was more important for TSH receptor binding and signal transduction than the Cys88-Cys95 determinant loop region. Replacing the entire seat-belt of hTSHbeta with the hCG sequence conferred full hCG receptor binding and activation to the hTSH chimera, whereas TSH receptor binding and activation were abolished. Conversely, introduction of the hTSHbeta seat-belt sequence into hCGbeta generated an hCG chimera that bound to and activated the TSH receptor but not the CG/lutropin (LH) receptor. In contrast, an hTSH chimera bearing hFSH seat-belt residues did not possess any follitropic activity, and its thyrotropic activity was only slightly reduced. This may in part be due to the fact that the net charge of the seat-belt is similar in hTSH and hFSH but different from hCG. However, exchanging other regions of charge heterogeneity between hTSHbeta and hFSHbeta did not confer follitropic activity to hTSH. Thus, exchanging the seat-belt region between hTSH and hCG switches hormonal specificity in a mutually exclusive fashion. In contrast, the seat-belt appears not to discriminate between the TSH and the FSH receptors, indicating for the first time that domains outside the seat-belt region contribute to glycoprotein hormone specificity. PMID:9182589

Grossmann, M; Szkudlinski, M W; Wong, R; Dias, J A; Ji, T H; Weintraub, B D

1997-06-13

83

Radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using a capillary blood-sample collected on filter paper. Value of the method for detecting neonatal hypothyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hypothyroidism is the thyroid disturbance most commonly encountered in paediatrics. Its average frequency is estimated at around one case per 6000 births. It is an exceptionally serious disease in newborn infants as it is accompanied by imperfect brain development leading to cerebral atrophy, degenerescence of the cortical neurons, defective myelinization and, most often, in children, irreversible psychomotor retardation. It should be possible to avoid this complication provided that a substitutive therapy using thyroid hormone is initiated very rapidly. For this it is necessary that the hypothyroidism be detected during the first few days of life since the chances of the therapy being successful decline very quickly. Save in a few exceptional cases, early detection cannot be based on clinical signs alone. The laboratory can play a decisive part by bringing to light either a defect in the production of thyroid hormone or a high blood level of TSH. The paper presents a description of the micromethod used together with a detailed analysis of certain important technical points, a study of the quality of the results obtained and a general discussion of the strategy for detecting neonatal hypothyroidism. (author)

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Elevação de hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH após as lobectomias: incidência e fatores associados Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH rising following hemithyroidectomy: incidence and adjuvant factors  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de elevação da dosagem sérica do hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH em pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide, em um período de até 12 semanas após a operação, buscando fatores associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODO: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 88 pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, no período de setembro de 2002 a setembro de 2004. Realizaram-se dosagens de hormônios tireoideanos a partir de quatro semanas após a cirurgia. Excluíram-se os pacientes com dosagens hormonais pré-operatórias alteradas, os casos que necessitaram de totalização da tireoidectomia e também aqueles em que houve perda do seguimento pós-operatório. Foram analisados os dados quanto à idade e ao sexo dos pacientes, quanto à presença de tireoidite no estudo histopatológico da tireóide e quanto ao tempo de aparecimento do hipotireoidismo. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos foi realizada através do teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Dos 88 pacientes, 71 (80,7% eram mulheres. A idade média foi de 41,7 anos. Observou-se elevação do TSH em 20 (22,73% dos 88 pacientes estudados. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de elevação do TSH, quando analisados quanto ao sexo, à idade ou à presença de tireoidite. CONCLUSÃO: A elevação do TSH é freqüente após lobectomias da tireóide e ocorre, muitas vezes, precocemente após a cirurgia. Não se encontraram, neste estudo, fatores que pudessem predizer sua ocorrência a curto prazo.BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency of serum elevations of thyrotropin in patients submitted to lobectomy within a period of up to 12 weeks after surgery, in the search for factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients submitted to thyroid lobectomy from September 2002 to September 2004 in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery - University of São Paulo Medical School were retrospectively analyzed. Thyroid hormone determinations were performed from 4 weeks on after the surgery. Cases of patients with altered preoperative hormone determination, need for total thyroidectomy, and loss of postoperative follow-up were excluded. Data regarding age and gender of patients, presence of thyroiditis on histopathologic analysis of the thyroid and time of emergence of hypothyroidism were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: Of the 88 patients, 71 (80.7% were women. The mean age was of 41.7 years. Elevation of thyrotropin was observed in 20 (22.73% of the 88 studied patients. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding its incidence in relation to gender, age or the presence of thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: Elevation of thyrotropin is frequent after thyroid lobectomy and it may occur early after surgery. In this study, no factor that could predict its occurrence in the short term were found.

Vergillius José Furtado de Araújo Filho

2007-04-01

85

Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides / Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma pap [...] ilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares). El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %), en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 %) y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %). En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia. Abstract in english The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular a [...] nd undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

María Teresa, Marrero Rodríguez.

2007-12-01

86

Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

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Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares. El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %, en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 % y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %. En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia.The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas. The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %, in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %, and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %. No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

2007-12-01

87

HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

88

HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer  

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Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

Mallick, U. [Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Harmer, C.; Clarke, S.; Moss, L.; Nicol, A.; Clarke, P.; Smellie, J.; McCready, R.; Farnell, K.; Franklyn, J.; John, R.; Nutting, C.; Yap, B.; Lemon, C.; Wadlsey, J.; Gerrard, G.; Roques, T.; Macias, E.; Whitaker, S.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Alvarez, P.; Kadalayil, L.; Hackshaw, A.

2012-07-01

89

TSH prevents bone resorption and with calcitriol synergistically stimulates bone formation in rats with low levels of calciotropic hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone exerts both antiresorptive and anabolic effects on bone remodeling in aged ovariectomized rats and thyroid stimulating hormone-receptor null mice, supported by clinical results demonstrating that low thyroid-stimulating hormone level is associated with increased bone loss. To further explore the effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone on bone metabolism we introduced here a rat model with removed thyroid and parathyroid glands to obtain low serum concentrations of thyroid and parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and 1,25(OH)2D3. Surgery resulted in hypocalcemia, low parathyroid and thyroid hormone, 1,25(OH)2D3, C-telopeptide, and osteocalcin serum level. Intermittent administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone resulted in a further decrease of serum calcium and decreased level of serum C-telopeptide due to the suppression of bone resorption, while in the same animals osteocalcin in serum was higher indicating an increased bone formation rate. A combination of thyroid-stimulating hormone and 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased the serum Ca2+, C-telopeptide and serum osteocalcin values. MicroCT analyses of the distal femur and proximal tibia showed that rats treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone or in a combination with thyroid-stimulating hormone had an increased trabecular bone volume, and enhanced trabecular bone quality. Biomechanical testing of the trabecular bone showed an increased maximal load for 105% and 235%, respectively, in rats treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone, or in a combination with thyroid-stimulating hormone. We suggest that thyroid-stimulating hormone independently of calciotropic hormones suppressed bone resorption and stimulated bone formation, while in combination with 1,25(OH)2D3 acted synergistically on bone formation resulting in an increased bone volume. PMID:24446158

Dumic-Cule, I; Draca, N; Luetic, A T; Jezek, D; Rogic, D; Grgurevic, L; Vukicevic, S

2014-05-01

90

Efectos del fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental en los niveles plasmáticos de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH) / Phothoperiod and Environmental Temperature Effects on Plasmatic Levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Estudios realizados en el Alto Valle del R ío Negro, Patagonia Argentina, indican que existe una prevalencia de bocio ligeramente superior a la línea de corte establecida por el Internacional Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders con un grado de nutrición de yodo apropiado; prevalen [...] cia que podría ser atribuida a factores ambientales y/o nutricionales que interfieren con el metabolismo tiroideo. La concentración de TSH circulante responde a variaciones circadianas y es influenciada por las estaciones y la temperatura ambiental. Las características geográficas, el clima semidesértico o la presencia de sustancias que actúan como disruptores endocrinos, son factores que podrían relacionarse a modificaciones en la producción hormonal en zonas urbanas o rurales. Objetivos: a) Evaluar la posible asociación entre la variación anual de los valores de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH), el fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental. b) Estimar si los valores plasmáticos de TSH son significativamente diferentes en poblaciones rurales y urbanas de Alto Valle del Río Negro. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 1393 pacientes sanos residentes en el Alto Valle: 226 masculinos y 1167 femeninos, que acudieron por control clínico en el año 2010. Se utilizó para el análisis el software SPSS 17.0. Se encontraron variaciones significativas en el Log-TSH con un pico máximo al comienzo del otoño-invierno y un pico mínimo en primavera-verano. Se obtuvo una diferencia significativa en valores de Log-TSH en área rural: 0,46 uUI/ml (0,30-0,61) contra 0,28 uUI/ml (0,26-0,30) con p Abstract in english Studies carried out in Alto Valle del Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina, show a prevalence of goiter slightly above the cut-off line established by the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IC-CIDD), with an appropriate iodine nutrition grade; such prevalence could be at [...] tributed to environmental and/ or nutritional factors that interfere with thyroid metabolism. Blood TSH concentration responds to circadian variations and is influenced by seasonality and environmental temperature. The geographic characteristics, semi-desert climate or the presence of endocrine disruptors are factors that could be related to hormonal production modifications in urban or rural areas. Objectives: a) To evaluate the potential association between annual variation in TSH levels, photoperiod and environmental temperature. b) To estimate if plasma TSH values are significantly different in populations from rural and urban areas in Alto Valle del Rio Negro. We retrospectively evaluated 1393 healthy patients living in Alto Valle del Río Negro: 226 males and 1167 females, who presented for routine clinical check-up during 2010. SPSS 17.0 software was used for the analysis. Significant variations were found in Log-TSH, with a maximal peak at the beginning of the fall-winter and a minimal peak in spring-summer. There is a significant difference in the values of TSH between rural and urban areas, (values of Log-TSH in rural area: 0.46 uUI/ml (0.30-0.61) vs. urban area: 0.28 uUI/ml (0.26-0.30) with p

Villagrán, De Rosso; CM, Elizondo; Posadas, Martinez; D, Giunta; EI, Barragán.

2013-09-01

91

Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010 / Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean [...] National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

Lorena, Mosso; Paula, Margozzini; Pamela, Trejo; Angélica, Domínguez; Sandra, Solari; Gonzalo, Valdivia; Eugenio, Arteaga.

2013-01-01

92

Effect of HCV Treatment on Circulating Pituitary Hormones  

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Full Text Available AIM: To analyse the relationship between pegylated interferontherapy and levels of pituitary hormones.METHODS: 49 chronic HCV patients were recruited at specializedhepatology clinic in National Hepatology and Tropical MedicineResearch Institute (NHTMRI, Cairo; they were treated withpegylated interferon and ribavirin according to the standard treatmentcriteria and regimen. Pituitary hormones levels were assessed at week0, 24 of treatment.RESULTS: Significant changes in the pituitary hormones levelswere noticed with perceived rise in Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH, Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH, Human growth hormone. (HGH, Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEAS, Prolactin and Cortisol, while significant reduction inthe levels of Testosterone, free Testosterone and sex hormone wereobserved.CONCLUSION: Treatment of HCV with Peg-INF/RBV may beassociated with pituitary hormonal dysfunction which may lead tomany neglected side effects like libido, erectile dysfunction andgalactorrhea.

Amin Abdel Baki

2013-07-01

93

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

... Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & Pineal Glands Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other ... hormone secretion. « Previous (Characteristics of Hormones) Next (Pituitary & Pineal Glands) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File ...

94

[Hormonal contraception].  

Science.gov (United States)

The forms of administration, mechanisms of action, side effects and complications, and other aspects of female hormonal contraception are set forth in this "lesson" for medical students. Female hormonal contraception has been in use for over 30 years and is used by more than 150 million women worldwide. Oral contraceptives suppress the preovulatory peak of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, preventing ovulation and follicular maturation. Progestins render the cervical mucus impermeable to sperm and modify the endometrium so that it will no longer support implantation. The synthetic estrogen ethinyl estradiol is used in most combined oral contraceptives (OCs). Among the numerous progestins in use are the newer desogestrel, gestodene, and norgestimate, which have fewer androgenic and metabolic effects than did the 1st generation. the different forms of administration of hormonal methods include combined OCs, oral preparations containing low doses of progestin continuously administered or high doses continuously or discontinuously administered. Intramuscular injection of progestins and the so-called "morning after" postcoital pills are less often prescribed. The combined preparations may be monophasic, biphasic, triphasic, or sequential. Sequential preparations should be avoided because of the hyperestrogenic climate they induce. The low-dose progestin preparations are indicated for women with contraindications to synthetic estrogen. They must be taken at the same time each day and have a relatively high rate of side effects, especially ovarian and breast cysts and irregular bleeding. High-dose progestin preparations have significant metabolic effects and are indicated primarily for patients with gynecological problems such as fibromas and endometriosis. Intramuscular injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every 3 months is effective but has the same side effects as high-dose progestins. It is indicated primarily for patients unable to control their own behavior. The hormonal methods are all highly effective in preventing pregnancy when correctly administered. Side effects may be minor problems, such as nervousness and nausea, that are usually of short duration. the more serious side effects, including modifications of lipid or carbohydrate metabolism, hemostasis, blood pressure, or hepatic functioning and cardiovascular effects, have been reduced with the new lower dosed formulations. Absolute contraindications to hormonal contraception include undiagnosed vaginal bleeding or amenorrhea, history of thromboembolic or cerebral vascular accidents, severe cardiopathy or hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatopathy, hormonodependent cancer, pituitary tumors, porphyria, and severe mental problems. Relative contraindications impose the need for careful monitoring and follow-up. The practitioner should be aware of the possibility of interactions between OCs and certain other drugs. PMID:1604074

Van Cauwenberge, J R

1992-05-01

95

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

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Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregn...

Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.; Marcia Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins Pessoa

2010-01-01

96

Engineering human glycoprotein hormone superactive analogues.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the generation of superactive analogues of human glycoprotein hormones, with potential applications in thyroid and reproductive disorders. Current biological and structural data were used to rationalize mutagenesis. The 11-20 region in the alpha-subunit with a cluster of lysine residues forms a previously unrecognized domain critical for receptor binding and signal transduction, as well as an important motif in the evolution of glycoprotein hormone activities. The gradual elimination of basic residues in the alpha-subunit coincided with the evolutionary divergence of the hominids from the Old World monkeys. By selective reconstitution of certain critical residues present in homologous nonhuman hormones we have developed human thyroid stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin analogues with substantial increases in receptor binding affinity and bioactivity, thus providing a paradigm for the design of novel therapeutic protein analogues. PMID:9631089

Szkudlinski, M W; Teh, N G; Grossmann, M; Tropea, J E; Weintraub, B D

1996-10-01

97

Organochlorine compounds and concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone in newborns  

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Results: All newborns had concentrations of TSH within the range of normal reference values (<25 mU/l). Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'DDE), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 138 and 118 were related to higher concentrations of TSH, although only significant for ß-HCH. Levels of HCB were not associated with TSH.

Ribas-fito?, Nu?ria; Sala, Mari?a; Cardo, Esther; Mazo?n, Carlos; Muga, M. Eula?lia; Verdu?, Antoni; Marco, Esther

2003-01-01

98

Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age [Corrigendum  

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Full Text Available CorrigendumJolobe OM. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:299–301.On page 299, note that the title was incorrectly listed as "Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". The correct title is "Upper limit of the normal range for thyroid-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". On line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".On page 301, line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".Read the original letter

Jolobe OM

2013-04-01

99

Thyroid Hormone Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: to replace the function of the thyroid gland, which is no ... and other organs working as they should. Definition, Therapy & Treatment Thyroid hormone replacement therapy Many people have ...

100

Growth hormone test  

Science.gov (United States)

... increased growth patterns called acromegaly in adults and gigantism in children. Too little growth hormone can cause ... high level of growth hormone may indicate: Acromegaly Gigantism Growth hormone resistance Pituitary tumor A low level ...

 
 
 
 
101

Growth hormone radioimmunoassay (RIA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Growth hormone not only stimulates growth, but also influences several other metabolic processes in the body. By its growth-promoting activity, the hormone accelerates the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins by stimulating the uptake of amino acids by the tissues. Using rat diaphragm preparations in vitro, a reduced uptake of several amino acids following Hypophysectomy has been demonstrated. Among other hormones, only pancreatic insulin is a potent stimulator of this process. On the cellular level, growth hormone effects appear to be mediated by cAMP. The hormone affects protein synthesis in rat levator ani and cardiac muscles, but they display a different behavior from the diaphragm. In adipose tissue, growth hormone also has a stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in virto, primarily at the ribosomal level as RNA synthesis is blocked by actinomycin D. Growth hormone effects on protein synthesis in liver were similarly demonstrated and require a lower concentration of hormone than for synthesis by muscle or adipose tissue

102

Hormones and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

103

Hormone Health Network  

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... worldwide #GivingTuesday movement and support the Hormone Health Network today. dLife - It's Your Diabetes Life! The number-one community network and resource for people living with diabetes. Hormone ...

104

A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody  

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Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) negative Graves’s disease (GD) is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia forty years ago. She did not show characteristic symptoms for hyperthyroidism, such as swelling of thyroid, exophthalmos, tachycardia and tremor, however, she showed only psychomotor agit...

Hamasaki Hidetaka; Yoshimi Taro; Yanai Hidekatsu

2012-01-01

105

MOLECULAR BASIS OF INFERTILITY–II: RELATED TO DEFECTIVE BIOSYNTHESIS, SECRETION AND ACTION OF FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The anterior pituitary gland of vertebrates synthesizes and secretes three glycoprotein hormones. Two of these i.e. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH and Luteinizing Hormone (LH are called gonadotropins. They exert diverse and direct effects upon the gonads (Ovary and Testes including regulation and maintenance of essential reproductive processes such as gametogenesis, steroidogenesis, ovulation, implantation etc. Indirectly, even the third glycoprotein hormone i.e. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH as well as Growth Hormone (GH and Prolactin (PRL regulate many gonadal functions.

Lima Kidwai, Imran Moin, Shah Saddad Hussain and K Muralidhar

2013-01-01

106

The chicken pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of pituitary hormones  

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Pit-1 is a pituitary-specific POU-domain DNA binding factor, which binds to and trans-activates promoters of growth hormone- (GH), prolactin- (PRL) and thyroid stimulating hormone-beta- (TSHbeta) encoding genes. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is located in the hypothalamus and stimulates TSH, GH and PRL release from the pituitary gland. In the present study, we successfully used the cell aggregate culture system for chicken pituitary cells to study the effect of TRH administration on the...

As, P.; Janssens, K.; Pals, K.; Groef, B.; Onagbesan, O. M.; Bruggeman, V.; Darras, V. M.; Denef, C.; Decuypere, E.

2006-01-01

107

Multiple cutaneous hemangiomas in a patient with combined pituitary hormone deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) refers to a rare heterogeneous group of conditions in which there is a deficiency in at least two anterior pituitary hormones. Patients with POU1F1 mutations show a combined pituitary deficiency with low or absent levels of growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. In this study, a 7-month-old girl with a CPHD is presented. She had facial dysmorphologic features, hypertrichosis, and hypotonia. Additionally, she also presented with multiple cutaneous hemangioma that until now has not been reported in association with this disorder. PMID:24025721

Aykut, Ayca; Ozen, Samim; S?msek, Damla Gok?en; Onay, Huseyin; Cogulu, Ozgur; Darcan, Sukran; Ozkinay, Ferda

2014-01-01

108

Thyroid Hormone Changes in Early Kidney Transplantation and Its Correlation with Delayed Graft Function  

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Introduction: Thyroid hormones affect kidney function and may alter with changes in kidney function, as well. We evaluated changes in serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) early after kidney transplantation and their relationship with delayed graft function (DGF). Materials and Methods: Fifty-five consecutive kidney allograft recipients were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of T3, T4, and TSH were measured on the day before transplantat...

Reza Hekmat; Zahra Javadi; Malihe Layghian Javan; Hooshang Sanadgol; Farhad Gholami; Mahmoud Mohebbi; Abbas Ali Zeraati; Hassan Ahmadnia; Hamid Tabarraiei; Mahsa Baradaran; Mohammad Javad Mojahedi

2010-01-01

109

Thyroid antoantibodies and the response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.  

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AIM--To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) test and estimation of thyroid autoantibody concentrations in patients with borderline raised thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). METHODS--The records of 34 consecutive patients with persistent borderline increased TSH (4.4-9.9 mU/l) referred to the Medical Investigation Unit were reviewed. The response of patients with thyroid autoantibodies to the TRH test was compared with that of patients with a negative an...

Mojiminiyi, O. A.; Rege, V.; Bolodeoku, J.; Wilcox, A. H.; Barron, J. L.

1995-01-01

110

Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process  

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The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients — at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that ...

Zyablov ?. V.; Chesnokova N.P.; Yu, Barsukov V.

2011-01-01

111

Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists  

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Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) plays a central role in the vertebrate reproduction by regulating gonadal activity. Based on its binding to pituitary LH-RH receptors, as well as to LH-RH receptors expressed on cancer cells, LH-RH agonists and antagonists have been developed for different therapeutic applications. Objective/method: Here we give an overview of the most relevant LH-RH antagonists and their therapeutic applications. Recently patented compounds as well as drug fo...

Mezo?, Ga?bor; Manea, Marilena

2009-01-01

112

Regulation of seasonal reproduction by hypothalamic activation of thyroid hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organisms living outside the tropics measure the changes in the length of the day to adapt to seasonal changes in the environment. Animals that breed during spring and summer are called long-day breeders, while those that breed during fall are called short-day breeders. Although the influence of thyroid hormone in the regulation of seasonal reproduction has been known for several decades, its precise mechanism remained unknown. Recent studies revealed that the activation of thyroid hormone within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH plays a key role in this phenomenon. This localized activation of the thyroid hormone is controlled by thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH secreted from the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland. Although seasonal reproduction is a rate-limiting factor in animal production, genes involved in photoperiodic signal transduction pathway could emerge as potential targets to facilitate domestication.

TakashiYoshimura

2014-02-01

113

Does High Quality Fat Diet Cause Hormonal Level Changes?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty adult male albino rats arranged into three equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of adding 15% oil, normal or fried, to the rat diet for two months on the levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), corticosterone, testosterone and progesterone. Addition of 15% normal oil to the rat diet for two months caused non-significant changes in all these hormones while fried oil (thermally oxidized fat) caused increases in T4, testosterone and decrease in corticosterone. These results denoted that although high fat diet affect numerous blood components, adding 15% of normal oil to the diet had no affect on thyroid, stress or sex hormones while fried oil disturbed some hormones, most probably due to high lipid peroxides found in fried oil.

114

Hormonal Aspects of Epilepsy  

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The interactions between hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions which affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy, and are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis. Common symptoms include sexual dysfunction, decreased fertility, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Antiepileptic drugs and hormones have a bidi...

Pennell, Page B.

2009-01-01

115

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcium homeostasis is quite a complex process, but it is harmoniously regulated by hormonal and nonhormonal components of the blood and tissues. Recently with the tremendous advances achieved in RIAs and competitive protein binding assays of hormones besides multiple analysis of blood components, the interest in calcium metabolism has greatly expanded resulting in a vast number of publications. Due to the extensive literature material, the author has tried to discuss in general, the main regulatory hormone in man, which is parathyroid hormone (PTH). Emphasis is placed on subjects pertinent mainly to the clinical laboratory cited in recent literature

116

Hormones and female sexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional-motivational and social factors.

Bjelica Artur L.

2003-01-01

117

A rational design strategy for protein hormone superagonists.  

Science.gov (United States)

By combining evolutionary considerations, sequence comparisons and homology modeling we have designed recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) analogs with increased receptor binding and activity. The introduction of seven basic residues into the peripheral loops of hTSH resulted in up to a 50,000-fold increase in receptor binding affinity and 1300-fold increase in intrinsic activity. Such analogs are not only of potential clinical interest but can be tools to explore molecular aspects of conventional as well as nonclassical actions of glycoprotein hormones. These design strategies should be applicable to the development of novel analogs of other related hormones and growth factors with a variety of therapeutic and basic science applications, particularly for proteins that have undergone evolutionary decrease in bioactivity. PMID:9743123

Grossmann, M; Leitolf, H; Weintraub, B D; Szkudlinski, M W

1998-09-01

118

Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine t [...] he profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F), free thyroxine (T4F), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibody (TPO), and estradiol (E2). Estrogen receptor ß (ERß) was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P

P.P., Saraiva; N.B., Figueiredo; C.R., Padovani; M.M., Brentani; C.R., Nogueira.

2005-05-01

119

Elevated prealbumin level following high thyroid hormones levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is the first to report about a patient with high prealbumin level [56.8 mg/dL (reference range 22.0-40.0 mg/dL] following elevation in thyroid hormones levels. Among the thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine (free T4 and total T4 level showed an elevation. Triiodothyronine (free T3 and total T3 level was within normal limits. Since prealbumin mainly transports T4, the elevation of prealbumin level along with T4 level is reaso- nable. When patients have chronic hyperthyroidism without thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb, a diagnosis will be Negative Graves’ disease. However, a part of patients with Negative Graves’ disease may be High prealbumin syndrome.

Fumiatsu Yakushiji

2013-01-01

120

Effect of salinity level on TSH and thyroid hormones of grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella  

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Thyroid hormones (T3, T4) have marked effect on body metabolism and in controlling osmoregulation activity in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water salinity changes on thyroid hormones level and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of grass carp. For this purpose 120 grass carp were divided randomly in to four groups (10 fish in each group and three replicates per treatment). Three groups were held in three different salinities at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1. T...

Rahim Peyghan; Ala Enayati; Mostafa Sabzevarizadeh

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Blood-plasma hormone response to a range of gamma-ray doses in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At 22 hours after exposing rats to acute gamma-ray doses ranging from 0.0129 K/kg to 0.1032 K/kg (4 dose levels), plasma concentrations were assayed of the following hormones: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone, and prolactin. Radiation was found to raise the levels of TSH and prolactin. Changes in contents of ACTH, aldosterone, cortisol, and T4 failed to show any distinct relation to radiation dose. Neither was a relation discernible between changes in TSH and ACTH levels, on the one hand, and those in T4, aldosterone, and cortisol levels, on the other

122

Effects of oral chlortetracycline and dietary protein level on plasma concentrations of growth hormone and thyroid hormones in beef steers before and after challenge with a combination of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a subtherapeutic level of chlortetracycline (CTC) fed to growing beef steers under conditions of limited and adequate dietary protein on plasma concentrations of GH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid hormones before and after an injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) + GHRH. Young beef steers (n = 32; average BW = 285 kg) were assigned to a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments of either a 10 or 13% crude protein diet (70% concentrate, 15% wheat straw, and 15% cottonseed hulls) and either a corn meal carrier or carrier + 350 mg of CTC daily top dressed on the diet. Steers were fed ad libitum amounts of diet for 56 d, and a jugular catheter was then placed in each steer in four groups (two steers from each treatment combination per group) during four consecutive days (one group per day). Each steer was injected via the jugular catheter with 1.0 microg/kg BW TRH + .1 microg/kg BW GHRH in 10 mL of saline at 0800. Blood samples were collected at -30, -15, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min after releasing hormone injection. Plasma samples were analyzed for GH, TSH, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). After 84 d on trial, the steers were slaughtered and the pituitary and samples of liver were collected and analyzed for 5'-deiodinase activity. Feeding CTC attenuated the GH response to releasing hormone challenge by 26% for both area under the response curve (PTSH response to releasing hormone challenge for area under the response curve by 16% (Plevels of CTC to young growing beef cattle attenuates the release of GH and TSH in response to pituitary releasing hormones, suggesting a mechanism by which CTC may influence tissue deposition in cattle. PMID:10461985

Rumsey, T S; McLeod, K; Elsasser, T H; Kahl, S; Baldwin, R L

1999-08-01

123

On the role of gallbladder emptying and incretin hormones for nutrient-mediated TSH suppression in patients with type 2 diabetes  

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Bile acids are possible candidate agents in newly identified pathways through which energy expenditure may be regulated. Preclinical studies suggest that bile acids activate the enzyme type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, which deiodinates thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active triiodothyronine (T3). We aimed to evaluate the influence of bile acid exposure and incretin hormones on thyroid function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormon...

Sonne, David P.; Lund, Asger; Faber, Jens; Holst, Jens J.; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K.

2014-01-01

124

Effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy on ovarian volume and androgen hormones in patients with untreated primary hypothyroidism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hypothyroidism may be associated with ovarian enlargement and/ or cyst formation. We evaluated the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy on hormonal changes, ovarian volume and sonographic appearance. Design and Setting: Open, prospective study of women admitted to university gynecology clinic. Patients and Methods: The study included 26 patients with untreated hypothyroidism who had polycystic (n=10 or normal-appearing (n=16 ovaries and 20 euthyroidic controls. Basal serum total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandosterone-sulfate, prolactin, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, free T3, free T4 and thyroid-stimulating horone, together with ovarian volumes, were determined and repeated after euthyroidism was achieved. Results: Ovarian volumes of patients with hypothyroidism were significantly greater compared with controls, and their magnitudes diminished significantly during thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Hypothyroidic patients with polycystic ovaries had significantly higher serum free testosterone and dehydroepiandosterone-sulfate, but lower androstenodione levels compared with those who had normal-appearing ovaries. Serum total testosterone concentrations were significantly higher in hypothyroidic patients without polycystic ovaries, and thyroid hormone replacement therapy achieved a significant reduction in total as well as free testosterone. Conclusion: Severe longstanding hypothyroidism leads to increased ovarian volume and/or cyst formation. A decrease in ovarian volume, resolution of ovarian cysts and reversal of the polycystic ovary syndrome-like appearance, together with improvement in serum hormone levels, occurred after euthyroidism was achieved.

Muderris Iptisam

2011-01-01

125

Menopause and Hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

... periods or flow may be different. Hot flashes (“hot flushes”)—getting warm in the face, neck and chest ... Lower hormone levels in menopause may lead to hot flashes, vaginal dryness and thin bones. To help with ...

126

Hormones and female sexuality  

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Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

Bjelica Artur L.; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Maticki-Sekuli? Milana

2003-01-01

127

The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Thyroid Hormones in 9?13 Years Old Pre?Menarche Girls  

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Introduction: Muslims fast from dawn to dusk during Ramadan. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on endocrine hormones have been studied in healthy adults but no previous study has investigated this effect on children. This study aimed to evaluate the feasible changes in serum level of thyroxin (T3), tetraiodothyronin (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and body composition in pre-menarche girls. Methods: This cohort study was performed through Ramadan 2012. We enrolled fifty-ei...

Shohereh Bahrayni; Rahim Vakili; Mohsen Nematy; Abdolreza Norouzy; Seyed Isaac Hashemy; Mehdi Ebrahimi; Elham Masoumi; Habibolla Esmaeili

2013-01-01

128

Hormonal Link to Autoimmune Allergies  

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IgE recognition of autoantigens might augment allergic inflammation in the absence of exogenous allergen exposure. Among allergy and autoimmunity, there is disproportionate representation of males before puberty and females after puberty, suggesting a role for sex hormones. Hormone allergy is an allergic reaction where the offending allergens are one's own hormones. It is an immune reaction to the hormones, which can interfere with the normal function of the hormones. It can occur perimenstru...

Shah, Shilpa

2012-01-01

129

Thyroid hormone levels in human breast cyst fluid.  

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Radioimmunoassayable levels of total and free 3,5,3'-triodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and prolactin (Prl) were measured in a series of samples of breast cyst fluid (BCF) aspirated from 73 pre-menopausal women with gross cystic disease of the breast and in coincidental blood samples. In BCF free T3 and free T4 were consistently higher than in plasma (P less than 0.001) as was also total T3 in the majority of cases (P l...

Cavallo, Rossana; Dogliotti, Luigi; Angeli, Alberto; Faggiuolo, Roberto

1984-01-01

130

Responsiveness of irradiated rat anterior pituitary cells to hypothalamic releasing hormones is restored by treatment with growth hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypopituitarism is a common sequela of irradiation in cancer patients. Here we report that recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) prevents cell death and restores secretory capacity of irradiated rat pituitary cells in vitro. Dispersed rat pituitary cells from male Sprague-Dawley rats, irradiated with a 9-Gy sublethal dose, were incubated with r-hGH before, after, or before and after irradiation. Treatment with GH resulted in increased cell survival, which reached its maximum at the concentration of 5 nM, with an EC(50) of 3.5 nM. Protective effects of GH on pituitary cells were more pronounced in cultures treated before and after irradiation. Similarly, beneficial effects of GH were observed on the secretory capacity of surviving cells. In fact, irradiated pituitary cells treated with GH secreted substantial amounts of GH, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone in response to specific releasing hormones. Such effects of GH were prevented in the presence of the specific GH receptor antagonists B2036 and G120K. Our results show that r-hGH exerts a specific protective effect on irradiated rat pituitary cells and suggest possible use of GH as an adjuvant agent for prevention of postirradiation hypopituitarism. PMID:11146422

Chiarenza, A; Lempereur, L; Palmucci, T; Cantarella, G; Amico-Roxas, M; Goffin, V; Murabito, P; Magro, G; Bernardini, R

2000-12-01

131

Headache And Hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

Shukla Rakesh

2002-01-01

132

Hormonal therapy for epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2011, there are greater than 20 antiepileptic medications available. These medications work by modulating neuronal excitability. Reproductive hormones have been found to have a role in the pathogenesis and treatment of seizures by also altering neuronal excitability, especially in women with catamenial epilepsy. The female reproductive hormones have in general opposing effects on neuronal excitability; estrogens generally impart a proconvulsant neurophysiologic tone, whereas the progestogens have anticonvulsant effects. It follows then that fluctuations in the levels of serum progesterone and estrogen throughout a normal reproductive cycle bring about an increased or decreased risk of seizure occurrence based upon the serum estradiol/progesterone ratio. Therefore, using progesterone, its metabolite allopregnanolone, or other hormonal therapies have been explored in the treatment of patients with epilepsy. PMID:21451944

Stevens, Scott J; Harden, Cynthia L

2011-08-01

133

The Relationship between Thyroid Hormone and Serum Sialic Acid Levels in Hyperthyroid Patients  

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Objective: In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between sialic acid concentration and serum levels of triiodothyronine (T 3 ), tetraiodothyronine (T 4 ), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in hyperthyroid patients. Methods: Twenty eight subjects consisting of 14 healthy and 14 hyperthyroid patients at 25–35 years of age were used. Serum T 3 , T 4 and TSH levels were determined using autoanalyzer, while total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-...

Et Al, Karapehlivan M.

2012-01-01

134

Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test  

Science.gov (United States)

ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

135

Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

... surgery in the pituitary region, have several other pituitary hormone deficiencies, or if you have proven genetic causes ... the pituitary or brain a lack of other pituitary hormones a head injury Adults who do not have ...

136

Aging changes in hormone production  

Science.gov (United States)

... hormones are, in turn, controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ... produce the same amount at a slower rate. AGING CHANGES The hypothalamus is located in the brain. ...

137

Evaluation of plasma hormone concentrations using Enzyme-Immunoassay/Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay in healthy Indian men: Effect of ethnicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study involved three ethnic groups of India; Rajputs, Gorkhas and South-Indians. Each group consisted of ?40 healthy, male soldiers between 20-50 years. The reference ranges for cortisol, testosterone, prolactin, arginine vasopressin and proAtrial natriuretic peptide(1-98) were determined using Enzyme-Immunoassay (EIA) while plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, free-triiodothyronine, thyroxine and freethyroxine were measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that plasma hormone concentrations were within physiological range and inter-ethnic differences were most prominent between north- (Rajputs and Gorkhas) and south- Indians. In comparison to Radioimmunoassay, the EIA method for prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free-thyroxine gave higher values while the ELISA method for triiodothyronine, free-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine gave lower values. These differences are due to differences in assay standards and design. PMID:23105902

Sachidhanandam, M; Singh, S N; Salhan, A K; Ray, Uday Sankar

2010-04-01

138

Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

139

Recombinant hormones in osteoporosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For the last 10 years, bone anabolic therapy with the recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) analogue, teriparatide (rhPTH[1 - 34]), or full-length rhPTH(1 - 84) has been an option in the treatment of osteoporosis. Both drugs are given as a daily subcutaneous injection. In the USA, only teriparatide is marketed.

Rejnmark, Lars; Rejnmark, Lars

2013-01-01

140

Hormones and the Skin  

Science.gov (United States)

... women is affected. It might be caused by genetics or abnormally high levels of the male hormone androgen in the blood. Treatment includes oral anti-androgens or topical creams to slow hair growth, particularly on the face. Polycystic ovary syndrome also can trigger the condition. Polycystic ovary ...

 
 
 
 
141

Hormonal effects in newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... leave the newborn's body. Do not squeeze or massage the newborn's breasts because this can cause an infection under the skin ( abscess ). Hormones from the mother may also cause some fluid to leak from the infant's nipples. This is called witch's milk. It is ...

142

Terapia hormonal da menopausa / Menopausal hormone therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM), estrogênica (TE) ou estro-progestagênica (TEP). A principal indica [...] ção para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida. Abstract in english Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET), and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT). The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal w [...] omen remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT) of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

Dolores, Pardini.

2007-08-01

143

Terapia hormonal da menopausa Menopausal hormone therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM, estrogênica (TE ou estro-progestagênica (TEP. A principal indicação para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual ? TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida.Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT, estrogen therapy (ET, and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT. The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal women remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

Dolores Pardini

2007-08-01

144

PREVALENCE OF SERUM THYROID HORMONES AND MENSTRUAL IRREGULARETIES WITH INFERTILITY IN UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA  

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Full Text Available It is important to predict the serum thyroid hormones level in females during infertility to prevent its occurrence later on. In this study, we studied serum thyroid hormones and menstrual irregularities during infertility. A case control study was performed in 75 infertile patients with menstrual irregularities and 50 healthy matched women. Three biochemical parameters were measured in serum, hormones triiodothyronine (T3, tetra-iodothyronine (T4 and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH by TOSOH-AIA-360, immunoassay method. Out of 75 infertile women sixteen percent (16% had menstrual irregularities with hypothyroidism. The mean serum thyroid level in 75 infertile women were 0.88±0.34 ng/ml, 7.69±2.87 ?Iu/dl and 5.43±6.88 ?Iu/ml, respectively. Serum T3, T4 and TSH level were statistically highly significant in infertile women. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was found at higher side in infertile women. High incidence of hypothyroidism was found in infertile women and it shows a positive correlation with menstrual disorder.

Neha Sharma et al

2012-09-01

145

Thyroid hormones as neurotransmitters.  

Science.gov (United States)

During brain development, before the apparatus of neurotransmission has been set into place, many neurotransmitters act as growth regulators. In adult brain, their role in neurotransmission comes to the fore but neuronal plasticity and other growth-related processes are their continuing responsibility. This has been clearly demonstrated for catecholamines. Previous as well as recent evidence now indicates that thyroid hormones may participate in the developing and adult brain through similar mechanisms. Immunohistochemical mapping of brain triiodothyronine (antibody specificity established by numerous appropriate tests) demonstrated that the hormone was concentrated in both noradrenergic centers and noradrenergic projection sites. In the centers (locus coeruleus and lateral tegmental system) triiodothyronine staining, like that of tyrosine hydroxylase, was heavily concentrated in cytosol and cell processes. By contrast, in noradrenergic targets, label was most prominent in cell nuclei. Combined biochemical and morphologic data allows a construct of thyroid hormone circuitry to unfold: The locus coeruleus is conveniently located just beneath the ependyma of the 4th ventricle. Thyroxine, entering the brain via the choroid plexus, is preferentially delivered to subependymal brain structures. High concentrations of locus coeruleus norepinephrine promote active conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine, leading to the preeminence of the locus coeruleus as a site of triiodothyronine concentration. Results of treatment with the locus coeruleus neurotoxin DSP-4 established that axonal transport accounts for delivery of both triiodothyronine and norepinephrine from locus coeruleus to noradrenergic terminal fields. The apparatus for transduction of thyronergic and noradrenergic signals at both membrane and nuclear sites resides in the postsynaptic target cells. Upon internalization of hormone in post-synaptic target cells, genomic effects of triiodothyronine, norepinephrine, and/or their second messengers are possible and expected. The evidence establishes a direct morphologic connection between central thyronergic and noradrenergic systems, supporting earlier proposals that triiodothyronine or its proximate metabolites may serve as cotransmitters with norepinephrine in the adrenergic nervous system. PMID:9001201

Dratman, M B; Gordon, J T

1996-12-01

146

Steroid hormones and bone  

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Steroid hormones have an important impact on bone. The mechanism of steroid action on bone cells is through an interaction with specific receptor proteins in the target cells. Steroid receptors are a class of molecules that function as both signal transducers and transcription factors. The receptors each have similar functional domains that are responsible for discrete functions. The mechanism of receptor action is mediated by both genomic and nongenomic pathwa...

Huang, W. H.; Zheng, M. H.

1999-01-01

147

Predictive value of thyroid hormones on the first day in adult respiratory distress syndrome patients admitted to ICU : Comparison with SOFA and APACHE II scores.  

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Background: Thyroid hormone dysfunction could affect outcome and increase mortality in critical illness. Therefore, in a prospective, observational study we analyzed and compared the prognostic accuracy of free tri-iodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), along with the APACHE II and SOFA scoring systems in predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in critically ill patients. Patients and Methods: Physiology scores were calculated for th...

Ture Mevlut; Memis Dilek; Kurt Imran; Pamukcut Zafer

2005-01-01

148

Dysfunction of thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid hormone transport  

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Thyroid hormones are essential in processes of growth and development especially in the development of the central nervous system. Malfunction in thyroid hormone synthesis or decrease in the availability of thyroid hormones can lead to diseases as for example congenital hypothyroidism. In this thesis genetic variations (mutations in the thyroid peroxidase gene, mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene) as well as exogenic factors (endocrine disrupters) were examined, leading to d...

Ambrugger, Petra

2010-01-01

149

[Role of parathyroid hormone-like hormone during embryonic development].  

Science.gov (United States)

Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH), also known as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), was first identified as a parathyroid hormone (PTH)-like factor responsible for humoral hypercalcaemia in malignancies. Subsequent studies demonstrated that PTHLH has multiple physiological functions in many fetal and adult tissues, including the regulation of morphogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation, and transplacental calcium transport. This review focuses on the biological characteristics of PTHLH and its function during embryonic development. The signaling pathway and potential mechanism involved are further discussed. PMID:25252304

Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Lei; Lu, Shengsheng; Han, Zhiming

2014-09-01

150

Israel EQAS for thyroid related hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free Thyroxine (FT4) radioimmunoassay (RIA) was operated in 36 laboratories. The 17 serum pools distributed covered analyte concentrations from subnormal to elevated values. Five of these were based on ''zero analyte'' pools artificially prepared by treatment with Amberlite. ''Spiked'' sera was used for recovery studies. Eleven pools were analyzed more than once. Abnormal, method dependent results with large interlaboratory variation was observed in the Amberlite treated pools. A ''matrix effect' was suspected and the results excluded from analysis. The All Laboratory Trimmed Mean (ALTM) was stable to within 4% for each analyte and taken as target value. Overall recovery for T3, T4, and TSH was 101, 91, and 89 per cent. Laboratory performance was assessed from the bias of each result and the variability of bias (as CV of bias for each test), over one year. Performance has improved, especially for TSH, where median bias decreased to 1% from 39%. Percentage of laboratories with unacceptable performance fell from 79% to 32%. A trend towards increased use of IRMA for TSH and of F-T4 was observed. However, F-T4 results proved method dependent. TSH IRMA is suggested as the best supplementary test to T4 for thyroid function testing. Refs, figs and tabs

151

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), ch. 19  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioimmunoassay of PTH and the complications arising from both the relatively low sensitivity of most of the antisera being used and the hormonal heterogeneity are discussed. After labelling of PTH with 125I by the chloramine-T method, the labelled hormone is purified by QUSO granules. The requirements for the assay including a sample protocol for the incubation mixtures are described. The bound and free hormones are separated by adsorption, using talc, charcoal or QUSO pellets

152

Growth hormone and diabetic retinopathy  

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Full Text Available Growth hormone has been considered to be the cause of diabetic retinopathy. However the relationship between growth hormone responses and diabetic retinopathy has not been consistent. Moreover, the correlation (if any between the severity of retinopathy and growth hormone changes are also not well defined. In the present study 23 diabetics (16 with retinopathy, 7 without retinopathy and 8 non-diabetic healthy controls were studied. Serum growth hormone was measured in the fasting state and one hour after levodopa administration. The mean growth hormone levels were significantly higher in the diabetics as compared to controls, however there was no correlation between the mean growth hormone levels (either in the fasting state or after levodopa stimulation and presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy although diabetics with retinopathy had significantly greater mean growth hormone response. The mean growth hormone was found to have no correlation with the fasting blood sugar levels. Diabetics with back ground retinopathy had significantly greater mean growth hormone levels than those with proliferative retinal changes

Singh R

1989-01-01

153

Mammalian sex hormones in plants  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17?-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture

Andrzej Skoczowski

2011-08-01

154

The intestinal phase hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of a stimulatory intestinal phase of gastric acid secretion has been suspected, but largely ignored, for many years. Recently, however, it has become clear that the intestinal phase plays an important role in acid production during digestion. The intestinal phase is of additional interest in relation to the profound gastric acid hypersecretion associated with portacaval shunt (PCS). Substantial evidence indicates that PCS-related gastric hypersecretion is due to unmasking of the intestinal phase by hepatic bypass of a humoral stimulant in portal blood that is normally degraded to a considerable extent by the liver. Studies in our laboratory during the past 12 years have provided strong physiologic evidence for humoral mediation of both the intestinal phase of gastric secretion and of PCS-related hypersecretion by a hormone that arises in the small intestine, particularly in the jejunum. Furthermore, our studies have demonstrated that this intestinal phase hormone (IPH) exists in humans as well as in dogs, rats, and pigs. Additionally, recent work by a number of investigators, as well as by our group, has provided convincing evidence that IPH is different from any of the known gastric stimulatory hormones. With these physiologic observations as a background, we have used a classical method for extracting acidic peptides to prepare a hog intestinal mucosa extract (HIME) that has all of the known physiologic properties of an IPH. Specifically, HIME contains a potent stimulant of gastric acid secretion that acts according to a linear dose-response relationship; that is not gastrin in any of its immunoassayable forms; that significantly augments the maximal acid secretory responses to pentagastrin, gastrin, CCK, and histamine; and that is substantially degraded by the liver, in contrast to gastrin and CCK. Efforts at isolating the gastric stimulatory substance in HIME suggest that it is a peptide of low molecular weight. Work directed at isolating IPH in pure form and identifying it is in progress. PMID:516773

Orloff, M J; Hyde, P V; Kosta, L D; Guillemin, R C; Bell, R H

1979-09-20

155

Effects of EDTA and Sodium Citrate on hormone measurements by fluorometric (FIA and immunofluorometric (IFMA methods  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurements of hormonal concentrations by immunoassays using fluorescent tracer substance (Eu3+ are susceptible to the action of chemical agents that may cause alterations in its original structure. Our goal was to verify the effect of two types of anticoagulants in the hormone assays performed by fluorometric (FIA or immunofluorometric (IFMA methods. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 30 outpatients and were drawn in EDTA, sodium citrate, and serum separation Vacutainer®Blood Collection Tubes. Samples were analyzed in automatized equipment AutoDelfia™ (Perkin Elmer Brazil, Wallac, Finland for the following hormones: Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle stimulating homone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, growth hormone (GH, Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, insulin, C peptide, total T3, total T4, free T4, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. Statistical analysis was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis method and Dunn's test. Results No significant differences were seen between samples for LH, FSH, PRL and free T4. Results from GH, TSH, insulin, C peptide, SHBG, total T3, total T4, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone were significant different between serum and EDTA-treated samples groups. Differences were also identified between serum and sodium citrate-treated samples in the analysis for TSH, insulin, total T3, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Conclusions We conclude that the hormonal analysis carried through by FIA or IFMA are susceptible to the effects of anticoagulants in the biological material collected that vary depending on the type of assay.

Lando Valeria

2002-05-01

156

The effects of PCB exposure and fish consumption on endogenous hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may alter thyroid function, but data on effects of PCB exposure on other endogenous hormones has been lacking. The current study is ancillary to a larger investigation of the effects of Great Lakes fish consumption on PCBs and reproductive function. In the current study we examine associations of PCBs, 1,1-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE), and fish consumption with thyroid and steroid hormones in 178 men and PCBs, DDE, and fish consumption with thyroid hormones in 51 women from the original study. Serum PCB level and consumption of Great Lakes fish are associated with significantly lower levels of thyroxine (T(4)) and free thyroxine index (FTI) in women and with significantly lower levels of T(4) in men. Fish consumption, but not PCB level, is significantly and inversely associated with triiodothyronine (T(3)) in men. Results for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are inconsistent. Among men, there are significant inverse associations of both PCB and fish consumption with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-bound testosterone, but no association with SHBG or free testosterone. There are no significant overall associations of PCB, DDE, or fish consumption with estrone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies showing effects of fish consumption and PCB exposure on thyroid hormones and suggest that PCBs may also decrease steroid binding to SHBG. Elucidation of specific mechanisms must await future investigations. PMID:11748036

Persky, V; Turyk, M; Anderson, H A; Hanrahan, L P; Falk, C; Steenport, D N; Chatterton, R; Freels, S

2001-12-01

157

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated growth hormone deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

... are four types of isolated growth hormone deficiency differentiated by the severity of the condition, the gene ... in the BTK gene. The GH1 gene provides instructions for making the growth hormone protein. Growth hormone ...

158

Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)  

Science.gov (United States)

Combinations of estrogen and progestin are used to treat certain symptoms of menopause. Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone that is no longer being made by ...

159

Evaluation of plasma hormone concentrations using Enzyme-Immunoassay/Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay in healthy Indian men: Effect of ethnicity  

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The study involved three ethnic groups of India; Rajputs, Gorkhas and South-Indians. Each group consisted of ?40 healthy, male soldiers between 20–50 years. The reference ranges for cortisol, testosterone, prolactin, arginine vasopressin and proAtrial natriuretic peptide1–98 were determined using Enzyme-Immunoassay (EIA) while plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, free-triiodothyronine, thyroxine and freethyroxine were measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent...

Sachidhanandam, M.; Singh, S. N.; Salhan, A. K.; Ray, Uday Sankar

2010-01-01

160

SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)  

Science.gov (United States)

... and respond to the same limited number of questions tomorrow, but expect to resume the service, 24/7, as soon as possible. Related Pages On This Site Conditions: PCOS , Infertility Elsewhere On The Web The Hormone Foundation: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) The Hormone Foundation: Low ...

 
 
 
 
161

A Study On Thyroxine and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Women During Pregnancy  

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Study on 50 pregnant women in Allied Hospital, Faisalabad revealed non significant difference in T4 and TSH levels between women of 2nd and 3rd trimester. Similarly, T4 and TSH levels showed no statistical difference between those women used multivitamins and iodine supplements and those did not used. The correlation between T4 and TSH was higher and negative in women having normal body weight to their height and those did not used multivitamins tablets. However, a positive correlation betwee...

Amna Habib; Bhatti, N.; Gilani, A. H.; Khan, M. A.; Javed, M. T.; Zaidi, S. B.

1999-01-01

162

Harmonization protocols for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) immunoassays: different approaches based on the consensus mean value.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The lack of interchangeable laboratory results and consensus in current practices has underpinned greater attention to standardization and harmonization projects. In the area of method standardization and harmonization, there is considerable debate about how best to achieve comparability of measurement for immunoassays, and in particular heterogeneous proteins. The term standardization should be used only when comparable results among measurement procedures are based on calibration traceability to the International System of Units (SI unit) using a reference measurement procedure (RMP). Recently, it has been promoted the harmonization of methods for many immunoassays, and in particular for thyreotropin (TSH), as accepted RMPs are not available. In a recent paper published in this journal, a group of well-recognized authors used a complex statistical approach in order to reduce variability between the results observed with the 14 TSH immunoassay methods tested in their study. Here we provide data demonstrating that data from an external quality assessment (EQA) study allow similar results to those obtained using the reported statistical approach. PMID:25241732

Clerico, Aldo; Ripoli, Andrea; Zucchelli, Gian Carlo; Plebani, Mario

2014-09-20

163

Evaluation of a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for serum thyroid stimulating hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The LKB 'Delfia, immunofluorometric assay for serum TSH has been evaluated. The assay is simple and rapid to perform and is capable of processing in excess of 100 specimens within a working day. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.05 microU/L, with a working range extending beyond 324 microU/L. The change in signal at each point over the standard curve approaches 1000-fold, significantly greater than that of a typical immunoradiometric assay. Mean figures for intra-assay and inter-assay precision were 4.7% and 8.6% CV, respectively. Mean recovery of added TSH was 98.3%, and samples containing high levels of endogenous TSH diluted parallel to the standard curve. The method showed good correlation with an immunoradiometric assay for TSH. The reference ranges for clinically defined groups of subjects were euthyroid 0.47-3.84 microU/L (n = 83); primary hypothyroidism 15--greater than 324 microU/L (n = 28); thyrotoxicosis less than 0.05 microU/L (n = 46). It is concluded that the 'Delfia' assay offers the clinical biochemistry laboratory an attractive and reliable alternative to a sensitive immunoradiometric assay for serum TSH. PMID:4073792

Paterson, N; Biggart, E M; Chapman, R S; Beastall, G H

1985-11-01

164

A Study On Thyroxine and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Women During Pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study on 50 pregnant women in Allied Hospital, Faisalabad revealed non significant difference in T4 and TSH levels between women of 2nd and 3rd trimester. Similarly, T4 and TSH levels showed no statistical difference between those women used multivitamins and iodine supplements and those did not used. The correlation between T4 and TSH was higher and negative in women having normal body weight to their height and those did not used multivitamins tablets. However, a positive correlation between T4 and TSH was observed in women those used iodine and negative in women those did not used iodine.

Amna Habib

1999-01-01

165

Negative Feedback Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis  

Science.gov (United States)

A basic understanding of the endocrinology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of anuran larvae is necessary for predicting the consequences of HPT perturbation by thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) on the whole organism. This project examined negative feedback con...

166

Migraine: is it related to hormonal disturbances or stress?  

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Full Text Available Rachna Parashar,1 Payal Bhalla,2 Nirendra K Rai,3 Abhijit Pakhare,4 Rashmi Babbar5 1Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 2Department of Physiology, Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 5Department of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India Background: Common neurological syndrome (migraine without aura is more common among women than men. Migraine is among the top 20 causes of disability. Menstruation is known to be a powerful trigger for migraine, and so is stress, but the presentation of headache is similar in both. Also, women are more vulnerable to stress as well as migraine, and this makes a complex relationship of menstruation, stress, and migraine. Objective: This study was done to understand the association of hormonal fluctuation in menstruation and stress with common migraine. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 40 young adult females, of whom 20 participants were cases of migraine without aura (18–35 years old, and the remaining 20 participants were age-matched controls. The study was done in Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. Study participants were selected on the basis of International Headache Society (ICHD-IIA1.1 (2004 classification. Study participants with neurological disorders, chronic diseases, and disease suggestive of any hormonal disturbances were excluded. Clinically diagnosed migraine cases were asked to maintain a headache diary and to fill in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales questionnaire. Biochemical assessment of hormonal status for thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin was also done on the second day of their menstrual cycle. We used the Mann–Whitney U test to compare hormonal levels and the ?2 test to compare anxiety- or depression-related stress among the migraine and nonmigraine groups. Results: Significantly higher values of prolactin were observed in cases (mean ± standard deviation, 152.7 mIU/L±30.5 compared to controls (76.1 mIU/L±8.7, with a P-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant difference observed in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (P=0.081, estrogen (P=0.086, luteinizing hormone (P=0.091, or follicle-stimulating hormone (P=0.478. Also, anxiety with stress or depression with stress was significantly higher among the migraine group than the controls (P=0.002. Odds of any stress in migraine were higher in the migraine group than in the nonmigraine group (odds ratio 12, 95% confidence interval 2.7–53.33. Conclusion: Migraine, particularly without aura, in women is mainly associated with stress-related anxiety or depression, and are more susceptible to stress in the premenstrual period. Keywords: migraine, menstruation, stress

Parashar R

2014-10-01

167

Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab, and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab. Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (36 weeks; for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (36 weeks; and for TSH, values were (?IU/mL: 1.12 ± 0.69 (36 weeks. Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain.

Bocanegra-García Virgilio

2009-11-01

168

Doping with growth hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triggered by the Olympic games in Sydney last year, many articles in the press suggested that recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) is one of the most popular performance enhancing drugs used by athletes. However, any hard facts on hGH abuse were provided by Australian customs officers--and not by laboratory assessment. The lack of an official test for hGH doping together with the widespread rumours on its tremendous beneficial effects seem to make this compound attractive for athletes. From a scientific point of view, there are two major questions about this issue: First, as there is no controlled study demonstrating a profound effect of hGH administration on workload capacity in healthy adults, why do athletes use hGH? Second, how could the application of a substance naturally occurring in the human body be detected? Both aspects are discussed in this article. PMID:11592563

Bidlingmaier, M; Wu, Z; Strasburger, C J

2001-01-01

169

A simple and rapid immunoradiometric assay for human chorionic gonadotrophic hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One step, two-site sandwich immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) has been established by using two different monoclonal antibodies (9D11 and 112B2) against HCG. As the antigenic determinants of 9D11 (immobilized on plastic beads as solid phase) and 112B2 (labelled with 125I) are on the peculiar region at C-terminus of HCG ? -subunit and HCG ? -subunit respectively, they can bind with the intact HCG at the same time. The assay is highly sensitivie ( < 20 Iu/L), simple, rapid, and doesn't need centrifuge. The specificity of the assay is very high, and no cross-reaction with human luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone and free ? -subunit of HCG was found. The HCG levels in plasma and urine are undetectable in 10 normal young females. The assay results in 20 females either in pregnant woman or different diseases are proved coincidence with the clinical situations

170

Discovery of substituted benzamides as follicle stimulating hormone receptor allosteric modulators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), acting on its receptor (FSHR), plays a pivotal role in the stimulation of follicular development and maturation. Multiple injections of protein formulations are used during clinical protocols for ovulation induction and for in vitro fertilization that are followed by a selection of assisted reproductive technologies. In order to increase patient convenience and compliance several research groups have searched for orally bioavailable FSH mimetics for innovative fertility medicines. We report here the discovery of a series of substituted benzamides as positive allosteric modulators (PAM) targeting FSHR. Optimization of this series has led to enhanced activity in primary rat granulosa cells, as well as remarkable selectivity against the closely related luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). Two modulators, 9j and 9k, showed promising in vitro and pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:24685543

Yu, Henry N; Richardson, Thomas E; Nataraja, Selva; Fischer, David J; Sriraman, Venkataraman; Jiang, Xuliang; Bharathi, Pandi; Foglesong, Robert J; Haxell, Thomas F N; Heasley, Brian H; Jenks, Mathew; Li, Jane; Dugas, Melanie S; Collis, Regina; Tian, Hui; Palmer, Stephen; Goutopoulos, Andreas

2014-05-01

171

Female sexual dysfunction and hormonal status in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate a possible correlation between sexual hormonal status and the presence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in females with spinal cord injuries (SCI), we selected 39 SCI fertile-aged women. At visit 1, we assessed the presence of FSD using the FSFI, and all individuals were submitted to a blood hormone evaluation on the third day of their menstrual cycle. The levels of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), androstenedione, 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone; total and free testosterone, 17beta-estradiol, inhibin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and thyroid hormones (fT3 and fT4) were checked. Progesterone was measured on the 20th to 21st day after the menstrual cycle. In patients with amenorrhea, we tested all the hormones using 1 random blood test. After a 3-month period, the tests were repeated. Overall, 23/39 (58.9%) patients continued to manifest at least one sexual dysfunction. These patients reached a median score of 19.52. All but 6 patients (15.3%) consistently showed hormonal values within the normal range. Of the 6 patients with abnormal hormonal alterations, 5 showed at least one sexual dysfunction, 2 had low levels of total testosterone, 1 had a low level of free testosterone, 1 suffered from hypothyroidism, 1 presented with low levels of cortisol, and 1 showed hypoprogesterone. There was no significant correlation between abnormal hormonal status and the presence of a specific sexual dysfunction, as assessed with the FSFI. PMID:17494102

Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mondaini, Nicola; Macchiarella, Angelo; Del Popolo, Giulio

2007-01-01

172

Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.  

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In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N...

Jana?ky, T.; Juha?sz, A.; Bajusz, S.; Csernus, V.; Srkalovic, G.; Bokser, L.; Milovanovic, S.; Redding, T. W.; Re?ka?si, Z.; Nagy, A.

1992-01-01

173

Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

A fact sheet that describes hormone therapy (including antiestrogens, LH-RH agonists, aromatase inhibitors, and SERMs) and its role in preventing and treating breast cancer. Includes information about possible side effects.

174

Growth Hormone in Renal Insufficiency  

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Growth retardation is one of the known complications of chronic renal failure. Although protein-calorie malnutrition, electrolyte disturbances, acidosis and renal osteodystrophy are important factors in the development a growth failure in children with chronic renal failure, recent investigations in therapy of these children with growth hormone are promising. Growth hormone therapy increases growth velocity and final adult high in patients with chronic renal failure.

Rabbani, A.; Sotoodeh, A.; Assadi, F.

2000-01-01

175

Growth Hormone in Renal Insufficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth retardation is one of the known complications of chronic renal failure. Although protein-calorie malnutrition, electrolyte disturbances, acidosis and renal osteodystrophy are important factors in the development a growth failure in children with chronic renal failure, recent investigations in therapy of these children with growth hormone are promising. Growth hormone therapy increases growth velocity and final adult high in patients with chronic renal failure.

A Rabbani

2000-07-01

176

Revisiting Thyroid Hormones in Schizophrenia  

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Thyroid hormones are crucial during development and in the adult brain. Of interest, fluctuations in the levels of thyroid hormones at various times during development and throughout life can impact on psychiatric disease manifestation and response to treatment. Here we review research on thyroid function assessment in schizophrenia, relating interrelations between the pituitary-thyroid axis and major neurosignaling systems involved in schizophrenia's pathophysiology. These include the seroto...

Joana Almeida Palha; Maria João Soares; José Valente; Maria Helena Azevedo; Ana Telma Pereira; António Macedo; Dina Ruano; Patrício Costa; Nadine Correia Santos

2012-01-01

177

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), ch. 7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioimmunoassay method for ACTH is described and special attention is paid to the problems arising from low plasma concentrations, strong affinity of ACTH for adsorption to glassware and incubation damage of labelled ACTH. 125I-labelled ACTH is prepared by the chloramine T method and purified by QUSO granules. The requirements are discussed in detail and a sample protocol for the incubation mixtures is given. Separation of bound and free labelled hormones is performed by adsorption of the free hormone

178

Thyroid Hormone Function in the Rat Testis  

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Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ, and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). These testicular cells also express deiodinases, which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessar...

Gao, Ying; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

2014-01-01

179

Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor ß (ERß was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

Saraiva P.P.

2005-01-01

180

Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

 
 
 
 
181

Localization and synthesis of the hormone-binding regions of the human thyrotropin receptor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two regions of human thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor (TSHR) were selected on the basis that they exhibit no sequence resemblance to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor. Five synthetic overlapping peptides (12-30, 24-44, 308-328, 324-344, and 339-364) were studied for their ability to bind {sup 125}I-labeled human TSH (hTSH), its isolated {alpha} and {beta} subunits, bovine TSH, ovine TSH, human luteinizing hormone, and human follicle-stimulating hormone. The human TSHR peptides 12-30 and 324-344 exhibited remarkable binding activity to human, bovine, and ovine TSH and to the {beta} chain of hTSH. Lower binding activity resided in the adjacent overlapping peptides, probably due to the contribution of the shared overlap to the binding. The specificity of TSH binding to these peptides was confirmed by their inability to bind human luteinizing hormone, human follicle-stimulating hormone, and the {alpha} chain of hTSH. Thyrotropins did not bind to bovine serum albumin or to peptide controls unrelated to the TSHR system. It is concluded that the binding of TSH to its receptor involves extensive contacts and that the TSHR peptides 12-30 and 324-344 contain specific binding regions for TSH that might be either independent sites or two faces (subsites) within a large binding site.

Atassi, M.Z.; Manshouri, T. (Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Sakata, Shigeki (Gifu Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

1991-05-01

182

Associations of organochlorines with endogenous hormones in male Great Lakes fish consumers and nonconsumers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationships of steroid and thyroid hormones with total noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxins-like organochlorines, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in 56 male frequent and infrequent Great Lakes sport caught fish consumers. Significant negative associations were found for triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)-bound testosterone with PCBs, for TSH with total TEQs, and for estrone sulfate with DDE, adjusting for age, body mass index, and medication use. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, free testosterone, and SHBG were not significantly associated with organochlorines. Models that accounted for exposure to both PCBs and TEQs predicted T4, estrone sulfate, and SHBG-bound testosterone better than models that included either PCBs or TEQs alone, with the lowest hormone levels occurring in the participants with both higher PCB levels and lower TEQ levels. These data suggest that exposure to PCBs, dioxin-like organochlorines, and DDE, alone and potentially in combination, may be associated with effects on the endocrine system in adult males. Further studies should help delineate specific exposure effects and effects of exposures to other common environmental contaminants alone and in combination with PCBs. PMID:16563369

Turyk, Mary E; Anderson, Henry A; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G; Steenport, Dyan N; Knobeloch, Lynda; Imm, Pamela; Persky, Victoria W

2006-11-01

183

T3 release from thyroid slices as an assay for thyroid stimulators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new in vitro bioassay for thyroid stimulators is described. The method is based on radioimmunological measurement of triiodothyronine (T3) release from thyroid slices. Small thyroid slices were cut from several porcine thyroids. The slices were pooled in incubation vessels. The stimulating effect of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), bovine TSH, and serum from a patient with Graves's disease was investigated. After 3 hr the T3 concentration was significantly higher in the vessels containing the thyroid stimulators than in the control vessels. For maximal sensitivity 16 hr of incubation was used in the assay. Bovine TSH, human TSH, and serum from a patient with Graves's disease gave linear dose response curves in a log-log system. For bovine TSH the curve was linear from 5 to 125 ?U/ml incubation medium. The dilution curves for bovine TSH and serum from a patient with Graves's disease were parallel. The dilution curve for human TSH was considerably steeper. In 5 assays the ? values for the bovine TSH curves were 0.10-0.16 (mean, 0.12). In 3 assays the ? values for the human TSH curves were 0.05-0.07. (auth.)

184

Maternal and fetal hormonal profiles of anemic pregnant women of Eastern Sudan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaemia is defined as reduction in circulating hemoglobin mass below the critical level expected for age and sex. Anaemia affects almost two- thirds of pregnant women in developing countries, it is associated with poor maternal and prenatal outcomes. Anaemia during pregnancy through many endocrine alterations-may influence the maternal and fetal environment. To investigate the anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal profiles in paired maternal and cord blood samples and to compare between the two groups, anaemic (n=68) and non-anaemic groups (n=57), in order to study the endocrine effects of anaemia during pregnancy in the mothers and their neonates. This cross sectional study was conducted in Gadarif hospital, Eastern Sudan. Women were classified into two groups based on the WHO classification of anaemia: Group 1(normal control-no anaemia Hb>11.0 g/dl) Group 2 anaemic, (Hb11g/dl). There was no significant difference in the fetal anthropometrics parameters (weight, length and placental weight) between the anaemic (Hb11g/dl). Maternal prolactin was significantly higher in anaemic group when compared with non anaemic group with p-value =.002. Cord serum albumin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anaemic group with p-value=.04. Cord serum ferritin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anemic group with p-value<.001. There was no significant difference was observed in the other maternal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). There was no significant difference was observed in the other fetal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). In this study there were some maternal and fetal endocrine modulations due to anaemia during pregnancy as indicated by the high levels of maternal prolactin in blood of the anemic women group and also the high values of albumun and ferritin in the cord blood of the anemic women group.(Author)

185

Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

AntonioBianco

2012-06-01

186

Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

187

Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia / Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pit [...] uitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

Julio, Brito; Lya, Sáez; Melchor, Lemp; Claudio, Liberman; Harold, Michelsen; A Verónica, Araya.

2008-07-01

188

Short stature, obesity, and growth hormone deficiency in pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a.  

Science.gov (United States)

Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is a genetic disorder caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations in GNAS, the gene that encodes the alpha-chain of Gs (G alpha s). This syndrome is associated with short stature, obesity, brachydactyly, and subcutaneous ossifications. Patients with GNAS mutations on maternally-inherited alleles are resistant to multiple G-protein-coupled hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH), and glucagon. This variant of AHO, termed pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type 1a, is due to tissue-specific paternal imprinting of G alpha s. We investigated whether patients with PHP type 1a exhibited evidence of resistance to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) (1), another hormone requiring G alpha s function. In addition, G alpha s transcripts are imprinted in the pituitary somatotrophs responsible for growth hormone (GH) secretion which could thereby influence GHRH-dependent stimulation of somatotrophs. We therefore hypothesized that patients with PHP type 1a may be GH deficient which could contribute to the obesity and short stature in this condition. We found that GH deficiency is common in PHP type 1a (69%) with a prevalence that is much greater than in the general population (0.03%). We propose that GH status be evaluated in all patients with this condition. Treatment with recombinant GH could lead to improvements in height in children, as well as other physical (eg, obesity, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis, reduced renal function) and psychological (fatigue and diminished sense of well-being) parameters in GH-deficient PHP type 1a patients of all ages. PMID:16675931

Germain-Lee, Emily L

2006-04-01

189

Pituitary hormone secretion in normal male humans: acute responses to a large, oral dose of monosodium glutamate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies have shown that the administration of a glutamate receptor agonist or a high dose of glutamate stimulates pituitary hormone secretion in animals. However, only a single human study has reported that an oral load of glutamic acid induced the secretion of prolactin and probably adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (but not other pituitary hormones). Because of glutamate's use in foods as monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavoring agent, and the limited amount of human data, we studied the effect of a large oral dose of MSG in humans on the secretion of prolactin and other pituitary hormones. Fasting male subjects bearing venous catheters received on separate days each of the following four treatments: a vehicle, MSG (12.7 g), a high protein meal (a physiologic stimulus of prolactin secretion) by mouth, or an intravenous infusion of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, a pharmacologic stimulus of prolactin secretion). Plasma hormone responses were quantitated by RIA at 20-min intervals for 4 h. The protein meal induced a modest increase and TRH infusion a substantial increase in plasma prolactin, whereas MSG ingestion did not. MSG ingestion also did not raise the plasma concentrations of any of the other pituitary hormones measured (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone) or of cortisol. Ingestion of MSG raised plasma glutamate concentrations 11-fold; the protein meal did not raise plasma glutamate. The results demonstrate that MSG ingestion in humans does not modify anterior pituitary hormone secretion. One implication is that diet-derived glutamate may not penetrate into hypothalamic regions controlling anterior pituitary function. PMID:10736381

Fernstrom, J D

2000-04-01

190

Recently discovered hypothalamic-pituitary hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years a variety of peptide hormones have been isolated from the mammalian hypothalamus and pituitary. Several hypothalamic hormones, including thyroliberin (thyrotropin-releasing factory), luliberin (luteinizing hormone-releasing factor), and somatostatin (somatotropin release-inhibiting factor), have been characterized and synthesized. The subsequent development of radioimmunoassays for these hormones has made possible the study of their physiology. The measurement of prolactin in serum and the release of pituitary hormones after the administration of the hypothalamic hormones has proved to be useful in clinical diagnosis. The use of hypothalamic hormones in treating various clinical disorders and the isolation and characterization of new releasing and inhibiting hormones in the hypothalamus are actively being investigated. PMID:812615

Malarkey, W B

1976-01-01

191

Developing a model of plant hormone interactions  

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Plant growth and development is influenced by mutual interactions among plant hormones. The five classical plant hormones are auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. They are small diffusible molecules that easily penetrate between cells. In addition, newer classes of plant hormones have been identified such as brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and various small proteins or peptides. These hormones also play important roles in the regulation of plant growth...

Wang, Yu Hua; Irving, Helen R.

2011-01-01

192

Hormone Action in the Mammary Gland  

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A woman’s breast cancer risk is affected by her reproductive history. The hormonal milieu also influences the course of the disease. The female reproductive hormones, estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin, have a major impact on breast cancer and control postnatal mammary gland development. Analysis of hormone receptor mutant mouse strains combined with tissue recombination techniques and proteomics revealed that sequential activation of hormone signaling in the mammary epithelium is requi...

Brisken, C.; O Malley, B.

2010-01-01

193

Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the sto [...] mach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a) discovery of this peptide, b) mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c) regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

A.-M.J., Lengyel.

1003-10-01

194

Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a discovery of this peptide, b mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

A.-M.J. Lengyel

2006-08-01

195

Resistance to thyroid hormone is modulated in vivo by the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR1).  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in the ligand-binding domain of the thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) lead to resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). These TR? mutants function in a dominant-negative fashion to interfere with the transcription activity of wild-type thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), leading to dysregulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis and resistance in peripheral tissues. The molecular mechanism by which TR? mutants cause RTH has been postulated to be an inability of the mutants to properly release the nuclear corepressors (NCORs), thereby inhibiting thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated transcription activity. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we crossed Thrb(PV) mice (a model of RTH) expressing a human TR? mutant (PV) with mice expressing a mutant Ncor1 allele (Ncor1(?ID) mice) that cannot recruit a TR or a PV mutant. Remarkably, in the presence of NCOR1?ID, the abnormally elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone and TH levels found in Thrb(PV) mice were modestly but significantly corrected. Furthermore, thyroid hyperplasia, weight loss, and other hallmarks of RTH were also partially reverted in mice expressing NCOR1?ID. Taken together, these data suggest that the aberrant recruitment of NCOR1 by RTH TR? mutants leads to clinical RTH in humans. The present study suggests that therapies aimed at the TR-NCOR1 interaction or its downstream actions could be tested as potential targets in treating RTH. PMID:21987803

Fozzatti, Laura; Lu, Changxue; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Jeong Won; Astapova, Inna; Gavrilova, Oksana; Willingham, Mark C; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Cheng, Sheue-yann

2011-10-18

196

[Correlations between PBDEs and thyroid hormone concentrations in adults from production source area].  

Science.gov (United States)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentrations in 36 resident serum samples from PBDEs production source area were analyzed by gas chromatography/negative chemical ionization/mass spectrometry(GC-NCI-MS) method, and the concentrations of thyroid hormones were determined as well. The sigma5PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -153, -183, -209) concentrations(lipid weight) in serum ranged from 130.3 to 4 478.4 ng x g(-1), with an average value of 529.9 ng x g(-1). BDE-209 was a dominant PBDE congener, on average accounting for 69.8% of the total PBDEs concentrations. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated between PBDEs and thyroid hormone, it showed that there were high significant negative correlation between BDE-28, -47, -153, -183 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and significant negative correlation was also found between BDE-183 and free thyroxine (fT4). Additionally, there were significant positive correlation between BDE-28, -47 and triiodothyronine (T3), as well as between BDE-28, -153, -183 and free triiodothyronine(fT3). In summary, the concentrations of PBDEs in serum in this study were at a high level, and BDE-209 was the predominant congener. The exposure to the PBDEs may affect thyroid hormone levels, and the further research should focus on the relationship between PBDEs and thyroid hormone concentrations. PMID:22295623

Li, Ming-Yuan; Jin, Jun; Yang, Cong-Qiao; Wang, Ying; Ding, Wen-Wei; Yang, Xian-Feng; Liu, An-Ming

2011-11-01

197

Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T4) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), tri iodine thyronine (T3) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

198

The hormonal regulation of life processes in insects (2.) The anti-juvenile hormones (1.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Those compounds that decrease either the level or activity of natural endogenous juvenile hormones in insects are called anti-juvenile hormones (AJH). The possible effects of anti-juvenile hormones are manifold: they may inhibit special enzymes or the bindings of juvenile hormones to receptors and transport proteins or may cause the destruction of corpora allata, the sources of juvenile hormones. The most obvious possibility to elicit an anti-juvenile hormone effect lies in the inhibition of enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones

199

Assay for parathyroid hormone receptors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents methods used to identify and quantify parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in kidney and bone. Experimental details are provided for the preparation of radioiodinated PTH, purification of labeled PTH, and PTH binding assays using renal plasma membranes and cultured cells from embryonic chick bone cells

200

Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pParathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

2009-01-01

202

Hormonal Treatment of Acne in Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acne vulgaris is a common and chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit. Standard treatment protocols include topical retinoids, topical and oral antimicrobials, and isotretinoin. Hormonal therapies can be added to the regimen in some patients. This article will review the hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discuss the basics of an endocrine evaluation, and provide an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women.

Ebede, Tobechi L.; Arch, Emily L.; Berson, Diane

2009-01-01

203

Thyroid hormones and the heart.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones have a significant impact on heart function, mediated by genomic and non-genomic effects. Consequently, thyroid hormones deficit as well as excess are expected to result in profound changes in cardiac function regulation and cardiovascular hemodynamics. Thyroid hormones upregulate the expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-activated ATPase and downregulate the expression of phospholamban. Overall, hyperthyroidism is characterized by an increase in resting heart rate, blood volume, stroke volume, myocardial contractility, and ejection fraction. The development of "high-output heart failure" in hyperthyroidism may be due to "tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy." In contrast, in the hypothyroid state, thyroid hormone deficiency results in lower heart rate and weakening of myocardial contraction and relaxation, with prolonged systolic and early diastolic times. Cardiac preload is decreased owing to impaired diastolic function, cardiac afterload is increased, and chronotropic and inotropic functions are reduced. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is relatively common in patients >65 years of age. In general, subclinical hypothyroidism increases the risk of cardiovascular heart disease (CHD) mortality and CHD events, but not of total mortality. The risk of CHD mortality and atrial fibrillation (but not other outcomes) in subclinical hyperthyroidism is higher among patients with very low levels of thyrotropin. Finally, medications such as amiodarone may induce hypothyroidism (mediated by the Wolff-Chaikoff effect) as well as hyperthyroidism (mediated by the Jod-Basedow effect). In both instances, the underlying cause is the high concentration of iodine in this medication. The purpose of this review is to assess the effects of thyroid hormones on the heart, and their clinical repercussions. PMID:25389997

Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando; Sierra-Torres, Carlos Hernán

2014-04-01

204

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.

2010-01-01

205

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes th [...] e levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

Jose Carlos, Pereira Jr.; Marcia, Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins, Pessoa.

206

Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

1971-01-01

207

Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

208

The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. ...

Chopra, Sandeep; Cherian, Davis; Jacob, Jubbin J.

2011-01-01

209

Leydig cells, thyroid hormones and steroidogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leydig cells are the primary source of androgens in the mammalian testis. It is established that the luteinizing hormone (LH) produced by the anterior pituitary is required to maintain the structure and function of the Leydig cells in the postnatal testis. Until recent years, a role by the thyroid hormones on Leydig cells was not documented. It is evident now that thyroid hormones perform many functions in Leydig cells. For the process of postnatal Leydig cell differentiation, thyroid hormones are crucial. Thyroid hormones acutely stimulate Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Thyroid hormones cause proliferation of the cytoplasmic organelle peroxisome and stimulate the production of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and StAR mRNA in Leydig cells; both peroxisomes and StAR are linked with the transport of cholesterol, the obligatory intermediate in steroid hormone biosynthesis, into mitochondria. The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in Leydig cells and other cell types of the Leydig lineage is an issue that needs to be fully addressed in future studies. As thyroid hormones regulate many functions of Sertoli cells and the Sertoli cells regulate certain functions of Leydig cells, effects of thyroid hormones on Leydig cells mediated via the Sertoli cells are also reviewed in this paper. Additionally, out of all cell types in the testis, the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), TRH mRNA and TRH receptor are present exclusively in Leydig cells. However, whether Leydig cells have a regulatory role on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis is currently unknown. PMID:16313060

Mendis-Handagama, S M L Chamindrani; Siril Ariyaratne, H B

2005-11-01

210

Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular / Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system / Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, reali [...] zamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem. Abstract in spanish La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujere [...] s con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven. Abstract in english Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascu [...] lar disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

Milena Bastos, Brito; Fernando, Nobre; Carolina Sales, Vieira.

2011-04-01

211

Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.

Sermin Kesebir

2010-12-01

212

Thyroid Hormone Levels Associated with Active and Passive Cigarette Smoking  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Active and passive cigarette smoking are a risk factor among women of reproductive age—leading to reproductive health morbidity, including fetal and infant death and developmental problems with the newborn. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms for these ill-effects are not fully understood. Smoke exposure may affect various metabolic and biological processes, including hormone biosynthesis and secretion, interfere with thyroid hormone release, binding, transport, storage, and clearance, associated with adverse effects on the thyroid resulting in changes in circulating hormone concentrations. We measured and compared serum thyroid hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in active, passive, and nonsmokers and determined their association with cigarette tobacco smoke exposure. We use a comprehensive approach to assess the interrelationships between active and passive tobacco smoke exposure and thyroid hormone levels by employing innovative hormone analysis techniques. Methods Serum was obtained from women (18–44 years of age). Thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and cotinine concentrations were quantified using isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and TSH concentrations by chemiluminescence. Results Serum concentrations of the various hormones of active smokers, passive smokers, and nonsmokers (nonexposed), respectively, were as follows. Median TSH concentrations were 1.02, 1.06, and 1.12?mIU/L (p?hormone concentrations using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in women smokers, passive smokers, and nonsmokers. Active and passive exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke is associated with a mild inhibitory effect on the thyroid reflected in higher serum T4 and T3 in nonsmokers compared to smokers in this cohort of women. PMID:19505184

Goughenour, Bethany E.; Gilbert, Sappho Z.; Landy, Helain J.; Soldin, Steven J.

2009-01-01

213

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2013-09-01

214

Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior. PMID:25224609

Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

2014-11-01

215

Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

216

Hormonal Replacement: advantages and disdvantagens Reposição Hormonal: vantagens e desvantagens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deficiency of estrogens was considered by many people as a physiological condition and not pathological one probably because the ovarian inadequacy is genetically programmed. However with the increase of the expection of the women´s life, the negative impact of the deficiency of estrogens became more significant. Although this deficiency is easy to take care less than, 20% of the women post menopáusicas receive estrogens. The therapy of hormonal replacement (THR in the menopause it appeared as the mainly treatment form, to alleviate the symptoms and act as prevention, reducing the emergence of diseases, as the cardiovascular and the osteoporosis, but THR is not totally unproved of risks. The hormonal therapeutical has past the last years for doubts and uncertainties, in consequence of several related publications of its use, this way it becomes important to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this therapy. Analyse througha wide bibliographical revision, the advantages and disadvantages of the TRH replacement in women climatérias, as well as evaluate if the possible risks of this therapy overcomes s the benefits proportionate for the same . It was used as methodology bibliographical researches made in libraries and internet. The texts of books and scientific articles were studied and the contents of them were selected for the elaboration of this work. The THR is recommended to alleviate the vasomotores symptoms , treatment of vaginal atrophy and prevention of osteoporosis. In spite of the acquaintances advantages, approximately 70% of the women interrupt the treatment after the first year. One of the principal causes of the low adherence of THR is the bleed irregular , other reasons includes mastalgia, nausea, chronic headache, profit of weight and hidrica retention, besides the fear of cancer. The decision of a woman to use the TRH is a complex process and it is recommended by the doctor, who is taking care of her by the individual risk of diseases, by the attitudes toward the menopause and THR, values menopausais, symptoms and to the middle to which the woman belongs. A deficiência de estrogênio foi considerada por muitos uma condição fisiológica ,e não patológica, provavelmente porque a insuficiência ovariana é geneticamente programada. Entretanto com o aumento da expectativa de vida das mulheres, o impacto negativo da deficiência de estrogênio tornou-se mais significativo. Embora essa deficiência seja tratável, menos de 20% das mulheres pós menopáusicas recebem estrogênio. Embora a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH na menopausa não seja totalmente isenta de riscos,ela tem sido utilizada com o objetivo de aliviar sintomas e de agir preventivamente e assim reduzir o aparecimento de doenças, como as cardiovasculares e a osteoporose. A terapêutica hormonal tem passado os últimos anos por duvidas e incertezas, em conseqüência de diversas publicações relacionadas a seu uso, desta forma torna-se importante analisar as vantagens e desvantagens dessa terapia: analisar através de uma ampla revisão bibliográfica, as vantagens e desvantagens da terapia de reposição hormonal em mulheres climatérias, bem como avaliar se os possíveis riscos dessa terapia superam os benefícios proporcionados pela mesma. Utilizou-se como metodologia a pesquisa bibliográfica efetuada em bibliotecas e internet e os textos de livros e artigos científicos foram estudados e os conteúdos selecionados para a elaboração do trabalho.A terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH é recomendada para alivio dos sintomas vasomotores, tratamento da atrofia vaginal e prevenção da osteoporose. Apesar das conhecidas vantagens, aproximadamente 70% das mulheres cessam o tratamento após o primeiro ano. Uma das principais causas da baixa aderência a TRH é o sangramento irregular, outras razões incluem mastalgia, náusea, cefaléia, ganho de peso e retenção hídrica, além do medo de câncer. A decisão de uma mulher em usar terapia de reposição hormonal é um processo complexo determinado pela r

Eliane Aparecida Campesatto Mella

2006-10-01

217

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating alter...

Robinson, Jennifer A.; Burke, Anne E.

2013-01-01

218

Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect herbivores and pathogens with a necrotrophic lifestyle. Antagonistic and synergistic interactions between the SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways allow the plant to fine-tune the activation of defense...

Does, A.

2012-01-01

219

Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

2009-01-01

220

Growth hormone and its disorders  

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Growth hormone (GH) is synthesised and secreted by the somatotroph cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Its actions involve multiple organs and systems, affecting postnatal longitudinal growth as well as protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. GH hypersecretion results in gigantism or acromegaly, a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality, while GH deficiency results in growth retardation in children and the GH deficiency syndrome in adults. This articl...

Ayuk, J.; Sheppard, M. C.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone  

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Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, sugges...

Gutkowska, J.; Jankowski, M.; Mukaddam-daher, S.; Mccann, S. M.

2000-01-01

222

Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ? Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ? Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ? Exposure to PBDEs and alternate FRs was associated with alterations in hormone levels.

Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-02-15

223

Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ? Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ? Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ? Exposure to PBDEs and alternate FRs was associated with alterations in hormone levels

224

Sex hormones and macronutrient metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this "bias" and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to "normal," i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the "reference man" vs. the "reference woman" in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

2015-01-01

225

Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author).

Chen, Ming-Shen; Lin, Fang-Jen; Huang, Miau-Ju; Wang, Pei-Wan; Tang, Simon; Leung, Wei-Man; Leung, Wan (Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan))

1989-09-01

226

Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evalto be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

227

Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin: structural elucidation of the sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides on bovine, ovine, and human pituitary glycoprotein hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have elucidated the structures of the anionic asparagine-linked oligosaccharides present on the glycoprotein hormones lutropin (luteinizing hormone), follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone), and thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone). Purified hormones, isolated from bovine, ovine, and human pituitaries, were digested with N-glycanase, and the released oligosaccharides were reduced with NaB[3H]4. The 3H-labeled oligosaccharides from each hormone were then fractionated by anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into populations differing in the number of sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties. The sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures, which together comprised 67-90% of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the pituitary glycoprotein hormones, were highly heterogeneous and displayed hormone- as well as animal species-specific features. A previously uncharacterized dibranched oligosaccharide, bearing one residue each of sulfate and sialic acid, was found on all of the hormones except bovine lutropin. In this study, they describe the purification and detailed structural characterizations of the sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated oligosaccharides found on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin from several animal species

228

VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyroxine (T3. The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4, Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3?IU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 57-59

Pallavi Chaurasia

2011-04-01

229

Thyroid hormone levels in patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted with three main objectives, to study thyroid hormones (T 4, T 3) and TSH levels in patients with CRF under haemodialysis and to compare them with normal subjects, to study best means of treatment and to compare these findings with results from other parts of the world. This study was done on 61 patients with renal failure in Khartoum dialysis and kidney transplant centre U of K, 45 males and 16 females with ages ranging from 17-75 years and 42 symptoms-free subjects 14 males and 23 females with age ranging from 16-60 years. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used for the determination of serum T 4, T 3 and TSH. By using t-test found that the mean concentrations of T 4, T 3 of normal subjects were much higher than those of the patients (p0.05). These results also illustrated that 45.9% of patients with renal failure of low T 4, and 91.8%, 90.26 of patients had T 3 and TSH hormone levels in the normal range, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean of thyroid hormones (T 4, T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormones between males and females (p>0.05). The T 3 and T '4 concentrations in patients at all age groups (year) was less than the age groups of the control group, and this decrease was statistically significant (p0.05).(Author)

230

Effect of salinity level on TSH and thyroid hormones of grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (T3, T4 have marked effect on body metabolism and in controlling osmoregulation activity in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water salinity changes on thyroid hormones level and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH of grass carp. For this purpose 120 grass carp were divided randomly in to four groups (10 fish in each group and three replicates per treatment. Three groups were held in three different salinities at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1. The fourth group was reared in fresh water and considered as control. After three weeks blood samples were collected from the caudal peduncle vein. Then serum was separated and serum thyroid hormones and TSH were measured by LISA on Microwell plates. Our results indicated that the average of T3 levels in 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 groups were 0.43 ± 0.11, 0.22 ± 0.04 and 0.21 ± 0.04 ?g dL-1, respectively. T3 levels in all experimental groups were significantly lower than those of control group (p 0.05. The level of TSH in salinities of 4 and 8 g L-1 groups was significantly higher than that of control group (p < 0.05. The results showed that increasing water salinity can have significant effect on thyroid activity by decreasing T3 and increasing T4 level in serum of grass carp in experimental condition.

Rahim Peyghan

2013-09-01

231

The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

Behan, Lucy Ann

2012-02-01

232

Development of a simple enzyme immunoassay for the determination of ovine luteinizing hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study describes the development and validation of a simple sensitive and specific sandwich enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the quantification of ovine luteinizing hormone (LH) in plasma. Microtitre plates were coated with the capture antibody 518b7 anti-bovine LH. A second peroxidase-labelled anti-ovine LH antibody was used as tracer. A simple 3-step procedure was used for the sample analysis; (1) incubation of standards and samples with the pre-coated antibody plates for 2 h at 37 degrees C; (2) incubation with the peroxidase-labelled antibody for 1 h at room temperature; and (3) colour development with TMB substrate. A linear dose-response curve was obtained in the range 0-10 ng/ml (r2 > 0.99). The detection limit was 0.05 ng/ml, and the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7% and 11.7%, respectively. The theoretical stability of microplates and reagents was calculated, this being greater than one year. Low or undetectable cross-reactivities were recorded for follicle-stimulating hormone, bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone, equine chorionic gonadotrophin and a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. The EIA was biologically validated by the determination of plasma LH concentrations of nine Rasa Aragonesa ovariectomized and estradiol-implanted ewes after a double GnRH challenge. In conclusion, this enzyme immunoassay provides an efficient, simple and sensitive method for the routine analysis of ovine LH. PMID:17225084

Valares, J A; Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Mata, L; Razquin, P

2007-05-01

233

Disfunción eréctil de origen hormonal / Hormonal etiology in erectile dysfunction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adecuado funcionamiento del mecanismo de la erección depende de la correcta interrelación de factores psicológicos, vasculares, neurológicos y hormonales. Las enfermedades endocrinas afectan a la función sexual y la disfunción sexual puede ser uno de los síntomas de alguna alteración hormonal. La [...] diabetes mellitus es la alteración endocrina que con más frecuencia causa disfunción eréctil debido a las frecuentes complicaciones vasculares y neurológicas que conlleva. Es importante la determinación de glucosa en la evaluación inicial del varón con disfunción eréctil, así como intentar un adecuado control de los niveles de glucemia para evitar el empeoramiento. La disfunción eréctil del diabético es multifactorial, de mayor severidad y responde peor al tratamiento oral. La hiperprolactinemia es causante de alteraciones en la esfera sexual, ya que provoca descenso de la testosterona. En estos casos, la sintomatología sexual se trata corrigiendo los niveles de prolactina. La determinación rutinaria de la prolactina no está clara y parece que debe determinarse cuando las cifras de testosterona están disminuidas. Las alteraciones de la hormona tiroidea (tanto el hiper como el hipotiroidismo) se asocian a disfunción eréctil, que en la mitad de los casos remitirá con la normalización de la hormona tiroidea. No está claro el papel que juegan las hormonas suprarrenales en la función eréctil y su determinación rutinaria no se contempla en la evaluación diagnóstica de la disfunción eréctil. Tampoco se conoce bien el papel del estradiol en la regulación del mecanismo de la erección, aunque se sabe que cifras elevadas de este pueden provocar disfunción eréctil. Dentro de las alteraciones endocrino-metabólicas reseñar las dislipemias, con la hipercolesterolemia como factor de riesgo importante de disfunción eréctil y aunque su corrección puede prevenir el deterioro del sistema vascular, no está claro el papel de las estatinas en la disfunción eréctil. Abstract in english The proper function of erection mechanisms depend on correct interrelationship between psychological, vascular, neurological and hormonal factors. Endocrine diseases affect sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may be one of the symptoms of some hormonal anomalies. Diabetes mellitus is the endocri [...] ne disease most frequently causing erectile dysfunction due to the frequent vascular and neurological complications associated. It is important to determine blood glucose in the initial evaluation of a male with erectile dysfunction, as well as to try an adequate control of blood glucose levels to avoid worsening. Diabetic male erectile dysfunction is multifactorial, more severe and has worse response to oral treatment. Hyperprolactinemia causes disorders of the sexual sphere because it produces a descent of testosterone. In these cases, sexual symptoms are treated by correcting the levels of prolactin. Routine determination of prolactin is not clear and it seems it should be determined when testosterone levels are diminished. Thyroid hormone disorders (both hyper and hypotyroidism) are associated with erectile dysfunction, which will subside in half the patients with thyroid hormone normalization. The role of adrenal hormones in erectile function is not clear and their routine determination is not considered in the diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction. The role of estradiol in the regulation of the erection mechanism is not well known either, although it is known that high levels may cause erectile dysfunction. Among endocrine-metabolic disorders we point out dyslipemias, with hypercholesterolemia as an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction and, though its correction may prevent vascular system deterioration, the role of statins in erectile dysfunction is not clear.

José María, Martínez Jabaloyas.

2010-10-01

234

Comparison of thyroid hormone levels between normal and preeclamptic pregnancies  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: To investigate thyroid function in preeclamptic patients in comparison with normal pregnant women. Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study free Thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) levels were measured in 100 preeclamptic patients and were compared with Free T4 and TSH levels in 101 normal pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy. Patients with thyroid or other systemic disorders were excluded from this study. Results: A significant difference in concentration of free T4 levels (0.729 ±0.324 ng/ dl versus 0.929± 0.314 ng/dl, p <0.001) was observed in the preeclamptic group compared with the normotensive group, but the mean TSH level was not significantly different (2.935±1.16 mIU/L versus 2.339±1/15 mIU/L, p = 0.170). Conclusion: Women who develop preeclampsia are more likely to have lower normal limits of thyroid function during their final weeks of pregnancy. PMID:25250246

Raoofi, Zahra; Jalilian, Anahita; Shabani Zanjani, Mansorah; Parvar, Seyedeh Paniz; Parvar, Seyedeh Pegah

2014-01-01

235

Hormonal and meta-hormonal determinants of sexual dimorphism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of hormones in the determination of sexual characteristics has been known for several decades. It has been shown, for example, that several products, including sex steroids, may influence the body development pattern, metabolic pathways, fat and muscle distribution and vocal cord anatomy, thus producing an overall outcome consistent with a masculine or feminine phenotypic pattern. These qualities are usually described as secondary sexual traits, so as to be distinguished from primary sex traits, usually referring to the gonads and external genitalia. However, it must be noted that hormonal regulation may not explain the full range of the sexual phenotype, since the central nervous system retains a significant role in the establishment of sexual identity, thus giving rise to a higher sex determination stage exclusively described in humans, namely behavioral or psychological sex. Recently, it has been suggested that differences among the sexes are not limited to brain function but they may also refer to anatomical differences and different biochemical profiles, including a distinct pattern of AR and ER distribution. This new aspect of sexual dimorphism suggests a whole system of meta-hormonal regulation, recently described as the sexual brain model. The role of local androgen and/or estrogen concentrations in the initial establishment of brain sexual dimorphism is still under evaluation, since the first results are relatively inconclusive and no direct cause and effect relationship has been proven so far. On the other hand, sex hormones have recently been found to participate in processes well beyond their initially suggested spectrum of action. For instance, ER interacts with EGFR in a number of ways, affecting development of a number of epithelial structures. Estrogen receptors have also been detected in a number of non-classic targets of steroids, such as the brain and the lungs. This observation may imply that sexual dimorphism goes a lot deeper than previously estimated, affecting virtually every organic system, suggesting, in essence, the existence of two different functional models for the whole human body, formulated and conserved throughout the evolutionary progress. PMID:17058540

Lavranos, Giagkos; Angelopoulou, Roxani; Manolakou, Panagiota; Balla, Marianthi

2006-09-01

236

Thyroid hormone action in metabolic regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone plays pivotal roles in growth, differentiation, development and metabolic homeostasis via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) by controlling the expression of TR target genes. The transcriptional activity of TRs is modulated by multiple factors including various TR isoforms, diverse thyroid hormone response elements, different heterodimeric partners, coregulators, and the cellular location of TRs. In the present review, we summarize recent advance in understanding the molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action obtained from human subject research, thyroid hormone mimetics application, TR isoform-specific knock-in mouse models, and mitochondrion study with highlights in metabolic regulations. Finally, as future perspectives, we share our thoughts about current challenges and possible approaches to promote our knowledge of thyroid hormone action in metabolism. PMID:21614672

Song, Yiyun; Yao, Xuan; Ying, Hao

2011-05-01

237

Disruption of thyroid hormone functions by low dose exposure of tributyltin: an in vitro and in vivo approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triorganotins, such as tributyltin chloride (TBTCl), are environmental contaminants that are commonly found in the antifouling paints used in ships and other vessels. The importance of TBTCl as an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) in different animal models is well known; however, its adverse effects on the thyroid gland are less understood. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the thyroid-disrupting effects of this chemical using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. We used HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells for the in vitro studies, as they are a thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-positive and thyroid responsive cell line. For the in vivo studies, Swiss albino male mice were exposed to three doses of TBTCl (0.5, 5 and 50?g/kg/day) for 45days. TBTCl showed a hypo-thyroidal effect in vivo. Low-dose treatment of TBTCl exposure markedly decreased the serum thyroid hormone levels via the down-regulation of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) genes by 40% and 25%, respectively, while augmenting the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expression was up-regulated in the thyroid glands of treated mice by 6.6-fold relative to vehicle-treated mice (p<0.05). In the transient transactivation assays, TBTCl suppressed T3 mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TBTCl was found to decrease the expression of TR. The present study thus indicates that low concentrations of TBTCl suppress TR transcription by disrupting the physiological concentrations of T3/T4, followed by the recruitment of NCoR to TR, providing a novel insight into the thyroid hormone-disrupting effects of this chemical. PMID:25101840

Sharan, Shruti; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha

2014-09-15

238

Contraceptive Hormone Use and Cardiovascular Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contraceptive hormones, most commonly prescribed as oral contraceptives (OC), are a widely utilized method to prevent ovulation, implantation and therefore pregnancy. The Women’s Health Initiative demonstrated cardiovascular risk linked to menopausal hormone therapy among women without pre-existing cardiovascular disease, prompting review of the safety, efficacy and side effects of other forms of hormone therapy. A variety of basic science, animal and human data suggest that contraceptive h...

Shufelt, Chrisandra L.; Noel Bairey Merz, C.

2009-01-01

239

Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet...

Mehdi Hedayati; Pouran Makhdoumi; Marjan Zarif-Yeganeh

2014-01-01

240

ROLE OF THYROID HORMONES IN FISHES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Literature review is devoted to analysis of role of thyroid hormones in fishes. Structural features of secretory epithelium and neuro-endocrine control of thyroid status in fishes are described. Function of thyroid hormones in development of biorhythms as well as in molecular mechanisms of maintenance of cellular and tissue chronobiological activities in fishes are characterized. Issue about role of thyroid hormones in fish adaptation in response to changes of intensity of abioti...

Dolomatov, S. I.; Kubyshkin, ?. V.; Kutia, S. A.; Zukow, Walery

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Sex hormone binding globulin in breast cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was undertaken to determine the significance of sex hormone binding globulin, the major and specific binding protein for testosterone and estradiol, in breast cancer. Among breast cancer patients, lower serum levels of Sex hormone binding globulin and higher levels of testosterone were observed. Sex hormone binding globulin showed an inverse relationship with testosterone and total cholesterol, and a direct relation with HDL-cholesterol. By the western blot analyses, Sex hor...

Naik S L, Dayalu; Hedau, Suresh; Bahadur, Anil Kumar; Saha, Renuka; Kaur, Sudershan; Ray, Amitabha

2008-01-01

242

Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD res...

Rasmussen, Michael Højby

2009-01-01

243

Hormonal treatment of acne in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acne vulgaris is a common and chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit. Standard treatment protocols include topical retinoids, topical and oral antimicrobials, and isotretinoin. Hormonal therapies can be added to the regimen in some patients. This article will review the hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discuss the basics of an endocrine evaluation, and provide an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:20725580

Ebede, Tobechi L; Arch, Emily L; Berson, Diane

2009-12-01

244

Human growth hormone (HGH), ch. 6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioimmunoassay method for the human growth hormone (HGH) is described. The requirements are discussed in detail and a scheme for the preparation of incubation mixtures is given. HGH is labelled with 125I by the chloramine T method and purified by gel filtration or electrophoresis. Separation of bound and free-labelled hormones is performed by absorption of the free hormone, using talc or charcoal

245

Trans-activation by thyroid hormone receptors: functional parallels with steroid hormone receptors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of thyroid hormones are mediated through nuclear receptor proteins that modulate the transcription of specific genes in target cells. We previously isolated cDNAs encoding two different mammalian thyroid hormone receptors, one from human placenta (hTR beta) and the other from rat brain (rTR alpha), and showed that their in vitro translation products bind thyroid hormones with the characteritistic affinities of the native thyroid hormone receptor. We now demonstrate that both of th...

Thompson, C. C.; Evans, R. M.

1989-01-01

246

Lack of circulating thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins in cats with hyperthyroidism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although feline hyperthyroidism has become a commonly diagnosed disorder of older cats, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Pathological findings of adenomatous hyperplasia involving both thyroid lobes in most hyperthyroid cats suggests the possibility that feline hyperthyroidism may be similar to human Graves' disease, which results from high circulating levels of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs). To exclude high circulating levels of TSIs as the cause of feline hyperthyroidism, we measured intracellular concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in functioning rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5) incubated with IgG extracted from hyperthyroid cat serum. Since TSIs stimulate thyroid hormone secretion through activation of cAMP, their presence can be evidenced in vitro by generation of high cAMP concentrations in cultured thyroid cells. No significant difference was found in intracellular cAMP concentrations in FRTL-5 cells incubated with IgG from normal versus hyperthyroid cats. In contrast, IgG from a human patient with Graves' disease caused substantially more cAMP generation than either normal human IgG or IgG from the cats of this study. These results indicate that feline hyperthyroidism does not result from high circulating concentrations of TSI and, in that respect, is not analogous to Graves' disease. PMID:2893486

Peterson, M E; Livingston, P; Brown, R S

1987-11-01

247

Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

1983-01-01

248

Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52%imental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

249

Hormones as doping in sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge. PMID:22990405

Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

2013-04-01

250

Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

Shen Wen-Jun

2006-02-01

251

Natriuretic Hormones in Brain Function  

Science.gov (United States)

Natriuretic hormones (NH) include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin), and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume, and blood pressure (BP). In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of NH is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function. The available literature on the expression patterns of each of the NH and their receptors in the brain is summarized, followed by the evidence for their roles in modulating brain function. Although numerous open questions exist regarding this issue, the available data support the notion that NH participate in the central regulation of BP, neuroprotection, satiety, and various psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, addiction, and depressive disorders. In addition, the interactions between the different NH in the periphery and the brain are discussed. PMID:25506340

Hodes, Anastasia; Lichtstein, David

2014-01-01

252

Implants, Injections, Rings, and Patches: Hormonal Birth Control Options  

Science.gov (United States)

What are hormonal birth control methods? Besides oral contraceptives (birth control pills) and the hormonal intrauterine device , there are several other forms of hormonal birth control: implants, injections, rings, and ...

253

21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device...

2010-04-01

254

Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Comprehensive Report)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Australian women developed CJD after receiving other human pituitary hormones as fertility treatments. [ Top ] Are people treated with ... of these people also had problems making other pituitary hormones. One of these hormones tells the adrenal glands ...

255

Post-menopausal hormone use and albuminuria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Higher levels of urinary albumin excretion predict future hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Post-menopausal hormone use may influence the renin–angiotensin system and renal endothelial function, impacting albumin excretion. The association between post-menopausal hormone use and albuminuria is not well defined.

Schopick, Emily L.; Fisher, Naomi D.; Lin, Julie; Forman, John P.; Curhan, Gary C.

2009-01-01

256

Method to determine the thyroid hormone content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention deals with a method to determine the thyroid hormone content, e.g. in blood, using radioactively labelled hormone. Before radioactivity measurement, the sample liquid is separated from solid matter by a special sorption agent (e.g. phosphate, silicate). (VJ)

257

Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

Gaard, Greta

1995-01-01

258

Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of secretion of parathyroid hormone during tests of stimulation and suppression of hormone-secretory activity using infusions of EDTA and calcium, respectively, have established that, in contrast to previous views, secretion of the hormone is not autonomous in many patients that have adenomatous hyperparathyroidism, but is responsive to changes in blood-calcium concentration. These findings have led to a new understanding of the pathophysiology of hormone production in hyperparathy-roidism. A related application of the diagnostic use of the radioimmunoassay is the preoperative localization of parathyroid tumors and the distinction between adenomas and chief-cell hyperplasia. Work involving catheterization and radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from the subclavin and innominate veins and the venae cavae, led to localization in a high percentage of patients. However, this procedure has been adopted recently to detect hormone concentration in the small veins directly draining the parathyroid glands.

Potts, J. T.

1972-01-01

259

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

Paul Saenger

2009-01-01

260

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

Saenger Paul

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Thyroid hormones and lipid phosphorus in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo studies in mice injected intravenously with 125I-triiodothyronine (T-3) showed a linear relationship between the uptake of the labelled hormone by the tissue and the lipid phosphorous content of the same tissue. However, studies with 125I-thyroxine failed to show a similar relationship between the lipid phosphorous content of the organ and the uptake of radioactive hormone by the same organ. In vitro studies using equilibrium dialysis technique with isolated lipid extracts of various organs and radioactive thyroid hormones (T-3 and T-4) did not show any relation between the lipid P and the uptake of labelled hormone. On the basis of the observed discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro studies, it is postulated that an organized lipoprotein structure at the cell membrane may be responsible for the entry of the thyroid hormones. (author)

262

Growth hormone responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone and clonidine in dogs with Cushing's syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of clonidine, a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, acting at the hypothalamic level and synthetic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), a physiological stimulus of somatotrophs, on GH secretion were measured in 11 dogs with Cushing's syndrome. Eight healthy dogs served as controls. After the administration of GHRH the dogs with hyperadrenocorticism had a mean (SEM) GH peak of 11.2 (2.5) ng ml-1 which was significantly lower than the peak of 48.6 (13.4) ng ml-1 observed in the healthy dogs. Similarly, the GH response to clonidine was inhibited in the dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, the mean GH peak being 9.3 (3.3) ng ml-1 compared with 135.6 (43.3) ng ml-1 in the control dogs. No significant difference between the GH responses to GHRH and clonidine was observed in the dogs with Cushing's syndrome, the areas under the response curves being 567.9 (78.2) and 478.0 (102.6) ng.min ml-1, respectively. These results demonstrate that the function of somatotrophs is abnormal in dogs with Cushing's syndrome. There is evidence that the likely action of clonidine in dogs is to inhibit the release of somatostatin and the results therefore suggest that the effect of an excess of glucocorticoid in the dog is probably not mediated through an increase in somatostatin tone. PMID:7761697

Regnier, A; Garnier, F

1995-03-01

263

Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. PMID:18385901

Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

2008-05-01

264

The effect of thyroid hormone and bone metablism-associated growth factor on the patients of hyperthyreosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the effect of high concentration of thyroid hormone and cell growth factor content on the bone metabolism of hyperthyreosis. Methods: Radiation immunological test and chemiluminescence methods are employed to determinate the content of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), insulin-like growth factor II(IGF-II), calcitonic (CT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) of serum in health adult and parts of hyperthyreosis patients. Results: Hyperthyreosis patients have a higher content of FT4, FT3 and IL-6 than those of health adult (t was 16.69,11.33,7.92, respectively, P<0.01), while the content of TSH, IGF-II, CT, TNF are obvious decreasing (t was 13.08, 8.34, 5.29, 8.75, respectively, P<0.01). Conclusion: In patients with hyperthyreosis, high concentration thyroid hormone cause accentuation of protein metabolism, decrease calcium homeostasis by disorders of phosphorus and calcium metabolism, high concentration thyroid hormone and low level CT resulted in bone loss. Decreased ICF-II may be the main cause of osteoporosis as the result of high concentration thyroid hormone. (authors)

265

Effects of waterborne cadmium on thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium is a heavy metal abundant in the environment that can induce endocrine disorder and toxicity in aquatic organisms at low levels. However, its effects on the thyroid system in fish are still unclear. In this study, the thyroid hormone (TH) levels and the expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic- pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (tsh?), solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter) member 5 (slc5a5), thyroglobulin (tg), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (tr?) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (tr?), were determined in whole body of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae after exposure to different levels of Cd(2+) (0, 0.5 and 2.5mg/L) for 4days. And the 96-h lethal concentration of Cd(2+) on rare minnow larvae was determined as 2.59mg/L. The results showed that crh, slc5a5, tg and tsh? mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae, but the gene expression of tr? and tr? was down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Besides, the THs levels decreased in the whole-body of fish, especially the thyroxine (T4) level. The above results indicated that Cd(2+) could alter gene expression in the HPT axis that might subsequently contribute to thyroid disruption. PMID:24521933

Li, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yan-Hua; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Feng; Ni, Zhao-Hui

2014-04-01

266

Alteration of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae exposed to mercury chloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes endocrine disorder to human and other organisms. But little is known about the response of the thyroid functions and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to mercury in teleosts and the few studies that are available have not yielded consistent results. In this study, expression profiles of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (tsh?), solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter) member 5 (slc5a5), thyroglobulin (tg), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (tr?) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (tr?) genes were determined in whole-body of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae after exposure to different levels of Hg(2+) (0, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/l) for 4 days, as well as the thyroid hormones (THs) levels. Moreover, the 96-h lethal concentration of Hg(2+) on rare minnow larvae was determined as 0.32 mg/l. The results showed that crh, tg, tr? and tr? mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae, but the gene expression of tsh? and slc5a5 was not significantly changed in our study. Besides, the THs levels increased in the whole-body of fish, especially the thyroxine (T4) level. The above results indicated that Hg(2+) could alter some genes expression in the HPT axis which could be used as the potential biomarkers for evaluating the environmental Hg(2+)-induced stress in fish. PMID:25064382

Li, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yan-Hua; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Feng; Ni, Zhao-Hui

2014-07-01

267

Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18-357 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23-435 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

Tietge, Joseph E., E-mail: tietge.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Degitz, Sigmund J., E-mail: degitz.sigmund@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Haselman, Jonathan T., E-mail: haselman.jon@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Butterworth, Brian C., E-mail: butterworth.brian@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Korte, Joseph J., E-mail: korte.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Kosian, Patricia A., E-mail: kosian.pat@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie J., E-mail: lind1020@d.umn.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); and others

2013-01-15

268

Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18–357 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23–435 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enableediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

269

Detection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in normal human pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas using immunohistochemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is a well-known regulator of gonadotroph function, has recently been considered to be a paracrine factor involved in the control of somatotroph, lactotroph, and corticotroph cells. GnRH action is initiated by binding to a specific cell surface receptor, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), which is expressed by follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone (FSH/LH) cells. Using in situ hybridization techniques, GnRHR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) has recently been detected in normal human anterior pituitary gland and in various pituitary adenomas, including FSH/LH-cell, growth hormone (GH)-cell, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-cell, and null-cell adenomas. However, immunohistochemical studies indicating the specific cell distribution of GnRHR in normal pituitary cells have never been reported. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of GnRHR in different types of normal pituitary cells and related tumors. Using double-label immunohistochemical techniques on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues and specific antibodies directed against pituitary hormones and GnRHR, we found GnRHR immunoreactivity not only in FSH/LH cells, but also in GH- and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) cells. GnRHR was detected in FSH/LH-cell, GH-cell, mixed GH- and prolactin (PRL)-cell, and alpha-subunit (alpha-SU)/null-cell adenomas. The findings of this study suggest that the interaction between GnRH and GnRHR may play a role in paracrine/autocrine regulation of different types of normal pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas. PMID:11037346

La Rosa, S; Celato, N; Uccella, S; Capella, C

2000-09-01

270

Radioimmunological determination of parathyroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Angiographic or scintigraphic localization of parathyroid adenomas is successful in only a small number of patients with hypercalcaemic hyperparathyroidism. This report is concerned with the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas by regional catheterization of the thyroid veins in patients with hypercalcaemic hyperparathyroidism ( n = 7). PTH was determined radioimmunologically, using an antiserum specific for PTHsub(1-84) and the carboxyl-terminal fragment of the hormone. Determination of regional differences in the plasma concentration of PTH permitted the preoperative localization of PTH secreting adenomas. The preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas was confirmed in each instance by surgery. Thus, the regional determination of plasma PTH represents a tool to improve the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with hypercalcaemic hyperparathyroidism and, hence, to reduce the risk of an unsuccessful operation. (author)

271

Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT and the presence of BAT in humans and its relevance.

Obregon, Maria-Jesus

2014-01-01

272

Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT and the presence of BAT in humans and its relevance. PMID:25566082

Obregon, Maria-Jesus

2014-01-01

273

Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth- and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu, an e-waste area in southern China. We quantified eight PBDE congeners using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, lead and cadmium utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, three thyroids with radioimmunoassay and two types of growth hormones by an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 162 children, 4 to 6 years old, from Guiyu. In blood, median total PBDE was 189.99 ng/g lipid. Lead and cadmium concentrations in blood averaged 14.53±4.85 µg dL?1 and 0.77±0.35 µg L?1, respectively. Spearman partial correlation analysis illustrated that lead was positively correlated with BDE153 and BDE183. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively correlated with almost all PBDE congeners and negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were negatively correlated with BDE154. However, no correlation between the hormones and blood lead or cadmium levels was found in this study. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed that total PBDEs was negatively associated with FT3 and positively associated with TSH. Notably, FT4 was positively correlated with FT3, house functions as a workshop, and father's work involved in e-waste recycling and negatively correlated with vitamin consumptions. TSH was negatively related with FT4, paternal residence time in Guiyu, working hours of mother, and child bean products intake. IGFBP-3 was positively correlated with IGF-1 and house close to an e-waste dump. These results suggest that elevated PBDEs and heavy metals related to e-waste in Guiyu may be important risk factors for hormone alterations in children. PMID:25415336

Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

2014-01-01

274

Serum thyroxin (T/sub 4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in cord blood of newborns in Lahore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The primary aim of this study was the early detection and treatment of hypothyroidism in neonates. This paper describes the determination of cord blood serum T/sub 4/ and TSH levels, their mean levels reference ranges and interrelationship. Results: Mean (Plus minus SD) T/sub 4) leveling cord blood serum was 115 plus minus 36 nmol/L (range: 15-350 nmol/L) and mean TSH level was found to be 5.6 plus minus 5.1 mlU/L (range: 0.05 - 150). The reference range for T/sub 4/ and TSH was 49-189 nmol/L and 0.4-17.6 mlU/L respectively. A trend in T/sub 4/ and TSH levels distributions towards higher values was noted Serum T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were not correlated significantly. Except at lowest and highest levels no reciprocal relationship between T/sub 4/ and TSH levels was found as is observed in adults. T/sub 4/ and TSH levels no reciprocal relationship between T/sub 4/ and TSH levels was found as is observed in adults. T/sub 4/ and TSH levels in 90% neonates were between 60-173 nmol/L and 1.0-14.2 mlU/L respectively. Conclusion: In most neonates, level of cord serum T/sub 4/ was independent of TSH level. Mean T/sub 4/ and TSH levels and their normal ranges were lower as compared to an iodine-sufficient country like USA. In 11.4% of neonates TSH levels were above 10 mlU/L, corresponding to mild degree of iodine deficiency disorders in Lahore. (author)

275

Regulation of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Release from the Pituitary by Thyroxine during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmentally-relevant chemicals such as perchlorate have the ability to disrupt the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of exposed individuals. Larval anurans are a particularly suitable model species for studying the effects of thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) becaus...

276

Incretin hormone secretion over the day  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies, although some studies have demonstrated reduced incretin hormone secretion in type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes our knowledge on regulation of incretin hormone secretion and its potential changes in disease states.

Ahren, B; Carr, RD

2010-01-01

277

Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

Krauss, R.M.

1991-12-01

278

Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

Persky Victoria

2012-08-01

279

Parathyroid hormone binding to cultured avian osteoclasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases serum calcium concentration via a controversial cellular mechanism. We investigated whether PTH binds avian osteoclasts. Isolated hypocalcaemic hen osteoclasts were incubated with [125I]--bovine PTH (1-84). Specific binding of the hormone to the cells, which reached the equilibrium within 60 min, was observed. Half maximal binding was reached by 10 min. Binding was competitively inhibited by increasing doses of unlabeled PTH, and was about 55% displaced by adding, at the equilibrium, 10(-6) M unlabeled PTH. Autoradiography demonstrated specific label on the osteoclast. The cellular mechanism activated by the hormone remains to be elucidated

280

Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy. This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin. Physical activity should be promoted, and cigarette smoking reduced if possible. Women at risk of cardiovascular disease will also benefit from hormone replacement therapy. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone therapy will protect against both coronary heart disease and stroke, and there is no increased risk of venous thrombosis or hypertension. A disadvantage of hormone replacement therapy is an increased risk of forming gall-bladder stones and undergoing cholecystectomy. Unopposed estrogen therapy gives a higher incidence of endometrial cancer in women with an intact uterus, but the contribution of progestins for about 10 days every month excludes this risk. Breast cancer in relation to estrogen-progestogen therapy has been given much concern, and the problem is still not fully solved. If there is a risk, it is small, and only after prolonged use of estrogen (15-20 years). The decision whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy should, of course, be taken by the individual woman in question, but her decision should be based on the available scientific information. It is the opinion of the authors that the advantages of hormone replacement therapy far exceed the disadvantages. We suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Cancers | Special Issue : Hormones and Carcinogenesis  

...edu Special Issue Information Dear Colleagues, Hormones play a critical role in cancer development in a variety of organs, including breast, uterus, ovary, prostate, testes, liver and others. Recent investigations have revealed that “cross- talk” between hormone and growth factor signaling networks affect the acquisition of the malignant phenotype, often in a tissue specific fashion. Further, environmental factors acting as hormonal mimics (endocrine disruptors) can alter both genetic integrity and epigenetic programs, the ultimate effects of which are modulated by exposures during specific developmental periods ...

282

Identification of a conserved region required for hormone dependent transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The oestrogen receptor stimulates transcription by means of at least two distinct transcriptional activation domains, TAF-1 in the N-terminal domain and TAF-2 in the hormone binding domain. Here we show that TAF-2 activity requires a region in the C-terminus of the hormone binding domain between residues 538 and 552 in the mouse oestrogen receptor which is conserved among many nuclear hormone receptors. Point mutagenesis of conserved hydrophobic and charged residues significantly reduced liga...

Danielian, P. S.; White, R; Lees, J. A.; Parker, M. G.

1992-01-01

283

The Roles of Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone during Mouse Preimplantation Embryonic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) was first identified as a parathyroid hormone (PTH)-like factor responsible for humoral hypercalcemia in malignancies in the 1980s. Previous studies demonstrated that PTHLH is expressed in multiple tissues and is an important regulator of cellular and organ growth, development, migration, differentiation, and survival. However, there is a lack of data on the expression and function of PTHLH during preimplantation embryonic development. In this study, w...

Guo, Lei; Qi, Shu-tao; Miao, De-qiang; Liang, Xing-wei; Li, Hui; Ou, Xiang-hong; Huang, Xin; Yang, Cai-rong; Ouyang, Ying-chun; Hou, Yi; Sun, Qing-yuan; Han, Zhiming

2012-01-01

284

Regulation of endometrial cancer cell growth by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used to treat recurrent endometrial cancer. However, the mode of action is uncertain. Our previous studies showed no direct effect of GnRHa on endometrial cancer cell growth in vitro. We have now examined the effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on endometrial cancer cell growth. The aim was to determine whether suppression of pituitary LH and FSH by GnRHa could explain the tumour regression seen ...

Davies, S.; Bax, C. M. R.; Chatzaki, E.; Chard, T.; Iles, R. K.

2000-01-01

285

Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions tha...

Privalsky, Martin L.; Rosen, Meghan D.

2011-01-01

286

Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during [...] parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

J., Gutkowska; M., Jankowski; S., Mukaddam-Daher; S.M., McCann.

2000-06-01

287

Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

Gutkowska J.

2000-01-01

288

Considerations in the preparation of I131-labelled hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although some problems are common to the preparation of all I131-labelled proteins, certain investigations with I131-labelled hormones involved difficulties not generally encountered in studies with I131-labelled serum proteins. The problems unique to the I131-labelled hormones are determined by the special purposes to which these are put, and distinctive physical and chemical characteristics of protein and polypeptide hormones. I131-labelled hormones have been used in turnover studies, in immunological investigations, and in the immunological assay of hormones. This paper discusses the problems associated with the labelling of hormones and some applications for I131-labelled hormones

289

Hormone patterns in early human gestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

290

Binding in the growth hormone receptor complex.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Binding reactions between human growth hormone (hGH) and its receptor provide a detailed account of how a polypeptide hormone activates its receptor and more generally how proteins interact. Through high-resolution structural and functional studies it is seen that hGH uses two different sites (site 1 and site 2) to bind two identical receptor molecules. This sequential dimerization reaction activates the receptor, presumably by bringing the intracellular domains into close proximity so they m...

Wells, J. A.

1996-01-01

291

Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), various experiments such as 125I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

292

Fuzzy deconvolution of pulsatile hormone secretion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hormone secretion is an intrinsically discontinuous process characterized by a pulsatile pattern. In this paper we describe a fuzzy deconvolution method for pulsatile hormone secretion signals. The secretion signal is modeled as a Poisson process. The fuzzy deconvolution method is based on fuzzy identification by using learning signals, mountain clustering and optimal output predefuzzification. The predefuzzification part of the fuzzy deconvolution method includes the possibility to part...

Boekhoudt, Piet

1996-01-01

293

Reproducibility of Serum Pituitary Hormones in Women  

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Endogenous pituitary hormones are commonly used in clinical and epidemiological studies and some of them are thought to influence risk of several diseases in women. In most studies, endogenous levels of pituitary hormones are usually assessed at a single point in time, assuming that this single measurement represents the long-term biomarker status of the individual. Such an assumption is rarely tested and may not always be valid.

Arslan, Alan A.; Gu, Yian; Zeleniuch-jacquotte, Anne; Koenig, Karen L.; Liu, Mengling; Velikokhatnaya, Lyudmila; Shore, Roy E.; Toniolo, Paolo; Linkov, Faina; Lokshin, Anna E.

2008-01-01

294

Young addicted men hormone profile detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormone parameters were determined in the serum of young addicted men in order to compare them with those obtained from the group of healthy subjects. Three groups were investigated which were named opiates, mixed and control group. Statistical and data mining methods were applied to obtain significant differences. R package was used for all computation. The determination of hormones parameters provide important information relative to impact of addiction.

Zieli?ski, Pawe?; Wasiewicz, Piotr; Leszczy?ska, Bo?ena; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

2010-09-01

295

State of hormones in blood, ch. 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To ensure the validity of radioimmunoassay, it is necessary to know the state and heterogeneity of the hormones in blood plasma or tissue extracts. Methods for evaluating and characterizing heterogeneity of peptide hormones in the unknown sample of biologic fluid are described. The methods are based on immunochemical reaction, sephadex gel filtration, electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. Table and graphs of the applications of both ultracentrifugation and gel filtration of 125I-labelled ACTH are given. Chemical and biological aspects of heterogeneity are discussed

296

Therapy for Obesity Based on Gastrointestinal Hormones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are d...

Bagger, Jonatan I.; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K.; Vilsboll, Tina

2011-01-01

297

Nutrient detection by incretin hormone secreting cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted after a meal. Like other enteroendocrine hormones they help to orchestrate the bodies' response to the availability of newly absorbable nutrients and are noteworthy as they stimulate postprandial insulin secretion, underlying what is known as the incretin effect. GLP-1-mimetics are now widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and advantages over older insulinotropic therapies...

Diakogiannaki, Eleftheria; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank

2012-01-01

298

Thyroid hormones in pregnancy and preeclampsia  

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Objective: There is a state of hypothyroxinemia in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia, when biochemically raised TSH occurs. Identification of changes in thyroid hormones in preeclampsia might be of help in preventing the occurrence of preeclampsia.Material and Methods: The present study was carried out in a hundred women with preeclampsia, 100 age- and parity matched normotensive pregnant women and 50 age-matched healthy non-pregnant women. Thyroid hormones [total T3,T4 and TSH], serum alb...

Divya Sardana; Smiti Nanda; Simmi Kharb

2009-01-01

299

Incretin hormones and the satiation signal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 levels and responses to meals may be altered in obese subjects. Clinical trial results have shown further that two GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), exenatide and liraglutide, which are approved for ...

Holst, J. J.

2013-01-01

300

Molecular Models of Plant Hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper "Synthesis of Plant Auxin Derivatives and Their Effects on Ceratopteris richardii" by Corey E. Stilts and Roxanne Fisher describing an experiment begun in the organic labs and completed in a biochemistry cell biology lab provides the featured molecules for this month. The molecules in Figure 1 of that paper have been added to the collection. There is nothing particularly surprising about their structures, but students might be interested in seeing whether they can determine any structure/regulating effect relationships as the number of synthesized auxin derivatives grows. Additionally, students with little or no biochemistry background might wish to explore other systems that act as growth regulating hormones in plants, as an introduction to the variety of molecular structures that can display such bioactivity. Such molecules range from the very simple, ethene, to the adenine-derived cytokinins (an example of which, zealtin, is shown here) and the brassinosteroids. Brassinolide, a commonly occurring brassin, is also shown. These latter two structures have also been added to the molecule collection. All of the structures have been optimized at the HF/6-31G(d) level.

 
 
 
 
301

Growth hormone doping: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

Erotokritou-Mulligan I

2011-07-01

302

Ergogenic aids: human growth hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human growth hormone (GH) has a number of accepted medical uses, but has quickly become a popular ergogenic aid among athletes. The issue of performance-enhancing substances such as anabolic steroids and GH has drawn the attention of athletes, their parents, and politicians. On almost a daily basis, headlines about the status of doping in professional, international, and amateur sports seem to be more pervasive. The supraphysiologic effects of GH lead to lipolysis, with increased muscle volume. Due to the ethical limitations of studying the use of high doses of GH in isolation or combined with anabolic steroids, the scientific literature has not produced compelling results on its efficacy. GH has potential as an anti-aging drug and does lead to some improved athletic performance in isolated studies. Despite the lack of compelling data, GH seems to have developed a reputation among athletes for enhancing performance. The detection of illegal doping with GH has been the focus of a concerted international effort by the International Olympic Committee. A number of promising detection techniques may allow the detection of illicit GH use. This review on GH as an ergogenic aid includes a discussion of the basic physiology of GH and its actions, the accepted medical indications for its use, the results of scientific studies that assess whether it improves exercise performance or work capacity, and the scientific techniques under development to detect ergogenics with strong abuse potential. PMID:15231228

Stacy, Jason J; Terrell, Thomas R; Armsey, Thomas D

2004-08-01

303

Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T4 and T3. In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T4 and T3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T4 and T3. Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

304

Studies on radioiodination of bovine parathyroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work was to produce highly iodinated bovine parathyroid hormone (BPTH) preparations that retained full biological activity. Parathyroid hormone is rapidly oxidized and inactivated when radioiodinated. A method using ascending paper chromatography and 14C-1-methyl methionine is described that allows prediction of whether a particular iodination technique will cause hormone inactivation. Dilute chloramine-T, lactoperoxidase, and electrolytic radioiodination techniques were evaluated. Electrolytic current at levels sufficient for radioiodination did not oxidize methionine, whereas chloramine-T and H2O2 did. The presence of tyrosine prevented H2O2 oxidation of methionine but did not prevent chloramine-T oxidation. Iodide plus electric current caused methionine oxidation; thus, nascent iodide is an important oxidant to be considered in radioiodination reactions. Chromatographic techniques were developed to determine the specific radioactivity of the labelled hormone product. Liquid isoelectric focusing was able to separate iodinated BPTH from uniodinated hormone in a mixture, but it is not possible to separate oxidized iodinated hormone from activated BPTH. A microelectrolytic method that permits the radioiodination of BPTH to levels of 2000 Ci/m.mol is described. In vivo and in vitro assays are described including adenylate cyclase activation in both renal and bone membranes and a hypercalcemic rl and bone membranes and a hypercalcemic response assay in chicks

305

Sex hormones and the dry eye.  

Science.gov (United States)

The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye. PMID:24689906

Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

2014-07-01

306

Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Normal testicular function is dependent upon hormones acting through endocrine and paracrine pathways both in vivo and in vitro. Sertoli cells provide factors necessary for the successful progression of spermatogonia into spermatozoa. Sertoli cells have receptors for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone which are the main hormonal regulators of spermatogenesis. Hormones such as testosterone, FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) are known to influence the germ cell fate. Their removal induces germ cell apoptosis. Proteins of the Bcl-2 family provide one signaling pathway which appears to be essential for male germ cell homeostasis. In addition to paracrine signals, germ cells also depend upon signals derived from Sertoli by direct membrane contact. Somatostatin is a regulatory peptide playing a role in the regulation of the proliferation of the male gametes. Activin A, follistatin and FSH play a role in germ cell maturation during the period when gonocytes resume mitosis to form the spermatogonial stem cells and differentiating germ cell populations. In vitro cultures systems have provided evidence that spermatogonia in advance stage of differentiation have specific regulatory mechanisms that control their fate. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the hormonal pathways regulating spermatogenesis. PMID:18400489

Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Giotitsas, Nikolaos; Tsounapi, Panagiota; Baltogiannis, Dimitrios; Giannakis, Dimitrios; Pardalidis, Nikolaos

2008-04-01

307

Gut hormones: a weight off your mind.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing prevalence of obesity and the associated morbidity and mortality has resulted in a major research effort to identify mechanisms that regulate appetite. It is well established that the hypothalamus and brain stem are major sites in the central nervous system (CNS) that regulate appetite. Until recently the missing element has been how information regarding food intake and energy stores is communicated to the CNS. Gut hormones have recently been found to be an important element in this regulation, communicating information regarding food intake to the CNS. Several gut hormones have been found to exert anorectic effects. These include members of the Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP)-fold family, namely PP itself and also peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), the first gut hormone shown to have appetite-inhibiting properties. The other main class of anorectic gut hormones are those derived by proteolytic processing from proglucagon, most importantly glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxyntomodulin. All of these are currently being investigated as the basis of treatments to prevent the development of obesity. So far the only gastrointestinal hormone demonstrated to stimulate appetite is ghrelin. Potential sites and mechanisms of action and therapeutic use of these gastrointestinal hormones are discussed. PMID:18601707

Gardiner, J V; Jayasena, C N; Bloom, S R

2008-06-01

308

The reciprocal regulation of stress hormones and GABAA receptors  

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Stress-derived steroid hormones regulate the expression and function of GABAA receptors (GABAARs). Changes in GABAAR subunit expression have been demonstrated under conditions of altered steroid hormone levels, such as stress, as well as following exogenous steroid hormone administration. In addition to the effects of stress-derived steroid hormones on GABAAR subunit expression, stress hormones can also be metabolized to neuroactive derivatives which can alter the function of GABAARs. Neur...

JamieMaguire; IstvanMody

2012-01-01

309

Thyroid hormone signaling in vivo requires a balance between coactivators and corepressors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), a human syndrome, is characterized by high thyroid hormone (TH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Mice with mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR?) gene that cannot bind steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and Src-1(-/-) mice both have phenotypes similar to that of RTH. Conversely, mice expressing a mutant nuclear corepressor 1 (Ncor1) allele that cannot interact with TR?, termed NCoR?ID, have low TH levels and normal TSH. We hypothesized that Src-1(-/-) mice have RTH due to unopposed corepressor action. To test this, we crossed NCoR?ID and Src-1(-/-) mice to create mice deficient for coregulator action in all cell types. Remarkably, NCoR(?ID/?ID) Src-1(-/-) mice have normal TH and TSH levels and are triiodothryonine (T(3)) sensitive at the level of the pituitary. Although absence of SRC-1 prevented T(3) activation of key hepatic gene targets, NCoR(?ID/?ID) Src-1(-/-) mice reacquired hepatic T(3) sensitivity. Using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) for the related coactivator SRC-2, we found enhanced SRC-2 recruitment to TR-binding regions of genes in NCoR(?ID/?ID) Src-1(-/-) mice, suggesting that SRC-2 is responsible for T(3) sensitivity in the absence of NCoR1 and SRC-1. Thus, T(3) targets require a critical balance between NCoR1 and SRC-1. Furthermore, replacement of NCoR1 with NCoR?ID corrects RTH in Src-1(-/-) mice through increased SRC-2 recruitment to T(3) target genes. PMID:24550004

Vella, Kristen R; Ramadoss, Preeti; Costa-E-Sousa, Ricardo H; Astapova, Inna; Ye, Felix D; Holtz, Kaila A; Harris, Jamie C; Hollenberg, Anthony N

2014-05-01

310

West syndrome, vigabatrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone  

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Full Text Available Objective: Limited data are available on the etiology, clinical approach, treatment and outcome in West syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to document clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment response in children with West syndrome. Methods: Hospital charts of children who were diagnosed with West syndrome between July-2011 and December- 2013 and who had a follow-up at least 12-month, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: 38 patients (14 females, 24 males, mean aged 27.1±7.60 months were included. The mean age of seizure onset, interval to diagnosis, and follow-up period were 6.23±4.27 months, 1.36±1.58 months, and 19.3±5.86 months respectively. Perinatal asphyxia (13, tuberous sclerosis (2, cortical dysplasia (2, encephalitis (1, asphyxia due to aspiration (1, congenital cytomegalovirus infection (1, perinatal infarct (1, nonketotic hyperglycinemia (1 and Prader Willi syndrome (1 were the identified causes. The etiology could not be ascertained in the remaining 15 children. Psychomotor development was mildly retarded in 12, moderately retarded in 13, and severely in 13 patients at onset, and did not change significantly at month 12. The initial therapy was synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone in 11, vigabatrin in 17, levetiracetam in 8 and valproate in 2 patients. At 12th month of therapy, 15 patients were seizure-free, 12 patients showed more than 50% decrease in seizure frequency, and remaining 11 patients showed no significant reduction in seizure frequency. Conclusion: Besides the perinatal asphyxia as most frequent cause, a wide variety of disorders can present as West syndrome. Although, a 12-month-long treatment achieves seizure control in half of the patients, not beneficial effect on psychomotor development was seen. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 86-92

Ünsal Y?lmaz

2014-03-01

311

Comparison Between the Effects of the Alcholic Extract of Mellissia Officinalis and Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Materials and Methods: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Results: The results showed that in experimental groups receiving the plant extract and atorvastatin, the concentration of thyroid hormones increased, whereas the amount of the thyroid-stimulating hormone showed a significant decrease (p<0.05.Conclusion: Mellissia officinalis extract decreases TSH but it increases T3 and T4. Further studies are required for applying this extract to the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

Ali Zarei

2013-08-01

312

Ovulation induction with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or gonadotropins in a case of hypothalamic amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus.  

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Hypothalamic amenorrhea is a treatable cause of infertility. Our patient was presented with secondary amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus. Cortisol and prolactin responded normally to a combined insulin tolerance test (ITT) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenge, while thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to TRH was diminished, and no response of growth hormone to ITT was detected. Both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. No response of LH to clomiphene citrate challenge was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated a midline mass occupying the inferior hypothalamus, with posterior lobe not visible and thickened pituitary stalk. Ovulation induction was carried out first with combined human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG/LH/FSH) (150 IU/day) and afterwards with pulsatile GnRH (150 ng/kg/pulse). Ovulation was achieved with both pulsatile GnRH and combine gonadotropin therapy. Slightly better results were achieved with the pulsatile GnRH treatment. PMID:11826765

Georgopoulos, N A; Markou, K B; Pappas, A P; Protonatariou, A; Vagenakis, G A; Sykiotis, G P; Dimopoulos, P A; Tzingounis, V A

2001-12-01

313

Single dose and pulsatile treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficiency.  

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The growth and growth hormone profiles in four children receiving three different regimens of treatment with human growth hormone (hGH) were compared. There was no significant difference in the rate of growth between the regimens; the rate of growth fell dramatically after treatment. Pulsatile administration of hGH was no better than conventional treatment.

Smith, P. J.; Pringle, P. J.; Brook, C. G.

1987-01-01

314

Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-? due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

Hüseyin Baki Ç?FTC?

2013-02-01

315

Hypothalamic-anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies following traumatic brain injury in?dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic brain injury is an important cause of hypopituitarism in human beings, but limited information exists in the veterinary literature regarding this condition. The primary study objective was to investigate whether hypothalamic-anterior pituitary axis dysfunction exists following traumatic brain injury in 17 client owned dogs. In this retrospective, observational, open, cohort study, information about dogs presented to four separate referral centres between April 2008 and October 2013 was reviewed. Cases were included if they had suffered from non-fatal traumatic brain injury, resulting in neurological dysfunction, and follow-up evaluation included measurement of the serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), endogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), basal cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine (TT4) and, if appropriate, free thyroxine. Decreased IGF-1 concentration was the most common abnormality detected (7/17, 41 per cent; median 132?ng/ml, range dogs with a history of traumatic brain injury can develop endocrine abnormalities indicative of hypothalamic-anterior pituitary dysfunction. PMID:25200430

Murtagh, K; Arrol, L; Goncalves, R; Granger, N; German, A J; Smith, P M

2015-01-01

316

Role of Hormones and Neurosteroids in Epileptogenesis  

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Full Text Available This article describes the emerging evidence of hormonal influence on epileptogenesis, which is a process whereby a brain becomes progressively epileptic due to an initial precipitating event of diverse origin such as brain injury, stroke, infection, or prolonged seizures. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of epilepsy are poorly understood. Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration appear to trigger epileptogenesis. There is an intense search for drugs that truly prevent the development of epilepsy in people at risk. Hormones play an important role in children and adults with epilepsy. Corticosteroids, progesterone, estrogens, and neurosteroids have been shown to affect seizure activity in animal models and in clinical studies. However, the impact of hormones on epileptogenesis has not been investigated widely. There is emerging new evidence that progesterone, neurosteroids, and endogenous hormones may play a role in regulating the epileptogenesis. Corticosterone has excitatory effects and triggers epileptogenesis in animal models. Progesterone has disease-modifying activity in epileptogenic models. The antiepileptogenic effect of progesterone has been attributed to its conversion to neurosteroids, which binds to GABA-A receptors and enhances phasic and tonic inhibition in the brain. Neurosteroids are robust anticonvulsants. There is pilot evidence that neurosteroids may have antiepileptogenic properties. Future studies may generate new insight on the disease-modifying potential of hormonal agents and neurosteroids in epileptogenesis.

D SambaReddy

2013-07-01

317

Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormones on metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past few decades, obesity and its related metabolic disorders have increased at an epidemic rate in the developed and developing world. New signals and factors involved in the modulation of energy balance and metabolism are continuously being discovered, providing potential novel drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disease. A parallel strategy is to better understand how hormonal signals, with an already established role in energy metabolism, work, and how manipulation of the pathways involved may lead to amelioration of metabolic dysfunction. The thyroid hormones belong to the latter category, with dysregulation of the thyroid axis leading to marked alterations in energy balance. The potential of thyroid hormones in the treatment of obesity has been known for decades, but their therapeutic use has been hampered because of side-effects. Data gleaned over the past few years, however, have uncovered new features at the mechanisms of action involved in thyroid hormones. Sophisticated neurobiological approaches have allowed the identification of specific energy sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin, acting in specific groups of hypothalamic neurons, mediating many of the effects of thyroid hormones on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular function. More extensive knowledge about these molecular mechanisms will be of great relevance for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25256765

Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Alvarez, Clara V; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel

2014-10-01

318

[Hormonal treatments for fertility disorders in cattle].  

Science.gov (United States)

In dairy cows, hormonal treatments are commonly implemented for acyclicity, silent heat and endometritis. Before treatment, causes of infertility need to be detected and severe failures in housing, feeding or other diseases must be eliminated. Without sustainable improvement of herd management, the use of intensive hormonal treatments will not improve reproductive performance. The most common cause of anoestrous is silent heat. In cows with a palpable corpus luteum, injection of prostaglandin F2? (PGF) reliably induces oestrous. A satisfactory treatment for acyclicity (ovarian dystrophy, ovarian cysts) does not exist. Combinations of different hormones have greater treatment success than a single use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Strategic use of PGF during the early postpartum period cannot be recommended because positive effects on uterus involution and resumption of the oestrous cycle after calving have not been verified. In contrast, application of GnRH combined with PGF in the puerperal phase appeared to have positive effects on fertility of cows with endometritis. The same applies to PGF for cows with chronic endometritis. Cases of endometritis with fetid odour of vaginal mucus or isolation of Trueperella pyogenes should be treated with antibiotics. Treatment before the 27th day post partum is not advisable. In conclusion, hormonal treatments can be used to treat fertility disorders. Nevertheless, in order to enhance the reproductive performance at the herd level, a sustainable improvement of the general conditions (housing, feeding, animal health, management) is a prerequisite. PMID:22911233

Gundling, N; Feldmann, M; Hoedemaker, M

2012-01-01

319

Quantitative characterization of hormone receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most workers characterize steroid (and other hormone) receptors by graphical analysis of Scatchard plots or by simple linear regression. Unfortunately, these methods are suboptimal from a statistical point of view. The Scatchard plot, B/F vs. [Bound], does not satisfy the assumptions underlying simple linear regression: both variables are subject to error, and these errors are intimately interdependent. Accordingly, nether B/F nor [Bound] is an appropriate independent variable. Furthermore, both variables (B/F and [Bound] show non-uniformity of variance. Thus, even when the Scatchard plot is liner, one should estimate the binding parameters (affinity, K, and binding capacity, R) by means of weighted nonlinear least-squares regression, using the Total ligand concentration as the independent variable, and either B/T or [Bound] as the dependent variable. In the case of a nonlinear Scatchard plot, one should also use weighted nonlinear least-squares curve fitting to estimate the K and R values for the high and low affinity classes of sites. Allowing the computer program to provide the best estimate of the nonspecific or nonsaturable binding is also desirable. The program should provide estimates of the standard errors and/or 95% confidence limits for the estimated parameters, and the joint 95% confidence limits for K and R. One should routinely attempt to fit several models of varying degrees of complexity (e.g., 1,2, or 3 classes of sites), provide estimates of the goodness-of-fit for each, and then select the best model by statistical criteria. Sometimes, we encounter Scatchard plots that are obviously nonlinear but provide insufficient information within any one experiment to permit reliable characterization of two or more classes of sites. In this case, we may employ any of several alternative techniques, including 1) use of the " limiting slopes" technique to obtain approximate estimates of parameters; 2) use of a Continuous Affinity Distribution, with consideration of only the receptors with an affinity above an arbitrarily selected cutoff value of k; 3) use of a Discrete Affinity Distribution, by assigning values to the affinities (K19 K2) based on prior information, and then estimating the binding capacities; 4) pooling information over several specimens within an assay or over several assays by use of normalizing or scaling factors. The best estimates of these scaling factors can be obtained by the use of a general least-squares method for pooling data from different specimens or experiments. A series of computer programs to perform these analyses has been developed. They have been applied successfully to analysis of steroid receptors in specimens from breast carcinoma. PMID:7448735

Rodbard, D; Munson, P J; Thakur, A K

1980-12-15

320

Vitamin D: a pleiotropic hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The secosteroid hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is the natural ligand for the vitamin D receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon binding of the ligand, the vitamin D receptor heterodimerizes with the retinoid X receptor and binds to vitamin D response elements in the promoter region of target genes to induce/repress their expression. The target genes that have been identified so far are heterogeneous in nature and reflect the great spectrum of biological activities of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Within the last two decades, the receptor has been shown to be present not only in classical target tissues such as bone, kidney, and intestine, but also in many other nonclassical tissues, for example, in the immune system (T and B cells, macrophages, and monocytes), in the reproductive system (uterus, testis, ovary, prostate, placenta, and mammary glands), in the endocrine system (pancreas, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal cortex), in muscles (skeletal, smooth, and heart muscles), and in brain, skin, and liver. Besides the almost universal presence of vitamin D receptors, different cell types (for example, keratinocytes, monocytes, bone, placenta) are capable of metabolizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) by the enzyme 25(OH)D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase, encoded by CYP27B1. The combined presence of CYP27B1 and the specific receptor in several tissues introduced the idea of a paracrine/autocrine role for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can induce differentiation and inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk for nearly all major human diseases such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. In addition to the treatment of bone disorders with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), these newly discovered functions open perspectives for the use of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) as an immune modulator (for example, for the treatment of autoimmune diseases or prevention of graft rejection), inhibitor of cell proliferation, and inducer of cell differentiation (cancer). PMID:20182414

Verstuyf, Annemieke; Carmeliet, Geert; Bouillon, Roger; Mathieu, Chantal

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Interlaboratory comparison of radioimmunological parathyroid hormone determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An inter-laboratory study of serum immunoreactive PTH (iPTH) determination using standardized sera has been performed in order to check the value of the assays for the diagnosis of hyperparathyroid states. The results demonstrate: (1) that most of the cooperating laboratories (eleven of twelve) were able to discriminate between normal and grossly elevated PTH-values; (2) that direct comparison of values from different laboratories indicates very poor agreement; (3) that PTH values cannot be interpreted without a description of the characteristics of the assay used; (4) that the introduction of standard sera is advantageous and should be undertaken; (5) that determination of iPTH in serum samples is far from being a routine method when compared with radioimmunoassays for hormones like insulin, growth hormone, etc.; the difficulties being due to lack of standradized reagents and peculiarities in the metabolism of the hormone. (orig.)

322

Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequent osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects of estrogen and androgen insufficiency as well as the effects of sex HRT on morbidity and mortality with special emphasis on evidence based research and areas needing further studies.

Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta

2012-01-01

323

Role of gut hormones in obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical role for the gut in energy homeostasis has emerged. Gut hormones not only have a role in digestion but several of them have been found to modulate appetite in animals and humans. Current nonendocrine drugs for obesity are limited by their modest efficacies, and bariatric surgery is confined to use in severe cases. The discovery of important appetite-signaling pathways from the gut to the brain has led to the emergence of several gut hormone-derived drugs that are being investigated for clinical use. This article summarizes the physiology of the major gut hormones implicated in appetite regulation, and reviews clinical evidence that gives us insight into their potential as clinical treatments for obesity. PMID:18775363

Jayasena, Channa N; Bloom, Steve R

2008-09-01

324

The gut hormones in appetite regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight. PMID:21949903

Suzuki, Keisuke; Jayasena, Channa N; Bloom, Stephen R

2011-01-01

325

Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: okbgeni@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

2011-04-15

326

Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. ? Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. ? Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor ?, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

327

Serum parathyroid hormone: a double antibody radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioimmunoassay for parathyroid hormone (PTH) using a double antibody system is described. Because of the immunological heterogeneity of the hormone in human serum, the standard used has been serum from a patient with parathyroid carcinoma. With the use of the synthetic 34 amino acid N-terminal fragment of PTH, the anti-PTH antiserum was determined to react primarily with the N-terminal end of the molecule. PTH was detectable in the sera of 25 percent of normal subjects and elevated in 18 of 19 patients with parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Serum PTH levels were elevated in 3 of 5 patients with parathyroid hyperplasia

328

Incretin hormones and the satiation signal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 levels and responses to meals may be altered in obese subjects. Clinical trial results have shown further that two GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), exenatide and liraglutide, which are approved for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, also produce weight loss in overweight subjects without diabetes. Thus, GLP-1 RAs may provide a new option for pharmacological treatment of obesity.

Holst, Jens Juul

2013-01-01

329

Sex hormones in women on hemodialysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pituitary-ovarian axis was studied in 12 women with a creatinine clearance of less than 5 ml/min per 17 m2, established on regular hemodialysis for at least 12 months. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) serum levels were found to be slightly lower than normal, luteinizing hormone (LH) plasma concentration generally elevated, while progesterone and estradiol values were extremely low. The major reproductive consequence of chronic renal failure in women on hemodialysis is a severe impairment in ovulatory function. PMID:6151921

Mantouvalos, H; Metallinos, C; Makrygiannakis, A; Gouskos, A

1984-10-01

330

Receptors for prolactin, somatostatin, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in experimental prostate cancer after treatment with analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Membrane receptors for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), somatostatin, and prolactin (PRL) were investigated in the Dunning R-3327H rat prostate adenocarcinoma specimens after in vivo treatment with microcapsules of the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH and the somatostatin analog RC-160. The LH-RH receptors showed a low-binding affinity (Kd = 54 nM) and high capacity (Bmax = 12.0 pmol/mg). Treatment with the [D-Trp6]LH-RH decreased the binding affinity (Kd = 0.52 microM). Specific somatosta...

Kadar, T.; Redding, T. W.; Ben-david, M.; Schally, A. V.

1988-01-01

331

Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives  

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Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products.Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives.Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile.Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of side effects. To address these knowledge deficits, these aspects should be the focus when distributing information about extended cycle hormonal contraceptive regimens. This may boost the use of a potentially advantageous contraceptive regimen by a population who would derive benefit from its usage.

Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.

2012-01-01

332

PLANT BIOLOGY: Hormones and the Green Revolution  

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Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The success of the green revolution largely resulted from the creation of dwarf cultivars of wheat and rice, which had much higher yields than conventional crops. Characterization of these dwarf cultivars showed that the mutant genes were involved in either the synthesis or signaling of gibberellin, a plant growth hormone. In his Perspective, Salamini highlights new work (Multani et al.) that identifies the cause of dwarfism in agronomically important varieties of maize and sorghum. In these cases, dwarfism is caused by defective transport of another growth hormone called auxin.

Francesco Salamini (Max Planck Institute of Breeding Research;)

2003-10-03

333

CT findings of hormonally inactive adrenal tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT examinations of 6 years served as basis for the incidence of hormonally inactive space-occupying masses at the adrenal. Of a total of 25,000 patients, 313 (1.3%) suffered from disease of the adrenals, and of these 261 patients had a hormonally inactive adrenal tumour. Adenomas were the most frequent space-occupying growths (101 patients), followed by metastases of the adrenals (77 patients), whereas adrenal carcinomas (4 patients), myelolipomas (3 patients), ganglioneuromas (3 patients), adrenal cyst (3 patients) and adrenal haemorrhages (2 patients) were rare findings. (orig.)

334

The hormonal control of protein metabolism.  

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While all the hormones described have regulatory effects on the rates of protein synthesis and breakdown there is a complex interaction between them in this control process. Insulin, GH and IGF-I play a dominant role in the day-to-day regulation of protein metabolism. In humans insulin appears to act primarily to inhibit proteolysis while GH stimulates protein synthesis. In the post-absorptive state IGF-I has acute insulin-like effects on proteolysis but in the fed state, or when substrate is provided for protein synthesis in the form of an amino acid infusion, IGF-I has been shown to stimulate protein synthesis. Growth hormone and testosterone have an important role during growth but continue to be required to maintain body protein during adulthood. Thyroid hormones are also required for normal growth and development. The hormones glucagon, glucocorticoids and adrenaline are all increased in catabolic states and may work in concert to increase protein breakdown in muscle tissue and to increase amino acid uptake in liver for gluconeogenesis. While increased glucocorticoids result in reduced muscle mass the effects of glucagon may be predominantly in the liver resulting in increased uptake of amino acids. In contrast to the catabolic effect of adrenaline on glucose and lipid metabolism, studies to date suggest that adrenaline may have an anti-catabolic effect on protein metabolism. Despite this adrenaline increases the production of the gluconeogenic amino acid alanine by muscle and its uptake by the splanchnic bed. There is considerable interest in the use of anabolic hormones, either alone or in combination, in the treatment of catabolic states. GH combined with insulin has been shown to improve whole-body and skeletal muscle kinetics while GH combined with IGF-I has a greater positive effect on protein metabolism in catabolic states than either hormone alone. If catabolic states are to be treated successfully a greater understanding of the role of the catabolic hormones in these states and the possible treatment of these states with anabolic hormones is required. PMID:9022951

Umpleby, A M; Russell-Jones, D L

1996-10-01

335

Effects of phenobarbital on thyroid hormone contabolism in rat hepatocytes  

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Hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in rodents. PB induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes increases thyroid hormones catabolism and biliary elimination. This study examines the catabolism and cl...

336

The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital; Profil des hormones thyroidiennes chez les femmes enceintes: analyse de 125 cas a l'hopital general de Yaounde  

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This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

Dong a ZOK, F. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Yaounde (Cameroon); Mbodj, M. [Hopital General Grand Yoff, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Dakar (Senegal); Mayer, E. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Gyneco-Obstetrique, Yaounde (Cameroon)

2009-10-15

337

The seventieth anniversary of the hormonal treatment of prostatic carcinoma  

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Hormonal treatment of prostatic carcinoma was initiated in the first half of twentieth century. Theoretical basis of hormonal treatment was established with the work of Charles Brenton Huggins published in 1941. Initial results were encouraging, but fatal outcome occurred anyway. There are four directions of hormonal treatment of pancreatic cancer: orchiectomy, estrogens, LHRH agonists, or antiandrogens. Refinements of hormonal therapy were constant and resulted in prolonged survival ti...

Milovanovi? Lela

2011-01-01

338

Thyroid hormones and their receptors in transcriptional regulation  

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Thyroid hormones and their receptors in transcriptional regulation Monika Andersson From the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology The Medical Nobel Institute Karolinska Institutet S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden The thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are encoded by two genes, alpha and ß,and belong to a family of hormone activated nuclear receptors. This family includesthe receptors for retinoids and vitamin D3 as well as the receptors for steroid hormones.Transcript...

Andersson, Monika

1997-01-01

339

11-Deoxycortisol is a corticosteroid hormone in the lamprey  

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Corticosteroid hormones are critical for controlling metabolism, hydromineral balance, and the stress response in vertebrates. Although corticosteroid hormones have been well characterized in most vertebrate groups, the identity of the earliest vertebrate corticosteroid hormone has remained elusive. Here we provide evidence that 11-deoxycortisol is the corticosteroid hormone in the lamprey, a member of the agnathans that evolved more than 500 million years ago. We used RIA, HPLC, and mass spe...

Close, David A.; Yun, Sang-seon; Mccormick, Stephen D.; Wildbill, Andrew J.; Li, Weiming

2010-01-01

340

Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment  

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Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone treatment. In order to justify this treatment in short but otherwise healthy children, it is to be shown that being short is associated with psychosocial problems and that hormone treatment improves psychos...

Visser-van Balen, J.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Photoperiod-dependent negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones in Fundulus heteroclitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Fundulus heteroclitus, an annual cycle in the response of the thyroid to ovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (oTSH) is characterized by maximal thyroxin (T4) secretion in mid-winter and minimal T4 secretion in summer. Four daily injections of oTSH, given in winter caused serum T4 to plateau at elevated levels for several days, while in summer fish similar treatment resulted in far more fluctuating titers of serum T4; maximum levels were similar in both groups. The difference in sustenance rather than magnitude of Peak T4 led to an examination of the negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones as they might relate to these seasonal changes. Radioiodine uptake by thyroid follicles served as a simple, but effective bioassay for endogenous TSH. Fish collected in summer were more sensitive to negative feedback of T3 than those collected in winter; feedback effects of T4 in the two groups were not significantly different. The effects of specific photoperiods on negative feedback sensitivity to T3 and T4 were also tested. Exposure of winter fish for one month to long days (LD 14:10) enhanced the degree of reduction of iodine uptake caused by T4 in the aquarium water (10 micrograms/100 ml). Negative feedback in short-day (LD 8:16) winter fish was not demonstrated. It is concluded that long days increase and short days diminish the negative feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis to thyroid hormones in F. heteroclitus. Such photoperiodically induced changes s. Such photoperiodically induced changes may act to aid in the year-round maintenance of T4 levels necessary for seasonal adaptation and survival

342

Effect of an anti-inflammatory dose of prednisone on thyroid hormone monitoring in hypothyroid dogs.  

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It is not uncommon for a hypothyroid dog to be receiving concurrent corticosteroids. As hypothyroid dogs receiving thyroid supplement need periodic monitoring, knowledge of whether prednisone alters thyroid hormone concentrations would be useful to determine whether testing can or should be done while the dog is receiving therapy and whether dose adjustments are appropriate. In this study, the effect of short-term anti-inflammatory prednisone was determined in dogs with naturally occurring hypothyroidism. Eight adult dogs were given prednisone (1.0 mg/kg, orally) daily for 7 days and then on alternate days for 14 days. Serum total thyroxine (T(4) ), free T(4) (fT(4) ), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured on days 7, 21 and 28 and compared with baseline data. Total T(4) concentrations were significantly decreased after 7 days of anti-inflammatory prednisone, but were not significantly altered from baseline on days 21 or 28. Free T(4) and TSH concentrations were not significantly altered from baseline at any point during the study. Two dogs had decreased total T(4) concentrations on day 7, which may have resulted in an alteration in thyroid supplementation. Results showed that administration of prednisone at a dosage of 1 mg/kg, orally, once daily for 7 days decreased total T(4) , while fT(4) was unchanged, suggesting that fT(4) may be less affected by daily prednisone administration. Anti-inflammatory doses of prednisone administered every other day did not interfere with thyroid hormone monitoring. PMID:21070400

O'Neill, Sarah H; Frank, Linda A; Reynolds, Lisa M

2011-04-01

343

[Hormonal shifts in chronic hepatic diseases].  

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The authors offer quantitative evaluation of system cooperation of endocrine functions in healthy individuals, and apply a system approach to diagnostics of chronic liver diseases. The study included analysis of rectilinear and curvilinear correlations between endocrine system parameters in healthy individuals, and shifts in the levels of multilateral associations between the concentrations of various hormones in patients with different degree of the pathologic process in the liver. The study revealed system disintegration which occurs in the organism in cases of liver involvement and found that all liver diseases are associated with pronounced shifts in the condition of the hormonal system. The authors recommend distinguishing certain bands of the functional condition of the organism, which would allow determination of health status, risk groups, presence and prognosis of an illness. Analysis of hormonal status revealed elevation of excessiveness coefficient in liver diseases. The study established parameters that do not only allow quantitative evaluation of system disintegration of the endocrine system functioning, but differentiation of these diseases as well. The results suggest that cooperation of hormonal functions and their intermodal stability underlie the functional condition of both the endocrine system and the entire organism. Integral indices, unlike qualitative characteristics of individual functions, possess high diagnostic and prognostic relevance. PMID:16734336

Dronova, T A; Zav'ialov, A V

2006-01-01

344

Effects of thyroid hormones on the heart.  

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Thyroid hormones have a significant impact on heart function, mediated by genomic and non-genomic effects. Consequently, thyroid hormone deficiencies, as well as excesses, are expected to result in profound changes in cardiac function regulation and cardiovascular hemodynamics. Thyroid hormones upregulate the expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-activated ATPase and downregulate the expression of phospholamban. Overall, hyperthyroidism is characterized by an increase in resting heart rate, blood volume, stroke volume, myocardial contractility, and ejection fraction. The development of "high-output heart failure" in hyperthyroidism may be due to "tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy". On the other hand, in a hypothyroid state, thyroid hormone deficiency results in lower heart rate and weakening of myocardial contraction and relaxation, with prolonged systolic and early diastolic times. Cardiac preload is decreased due to impaired diastolic function. Cardiac afterload is increased, and chronotropic and inotropic functions are reduced. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is relatively common in patients over 65 years of age. In general, subclinical hypothyroidism increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and CHD events, but not of total mortality. The risk of CHD mortality and atrial fibrillation (but not other outcomes) in subclinical hyperthyroidism is higher among patients with very low levels of thyrotropin. Finally, medications such as amiodarone may induce hypothyroidism (mediated by the Wolff-Chaikoff), as well as hyperthyroidism (mediated by the Jod-Basedow effect). In both instances, the underlying cause is the high concentration of iodine in this medication. PMID:25438971

Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando; Bonelo-Perdomo, Anilsa; Sierra-Torres, Carlos Hernán

2014-01-01

345

Bevacizumab for Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer  

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In this trial, men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer that has spread (metastasized) will receive standard chemotherapy with the drugs docetaxel and prednisone. Half of the participants will be randomly assigned to additionally receive treatment with a monoclonal antibody called bevacizumab.

346

Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development.  

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Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration. PMID:25087894

Li, Ming; Iismaa, Siiri E; Naqvi, Nawazish; Nicks, Amy; Husain, Ahsan; Graham, Robert M

2014-11-01

347

Determination of hormone parathyroid by radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelling of bovine parathyroid hormone and its employment for the determination of seric PTH by radioimmunoanalysis is described. The specific activity of 131I PTH is 200-350mCi/mg and the damage 3-5%. The method used for radioimmunoanalysis was that of C.D. Arnaud and coworkers. (author)

348

Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies  

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July 17, 2014 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove, Room TE406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker: Neal E. Craft, Ph.D. President Craft Technologies, Inc. Print This Page Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies DCEG Seminar News & Events

349

THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

350

MODIFICATIONS OF THE HORMONAL TABLE IN THE UNDESCENDED TESTICLE  

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A special role in the descend of the masculine gonad is due to testicular hormones (the inhibition factor of Müller ducts and testosterone). Many authors have been preoccupied of the modifications of the hormonal table and fertility at patients treated formerly of cryptorchidism. This paper work describes the role of the testicular hormones in testicular migration and the modifications which take place in cryptorchidism.

Miclea, F.; Aurora Milos; Es, Boia; Re, Iacob; Daniela Iacob

2004-01-01

351

Radiation and neuroregulatory control of growth hormone secretion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cranial irradiation frequently results in growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Patients with radiation-induced GH deficiency usually remain responsive to exogenous growth hormone releasing hormone, implying radiation damages the hypothalamus rather than the pituitary. Little is known about the effect of cranial irradiation on the neuroendocrine control of GH secretion. This study was to determine the effect of cranial irradiation on somatostatin tone. (Author).

Ogilvy-Stuart, A.L.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Shalet, S.M. (Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (United Kingdom))

1994-08-01

352

Three new mutations of thyroid hormone receptor-{beta} associated with resistance to thyroid hormone  

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Three novel point mutations at nucleotides 1249, 1282, and 1614 (exons 9 and 10) of the human thyroid hormone receptor-{beta} gene were observed in six individuals affected by the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone. All three mutations occurred in a heterozygous pattern and caused the following changes in the mature form of the receptor protein: Asp{sup 322} to Asn, Glu{sup 333} to Gln, and Lys{sup 443} to Asn, respectively. The first and third point mutations arose in two unrelated families from eastern Sicily, whereas the second concerned an individual from southern Calabria, apparently presenting a sporadic form of the resistance syndrome. The clinical and biochemical features of resistance to thyroid hormone, both before and after the administration of thyroid hormones, highlight the striking intrafamilial heterogeneity in the phenotypical presentation of the syndrome. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bartolone, L.; Regalbuto, C.; Benvenga, S.; Filetti, S.; Trimarchi, F.; Pontecorvi, A. [Catholic Univ., Rome (Italy)

1994-07-01

353

The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

354

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and Adipokinetic hormone signaling systems share a common evolutionary origin  

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a critical and central hormone that regulates vertebrate reproduction. The high conservation of GnRH signaling within the chordates (deuterostomians) raises the important question as to whether its appearance might date back prior to the divergence of protostomian and deuterostomian lineages, about 700 million years ago. This leads to several important questions regarding the evolution of the GnRH family. Has GnRH been retained in most protostomian lin...

MarleenLindemans

2011-01-01

355

Ghrelin stimulation of growth hormone release and appetite is mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor  

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Synthetic agonists of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) rejuvenate the pulsatile pattern of GH-release in the elderly, and increase lean but not fat mass in obese subjects. Screening of tissue extracts in a cell line engineered to overexpress the GHSR led to the identification of a natural agonist called ghrelin. Paradoxically, this hormone was linked to obesity. However, it had not been directly shown that the GHSR is a physiologically relevant ghrelin receptor. Furthermore, gh...

Sun, Yuxiang; Wang, Pei; Zheng, Hui; Smith, Roy G.

2004-01-01

356

Association of the genetic variants of luteinizing hormone, luteinizing hormone receptor and polycystic ovary syndrome  

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Abstract Background High circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) level is a typical biochemical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) whose pathophysiology is still unclear. Certain mutations of LH and LH receptor (LHR) may lead to changes in bioactivity of these hormones. The aim of this study was determine the role of the LH and LHR polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of PCOS using a genetic approach. Methods 315 PCOS women and 212 controls were screened for ...

Liu Nana; Ma Yanmin; Wang Shuyu; Zhang Xiaowei; Zhang Qiufang; Zhang Xue; Fu Li; Qiao Jie

2012-01-01

357

INDUCED SPAWNING OF SILVER CARP, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix USING HORMONES/HORMONAL ANALOGUE WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS  

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A study was made to investigate the effects of using carp pituitary extract, human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogues (Receptal), with or without dopamine antagonists on the spawning performance parameters of silver carp. Results of the current study indicted successful induction of spawning silver carp using different spawning agents. The breeding response and fecundity were comparable among all treatment groups. Moreover, the current experiment clearly i...

El-hawarry, W. N.

2012-01-01

358

Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone  

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Full Text Available Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.85±0.50 kg; treatment: 3.82±0.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.36±0.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.10±0.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.17±1.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.5±1.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm.Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

Andriyanto

2011-05-01

359

A Role for Central Nervous Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Signaling in the Consolidation of Declarative Memories  

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Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH) on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg) that has direct acce...

Hallschmid, Manfred; Wilhelm, Ines; Michel, Christian; Perras, Boris; Born, Jan

2011-01-01

360

Sex hormone associations with breast cancer risk and the mediation of randomized trial postmenopausal hormone therapy effects  

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Introduction: Paradoxically, a breast cancer risk reduction with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and a risk elevation with CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE + MPA) were observed in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. The effects of hormone therapy on serum sex hormone levels, and on the association between baseline sex hormones and disease risk, may help explain these divergent breast cancer findings. Methods: Serum sex hormone concentrations were mea...

Zhao, Shanshan; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Manson, Joann E.; Gass, Margery; Patterson, Ruth; Rohan, Thomas E.; Lane, Dorothy S.; Beresford, Shirley Aa; Lavasani, Sayeh; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Prentice, Ross L.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Normal pituitary hormone response to thyrotrophin and gonadotrophin releasing hormones in subjects exposed to elemental mercury vapour.  

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Exposure to elemental mercury (Hg) vapour results in an accumulation of Hg in the pituitary, the thyroid, and the testis. In this study, basal serum concentrations of pituitary hormones (thyrotrophin (TSH), prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinising hormone (LH] or their response after administration of thyrotrophin and gonadotrophin releasing hormones did not differ between 11 male workers (mean urinary Hg (U Hg) concentration 26 nmol/mmol creatinine) and nine male ...

Erfurth, E. M.; Schu?tz, A.; Nilsson, A.; Barrega?rd, L.; Skerfving, S.

1990-01-01

362

Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%),e score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated with significant fatigue

363

Modulation of angiogenesis by thyroid hormone and hormone analogues: implications for cancer management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acting via a cell surface receptor on integrin ?v?3, thyroid hormone is pro-angiogenic. Nongenomic mechanisms of actions of the hormone and hormone analogues at ?v?3 include modulation of activities of multiple vascular growth factor receptors and their ligands (vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor), as well as of angiogenic chemokines (CX3 family). Thyroid hormone also may increase activity of small molecules that support neovascularization (bradykinin, angiotensin II) and stimulate endothelial cell motility. Therapeutic angio-inhibition in the setting of cancer may be opposed by endogenous thyroid hormone, particularly when a single vascular growth factor is the treatment target. This may be a particular issue in management of aggressive or recurrent tumors. It is desirable to have access to chemotherapies that affect multiple steps in angiogenesis and to examine as alternatives in aggressive cancers the induction of subclinical hypothyroidism or use of antagonists of the ?v?3 thyroid hormone receptor that are under development. PMID:24458693

Mousa, Shaker A; Lin, Hung-Yun; Tang, Heng Yuan; Hercbergs, Aleck; Luidens, Mary K; Davis, Paul J

2014-07-01

364

Enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone: applications to the study of growth hormone variants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for rat growth hormone was developed. In this assay soluble growth hormone and growth hormone adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-growth hormone antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-growth hormone complex is detected and quantified using goat anti-monkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horse radish peroxidase. Therefore, a high concentration of soluble growth hormone in the sample will result in low absorbance detection from the colored products of the enzyme reaction. Assay parameters were optimized by investigating the concentration of reagents and the reaction kinetics in each of the assay steps. The assay can be performed in 27 hours. A sensitivity range of 0.19 ng to 25 ng in the region of 10 to 90% binding was obtained. Near 50% binding (3 ng) the intraassay coefficient of variation (CV) was 5.54% and the interassay CV was 5.33%. The correlation coefficient (r2) between radioimmunoassay and EIA was 0.956 and followed the curve Y = 0.78X + 1.0. 9 references, 6 figures

365

Structural Basis for Antibody Discrimination between Two Hormones That Recognize the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a vital role in the embryonic development of the skeleton and other tissues. When it is produced in excess by cancers it can cause hypercalcemia, and its local production by breast cancer cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis formation in that disease. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the action of PTHrP through its receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, without influencing parathyroid hormone action through the same receptor. Such neutralizing antibodies against PTHrP are therapeutically effective in animal models of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and of bone metastasis formation. We have determined the crystal structure of the complex between PTHrP (residues 1-108) and a neutralizing monoclonal anti-PTHrP antibody that reveals the only point of contact is an {alpha}-helical structure extending from residues 14-29. Another striking feature is that the same residues that interact with the antibody also interact with parathyroid hormone receptor 1, showing that the antibody and the receptor binding site on the hormone closely overlap. The structure explains how the antibody discriminates between the two hormones and provides information that could be used in the development of novel agonists and antagonists of their common receptor.

McKinstry, William J.; Polekhina, Galina; Diefenbach-Jagger, Hannelore; Ho, Patricia W.M.; Sato, Koh; Onuma, Etsuro; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Parker, Michael W.; (SVIMR-A); (Chugai); (Melbourne)

2009-08-18

366

Deficiência progressiva dos hormônios adeno-hipofisários após radioterapia em adultos / Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A radioterapia é um dos fatores desencadeantes do hipopituitarismo, mesmo quando não direcionada diretamente para o eixo hipotálamo-hipofisário, podendo resultar em redução de hormônios adeno-hipofisários, principalmente por lesão hipotalâmica. A perda da função da hipófise anterior é progressiva e [...] geralmente na seguinte ordem: hormônio do crescimento, gonadotrofinas, adrenocorticotrofina e o hormônio estimulante da tireóide. Vários testes estão disponíveis para a confirmação das deficiências, sendo discutidos, neste artigo, os melhores testes para pacientes submetidos à irradiação. Enfatizamos que o desenvolvimento do hipopituitarismo após a radioterapia é dose e tempo dependente de irradiação, com algumas diferenças entre os eixos hipofisários. Portanto, a conscientização da necessidade de terapia em conjunto de endocrinologistas e oncologistas otimizará o tratamento e a qualidade de vida do paciente. Abstract in english Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: [...] growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients.

Rafaela A., Loureiro; Mário, Vaisman.

2004-10-01

367

Deficiência progressiva dos hormônios adeno-hipofisários após radioterapia em adultos Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A radioterapia é um dos fatores desencadeantes do hipopituitarismo, mesmo quando não direcionada diretamente para o eixo hipotálamo-hipofisário, podendo resultar em redução de hormônios adeno-hipofisários, principalmente por lesão hipotalâmica. A perda da função da hipófise anterior é progressiva e geralmente na seguinte ordem: hormônio do crescimento, gonadotrofinas, adrenocorticotrofina e o hormônio estimulante da tireóide. Vários testes estão disponíveis para a confirmação das deficiências, sendo discutidos, neste artigo, os melhores testes para pacientes submetidos à irradiação. Enfatizamos que o desenvolvimento do hipopituitarismo após a radioterapia é dose e tempo dependente de irradiação, com algumas diferenças entre os eixos hipofisários. Portanto, a conscientização da necessidade de terapia em conjunto de endocrinologistas e oncologistas otimizará o tratamento e a qualidade de vida do paciente.Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients.

Rafaela A. Loureiro

2004-10-01

368

The seventieth anniversary of the hormonal treatment of prostatic carcinoma  

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Full Text Available Hormonal treatment of prostatic carcinoma was initiated in the first half of twentieth century. Theoretical basis of hormonal treatment was established with the work of Charles Brenton Huggins published in 1941. Initial results were encouraging, but fatal outcome occurred anyway. There are four directions of hormonal treatment of pancreatic cancer: orchiectomy, estrogens, LHRH agonists, or antiandrogens. Refinements of hormonal therapy were constant and resulted in prolonged survival time and fairly improved quality of life. These results rank hormonal therapy of pancreatic cancer as the most successful systemic treatment of metastatic disease.

Milovanovi? Lela

2011-01-01

369

The study of endocrine hormone changes in patients with CLL  

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Results of some cancer researches show that a number of hormones in ceratin tumors are growing up. Often, the majority of these hormones are produced by tumor cells or by an unknown origin in the neoplastic area. Also, it is clear that some of these ectopic hormones are produced only by specific tumors. In addition, different effects of these abnormally produced hormones on the immune system are shown in recent years. Thus, we decided to study the hormonal status of patients with chronic lymp...

Vojgani M; Khan Nakhjavan M; Massoud A; Zamanianpour M

1993-01-01

370

Thyroid hormones profile in students of Makerere College of Health Sciences in Kampala Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) are used to assess thyroid function. It is recommended that each laboratory or hospital should establish its own reference values of T4, T3 and TSH for their clients because these hormones vary with ethnicity, geographical and climatic conditions of a population. There is no documented study which has been done to determine the Thyroid hormones profile in Ugandan general population. This study is one of the first attempts to determine Thyroid hormones profile in healthy Ugandans. The main objective of this study was to determine the thyroid hormones profile of students of the Makerere College of Health Sciences in Kampala, Uganda. A cross sectional descriptive study was done involving 72 students, with the mean age of 24.17 +/- 4.48 years. Subjects who volunteered to participate in the study were interviewed; their height and body weight measured, 5 ml of blood withdrawn, and sera harvested. FT4 and T3 Radioimmuno Assay (RIA) were done and TSH was assayed using Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA) technique. The mean serum concentration of FT4 was 17.016 +/- 3.847 mol/L. For T3, mean serum concentration was 1.43 +/- 0.825 nmol/L, and mean serum TSH level was 2.412 +/- 2.284 microIU/ml. Variations of serum concentrations of FT4, T3 and TSH with sex, age, or region of origin were not statistically significant. Serum concentration of TSH increased with increased body mass index (BMI). It was 2.073 +/- 1.907 microIU/ml for subjects with BMI of or = 30 kg/m2 (P=0.009). However, BMI had no effect on serum concentrations of FT4 and T3. Serum concentrations of T4, T3 and TSH obtained from this study all differ with the values which are currently used as reference ranges in the country. We recommend a similar study involving a population representative of Ugandans to be conducted so as to establish normal reference values of T4, T3 and TSH for Ugandans. We also recommend BMI of patients to be taken into consideration during interpretation of serum TSH concentrations results. PMID:20737825

Dika, H; Kasolo, J; Bimenya, G

2010-01-01

371

Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos / Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonal [...] es o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1) Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2) Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3) Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética), síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP). Abstract in english We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and [...] , more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1) It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2) It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3) It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone), ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP).

L., Forga; E., Anda; J. P., Martínez de Esteban.

2005-08-01

372

Stilboestrol pretreatment of children with short stature does not affect the growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone.  

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Oestrogens are known to enhance both basal and stimulated GH secretion. To examine whether this effect is mediated through the hypothalamus or the pituitary we performed insulin tolerance and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) tests with and without oestrogen priming in a group of 14 short children. Pretreatment with stilboestrol increased basal levels of GH and both peak and incremental levels during insulin hypoglycaemia. In contrast, there was no effect of stilboestrol priming on the GH response ...

Ross, Rj; Grossman, A.; Davies, Ps; Savage, Mo; Besser, Gm

1987-01-01

373

Relationship between Peptide Hormones with Sex Hormone in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

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Full Text Available Background: Hormones can play a significant role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to compare levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone hormones of MS patients with healthy subjects, and assess the relationship between levels of peptide hormone and sex hormones in MS patients.Methods: 35 MS patients with definite relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS (male = 9, female = 26 and 13 healthy subjects (male = 4, female = 9 were enrolled in the study. Levels of serum ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone hormones were measured in this study. ANOVA and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis (P < 0.05.Results: The female and male participants of the patient group were compared with the healthy group. No significant differences were found in serum of leptin, ghrelin, testosterone, ghrelin/leptin, and testosterone/leptin (P < 0.05. Spearman correlation coefficient showed that leptin had a significant negative correlation with the variability of testosterone (r = -1.00 in the healthy male group. Moreover, leptin had a significant positive correlation with the variability of BMI (r = 0.68 and weight (r = 0.59, at the 0.01 level (2-tailed, in the female patient group. In addition, in the healthy male group, ghrelin had a significant negative correlation with the variability of weight (r = -1.00.Conclusion: According to the results, there was no significant difference between peptide and sex hormones of MS patients and healthy persons. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between peptide and sex hormones of MS patients and healthy persons

Elham Eftekhari

2013-04-01

374

Cross-gender hormone therapy in adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many transgender youth experience significant amounts of emotional distress regarding the incongruence between their internal gender identity and their physical body. Cross-gender hormonal medical treatments, as managed by a multidisciplinary medical/mental health team, assist patients in transitioning to their desired gender by aligning the physical body to match the gender identity. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care and the Endocrine Society's Clinical Practice Guidelines provide a basic road map for practitioners. Expectations of the youth and the concerns of the family must be addressed and the youth psychologically supported during the transition period. Issues around future fertility should be explored as well. The goal of this article is to introduce the general pediatrician to cross-gender hormone treatments, their management, monitoring laboratory tests and clinical effects, and the issues surrounding their use in adolescents. PMID:24972422

Steever, John

2014-06-01

375

Drugs of the future: the hormone relaxin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The peptide hormone relaxin is emerging as a multi-functional factor in a broad range of target tissues including several non-reproductive organs, in addition to its historical role as a hormone of pregnancy. This review discusses the evidence that collectively demonstrates the many diverse and vital roles of relaxin: the homeostatic role of endogenous relaxin in mammalian pregnancy and ageing; its gender-related effects; the therapeutic effects of relaxin in the treatment of fibrosis, inflammation, cardioprotection, vasodilation and wound healing (angiogenesis) amongst other pathophysiological conditions, and its potential mechanism of action. Furthermore, translational issues using experimental models (to humans) and its use in various clinical trials, are described, each with important lessons for the design of future trials involving relaxin. The diverse physiological and pathological roles for relaxin have led to the search for its significance in humans and highlight its potential as a drug of the future. PMID:17458501

Samuel, C S; Hewitson, T D; Unemori, E N; Tang, M L-K

2007-06-01

376

Hormones and venous thromboembolism among postmenopausal women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and potentially fatal disease in postmenopausal women. VTE has emerged as the most prevalent adverse effect of oral estrogens in 50-60-year-old women. Obesity and VTE history can be easily used to identify women at high risk but genetic screening is not cost-effective. Based on consistent biological and epidemiological findings, transdermal estrogen is the safest option with respect to VTE, especially in women at high risk. There is strong evidence that VTE risk is greater in women using medroxyprogesterone acetate compared with those receiving other progestins. Based on observational data, progesterone appears safe with respect to VTE. More research and action are needed to avert the hepatic first-pass effect of oral estrogens and to increase awareness of hormone-related VTE. Improving individual risk stratification and a personalized approach to hormone therapy are major challenges for future work. PMID:25223916

Scarabin, P-Y

2014-12-01

377

Enteroendocrine hormones - central effects on behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of appetite-regulating gut hormones alter behaviors linked to reward, anxiety/mood, memory and cognitive function, although for some of these (notably GLP-1 and CCK) the endogenous signal may be CNS-derived. From a physiological perspective it seems likely that these hormones, whose secretion is altered by nutritional status and by bariatric weight loss surgery, orchestrate neurobiological effects that are integrated and linked to feeding/metabolic control. Consistent with a role in hunger and meal initiation, ghrelin increases motivated behavior for food and, when food is not readily available, decreases behaviors in anxiety tests that would otherwise hinder the animal from finding food. Of the many anorexigenic signals, GLP-1 and PYY have been linked to a suppressed reward function and CCK (and possibly GLP-1) to increased anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24091195

Skibicka, Karolina P; Dickson, Suzanne L

2013-12-01

378

Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonales o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1 Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2 Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3 Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética, síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP.We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and, more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1 It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2 It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3 It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone, ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP.

L. Forga

2005-08-01

379

Hormone levels and RAIU of Hashimoto's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of hypothesis-thyroid axis hormone and results of RAIU (radioactive iodine uptake) in sixty-six patients with Hashimoto's disease have been determined. According to the diagnostic criterion of thyroid function, fifty-nine patients except seven doubtful patients are classified as normal (42.37%), subclinical hypothyroidism (38.98%), hypothyroidism (11.86%) and hyperthyroidism (6.78%). Dynamic observation proved that the above four conditions can be turned into each other. The values of hormone levels in subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism could be ordered as follows: TSH, TT4, rT3, TT3; TT3 in prior of TT4 in hyperthyroidism. The results of RAIU could be represented normal, decrease and increase but with high dispersion and no rule can be found

380

Hormonal regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin system  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulation of energy homeostasis is fundamental for life. In animal species and humans, the Central Nervous System (CNS) plays a critical role in such regulation by integrating peripheral signals and modulating behavior and the activity of peripheral organs. A precise interplay between CNS and peripheral signals is necessary for the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in the maintenance of energy balance. Within the CNS, the hypothalamus is a critical center for monitoring, processing and responding to peripheral signals, including hormones such as ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. Once in the brain, peripheral signals regulate neuronal systems involved in the modulation of energy homeostasis. The main hypothalamic neuronal circuit in the regulation of energy metabolism is the melanocortin system. This review will give a summary of the most recent discoveries on the hormonal regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in the control of energy homeostasis.

Kim, Jung D.; Leyva, Stephanie; Diano, Sabrina

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Estrongenic steroid hormones in lung cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is becoming increasingly clear that steroid hormones are involved in the biology of many organs outside the reproductive system. Evidence has been accumulating since the mid 1990s that the lung contains receptors for both estrogen and progesterone and that these hormones have some role in lung development, pulmonary inflammation, and lung cancer. The estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is the major ER expressed in lung tissues, while inflammatory cells capable of infiltrating the lung are reported to express both ER? and ER?. Although there is evidence in animals of preferential effects of ER? in the lungs of females, human lung tumors from males also contain ER?-positive cells and express aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogens. This review will discuss current literature findings on the role of the ERs and the progesterone receptor (PR), as well CYP19 (aromatase), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of estrogen, in lung cancer. PMID:24565577

Siegfried, Jill M; Stabile, Laura P

2014-02-01

382

Incretin hormones and the satiation signal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 levels and responses to meals may be altered in obese subjects. Clinical trial results have shown further that two GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), exenatide and liraglutide, which are approved for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, also produce weight loss in overweight subjects without diabetes. Thus, GLP-1 RAs may provide a new option for pharmacological treatment of obesity. PMID:23295502

Holst, J J

2013-09-01

383

Mechanisms of brassinosteroids interacting with multiple hormones  

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Various environmental and internal cues play essential roles in regulating diverse aspects of plant growth and development. Phytohormones usually coordinate multiple stimuli to directly regulate multiple developmental programs. Recent studies have provided progresses into the complexity of their cross talk. Particularly, the signaling pathways of various phytohormones have been revealed, leading to the discovery of the mechanisms of the interplay among different hormone signaling pathways. Th...

Zhang, Shanshan; Wei, Ying; Lu, Yangning; Wang, Xuelu

2009-01-01

384

Immunoprecipitation of the parathyroid hormone receptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An 125I-labeled synthetic analog of bovine parathyroid hormone, [8-norleucine,18-norleucine,34-tyrosine]PTH-(1-34) amide ([Nle]PTH-(1-34)-NH2), purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), was employed to label the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor in cell lines derived from PTH target tissues: the ROS 17/2.8 rat osteosarcoma of bone and the CV1 and COS monkey kidney lines. After incubation of the radioligand with intact cultured cells, the hormone was covalently attached to receptors by using either a photoaffinity technique or chemical (affinity) crosslinking. In each case, covalent labeling was specific, as evidenced by a reduction of labeling when excess competing nonradioactive ligand was present. After covalent attachment of radioligand, membranes were prepared form the cells and solubilized in the nonionic detergent Nonidet P-40 or octyl glucoside. Analysis of the immunoprecipitate on NaDod-SO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography revealed the presence of a doublet of apparent molecular mass 69-70 kDa. Specifically labeled bands of approximate molecular mass 95 and 28 kDa were also observed. The anti-PTH IgG was affinity purified by passage over a PTH-Sepharose column and used to made an immunoaffinity column. These studies suggest that the use of an anti-PTH antiserum that binds receptor-bound hormone is likely to be a useful step in the further physicochemical characterization and purificasicochemical characterization and purification of the PTH receptor

385

Radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone: past and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report on radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone (iPTH) it was shown that the rate of disappearance of iPTH from plasma differed markedly in patients with primary hyperthyroidism or those with uremia and secondary hyperparathyroidism and that for each patient the rate of disappearance depended on the antiserum used for assay. The heterogeneity of iPTH in plasma was soon rapidly confirmed in many laboratories. (Auth.)

386

Hormonal pregnancy tests and congenital malformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some general practitioners are still using hormonal pregnancy tests despite the warning notice by the Committee on Safety of Medicines. In view of the possible fetal damage, this practice requires further action. 12 different preparations have been used. Only Primodos and Norlestrin are still available. These products are also used for the symptomatic treatment of secondary amenorrhea. The manufacturers' data sheets have been revised but the warning notice should be reinforced. A change in the name of the products is suggested. PMID:974708

Gal, I

1976-10-23

387

IMPLANT WITH RISELLE IN HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important roles of hormone replacement therapy is to remove the symptoms of menopause, especially the vaso-motor and urogenital tract appeared immediately after oophorectomy. The decreased risks of cardiovascular diseases are the long-term benefits. The cardiovascular protective effect of estrogen occurs by different mechanisms, all leading to reduction or slowing atherosclerotic processes and this improves cardiovascular performance. After 2 years of treatment no patient in group 1 interrupted therapy.

Veronica Luca

2012-06-01

388

INTRINSIC DISORDER IN NUCLEAR HORMONE RECEPTORS  

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Many proteins possess intrinsic disorder (ID) and lack a rigid three-dimensional structure in at least part of their sequence. ID has been hypothesized to influence protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. We calculated ID for nearly 400 vertebrate and invertebrate members of the biomedically important nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily, including all 48 known human NHRs. The predictions correctly identified regions in 20 of the 23 NHRs suggested as disordered based on publish...

Krasowski, Matthew D.; Reschly, Erica J.; Ekins, Sean

2008-01-01

389

Growth hormone in chronic renal disease  

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Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height) is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have ...

Gupta, Vishal; Lee, Marilyn

2012-01-01

390

Negative regulation of growth hormone (GH) signaling  

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Growth Hormone (GH) regulates postnatal longitudinal growth. It also has several other functions. It decreases cholesterol and lipoproteins levels, reduces fat tissue and increases lean body mass. GH actions are mediated by the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway. The manner whereby this pathway is activated has been extensively studied. There are, however, gaps in our knowledge how the pathway is silenced or negatively regulated. Down regulation of GH signaling is related to sever...

Rico Bautista, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

391

Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique) when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the l...

Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm D.; Ashley Cetola Pettia, Pharm D.; Albert I Wertheimer, Phd

2012-01-01

392

Steroid Hormone Fluctuations and GABAAR Plasticity  

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Conditions of changing steroid hormone levels are a particularly vulnerable time or the manifestation of neurological disorders, including catamenial epilepsy, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and postpartum depression. The pathophysiology of these disorders may be related to changes in neurosteroid levels, which can dramatically impact neuronal excitability. Robust changes in neurosteroid levels, such as those that occur following stress, over the ovarian cycle, and throughout pregnancy, profoun...

Maguire, Jamie; Mody, Istvan

2009-01-01

393

Current trends in hormone replacement therapy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT As life span increases, more and more women live longer after the menopause, and see its long-term consequences. The menopause and climacteric have major consequences for the well being of most women, resulting in a variety of symptoms including vasomotor, psychological, sexual symptoms and increased risk of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Prevention of osteoporosis and reduction in cardiovascular risks are the long-term goals of post-menopausal hormone r...

Khashoggi, Tariq Y.

2002-01-01

394

Thyroid hormone metabolism and environmental chemical exposure  

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Background Polychlorinated dioxins and –furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that have been proven to influence thyroid metabolism both in animal studies and in human beings. In recent years polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) also have been found to have a negative influence on thyroid hormone metabolism. The lower brominated flame retardants are now banned in the EU, however higher brominated decabromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE) and the bromin...

Leijs, M. M.; Tusscher, G. W. Ten; Olie, K.; Teunenbroek, T.; Aalderen, W. M. C.; Voogt, P.; Vulsma, T.; Bartonova, A.; Krayer Von Krauss, M.; Mosoiu, C.; Riojas-rodriguez, H.; Calamandrei, G.; Koppe, J. G.

2012-01-01

395

Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas  

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as “pseudomenopause” or “medical oophorectomy,” which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) work by temporarily “switching off” the ovaries. Ovaries can be “switched off” for the therapy and therapeutic tri...

Magon, Navneet

2011-01-01

396

IMPLANT WITH RISELLE IN HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most important roles of hormone replacement therapy is to remove the symptoms of menopause, especially the vaso-motor and urogenital tract appeared immediately after oophorectomy. The decreased risks of cardiovascular diseases are the long-term benefits. The cardiovascular protective effect of estrogen occurs by different mechanisms, all leading to reduction or slowing atherosclerotic processes and this improves cardiovascular performance. After 2 years of treatment no patie...

Veronica Luca; Ovidiu Toma; Lidia Rusu; Eugen Ungureanu; Eduard Crauciuc; Veronica Mocanu; Daniela Badoi

2012-01-01

397

Foscarnet alters antidiuretic hormone-mediated transport.  

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Therapy with foscarnet is associated with acute renal failure. Prior studies have emphasized foscarnet's proximal tubular toxicity, but there have been isolated reports of foscarnet-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. As a phosphate analog, foscarnet is a competitive inhibitor of NaPO4 cotransport. However, foscarnet's effect on antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-induced transport has not been previously investigated. We studied foscarnet's modulation of transport in the toad urinary bladder. Fos...

Hoch, B. S.; Shahmehdi, S. J.; Louis, B. M.; Lipner, H. I.

1995-01-01