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1

Radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved double antibody radioimmunoassay method is described for the determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in biological and other fluids. Highly purified second antibody is immobilised on to hydrophilic, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles of a suspendable size to form a solid phase second antibody reagent. The immobilised second antibody reagent is used to precipitate the reaction product of the first antibody with labelled and unlabelled thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-anti-TSH-complex) so as to produce a two-phase system which permits rapid and efficient separation of bound TSH in the solid phase from free TSH in the liquid phase. Details of the preparation of this novel second antibody-polyacrylamide reagent and of the assay procedure for human TSH are described. (U.K.).

1980-01-01

2

Thyroid stimulating hormone stability in serum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a thermo labile peptide hormone. It is unstable in serum and rapidly degrades when exposed to ambient temperature (temp) for considerable time. The stability of TSH with regard to storage temp, duration and added preservative was evaluated for performing TSH essay, Venous blood was collected in 5 ml plain and aprotinin containing glass tubes from 37 individuals aged 15-56 years serum obtained was analysed for TSH at zero time value, then divided into 3 aliquots, sets with and without aprotinin. One set was kept at room temperature (RT), 2nd at 4 degree centigrade and 3rd at 20 degree centigrade TSH was measured after 24 and 72 hours for comparison to the zero time value of TSH. Significant decline in TSH was seen in the samples stored at RT for 72 hours. This effect was abolished when aprotinin, the protease inhibitor, was added to the samples, No significant difference from zero time value was noticed in the aprotinin-treated or untreated sera when kept at RT for 24 hours or when stored at 4 degree centigrade -20 degree centigrade for 72 hours. Thus we concluded that proper storage and addition of aprotinin may significantly reduce TSH degradation. (author)

2001-01-01

3

Organochlorine compounds and concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone in newborns  

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Methods: A total of 98 mother-infant pairs (83.1% of all children born during the period 1997–99 in a specific area polluted with HCB) were recruited. Levels of organochlorine compounds were measured in 70 cord serum samples. Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in plasm...

Ribas-Fito, N; Sala, M; Cardo, E; Mazon, C; de Muga, M E; Verdu, A; Marco, E; Grimalt, J; Sunyer, J

4

Inappropriate Secretion of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thyroid is an important endocrine gland. It maintains the level of metabolism in the tissues that is optimal for their normal function. Normally in euthyroid state T3, T4 and TSH values remains within normal physiological limit. In hypothyroid state T3 and T4 values are low with high TSH value. On the other hand in hyperthyroid state T3 and T4 values are high with low TSH value. However, in one interesting group of patients, there are high T3, T4 with normal or high TSH. With the greater availability of sensitive and specific TSH assays, now increasing number of the case in the last group are being recognized. In this retrospective study the number of patients with such type of hormone picture of high T3, T4 with normal or high TSH were found out from the assay done in Institute of Nuclear Medicine (INM) and the related literatures were searched. (author) 3 tabs., 21 refs

2001-01-01

5

Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

6

An immunoglobulin G complexed form of thyroid-stimulating hormone (macro thyroid-stimulating hormone) is a cause of elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Macrocomplexes can be the cause of elevated serum hormone concentrations and may cause diagnostic confusion. This is well recognized for prolactin and commonly screened for using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation. The phenomenon and a suitable screening method is less familiar with respect to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). METHOD: Samples sent to the laboratory for routine analysis of thyroid function and found to have a TSH >10?mU/L were evaluated to determine the prevalence of macro-TSH in the Roche Elecsys assay, using PEG precipitation with confirmation by gel filtration chromatography. RESULTS: Of 495 samples tested, 3 (0.6%) were found to have macro-TSH. From the distribution of recoveries, a cut-off <25% was determined for identifying samples requiring further investigation for the presence of macro-TSH. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of elevated TSH due to macro-TSH was found to be 0.6%. Laboratories should be aware of this cause of assay interference.

Mills F; Jeffery J; Mackenzie P; Cranfield A; Ayling RM

2013-09-01

7

Neutralizing and Non-neutralizing Antibodies to Bovine Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and its Subunits  

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To test the possibility that the long-acting thyroid stimulator (LATS) might represent an immune complex either of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with anti-TSH or of a subunit of TSH with an appropriate antibody, we immunized rabbits with bovine TSH (bTSH), bLH (luteinizing hormone), and their ? ...

Beall, Gildon N.; Chopra, Inder J.; Solomon, David H.; Pierce, John G.; Cornell, James S.

8

Ultrasensitive direct fluorescent immunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phycobilisomes are photosynthetic antennae complexes of redalgae and cyanobacteria (1)(2)(3) . They have been chemicallycross-linked in such a way that they remain soluble and stable(4) . These stabilized phycobilisomes (PBXLTMdyes) have large complex weights (between 1.0 x 107and 1.5 x 107 Da) and Stokes shifts. They contain alarge number of chromophores coordinated to efficiently transfer energydown an energy gradient and emit between 662 and 666 nm. The PBXL-1dye, used in the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) model, containsB-phycoerythrin, R-phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin as its componentphycobiliproteins. Each PBXL supramolecular complex can deliver up to1400 chromophores per binding event without indirect signal generationsteps, signal amplification, or enzyme substrates. PBXL dyes providephysical amplification of signal, enabling ultrasensitive directfluorescent immunodetection of such clinically relevant analytes asTSH.

Zoha SJ; Ramnarain S; Allnutt FC

1998-09-01

9

Organochlorine compounds and concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone in newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods: A total of 98 mother-infant pairs (83.1% of all children born during the period 1997–99 in a specific area polluted with HCB) were recruited. Levels of organochlorine compounds were measured in 70 cord serum samples. Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in plasma of all newborns three days after birth. Results: All newborns had concentrations of TSH within the range of normal reference values (<25 mU/l). Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'DDE), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 138 and 118 were related to higher concentrations of TSH, although only significant for ß-HCH. Levels of HCB were not associated with TSH. Conclusions: Although this community is highly exposed to HCB, no association was found between this organochlorine and TSH concentrations at birth.

Ribas-Fito, N; Sala, M; Cardo, E; Mazon, C; de Muga, M E; Verdu, A; Marco, E; Grimalt, J; Sunyer, J

2003-01-01

10

MRI of the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) -secreting pituitary adenoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To demonstrate and evaluate the value of MRI findings of the TSH(Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, TSH, Thyrotropin)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 4 patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Evaluation of the anatomical location, signal characteristics, enhancement patterns, size, shape and circunferential changes were made. No characteristic common MR findings in size, shape, signal intensity, and circumferential changes of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma waere observed among 4 cases (size; 5 x 7 mm to 10 x 11 mm, shape; ovoid to round signal intensity; high in 1 case on T1 and T2WI, isosignal intensity in the other 3 cases, circumferential change; stalk deviation in 1 case, no stalk deviation in 3 cases). But, the tumors were centrally located at the anterior pituitary gland and showed relatively homogeneous signal intensity on MR images of all 4 patients. We conclude that centrally-located mass at the anterior pituitary gland with homogeneous signal intensity on MR image may be suggestive of the TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, although the MR findings are not specific for the disease

1995-01-01

11

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Measurement of Intracellular, Secreted, and Circulating Hormone in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis .  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced in the pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormone (TH). The concentration of TH controls developmental changes that take place in a wide variety of organisms. Many use the metaphoric ch...

12

Effect of Age, Sex and Seasons on the Concentration of Thyroid and Thyroid Stimulating Hormones  

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Effect of age, sex and seasons on the concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was studied in 25237 thyroid patients who were referred to the radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNU...

Alam Khan; Shahmim Akhter; Muhammad Mohsin Siddiqui; M. Muzaffar Ali Khan; Gul Nawab

13

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?  

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Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We rep...

Kota, Sunil Kumar; Modi, Kirtikumar; Kumaresan, Karuppiah

14

Plurihormonal pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the case of a patient with an unusual plurihormonal pituitary adenoma with immunoreactivity for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and ?-subunit. METHODS: We report the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathology findings of a patient symptomatic from a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma and describe her outcome after surgical treatment. RESULTS: A 60-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with headaches, blurry vision, fatigue, palpitations, sweaty hands, and weight loss. Her medical history was notable for hyperthyroidism, treated intermittently with methimazole. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a pituitary macroadenoma (2.3 by 2.2 by 2.0 cm), and preoperative blood studies revealed elevated levels of TSH at 6.11 mIU/L, free thyroxine at 3.6 ng/dL, and free triiodothyronine at 6.0 pg/mL. She underwent an uncomplicated transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma. Immunostaining of tumor tissue demonstrated positivity for not only TSH but also growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and ?-subunit. The Ki-67 index of the tumor was estimated at 2% to 5%, and DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunostaining was mostly negative. Electron microscopy showed the ultrastructural phenotype of a glycoprotein-producing adenoma. Postoperatively, her symptoms and hyperthyroidism resolved. CONCLUSION: Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare. Furthermore, recent reports suggest that 31% to 36% of adenomas may show evidence of secretion of multiple pituitary hormones. This case emphasizes the importance of considering pituitary causes of thyrotoxicosis and summarizes the clinical and pathology findings in a patient with a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma.

Luk CT; Kovacs K; Rotondo F; Horvath E; Cusimano M; Booth GL

2012-09-01

15

Evidence That the Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) Receptor Transmembrane Domain Influences Kinetics of TSH Binding to the Receptor Ectodomain*  

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-induced reduction in ligand binding affinity (negative cooperativity) requires TSH receptor (TSHR) homodimerization, the latter involving primarily the transmembrane domain (TMD) but with the extracellular domain (ECD) also contributing to this association. To test ...

Chen, Chun-Rong; McLachlan, Sandra M.; Rapoport, Basil

16

Does thyroid-stimulating hormone influence the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer? A multicentre trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Thyroid function has been suggested to interfere with tumour biology and prognosis in different cancers. The present study was performed to investigate the impact of pre-therapeutic serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels on the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer. METHODS: Pre-therapeutic serum TSH was investigated in 199 patients with endometrial cancer. After stratification in TSH risk groups, univariate and multivariable survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: Elevated TSH was independently associated with poor disease-specific survival in univariate/multivariable survival analyses (P=0.01 and P=0.03, respectively). CONCLUSION: Thyroid-stimulating hormone may serve as a novel and independent prognostic parameter for disease-specific survival in patients with endometrial cancer.

Seebacher V; Hofstetter G; Polterauer S; Reinthaller A; Grimm C; Schwameis R; Taucher S; Wagener A; Marth C; Concin N

2013-07-01

17

Preparation of quality control samples in radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To days, the radioimmunoassay is becomes the best technique to analysis different concentrations of substance, especially in medical and research laboratories. Although the specificity of RIA techniques, the quality controls must takes place to give good results as possible. In this dissertation i prepared quality control samples of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), to use it in RIA techniques and to control the reliability results of those laboratories which used these methods. We used China production kits of RIA method to determine the level of hormone (low-normal-high) concentration. Statistical parameters were used to drown the control chart of the mean to these data.(Author)

2006-01-01

18

Serum concentration of thyroxin and thyroid stimulating hormone in children suspected of thyroid dysfunction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was planned to investigate serum concentration of free thyroxin (FT/sub 4/) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as thyroid dysfunctions in children attending CENUM, Mayo Hospital Lahore. A total of 227 children (131 female and 96 male) were selected for this study. Their age range was 1 to 12 years (mean 7.6 +- 3.4 years). 45 (19.8%) children had goiter with significantly more frequency in female as compared to male children (28.2% V s 8.3%; p

2010-01-01

19

Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor in brown adipose tissue is involved in the regulation of thermogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

C.RF- Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice have a mutated thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), and, without thyroid hormone supplementation, these mice develop severe hypothyroidism. When hypothyroid Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice were exposed to cold (4 degrees C), rectal temperature rapidly dropped to 23.9 +/- 0.40 degrees C at 90 min, whereas the wild-type mice temperatures were 37.0 +/- 0.15 degrees C. When we carried out functional rat TSHR gene transfer in the brown adipose tissues by plasmid injection combined with electroporation, there was no effect on the serum levels of thyroxine, although rectal temperature of the mice transfected with pcDNA3.1/Zeo-rat TSHR 90 min after cold exposure remained at 34.6 +/- 0.34 degrees C, which was significantly higher than that of Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice. Transfection of TSHR cDNA increased mRNA and protein levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in brown adipose tissues, and the weight ratio of brown adipose tissue to overall body weight also increased. Exogenous thyroid hormone supplementation to Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice restored rectal temperature 90 min after exposure to cold (36.8 +/- 0.10 degrees C). These results indicate that not only thyroid hormone but also thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)/TSHR are involved in the expression mechanism of UCP-1 in mouse brown adipose tissue. TSH stimulates thermogenesis and functions to protect a further decrease in body temperature in the hypothyroid state.

Endo T; Kobayashi T

2008-08-01

20

Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone in 2008: focus on thyroid cancer management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ann Gramza1, Kathryn G Schuff21Division of Medical Oncology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USAAbstract: Radioiodine (RAI) ablation following thyroidectomy is standard of care treatment for patients with intermediate or high risk differentiated thyroid cancer. Traditionally, this has been achieved by forgoing thyroid hormone replacement postoperatively, allowing endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels to rise. This rise in TSH provides the stimulus for RAI uptake by the thyroid remnant, but is associated with clinical hypothyroidism and its associated morbidities. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, thyrotropin alfa [Thyrogen®], Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA) was developed to provide TSH stimulation without withdrawal of thyroid hormone and clinical hypothyroidism. Phase III studies reported equivalent detection of recurrent or residual disease when rhTSH was used compared with thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). These trials led to its approval as an adjunctive diagnostic tool for serum thyroglobulin (Tg) testing with or without RAI imaging in the surveillance of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Recently, rhTSH was given an indication for adjunctive preparation for thyroid remnant ablation after phase III studies demonstrated comparable outcomes for rhTSH preparation when compared with THW. Importantly, rhTSH stimulation has been found to be safe, well tolerated, and to result in improved quality of life. Here, we review the efficacy and tolerability studies leading to the approval for the use of rhTSH in well-differentiated thyroid cancer management.Keywords: recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid cancer, radioiodine, ablation, Thyrogen®, thyrotropin alfa

Ann Gramza; Kathryn G Schuff

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The Physiological Role of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Regulation of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Prolactin Secretion in the Rat  

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The physiological role of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the regulation of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) and prolactin (Prl) secretion has been assumed but not proven. Stimulation of their release requires pharmacologic doses of TRH. Lesions of the hypothalamus usually induc...

Harris, Arthur R. C.; Christianson, Dana; Smith, M. Susan; Fang, Shih-Lieh; Braverman, Lewis E.; Vagenakis, Apostolos G.

22

Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

Wada Akira; Suzuki Yoshiaki; Midorikawa Sanae; Takeuchi Satoshi; Kunii Yasuto; Yabe Hirooki; Niwa Shin-Ichi

2011-01-01

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Development of magnetic solid phase immunoradiometric assay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thyroid-stimulating homone (SH), or thyrotropin, is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 28.000 secreted by the pituitary gland. TSH is composed of tow subnits of approximately equalsize, called ? and ?. Other hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), both secerted by the pituitary, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the placenta, have ? subunits virtually identical to that of TSH, but there are important differences in their ? subunits. These differences confer biological specificity on the complete molecules and allow them to be distinguished in immunassays. The TSH magnetic soild phase immunoradiometric technique incorporates two high affinity monoclonal antibodies one of which is labeled with 125I which attached quickly to a unique site on the TSH motecule, while the second monoclonal antibody immobilized onto magnetic cellulose iron oxide particles, linked to other distinct site on the TSH molecule forming a sandwich. In this study the magnetic particles were firstly activated by carbonyl dimedazole then coupled with anti-TSH monoclonal antibodies which then allowedto bind with TSH hormone. The TSH magnetic soild phase immunoradiometric system, will be optimized where the characterization of the system including accuracy, specificity, sensitivity an dcomparative studies by compare the results of the prepared system with that of commericially used system

2005-01-01

24

Risk for fracture in women with low serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism may be associated with low bone mass, particularly in older postmenopausal women, but no prospective studies of thyroid function and subsequent fracture risk have been done. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and fracture in older women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with case-cohort sampling. SETTING: Four clinical centers in the United States. PATIENTS: 686 women older than 65 years of age from a cohort of 9704 women recruited from population-based listings between 1986 and 1988. MEASUREMENTS: Baseline assessment of calcaneal bone mass, spine radiography, and history of thyroid disease. Spine radiography was repeated after a mean follow-up of 3.7 years; nonspine fractures were centrally adjudicated. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was measured in sera obtained at baseline from 148 women with new hip fractures, 149 women with new vertebral fractures, and a subsample of 398 women randomly selected from the cohort. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, history of previous hyperthyroidism, self-rated health, and use of estrogen and thyroid hormone, women with a low TSH level (0.1 mU/L) had a threefold increased risk for hip fracture (relative hazard, 3.6 [95% CI, 1.0 to 12.9]) and a fourfold increased risk for vertebral fracture (odds ratio, 4.5 [CI, 1.3 to 15.6]) compared with women who had normal TSH levels (0.5 to 5.5 mU/L). After adjustment for TSH level, a history of hyperthyroidism was associated with a twofold increase in hip fracture (relative hazard, 2.2 [CI, 1.0 to 4.4]), but use of thyroid hormone itself was not associated with increased risk for hip fracture (relative hazard, 0.5 [CI, 0.2 to 1.3]). CONCLUSIONS: Women older than 65 years of age who have low serum TSH levels, indicating physiologic hyperthyroidism, are at increased risk for new hip and vertebral fractures. Use of thyroid hormone itself does not increase risk for fracture if TSH levels are normal.

Bauer DC; Ettinger B; Nevitt MC; Stone KL

2001-04-01

25

Endogenous thyroid-stimulating hormone and radioactive iodine uptake in normal subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 105 normal volunteers, 52 male and 53 female, mean age 45 (range, 20-68), serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (1.46 ± 0.7; range, 0.43-3.87 microUI/mL) and 24-hour thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) (16.15% ± 4.78% range, 6.45%-30.08%) were measured. Additionally, TSH was 1.18 ± 0.5 microUI/mL for 20 to 29 year-olds and 1.59 ± 0.9 microUI/mL for 60 to 68 year old (P = 0.037). RAIU was 18.30 ± 4.5 for 20 to 29-year-olds and 14.92 ± 3.1 for 60 to 68 year-olds (P = 0.009). TSH trends positively and RAIU at 24 hours correlates negatively with aging of the pituitary axis.

González P; Jaimovich R; Araya V; Massardo T; Carmona A

2012-06-01

26

Applicability of the third-generation, thyroid-stimulating hormone assay in pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Use of the third-generation, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) assay in gravid patients has not been validated. We obtained serum from 93 healthy women with a singleton gestation and measured TSH using a two-site immunochemiluminescent ("sandwich") assay. Standard immunoassays were employed for total T4, free T4, and T3 levels. Reference ranges (RR) established by the kit manufacturer were used for comparison. Although the mean TSH level for our population was within the RR, 12/93 women (13%) had a TSH value below the lower limit of normal. None, however, had clinical hyperthyroidism or an elevated free T4. Established RR for the third-generation TSH assay may not apply to pregnant women, and isolated TSH measurements during pregnancy should be interpreted with caution.

Bobrowski RA; Streicher P; Dzieczkowski JS; Dombrowski MP; Gonik B

1998-03-01

27

Simple, rapid, and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone immunoassay using europium(III) nanoparticle label  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is widely used as a marker of thyroid function. A rapid TSH assay enables diagnosis during the first visit at the doctor's office aiding to faster and cost-effective medical treatment. To accomplish such an assay method europium(III) chelate nanoparticles were coated with anti-TSH monoclonal antibody. Captured anti-TSH monoclonal antibody was immobilized onto single wells by streptavidin-biotin chemistry and the assay was carried out in dry chemistry format using 5 ?l of sample in a 30 ?l assay volume in the commercial AiO immunoassay system. The developed TSH nanoparticle assay was performed in a kinetic mode using a 10-min incubation time. The analytical sensitivity of the developed assay was 0.0012 mIU l-1 corresponding to the fourth generation TSH assay and less than 0.02 mIU l-1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators. The dynamic range of the assay was more than three orders of magnitude and no high-dose hook effect was observed at 100 mIU l-1 of TSH. Correlation with an automated commercial assay was good (y = 0.96 ± 0.02, intercept = 0.12 ± 0.09, Syverticalbarx = 0.49, R = 0.988). Intra- and inter-assay variations were 4-14 and 6-17%, respectively. The developed quantitative one-step all-in-one dry reagent time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay has great potential for rapid analysis of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in a point-of-care environment when antibody-coated high specific activity Eu(III) nanoparticles were used as labels

2004-07-26

28

Simple, rapid, and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone immunoassay using europium(III) nanoparticle label  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is widely used as a marker of thyroid function. A rapid TSH assay enables diagnosis during the first visit at the doctor's office aiding to faster and cost-effective medical treatment. To accomplish such an assay method europium(III) chelate nanoparticles were coated with anti-TSH monoclonal antibody. Captured anti-TSH monoclonal antibody was immobilized onto single wells by streptavidin-biotin chemistry and the assay was carried out in dry chemistry format using 5 {mu}l of sample in a 30 {mu}l assay volume in the commercial AiO immunoassay system. The developed TSH nanoparticle assay was performed in a kinetic mode using a 10-min incubation time. The analytical sensitivity of the developed assay was 0.0012 mIU l{sup -1} corresponding to the fourth generation TSH assay and less than 0.02 mIU l{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators. The dynamic range of the assay was more than three orders of magnitude and no high-dose hook effect was observed at 100 mIU l{sup -1} of TSH. Correlation with an automated commercial assay was good (y = 0.96 {+-} 0.02, intercept = 0.12 {+-} 0.09, S{sub yverticalbarx} = 0.49, R = 0.988). Intra- and inter-assay variations were 4-14 and 6-17%, respectively. The developed quantitative one-step all-in-one dry reagent time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay has great potential for rapid analysis of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in a point-of-care environment when antibody-coated high specific activity Eu(III) nanoparticles were used as labels.

Pelkkikangas, Anne-Maria; Jaakohuhta, Sinikka; Loevgren, Timo; Haermae, Harri

2004-07-26

29

Associations between brominated flame retardants in human milk and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in neonates  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been in widespread use in a vast array of consumer products since the 1970s. The metabolites of some BFRs show a structural similarity to thyroid hormones and experimental animal studies have confirmed that they may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. A major concern has been whether intrauterine exposure to BFRs may disturb thyroid homeostasis since the fetal brain is particularly susceptible to alterations in thyroid hormones. However, few reports on newborns have been published to date. Objectives To evaluate the association between BFRs and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Methods We studied six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in milk samples from 239 women who were part of the “Norwegian Human Milk Study” (HUMIS), 2003–2006. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and BDE-209 were measured in a subset of the women (193 and 46 milk samples, respectively). The milk was sampled at a median of 33 days after delivery. TSH was measured in babies three days after delivery as part of the routine national screening program for early detection of congenital hypothyroidism. Additional information was obtained through the Medical Birth Registry and questionnaires to the mothers. Results The PBDE concentrations in human milk in Norway were comparable to concentrations reported from other European countries and Asia, but not the US and Canada where levels are approximately one order of magnitude higher. We observed no statistically significant associations between BDE-47, 99, 153, 154, 209 and HBCD in human milk and TSH in models adjusted for possible confounders and other environmental toxicants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Conclusions We did not observe an association between TSH and exposure to HBCD and PBDEs within the exposure levels observed.

Eggesb?, Merete; Thomsen, Cathrine; J?rgensen, Jens V.; Becher, Georg; Odland, Jon ?yvind; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2011-01-01

30

Effect of Age, Sex and Seasons on the Concentration of Thyroid and Thyroid Stimulating Hormones  

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Full Text Available Effect of age, sex and seasons on the concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was studied in 25237 thyroid patients who were referred to the radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar during 1984-1990 (except 1987) and 1995-1996. T3 and T4 of all of these patients were determined by RIA and TSH was determined by immuno-radiometric assay (IRMA). The difference in mean concentration of T3, T4 and TSH in infants and children was non-significant at p3 was found in old age group followed by infants, adults and children. Similarly, the mean concentration of T4 was higher in old age group followed by adults, infants and children. While higher mean values for TSH were observed in infants followed by children, adult and old age group. The infants and children were having significantly higher values of TSH than the old age group and adults at p3 and T4 was significantly higher (p0.05) in both sexes. Mean concentration of T3 in summer and autumn was significantly higher than the other seasons and mean concentration of T4 in winter and summer was higher. The mean concentration of TSH in spring and autumn was significantly higher than the mean concentration of TSH in winter and summer at p<0.05.

Alam Khan; Shahmim Akhter; Muhammad Mohsin Siddiqui; M. Muzaffar Ali Khan; Gul Nawab

2001-01-01

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Ghrelin suppresses nocturnal secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with major depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Major depression is associated with various endocrine disturbances. Apart from the well-known hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, also the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis may be altered compared to healthy subjects. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin is involved in mood regulation and may have antidepressant effects. In addition, it has been shown to suppress secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in healthy subjects. Aim of this study was therefore to test the effect of ghrelin on the activity of the HPG and HPT axis in patients with major depression. Therefore, secretion profiles of LH and TSH were determined in 14 unmedicated patients with major depression (7 women) twice, receiving 50 ?g ghrelin or placebo at 2200, 2300, 0000, and 0100 h. LH secretion after ghrelin injection as assessed by the AUC (4.05 ± 1.18 mlIU min/ml) was significantly (P = 0.049) lower than after placebo injection (4.75 ± 1.33 mlIU min/ml) during the predefined intervention period (2220-0200 h). In addition, LH pulses occurred significantly (P = 0.045) less frequently after ghrelin injection (3.2 ± 1.4) than after placebo injection (3.9 ± 1.7). Mean TSH plasma levels were significantly lower at 0240 h and from 0320 until 0420 h after ghrelin injection than after placebo injection. In conclusion, ghrelin suppressed nocturnal secretion of LH and TSH in patients with major depression. However, these effects were weaker than previously shown in healthy subjects.

Kluge M; Schmidt D; Uhr M; Steiger A

2013-09-01

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Immunological Cross-Reactivity Between Monkey and Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone as Determined by Radioimmunoassay: A Rapid Procedure for Purifying Labeled 125I-Tsh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurement of endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in monkey plasma by radioimmunoassay technique is described. This method exploits the ability of endogenous monkey TSH to inhibit competitively the binding of 125I-labeled human TSH to antibodies...

F. E. Wherry L. L. Pennington R. W. Bates M. M. Garrison A. L. Ehle

1969-01-01

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Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

2007-01-01

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Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To prepare quality monoclonal antibodies against thyroid stimulating hormone for highly sensitive assay. Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized with synthetic TSH polypeptide. Spleen cells from the immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells of sp2/0, and cultured to produce hybridomas producing anti-human TSH monoclonal antibody. Results: During cell fusion and screening, the rate of fusion was 100% and the positive rate of antibody producing was 15%. Five murine hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies against TSH were established. All McAbs were of IgG1 subclass and showed no cross reactivity with FSH, HCG and LH. The titers of the McAb ascitic fluid varied from 1:5 x 105 -1:1 x 107. All murine hybridomas retained great stability after the freezing-thawing process. Conclusion: The rate of cell fusion was high and the rate of positive antibody was good. Five species-specific murine hybridomas were established, producing McAbs of high titer. The McAbs could be excellent components in TSH assay with high sensitivity and simplicity. (authors)

2005-01-01

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone is significantly associated with bone health status in men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies revealed a novel association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and bone health status in healthy male populations. The present study aimed to validate this association and provide new information on the relationship between TSH levels and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in men. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 681 men with complete data of calcaneal SOS, body anthropometry, serum TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. RESULTS: All subjects had FT3 and FT4 levels within the in-house reference range and 13 subjects had lower than normal TSH levels. The results revealed that the SOS value of subjects was significantly associated with TSH after multiple adjustments (p<0.05). When subjects were divided into quintiles according to their TSH levels, the difference of SOS between men with low-normal TSH and high-normal TSH contributed significantly to the association between TSH and bone health status (p<0.05). The significance of the association persisted with the inclusion and exclusion of subclinical hyperthyroid subjects. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant association between TSH levels and bone health status in men as assessed by quantitative ultrasound. This age-independent association between TSH and SOS might explain some of the individual variation of bone health status in men.

Chin KY; Ima-Nirwana S; Mohamed IN; Aminuddin A; Johari MH; Ngah WZ

2013-01-01

36

Factors influencing neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations as a measure of population iodine status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended measurement of neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as a marker of population iodine status. A population is considered iodine sufficient when <3% of neonatal blood samples collected 3-4 days after birth have TSH concentrations >5 mIU/L. However, changes in technology and clinical practices have opened the WHO criteria to various interpretations. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of time of sampling, weight, and sex on neonatal TSH concentrations by analyzing neonatal TSH data, based on the WHO criteria for population iodine sufficiency. Methods: We analyzed the Western Australian (WA) Newborn Screening Program records for 198,826 babies born in WA between 2005 and 2011, to determine the relationship between neonatal TSH concentrations and time of sampling, weight, and sex. Results: The proportion of TSH results above the WHO cut-off was higher for samples collected 48-72 h after birth rather than later, for males, for birth weights below 2500 g, and when a cut-off of 5.0 mIU/L was used. Conclusion: Following changes in newborn screening protocols and earlier collection of blood samples, the WHO criteria appear inappropriate. We recommend that WHO revise current guidelines regarding use of neonatal TSH for monitoring population iodine status.

Clapin H; Lewis BD; Greed L; Dawkins H; O'Leary P

2013-09-01

37

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Is Significantly Associated with Bone Health Status in Men  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aim: Recent studies revealed a novel association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and bone health status in healthy male populations. The present study aimed to validate this association and provide new information on the relationship between TSH levels and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in men. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 681 men with complete data of calcaneal SOS, body anthropometry, serum TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. Results: All subjects had FT3 and FT4 levels within the in-house reference range and 13 subjects had lower than normal TSH levels. The results revealed that the SOS value of subjects was significantly associated with TSH after multiple adjustments (p<0.05). When subjects were divided into quintiles according to their TSH levels, the difference of SOS between men with low-normal TSH and high-normal TSH contributed significantly to the association between TSH and bone health status (p<0.05). The significance of the association persisted with the inclusion and exclusion of subclinical hyperthyroid subjects. Conclusions: There was a significant association between TSH levels and bone health status in men as assessed by quantitative ultrasound. This age-independent association between TSH and SOS might explain some of the individual variation of bone health status in men.

Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

2013-01-01

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Measurement of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins using a novel thyroid stimulating hormone receptor-guanine nucleotide-binding protein, (GNAS) fusion bioassay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hyperthyroidism, defined by overproduction of thyroid hormones, has a 2-3% prevalence in the population. The most common form of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. A diagnostic biomarker for Graves' disease is the presence of immunoglobulins which bind to, and stimulate, the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We hypothesized that the ectopically expressed TSHR gene in a thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) assay could be engineered to increase the accumulation of the GPCR pathway second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), the molecule measured in the assay as a marker for pathway activation. An ectopically expressing TSHR-mutant guanine nucleotide-binding protein, (GNAS) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell clone was constructed using standard molecular biology techniques. After incubation of the new clone with sera containing various levels of TSI, GPCR pathway activation was then quantified by measuring cAMP accumulation in the clone. The clone, together with a NaCl-free cell assay buffer containing 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG)6000, was tested against 56 Graves' patients, 27 toxic thyroid nodule patients and 119 normal patients. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, when comparing normal with Graves' sera, the assay yielded a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 99% and an efficiency of 98%. Total complex precision (within-run, across runs and across days), presented as a percentage coefficient of variation, was found to be 7·8, 8·7 and 7·6% for low, medium and high TSI responding serum, respectively. We conclude that the performance of the new TSI assay provides sensitive detection of TSI, allowing for accurate, early detection of Graves' disease.

Pierce M; Sandrock R; Gillespie G; Meikle AW

2012-11-01

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Site-specific PEGylation of human thyroid stimulating hormone to prolong duration of action.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH or Thyrogen) has been approved for thyroid cancer diagnostics and treatment under a multidose regimen due to its short circulating half-life. To reduce dosing frequency, PEGylation strategies were explored to increase the duration of action of rhTSH. Lysine and N-terminal PEGylation resulted in heterogeneous product profiles with 40% or lower reaction yields of monoPEGylated products. Eleven cysteine mutants were designed based on a structure model of the TSH-TSH receptor (TSHR) complex to create unique conjugation sites on both ? and ? subunits for site-specific conjugation. Sequential screening of mutant expression level, oligomerization tendency, and conjugation efficiency resulted in the identification of the ?G22C rhTSH mutant for stable expression and scale-up PEGylation. The introduced cysteine in the ?G22C rhTSH mutant was partially blocked when isolated from conditioned media and could only be effectively PEGylated after mild reduction with cysteine. This produced a higher reaction yield, ~85%, for the monoPEGylated product. Although the mutation had no effect on receptor binding, PEGylation of ?G22C rhTSH led to a PEG size-dependent decrease in receptor binding. Nevertheless, the 40 kDa PEG ?G22C rhTSH showed a prolonged duration of action compared to rhTSH in a rat pharmacodynamics model. Reverse-phase HPLC and N-terminal sequencing experiments confirmed site-specific modification at the engineered Cys 22 position on the ?-subunit. This work is another demonstration of successful PEGylation of a cysteine-knot protein by an engineered cysteine mutation. PMID:23350694

Qiu, Huawei; Boudanova, Ekaterina; Park, Anna; Bird, Julie J; Honey, Denise M; Zarazinski, Christine; Greene, Ben; Kingsbury, Jonathan S; Boucher, Susan; Pollock, Julie; McPherson, John M; Pan, Clark Q

2013-02-11

40

Site-specific PEGylation of human thyroid stimulating hormone to prolong duration of action.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH or Thyrogen) has been approved for thyroid cancer diagnostics and treatment under a multidose regimen due to its short circulating half-life. To reduce dosing frequency, PEGylation strategies were explored to increase the duration of action of rhTSH. Lysine and N-terminal PEGylation resulted in heterogeneous product profiles with 40% or lower reaction yields of monoPEGylated products. Eleven cysteine mutants were designed based on a structure model of the TSH-TSH receptor (TSHR) complex to create unique conjugation sites on both ? and ? subunits for site-specific conjugation. Sequential screening of mutant expression level, oligomerization tendency, and conjugation efficiency resulted in the identification of the ?G22C rhTSH mutant for stable expression and scale-up PEGylation. The introduced cysteine in the ?G22C rhTSH mutant was partially blocked when isolated from conditioned media and could only be effectively PEGylated after mild reduction with cysteine. This produced a higher reaction yield, ~85%, for the monoPEGylated product. Although the mutation had no effect on receptor binding, PEGylation of ?G22C rhTSH led to a PEG size-dependent decrease in receptor binding. Nevertheless, the 40 kDa PEG ?G22C rhTSH showed a prolonged duration of action compared to rhTSH in a rat pharmacodynamics model. Reverse-phase HPLC and N-terminal sequencing experiments confirmed site-specific modification at the engineered Cys 22 position on the ?-subunit. This work is another demonstration of successful PEGylation of a cysteine-knot protein by an engineered cysteine mutation.

Qiu H; Boudanova E; Park A; Bird JJ; Honey DM; Zarazinski C; Greene B; Kingsbury JS; Boucher S; Pollock J; McPherson JM; Pan CQ

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Elevation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Upon Accidental Hypothermia in an Elderly Man.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Background: Although 'polar triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome' in chronic dwellers/workers in Antarctica has been established, alteration of the pituitary thyroid-axis upon accidental hypothermia is not well recognized. We report here a rare case of elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) upon accidental hypothermia. Patient Findings: A 75-yr-old man was admitted because of consciousness disturbance. The mean outside temperature was approximately -2.0ºC but his house was inadequately heated. His rectal temperature was 29.5ºC. Goiter was not palpable and pitting edema, not myxedema, was present. Serum TSH was elevated (28.3 mU/l, reference range 0.27-4.2), and free T3 (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) lowered (FT3, 3.25 pmol/l with a reference range of 4.00-7.85, and FT4, 9.18 pmol/l with a reference range of 12.87-23.179), but thyroid-related autoantibodies were all negative. By the next morning, body temperature had risen to >36ºC and there was no further recurrence of hypothermia. Serum TSH decreased exponentially and the patient's condition had become normal by Day 22. FT3 and FT4 were found to be slightly lowered and elevated, respectively, during the same period, in the subnormal range. At the end of the observation period, the patient settled into the state known as "non-thyroidal illness syndrome". Summary: Elevation of TSH in an elderly patient with accidental hypothermia was normalized after restoration of normal body temperature. Elevation of TSH upon accidental hypothermia was probably an adaptive response. Conclusions: In patients with accidental hypothermia, the possibility of an adaptive elevation of TSH should be born in mind. There is a clear warrant for further studies of the adaptation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in patients with accidental hypothermia.

Yamashita K; Suganuma K; Funase Y; Yamauchi K; Aizawa T

2012-08-01

42

Thyroid stimulating hormone increases iodine uptake by thyroid cancer cells during BRAF silencing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation is present in 62% of radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid tumors and is associated with downregulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHr). We sought to evaluate the combined effect of BRAF inhibition and TSH supplementation on (131)I uptake of BRAF(V600E)-mutant human thyroid cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: WRO cells (a BRAF(V600E)-mutant follicular-derived papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line) were transfected with small interfering RNA targeting BRAF for 72 h in a physiological TSH environment. NIS and TSHr expression were then evaluated at three levels: gene expression, protein levels, and (131)I uptake. These three main outcomes were then reassessed in TSH-depleted media and media supplemented with supratherapeutic concentrations of TSH. RESULTS: NIS gene expression increased 5.5-fold 36 h after transfection (P = 0.01), and TSHr gene expression increased 2.8-fold at 24 h (P = 0.02). NIS and TSHr protein levels were similarly increased 48 and 24 h after transfection, respectively. Seventy-two hours after BRAF inhibition, (131)I uptake was unchanged in TSH-depleted media, increased by 7.5-fold (P < 0.01) in physiological TSH media, and increased by 9.1-fold (P < 0.01) in supratherapeutic TSH media. CONCLUSIONS: The combined strategy of BRAF inhibition and TSH supplementation results in greater (131)I uptake than when either technique is used alone. This represents a simple and feasible approach that may improve outcomes in patients with radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid carcinomas for which current treatment algorithms are ineffective.

Kleiman DA; Buitrago D; Crowley MJ; Beninato T; Veach AJ; Zanzonico PB; Jin M; Fahey TJ 3rd; Zarnegar R

2013-06-01

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in nutritionally obese children and metabolic co-morbidity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Objective: In recent years, there has been increasing focus on thyroid function in pediatric obese patients. Our aims were to investigate whether there is an association between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) within the normal range and body mass index (BMI), and to determine if TSH levels correlate with metabolic risk factors in children. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 528 euthyroid, age- and sex-matched lean, overweight, or obese children. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, hepatic enzymes, lipid profiles, TSH, free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) were assessed from medical records and compared among groups. Subjects with known presence of diabetes, using medications altering blood pressure and glucose or lipid metabolism, with TSH levels >97.5 or <2.5 percentile, or with autoimmune thyroid disease were excluded. Results: Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and elevated levels of hepatic enzymes were found to be more common in overweight and obese children (p<0.001), and those metabolic changes were significantly correlated with the increase in BMI (p<0.05). Serum concentrations of TSH and fT3 within the normal range were higher in overweight and obese children (p<0.01), and TSH was positively correlated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that obese children have higher serum TSH and fT3 levels even within the normal range, and that an increase in TSH is associated with dyslipidemia and higher systolic blood pressure. It remains to be seen whether TSH might serve as a potential marker of metabolic risk factors in obese pediatric patients.

Aypak C; Türedi O; Yüce A; Görpelio?lu S

2013-01-01

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Association between Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid stimulating hormone among pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of highly persistent chemicals that are widespread contaminants in wildlife and humans. Exposure to PFAS affects thyroid homeostasis in experimental animals and possibly in humans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of PFASs and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) among pregnant women. METHODS: A total of 903 pregnant women who enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study from 2003 to 2004 were studied. Concentrations of thirteen PFASs and TSH were measured in plasma samples collected around the 18th week of gestation. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations between PFASs and TSH. RESULTS: Among the thirteen PFASs, seven were detected in more than 60% of samples and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) had the highest concentrations (median, 12.8 ng/mL; inter-quartile range [IQR], 10.1 -16.5 ng/mL). The median TSH concentration was 3.5 (IQR, 2.4 - 4.8) muIU/mL. Pregnant women with higher PFOS had higher TSH levels. After adjustment, with each 1 ng/mL increase in PFOS concentration, there was a 0.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.1%, 1.6%) rise in TSH. The odds ratio of having an abnormally high TSH, however, was not increased, and other PFASs were unrelated to TSH. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest an association between PFOS and TSH in pregnant women that is small and may be of no clinical significance.

Wang Y; Starling AP; Haug LS; Eggesbo M; Becher G; Thomsen C; Travlos G; King D; Hoppin JA; Rogan WJ; Longnecker MP

2013-09-01

45

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in euthyroid young women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The existence of an association between thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) levels and metabolic derangement in euthyroid subjects is controversial. We examined the association between high normal TSH levels and metabolic syndrome in healthy young women. METHODS: The study recruited 2,760 young female volunteers (age, 18 to 39 years) with TSH levels in the normal range (0.3 to 4.5 mU/L). We defined metabolic syndrome using the 2007 International Diabetes Federation criteria. Using a TSH level of 2.5 mU/L as an upper reference limit, as recommended by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, we divided the subjects into high-(n = 453) and low-TSH groups (n = 2,307). RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the high-TSH group than in the low-TSH group (7.5% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.016). Central obesity (22.3% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.012) and hypertriglyceridemia (8.0% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.0007) were significantly more frequent in the high-TSH group than in the low-TSH group. Waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides were significantly associated with the TSH level after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). Subjects in the high-TSH group had a 2-fold greater risk of metabolic syndrome than subjects in the low-TSH group after adjusting for age and BMI (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.2). CONCLUSIONS: Healthy young women with TSH levels > 2.5 mU/L should be assessed for the presence of metabolic syndrome, even if their TSH levels are in the normal range.

Oh JY; Sung YA; Lee HJ

2013-03-01

46

[Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values is critical for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey recruited 5,416 participants between the ages of 15 and 96 years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". RESULTS: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of 3.89%. CONCLUSIONS: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

Mosso L; Margozzini P; Trejo P; Domínguez A; Solari S; Valdivia G; Arteaga E

2013-01-01

47

Gender-Specific Associations between Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Serum Lipid Profiles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Population-based studies investigating the gender-specific association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and serum lipid concentrations are scarce. We examined the association between TSH and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in men and women from the general population. Furthermore, the association with TSH outside and within the reference range and lipid levels was studied. Methods: Individual data of 13,571 men and women without lipid medication of four population-based studies conducted in Western European adults were pooled for cross-sectional analyses. The association between TSH levels and lipid concentrations were analyzed by calculating sex-specific multivariable median regression models. Results: In the pooled population, serum TSH levels were significantly positively associated with triglyceride values in men and with total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride values in women. In the pooled male population, low serum TSH levels (< 3.0 mIU/L) were significantly associated with lower total cholesterol, while high serum TSH levels (? 3.0 mIU/L) were associated with higher triglyceride values. In the pooled female population low serum TSH levels were significantly associated with lower total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. High TSH levels were associated with higher total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the pooled female population. In both sexes, serum TSH levels within the reference range (0.3-3.0 mIU/L) were significantly positively associated with triglyceride concentrations. Conclusions: Increasing levels of TSH were associated with a less favourable lipid profile in both men and women from the general population. In both sexes, TSH levels within the reference range were significantly positively associated with triglyceride concentrations.

Meisinger C; Ittermann T; Tiller D; Agger C; Nauck M; Schipf S; Wallaschofski H; Jørgensen T; Linneberg A; Thiery J; Kluttig A; Greiser H; Werdan K; Burkhardt K; Völzke H

2013-10-01

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Preconception thyroid-stimulating hormone and pregnancy outcomes in women with hypothyroidism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives: Maternal hypothyroidism may adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. International practice guidelines recommend that women with hypothyroidism should attain a preconception and early gestation serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of <2.5 mU/L. Our objective was to ascertain what proportion of women realize this target in practice and whether a TSH level above this threshold has adverse fetal and maternal consequences.Methods: This was an observational study of women with hypothyroidism referred to an endocrine antenatal clinic between 2008 and 2010 (n = 78; mean age, 30.4 years; range, 19 to 43 years). Thyroid profiles (free thyroxine [FT4] and TSH) before conception and through pregnancy were documented. Obstetrics outcomes were examined, including low birth weight, preterm births, preeclampsia, caesarean sections, and admissions to special care neonatal units.Results: Thyroid testing was undertaken in 80% of subjects before conception, and in 64, 94, and 96% of subjects in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. TSH >2.5 mU/L was seen in 49% of women before conception and in 68% of women in the first trimester. Six women were overtly hypothyroid before conception, attaining normal thyroid function at gestational ages ranging from 12 to 36 weeks. Neither the preconception nor the first postconception TSH level (>2.5 mU/L or ?2.5 mU/L) was associated with gestational age at delivery, birth weight, or rates of caesarean section or preeclampsia.Conclusion: The majority of women with hypothyroidism do not achieve the recommended preconception and early gestation TSH targets. Preconception and early gestation TSH >2.5 mU/L was not associated with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. Studies in larger cohorts will be required to confirm these findings, however.

Khan I; Witczak JK; Hadjieconomou S; Okosieme OE

2013-07-01

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Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

2011-01-01

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Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713) were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions. PMID:23112844

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Coucke, Wim; Vanderpas, Jean; Trumpff, Caroline; Fauvart, Maarten; Meulemans, Ann; Marie, Sandrine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; Schoos, Roland; Boemer, François; Vanwynsberghe, Timothy; Philips, Eddy; Eyskens, François; Wuyts, Brigitte; Selimaj, Valbona; Van Overmeire, Bart; Kirkpatrick, Christine; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

2012-10-24

51

Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713) were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.

Vandevijvere S; Coucke W; Vanderpas J; Trumpff C; Fauvart M; Meulemans A; Marie S; Vincent MF; Schoos R; Boemer F; Vanwynsberghe T; Philips E; Eyskens F; Wuyts B; Selimaj V; Van Overmeire B; Kirkpatrick C; Van Oyen H; Moreno-Reyes R

2012-01-01

52

Plasma Retinol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Zinc as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Conflicting results on the association between serum retinol level and bone mineral density (BMD) have been published. Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and have direct effect on bone formation and resorption. Bone has one of the highest concentrations of zinc of all tissues, and has been shown to release zinc during deficiency for soft tissue metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between plasma levels of retinol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) & zinc and BMD of Egyptian adolescents and adults. Method: The study was a part of a cross sectional national survey conducted by National Nutrition Institute. The sample was a multistage stratified random. Target individuals were classified into two age groups (10- 18 and 28- 59 years). Bone mineral density and plasma levels of retinol, TSH and zinc were determined. Results: Low and high plasma retinol levels were more prevalent among osteoporotic adolescent and adult males respectively than in normal subjects.. The reverse was observed in adult females. Bone mineral density correlated negatively with plasma retinol level in adult males and females and positively in adolescent males, while among females the association was significant (P = 0.030) and stronger. The highest deficiency of TSH was found among adult and adolescent osteoporotic males, followed by osteopenic adult males and adolescent females. Highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) existed between osteoporotic and normal adult males concerning TSH deficiency. The prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 5.7% to 9.5% for all target individuals. Plasma Zn levels were correlated negatively with bone mineral density in adult males and females. Conclusion: The results of this study reflects the controversy on the association of plasma retinol and BMD. However, the predominant finding revealed that both low and high plasna retinol levels compromise bone health. Bone status and thyroid function support the adverse effect of hyperthyroidism upon either bone osteoporosis or osteopenia and subsequently upon fracture risk. Plasma zinc deficiency correlated negatively with BMD in adult osteoporotic men.

Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny*, Effat A. A., Afifi**, Wafaa M. A. Saleh**, Asmaa, M

2006-01-01

53

Thyrostimulin, but Not Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH), Acts as a Paracrine Regulator to Activate the TSH Receptor in Mammalian Ovary*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), activated by either TSH or the newly discovered glycoprotein hormone thyrostimulin, plays a central role in the control of body metabolism. Interestingly, in addition to its thyroid expression, we discovered that the mRNA level of TSHR is periodically...

Sun, Su-Chin; Hsu, Pei-Jen; Wu, Fang-Ju; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lu, Chung-Hao; Luo, Ching-Wei

54

A novel ultrasensitive re-equilibration immunometric assay. Its application to the measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a growing commercial and profession interest in ultrasensitive immunoassay for the measurement of low levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in thyroid disorders. The currently available supersensitive methodology is based mainly on an immunometric solid phase system using high avidity monoclonal antibodies with or without signal amplification of the label. An alternative method to improve the sensitivity is to shift the equilibration in favour of antigen and antibody reaction. In the paper such a novel ultrasensitive assay for TSH based on re-equilibrium is proposed. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

1992-01-01

55

Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with prolactin but not thyroid stimulating hormone among nonsmoking women seeking in vitro fertilization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prolactin (PRL) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) serve important roles in the reproductive and other systems. Active smoking is associated with changes in PRL and TSH secretion, but the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and these hormones is unclear. We measured PRL and TSH in serum as well as cotinine in follicular fluid (to estimate STS exposure) among 314 nonsmoking women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment. We observed a significant increase in PRL concentrations (p=0.03) among STS-exposed nonsmokers compared to unexposed nonsmokers. There was no significant difference in TSH concentration (p>0.4) among those exposed to STS compared to those who were unexposed. STS exposure is associated with an increase in circulating PRL but not TSH levels. Future studies are needed to confirm our results, identify biological mechanisms involved, and better understand the potential clinical and public health implications.

Benedict MD; Missmer SA; Ferguson KK; Vitonis AF; Cramer DW; Meeker JD

2012-11-01

56

Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Os programas de detecção precoce trazem economias ao sistema de saúde e oferecem a oportunidade de rastrear e tratar precocemente casos de hipotiroidismo congênito. OBJETIVO: Determinar influências de doenças que afetam a dinâmica materno-fetal-placentária sobre programas de detecção precoce de hipotiroidismo congênito que se baseiam na dosagem do hormônio tirotrófico (TSH). TIPO DE ESTUDO: Ensaio clínico prospectivo não-randomizado com, ao menos, (more) três meses de seguimento. LOCAL: Centro Universitário Público de Referência - Centro de Atendimento Integrado a Saúde da Mulher (CAISM). PARTICIPANTES: 415 recém-nascidos de 5 grupos de parturientes: 83 crianças eram filhas de mães cardiopatas; 98 de mães com toxemia gravídica; 54 de mães diabéticas; 40 de mães portadoras de imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV); e 140 de mães hígidas. PROCEDIMENTOS: Todos os recém-nascidos tiveram amostras de sangue de cordão umbilical coletadas em papel de filtro ao nascimento. VARIÁVEIS ESTUDADAS: Dosagem de TSH em sangue coletado em papel de filtro usando um ensaio imunofluorométrico próprio (sensibilidade em manchas de sangue seco = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTADOS: Não encontramos diferença na média de TSH dos 5 grupos. Além disso, os níveis de TSH estavam acima de 5 mU/L em 48% dos bebês, sugerindo que nossa região é severamente deficiente em iodo. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados demonstram que programas de detecção precoce de hipotiroidismo congênito, que utilizam primariamente TSH, não são afetados por doenças maternas não-tiroidianas. Sugerimos que, além das vantagens técnicas sobre a punção de calcanhar com dosagem primária de T4, os programas de detecção precoce que utilizam primariamente TSH de cordão umbilical também podem ser usados como instrumento de avaliação e controle da carências de iodo. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the possible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: (more) Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

Ward, Laura Sterian; Kunii, Ilda Shizue; Maciel, Rui Monteiro de Barros

2000-09-01

57

Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma presenting with recurrent hyperthyroidism in post-treated Graves' disease: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: INTRODUCTION: The coexistence of autoimmune hyperthyroid disease and thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma is rare. The simple presumption of coincidence of these two diseases has a calculated incidence of less than one/several hundred million, and only four cases with histological confirmation have been reported. A rapid decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone level after pituitary tumor removal may induce subsequent activation of autoimmune responses against the thyroid gland. We report the first case of a sequential and paradoxical occurrence of Graves' disease and a thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old Japanese woman had recurrent hyperthyroidism. She had a history of Graves' hyperthyroidism, which had been successfully treated with propylthiouracil. A head magnetic resonance imaging showed a less enhanced area in the left lateral wing of her sella turcica. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed, and the diagnosis was established as thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting plurihormonal adenoma. A rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels was achieved, and her blood pressure was normalized after the operation. CONCLUSION: Although incidental occurrence is the most probable etiology, long and repeated followup examinations of both thyroid and pituitary gland should be performed in patients with an atypical clinical course.

Ogawa Y; Tominaga T

2013-01-01

58

Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in the CHAMACOS study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies published in the last 3 decades have demonstrated global human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. A growing body of literature suggests that PBDEs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. Although thyroid hormones play an essential role in brain development, few studies have investigated relations between prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neonatal thyroid hormone levels, and none have measured thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in neonates. The authors measured 10 PBDE congeners in serum collected between October 1999 and October 2000 from 289 pregnant women living in California's Salinas Valley and abstracted TSH levels from their children's medical records. Individual PBDE congeners showed null or weak nonsignificant inverse relations with neonatal TSH. Total serum PBDE was not associated with neonatal TSH (? = 0.00, 95% confidence interval: -0.06, 0.06). Except for brominated diphenyl ether 153, a higher serum PBDE level was related to elevated odds of high TSH (?80th percentile), but associations were not statistically significant. Associations were not modified by infant sex, age at TSH measurement, maternal serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentration, or mode of delivery. Results were robust to sensitivity analysis. The authors found no conclusive evidence that prenatal exposure to PBDEs at levels similar to those of the general US population is related to neonatal TSH. PMID:21984658

Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G; Bradman, Asa; Sjödin, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda

2011-10-07

59

Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in the CHAMACOS study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies published in the last 3 decades have demonstrated global human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. A growing body of literature suggests that PBDEs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. Although thyroid hormones play an essential role in brain development, few studies have investigated relations between prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neonatal thyroid hormone levels, and none have measured thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in neonates. The authors measured 10 PBDE congeners in serum collected between October 1999 and October 2000 from 289 pregnant women living in California's Salinas Valley and abstracted TSH levels from their children's medical records. Individual PBDE congeners showed null or weak nonsignificant inverse relations with neonatal TSH. Total serum PBDE was not associated with neonatal TSH (? = 0.00, 95% confidence interval: -0.06, 0.06). Except for brominated diphenyl ether 153, a higher serum PBDE level was related to elevated odds of high TSH (?80th percentile), but associations were not statistically significant. Associations were not modified by infant sex, age at TSH measurement, maternal serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentration, or mode of delivery. Results were robust to sensitivity analysis. The authors found no conclusive evidence that prenatal exposure to PBDEs at levels similar to those of the general US population is related to neonatal TSH.

Chevrier J; Harley KG; Bradman A; Sjödin A; Eskenazi B

2011-11-01

60

Assignment of the gene for the ? subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone to the short arm of human chromosome 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chromosomal locations of the genes for the ? subunit of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and the glycoprotein hormone ? subunit have been determined by restriction enzyme analysis of DNA extracted from rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) ?-subunit cDNA and a cloned 0.9-kilobase (kb) fragment of the human TSH ?-subunit gene were used as hybridization probes in the analysis of Southern blots of DNA extracted from rodent-human hybrid clones. Analysis of the segregation of 5- and 10-kb EcoRI fragments hybridizing to CG ?-subunit cDNA confirmed the previous assignment of this gene to chromosome 6. Analysis of the patterns of segregation of a 2.3-kb EcoRI fragment containing human TSH ?-subunit sequences permitted the assignment of the TSH ?-subunit gene to human chromosome 1. The subregional assignment of TSH ? subunit to chromosome 1p22 was made possible by the additional analysis of a set of hybrids containing partially overlapping segments of this chromosome. Human TSH ? subunit is not syntenic with genes encoding the ? subunits of CG, luteinizing hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone and is assigned to a conserved linkage group that also contains the structural genes for the ? subunit of nerve growth factor (NGFB) and the proto-oncogene N-ras (NRAS).

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA), PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA), FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA) and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA). These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH), Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH), Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH) y Prolactina (PRL) en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identificadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA), PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA), FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA) y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA). Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo.

Jesús Alvarado-Flores; María Del Rosario Montoya-Garcia; Javier Ventura Juárez; Roberto Rico-Martínez

2009-01-01

62

Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH), Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH), Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH) y Prolactina (PRL) en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identificadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero pa (more) ra RIA), PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA), FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA) y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA). Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo. Abstract in english The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolact (more) in (PRL) in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA), PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA), FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA) and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA). These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.

Alvarado-Flores, Jesús; Montoya-Garcia, María Del Rosario; Ventura Juárez, Javier; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

2009-12-01

63

Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion after surgery for Cushing's syndrome: a novel cause of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Hyperthyroidism with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH) occurred by a decrease in hydrocortisone dose after surgery for Cushing's syndrome. This is a novel cause of SITSH. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe and discuss 2 cases of SITSH patients that were found after surgery for Cushing's syndrome. We also checked whether SITSH occurred in 7 consecutive patients with Cushing's syndrome after surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 45-year-old Japanese woman with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and a 37-year-old Japanese man with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome presented SITSH caused by insufficient replacement of hydrocortisone for postoperative adrenal insufficiency. When the dose of hydrocortisone was reduced to less than 20 mg/d within 18 days after surgery, SITSH occurred in both cases. We examined whether the change of the hydrocortisone dose induced the secretion of TSH. Free T3 and TSH were normalized by the hydrocortisone dose increase of 30 mg/d, and these were elevated by the dose decrease of 10 mg/d. We also checked TSH and thyroid hormone levels of the 7 consecutive patients with Cushing's syndrome after surgery. Six (66.6 %) of 9 patients showed SITSH. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that insufficient replacement of hydrocortisone after surgery for Cushing's syndrome caused SITSH. Hyperthyroidism by SITSH as well as adrenal insufficiency can contribute to withdrawal symptoms of hydrocortisone replacement. We need to consider the possibility of SITSH for the pathological evaluation of withdrawal syndrome of hydrocortisone replacement.

Tamada D; Onodera T; Kitamura T; Yamamoto Y; Hayashi Y; Murata Y; Otsuki M; Shimomura I

2013-07-01

64

Establishment of a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference interval in healthy adults. The importance of environmental factors, including thyroid antibodies  

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Udgivelsesdato: 2004-null , It has previously been shown that thyroid antibodies affect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in men and women and that TSH levels are predictive of future thyroid disease. We investigated the validity of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) gu...

Jensen, Esther; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Hansen, Pia Skov; Brix, Thomas H; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hegedüs, Laszlo

65

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Suppression for Protection Against Hypothyroidism Due to Craniospinal Irradiation for Childhood Medulloblastoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Hypothyroidism is one of the earliest endocrine effects of craniospinal irradiation (CSI). The effects of radiation also depend on circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts as an indicator of thyrocyte function and is the most sensitive marker of thyroid damage. Hence, our study was launched in 1998 to evaluate the protective effect of TSH suppression during CSI for medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Patients and Methods: From Jan 1998 to Feb 2001, a total of 37 euthyroid children scheduled for CSI for medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor underwent thyroid ultrasound and free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and TSH evaluation at the beginning and end of CSI. From 14 days before and up to the end of CSI, patients were administered L-thyroxine at suppressive doses; every 3 days, TSH suppression was checked to ensure a value

2007-10-01

66

Lack of association between high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level and risk of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: High serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is associated with thyroid carcinoma in patients with thyroid nodules. However, previous studies suggests that TSH is not involved in the pathogenesis of small thyroid carcinomas. We performed this study to evaluate serum TSH as a malignancy predictor in the assessment of small thyroid nodules. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 3791 patients who underwent thyroidectomy. We classified all patients into 3 to 5 groups by serum TSH or nodule size and analyzed the association of serum TSH and risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). RESULTS: The frequency of PTC increased as serum TSH increased. Serum TSH and older age were associated with the risk of PTC in multivariate analysis (p < .0001). In subgroup analysis, the risk of PTC increased as serum TSH increased with thyroid nodules > 1 cm (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Serum TSH may not be useful for clinical risk assessment of small thyroid nodules. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013.

Sohn SY; Kim HJ; Jang HW; Kim SW; Chung JH

2013-06-01

67

Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

2009-01-01

68

[Congestive heart failure caused by the thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) secreting pituitary adenoma: report of two cases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 42-year-old man and a 31-year-old man with congestive heart failure caused by the thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) secreting pituitary adenoma were reported. Heart failure was improved after transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma in each patient. The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH causes hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormone acts directly on cardiac muscle to increase the stroke volume. Hyperthyroidism itself reduces the peripheral vascular resistance and an elevated basal metabolism which is the basic physiologic change in hyperthyroidism dilates small vessels and reduces vascular resistance. The reduced vascular resistance contributes to increase stroke volume. Thyroid hormone also acts directly on the cardiac pacemakers to be apt to cause tachycardiac atrial fibrillation. These mechanical changes in hyperthyroidism increase not only the cardiac output but also the venous return. The increased blood volume and the shortened ventricular filling time due to tachycardia result in congestive heart failure. TSH secreting pituitary adenoma is a rare tumor, however heart failure is common disease. TSH secreting pituitary adenoma should be taken into consideration in patients with heart failure. The presented cases were very enlightening to understand the relation between brain tumor and heart disease.

Fujita K; Yanaka K; Tomono Y; Kamezaki T; Kujiraoka Y; Nose T

2001-08-01

69

Genetic confirmation for a central role for TNF? in the direct action of thyroid stimulating hormone on the skeleton.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical data showing correlations between low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and high bone turnover markers, low bone mineral density, and an increased risk of osteoporosis-related fractures are buttressed by mouse genetic and pharmacological studies identifying a direct action of TSH on the skeleton. Here we show that the skeletal actions of TSH deficiency are mediated, in part, through TNF?. Compound mouse mutants generated by genetically deleting the Tnf? gene on a Tshr(-/-) (homozygote) or Tshr(+/-) (heterozygote) background resulted in full rescue of the osteoporosis, low bone formation, and hyperresorption that accompany TSH deficiency. Studies using ex vivo bone marrow cell cultures showed that TSH inhibits and stimulates TNF? production from macrophages and osteoblasts, respectively. TNF?, in turn, stimulates osteoclastogenesis but also enhances the production in bone marrow of a variant TSH?. This locally produced TSH suppresses osteoclast formation in a negative feedback loop. We speculate that TNF? elevations due to low TSH signaling in human hyperthyroidism contribute to the bone loss that has traditionally been attributed solely to high thyroid hormone levels.

Sun L; Zhu LL; Lu P; Yuen T; Li J; Ma R; Baliram R; Baliram R; Moonga SS; Liu P; Zallone A; New MI; Davies TF; Zaidi M

2013-06-01

70

Comparative assessment of quality of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and chemiluminescence immunometric assay (CHEIMA) for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Biological substances like hormones, vitamins and enzymes are found in minute quantities in blood. Their estimation requires very sensitive and specific methods. The most modern method for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone in serum is non-isotopic enzyme enhanced chemiluminescence immunometric method. In our laboratory immunoradiometric assay is in routine for the last many years. Recently interest has grown to establish non-isotopic techniques in laboratories of PAEC. However, the main requirement to adopt the new procedures is to compare their results, cost and other benefits with the existing method. Immunoassay laboratory of MINAR, therefore, conducted a study to compare the two methods. A total of 173 (males: 34 females: 139 age: between 1 and 65 years) cases of clinically confirmed thyroid status were included in the study. Serum samples of these cases were analyzed by two methods and results were compared by plotting precision profiles, correlation plots and calculating sensitivities and specificities of the methods. As the results in all the samples were not normally distributed Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied to compare the analytical results of two methods. The comparison shows that the results obtained in two methods are not completely similar (p=0.0003293), although analysis of samples in groups shows that some similarity exists between the results of hypo and hyperthyroid patients (p

2009-01-01

71

Effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) on a growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone-producing pituitary tumor.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 46-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary adenoma. She had high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and very high serum growth hormone (GH) levels. Transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, post-operative irradiation, frontal craniotomy for removal of residual tumor and large-dose bromocriptine therapy were carried out consecutively. After therapy, serum GH levels gradually decreased, but not to the normal range, and serum TSH levels remained at inappropriately normal levels. Using immunoperoxidase techniques, GH-, TSH- and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-containing cells were demonstrated in the adenoma. A long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995, 600 micrograms/day) suppressed the serum GH level to the normal range with a concomitant suppression of TSH. Furthermore, the paradoxical serum GH responses to TRH and LH-RH were slightly improved. No important subjective side-effects were noted. Therefore, SMS 201-995 appeared to be a very effective drug in this patient with a GH- and TSH-producing pituitary tumor.

Hirasawa,Ryoto; Hashimoto,Hozo; Makino,Shinya; Suemaru,Shuso; Takao,Toshihiro; Ota,Zensuke; Hoshida,Yoshihiko; Yoshino,Tadashi; Akagi,Tadaatsu

1991-01-01

72

Purification of bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone by a monoclonal antibody  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A monoclonal antibody directed against bovine TSH was obtained by hybridoma technology. This antibody was specific for TSH and did not react with bovine LH and FSH. Affinity chromatography of crude TSH was performed on anti-TSH Sepharose. Bovine TSH was purified in a single step to near homogeneity by this technique, as shown by cation exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified TSH. The biological activity of the hormone was not affected during the purification, as determined by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation of the TSH-dependent FRTL5 cell line. The results indicate that affinity purification of TSH by means of a monoclonal antibody is a simple one-step procedure for the production of biologically active, highly purified TSH.

Lock, A.J.; van Denderen, J.; Aarden, L.A.

1988-01-01

73

Electron Capture Dissociation of Divalent Metal-adducted Sulfated N-Glycans Released from Bovine Thyroid Stimulating Hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sulfated N-glycans released from bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) were ionized with the divalent metal cations Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Co by electrospray ionization (ESI). These metal-adducted species were subjected to infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) and the corresponding fragmentation patterns were compared. IRMPD generated extensive glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, but most product ions suffered from sulfonate loss. Internal fragments were also observed, which complicated the spectra. ECD provided complementary structural information compared with IRMPD, and all observed product ions retained the sulfonate group, allowing sulfonate localization. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of ECD towards metal-adducted sulfated N-glycans released from a glycoprotein. Due to the ability of IRMPD and ECD to provide complementary structural information, the combination of the two strategies is a promising and valuable tool for glycan structural characterization. The influence of different metal ions was also examined. Calcium adducts appeared to be the most promising species because of high sensitivity and ability to provide extensive structural information.

Zhou W; Håkansson K

2013-08-01

74

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day (more) . Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P

Paz-Filho, G.J.; Mesa-Junior, C.O.; Olandoski, M.; Woellner, L.C.; Goedert, C.A.; Boguszewski, C.L.; Carvalho, G.A.; Graf, H.

2007-12-01

75

Increasing thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in euthyroid obese children and adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Contrasting data exist regarding the relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and obesity-related risk factors in children. In the present study, we investigated the association between TSH, free T4 (fT4) and cardiometabolic risk factors in euthyroid obese children and adolescents. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patient records was performed on data from 703 multi-ethnic obese children and adolescents who visited an obesity-outpatient clinic. We performed anthropometric measurements, an oral glucose tolerance test, and measured serum TSH, fT4 and lipid levels. RESULTS: A positive association between TSH and the standard deviation score of the body mass index (BMI-Z) was found. After adjustment for ethnicity, sex, pubertal stage and BMI-Z, logistic regression analysis showed significant associations between TSH levels and impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high triglycerides. No significant associations between fT4 levels and cardiometabolic risk factors were found in linear/logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: In our multi-ethnic cohort of euthyroid obese children and adolescents increasing TSH was associated with impaired glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia.

Radhakishun NN; van Vliet M; von Rosenstiel IA; Weijer O; Beijnen JH; Brandjes DP; Diamant M

2013-01-01

76

Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level in a euthyroid neonate caused by macro thyrotropin-IgG complex  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was discovered by routine neonatal screening in a newborn with no clinical symptoms. Thyroid function tests were repeated and confirmed a high TSH value but normal total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). However, the mother also had elevated serum TSH with normal levels of T4 and T3. The results suggested a transmitted maternal interfering factor, and no treatment was started while further investigation was performed. Gel filtration chromatography of serum from both the infant and the mother showed a peak TSH with molecular mass consistent with a TSH-IgG complex (macro-TSH). TSH in the infant decreased to a normal level within 8?months in accordance with a normal rate of elimination of maternal IgG, whereas the TSH level of the mother remained high. Conclusion:? This case suggests that interfering macro-TSH should be considered in a euthyroid neonate with elevated serum TSH and normal T4 and T3 levels to avoid unnecessary treatment.

Rix, Mariane; Laurberg, Peter

2011-01-01

77

The Role of Maternal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Blocking Antibodies in the Etiology of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Isfahan, Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Considering the role of maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor blocking antibody (TRAb) in the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), this study aimed to determine TRAb among patients with CH in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this case–control study, patients with CH and their mothers were compared with a group of healthy neonates and their mothers. Venous blood samples were obtained for measurement of TRAb using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method among mothers and their neonates. TSH of mothers was also determined. Results: The case group consisted of 65 patients with CH and their mothers; controls were 148 healthy neonates and their mothers. The prevalence of positive TRAb in patients with CH and their mothers was higher than in the control group (81.5% vs. 1.3% in mothers and 80% vs. 0% in neonates, respectively, P0.05). Conclusion: It seems that autoimmunity has an important role in the etiology of CH. Further studies are necessary to determine other autoantibodies in CH patients.

Hashemipour, Mahin; Abari, Shima Salehi; Mostofizadeh, Neda; Haghjooy-Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Esmail, Nafiseh; Hovsepian, Silva; Masoud, Amini; Kelishadi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Mirouliaei, Mehrdad

2012-01-01

78

Iodine Deficiency Induces a Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-Independent Early Phase of Microvascular Reshaping in the Thyroid  

Science.gov (United States)

Expansion of the thyroid microvasculature is the earliest event during goiter formation, always occurring before thyrocyte proliferation; however, the precise mechanisms governing this physiological angiogenesis are not well understood. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to measure gene expression and laser Doppler to measure blood flow in an animal model of goitrogenesis, we show that thyroid angiogenesis occurred into two successive phases. The first phase lasted a week and involved vascular activation; this process was thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-independent and was directly triggered by expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by thyrocytes as soon as the intracellular iodine content decreased. This early reaction was followed by an increase in thyroid blood flow and endothelial cell proliferation, both of which were mediated by VEGF and inhibited by VEGF-blocking antibodies. The second, angiogenic, phase was TSH-dependent and was activated as TSH levels increased. This phase involved substantial up-regulation of the major proangiogenic factors VEGF-A, fibroblast growth factor-2, angiopoietin 1, and NG2 as well as their receptors Flk-1/VEGFR2, Flt-1/VEGFR1, and Tie-2. In conclusion, goiter-associated angiogenesis promotes thyroid adaptation to iodine deficiency. Specifically, as soon as the iodine supply is limited, thyrocytes produce proangiogenic signals that elicit early TSH-independent microvascular activation; if iodine deficiency persists, TSH plasma levels increase, triggering the second angiogenic phase that supports thyrocyte proliferation.

Gerard, Anne-Catherine; Poncin, Sylvie; Caetano, Bertrand; Sonveaux, Pierre; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Feron, Olivier; Colin, Ides M.; Soncin, Fabrice

2008-01-01

79

Electron Capture Dissociation of Divalent Metal-adducted Sulfated N-Glycans Released from Bovine Thyroid Stimulating Hormone  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfated N-glycans released from bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) were ionized with the divalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Co by electrospray ionization (ESI). These metal-adducted species were subjected to infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) and the corresponding fragmentation patterns were compared. IRMPD generated extensive glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, but most product ions suffered from sulfonate loss. Internal fragments were also observed, which complicated the spectra. ECD provided complementary structural information compared with IRMPD, and all observed product ions retained the sulfonate group, allowing sulfonate localization. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of ECD towards metal-adducted sulfated N-glycans released from a glycoprotein. Due to the ability of IRMPD and ECD to provide complementary structural information, the combination of the two strategies is a promising and valuable tool for glycan structural characterization. The influence of different metal ions was also examined. Calcium adducts appeared to be the most promising species because of high sensitivity and ability to provide extensive structural information.

Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

2013-08-01

80

Detection of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) by radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) were determined in 100 patients using radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of RRA and ELISA were found to be 70.6% and 88.2% respectively (n=51). The specificity of both assays were 100% (n=16). With RRA as the standard test the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 75.8% and 86.8%. In the untreated hyperthyroid the RRA result which expressed as % specific 125I-TSH inhibition was 33.6% (n=51), decline to 26.9% in the treated hyperthyroid (n=33) and 14.1% in the euthyroid (n=16). The mean 0.D492nm of TRAb-ELISA were 0.861 in untreated hyperthyroid, 0.437 in treated hyperthyroid and 0.135 in euthyroid Phi coefficient analysis show that the RRA was 60.4% correlated to hyperthyroidism where as TRAb-ELISA was 80.1%

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

2007-01-01

82

Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and developmental regulation of a novel receptor from Drosophila melanogaster structurally related to members of the thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor family from mammals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using oligonucleotide probes derived from consensus sequences for glycoprotein hormone receptors, we have cloned an 831-amino acid residue-long receptor from Drosophila melanogaster that shows a striking structural homology with members of the glycoprotein hormone (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG)) receptor family from mammals. This homology includes a very large, extracellular N terminus (20% sequence identity with rat TSH, 19% with rat FSH, and 20% with the rat LH/CG receptor) and a seven-transmembrane region (53% sequence identity with rat TSH, 50% with rat FSH, and 52% with the rat LH/CG receptor). The Drosophila receptor gene is >7.5 kilobase pairs long and contains 17 exons and 16 introns. Seven intron positions coincide with introns in the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes and have the same intron phasing. This indicates that the Drosophila receptor is evolutionarily related to the mammalian receptors. The Drosophila receptor gene is located at position 90C on the right arm of the third chromosome. The receptor is strongly expressed starting 8-16 h after oviposition, and the expression stays high until after pupation. Adult male flies express high levels of receptor mRNA, but female flies express about 6 times less. The expression pattern in embryos and larvae suggests that the receptor is involved in insect development. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a glycoprotein hormone receptor family member from insects.

Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P

1997-01-01

83

Combined pituitary deficiencies of growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin due to Pit-1 gene mutation: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A child exhibited postnatal obstipation and icterus together with severe growth failure during the 1st year of life, a small facial skull and a prominent forehead. Endocrine work-up established the diagnosis of combined pituitary deficiencies of growth hormone, TSH and prolactin. Subsequently, the Pit-1 gene was analysed in the patient and both parents. A single point mutation was detected in exon 6 of the child: a C to G transversion on one allele, causing arginine in position 271 to be substituted by tryptophan (R271 W). This position is known as a "hot spot" for mutations. The inheritance is autosomal-dominant, as the mutated gene product interferes with DNA-binding of the wild-type protein. In contrast, other mutations in the PIT-1 gene are inherited in an autosomal-recessive mode. Conclusion: Diagnosing Pit-1 gene mutations as a rare cause of combined pituitary deficiency is important both for genetic counselling as well as for predicting the future course in the patient (spontaneous puberty, no glucocorticoid substitution necessary during stress periods). PMID:9392393

Holl, R W; Pfäffle, R; Kim, C; Sorgo, W; Teller, W M; Heimann, G

1997-11-01

84

Combined pituitary deficiencies of growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin due to Pit-1 gene mutation: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A child exhibited postnatal obstipation and icterus together with severe growth failure during the 1st year of life, a small facial skull and a prominent forehead. Endocrine work-up established the diagnosis of combined pituitary deficiencies of growth hormone, TSH and prolactin. Subsequently, the Pit-1 gene was analysed in the patient and both parents. A single point mutation was detected in exon 6 of the child: a C to G transversion on one allele, causing arginine in position 271 to be substituted by tryptophan (R271 W). This position is known as a "hot spot" for mutations. The inheritance is autosomal-dominant, as the mutated gene product interferes with DNA-binding of the wild-type protein. In contrast, other mutations in the PIT-1 gene are inherited in an autosomal-recessive mode. Conclusion: Diagnosing Pit-1 gene mutations as a rare cause of combined pituitary deficiency is important both for genetic counselling as well as for predicting the future course in the patient (spontaneous puberty, no glucocorticoid substitution necessary during stress periods).

Holl RW; Pfäffle R; Kim C; Sorgo W; Teller WM; Heimann G

1997-11-01

85

Glutamine and glutamic acid enhance thyroid-stimulating hormone ? subunit mRNA expression in the rat pars tuberalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing cells of the pars tuberalis (PT) display distinct characteristics that differ from those of the pars distalis (PD). The mRNA expression of TSH? and ?GSU in PT has a circadian rhythm and is inhibited by melatonin via melatonin receptor type 1; however, the detailed regulatory mechanism for TSH? expression in the PT remains unclear. To identify the factors that affect PT, a microarray analysis was performed on laser-captured PT tissue to screen for genes coding for receptors that are abundantly expressed in the PT. In the PT, we found high expression of the KA2, which is an ionotropic glutamic acid receptor (iGluR). In addition, the amino acid transporter A2 (ATA2), also known as the glutamine transporter, and glutaminase (GLS), as well as GLS2, were highly expressed in the PT compared to the PD. We examined the effects of glutamine and glutamic acid on TSH? expression and ?GSU expression in PT slice cultures. l-Glutamine and l-glutamic acid significantly stimulated TSH? expression in PT slices after 2- and 4-h treatments, and the effect of l-glutamic acid was stronger than that of l-glutamine. In contrast, treatment with glutamine and glutamic acid did not affect ?GSU expression in the PT or the expression of TSH? or ?GSU in the PD. These results strongly suggest that glutamine is taken up by PT cells through ATA2 and that glutamic acid locally converted from glutamine by Gls induces TSH? expression via the KA2 in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner in the PT.

Aizawa S; Sakai T; Sakata I

2012-03-01

86

Decreased fasting blood glucose is associated with impaired hepatic glucose production in thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor knockout mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our previous study reported that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) promotes cholesterol synthesis via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A/cAMP regulatory element-binding protein (cAMP/PKA/CREB) pathway after binding to TSH receptors (TSHR) in the liver. The hepatic cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway also plays an important role in maintaining fasting glucose homeostasis. These findings implied a possible role for TSH in hepatic glucose metabolism. In this study, we used TSH receptor knockout mice (Tshr-ko mice) to clarify the effect of Tshr deletion on hepatic glucose metabolism, and investigated whether the effects of TSH directly regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells. Tshr-ko mice exhibited decreased fasting blood glucose levels, increased insulin sensitivity but normal level of fasting plasma insulin. Tshr deletion impaired hepatic glucose production by down-regulating the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) and phosphoenolpyruvate pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) mRNA, two rate-limiting enzymes in hepatic gluconeogenesis, and enhancing the abundance of hepatic glucokinase (GK), the first enzyme regulating glycogen synthesis. Moreover, Tshr deletion inhibited the protein expression of hepatic phospho-CREB and increased the protein expression of hepatic phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), two up-stream regulators of PEPCK and G6P mRNA. In HepG2 cells, TSH increased the expression of G6P and PEPCK at mRNA level. These results indicated the simulative effects of TSH on hepatic glucose production in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a novel role for TSH in hepatic glucose metabolism.

Wang T; Xu J; Bo T; Zhou X; Jiang X; Gao L; Zhao J

2013-08-01

87

Relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone and blood pressure in the middle-aged and elderly population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with hypertension and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and blood pressure, as well as the relationship between thyroid function and insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, community-based study. Serum TSH, fasting glucose and insulin were measured in 2,988 subjects aged 35-80 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for hypertension. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to characterise the relationship among TSH, insulin resistance and blood pressure. RESULTS: Higher serum TSH concentration was found to be an independent risk factor for hypertension in females (odds ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.93; p-value = 0.039). The female group with subclinical hypothyroidism and high normal TSH (2.5-4.8 mIU/L) were more susceptible to high blood pressure than those with low normal TSH (0.3-2.5 mIU/L) (p-value < 0.05). After adjustment for waist-hip ratio and body mass index, neither the correlation between blood pressure and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) nor the correlation between TSH and HOMA-IR were found to be significant in this study. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that both subclinical hypothyroidism and high normal TSH are independent risk factors for hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

Jian WX; Jin J; Qin L; Fang WJ; Chen XR; Chen HB; Su Q; Xing HL

2013-07-01

88

Somatic mutations of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor gene in feline hyperthyroidism: parallels with human hyperthyroidism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrinopathy in cats, and is both clinically and histopathologically very similar to human toxic nodular goitre (TNG). Molecular studies on human TNG have revealed the presence of mis-sense mutations in the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene, most frequently in exon 10. Our hypothesis was that similar mutations exist in hyperthyroid cats. Genomic DNA was extracted from 134 hyperplastic/adenomatous nodules (from 50 hyperthyroid cats), and analysed for the presence of mutations in exon 10 of the TSHR gene. 11 different mutations were detected, one silent and 10 mis-sense, of which nine were somatic mutations. 28 of the 50 cats (67/134 nodules) had at least one mis-sense mutation. The mis-sense mutations were Met-452-->Thr in 17 cats (35 nodules), Ser-504-->Arg (two different mutational forms) in two cats (two nodules), Val-508-->Arg in one cat (three nodules), Arg-530-->Gln in one cat (two nodules), Val-557-->Leu in 13 cats (36 nodules), Thr-631-->Ala or Thr-631-->Phe (each mutation seen in one nodule of one cat), Asp-632-->Tyr in six cats (10 nodules) and Asp-632-->His in one cat (one nodule). Five of these mutations have been associated previously with human hyperthyroidism. Of the 41 cats for which more than one nodule was available, 14 had nodules with different mutations. The identification of a potential genetic basis for feline hyperthyroidism is novel, increases our understanding of the pathogenesis of this significant feline disease, and confirms its similarity to TNG.

Watson SG; Radford AD; Kipar A; Ibarrola P; Blackwood L

2005-09-01

89

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P < 0.001), a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2). Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 ± 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase), 1.80 ± 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 ± 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%), painful thyroiditis (29.4%) and hypothyroidism (52.9%). Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 ± 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001) and by 46.0 ± 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects.

G.J. Paz-Filho; C.O. Mesa-Junior; M. Olandoski; L.C. Woellner; C.A. Goedert; C.L. Boguszewski; G.A. Carvalho; H. Graf

2007-01-01

90

[The influence of acupuncture on the quality of life and the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in patients presenting with subclinical hypothyroidism].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study included 27 female patients who applied for medical treatment of arthralgias and myalgias. They were found to have elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone in conjunction with the normal concentrations of thyroid hormones. The therapeutic procedures included corporal and auricular acupuncture, introduction of needles into the reflexogenic scalp and wrist zones (depending on clinical symptoms) and into the thyroid gland projection zones on the skin, massage of paravertebral regions of the cervical and thoracic spine using a bone scraper (the Gua Sha healing technique). Twenty of the 27 patients completed two therapeutic courses with a 3-4 month interval between them. The treatment resulted in a significant decrease of the number and severity of the initial clinical symptoms; the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone fell down to the physiological values, characteristics of the quality of life became comparable with those of healthy subjects. It is concluded that acupuncture may be regarded as an alternative to substitution therapy of subclinical hypothyroidism.

Luzina KÉ; Luzina LL; Vasilenko AM

2011-09-01

91

The relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone within the reference range and coronary artery disease: impact of age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies on the relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) within the reference range and coronary artery disease (CAD) have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, the effect of age on this relationship has never been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between TSH levels and CAD among euthyroid subjects and whether age influenced this relationship. A total of 318 subjects who underwent coronary angiography were included. Serum TSH, T3, T4, lipid, blood glucose and creatinine levels were measured and compared between the groups with and without CAD. Age-stratified analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Levels of TSH, T3 and T4 did not differ significantly between CAD (n=196) and non-CAD group (n=122) (TSH: 1.77 ± 0.99 vs 1.89 ± 0.98 mIU/L, T3: 1.45 ± 0.36 vs 1.51 ± 0.35 nmol/L, T4: 100.06 ± 20.49 vs 103.95 ± 24.06 nmol/L, respectively) when comparisons were performed among all subjects. A significant between-group difference in levels of TSH was observed among subjects less than or equal to 65 years old (CAD group: n=121, non-CAD group: n=106), with higher TSH levels in CAD group (2.03 ± 0.94 vs 1.75 ± 0.97 mIU/L, adjusted p=0.024). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that elevated level of TSH was an independent predictor for CAD (odds ratio: 1.512, p=0.011). No significant between-group difference in TSH levels was observed among subjects older than 65 years (CAD group: n=75, non-CAD group: n=16). The results showed that higher levels of TSH within the reference range were independently associated with the presence of CAD only among subjects less than or equal to 65 years old, suggesting age might influence the relationship.

Yang L; Zou J; Zhang M; Xu H; Qi W; Gao L; Zhao J

2013-01-01

92

Assignment of the gene for the. beta. subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone to the short arm of human chromosome 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chromosomal locations of the genes for the ..beta.. subunit of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and the glycoprotein hormone ..cap alpha.. subunit have been determined by restriction enzyme analysis of DNA extracted from rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA and a cloned 0.9-kilobase (kb) fragment of the human TSH ..beta..-subunit gene were used as hybridization probes in the analysis of Southern blots of DNA extracted from rodent-human hybrid clones. Analysis of the segregation of 5- and 10-kb EcoRI fragments hybridizing to CG ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA confirmed the previous assignment of this gene to chromosome 6. Analysis of the patterns of segregation of a 2.3-kb EcoRI fragment containing human TSH ..beta..-subunit sequences permitted the assignment of the TSH ..beta..-subunit gene to human chromosome 1. The subregional assignment of TSH ..beta.. subunit to chromosome 1p22 was made possible by the additional analysis of a set of hybrids containing partially overlapping segments of this chromosome. Human TSH ..beta.. subunit is not syntenic with genes encoding the ..beta.. subunits of CG, luteinizing hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone and is assigned to a conserved linkage group that also contains the structural genes for the ..beta.. subunit of nerve growth factor (NGFB) and the proto-oncogene N-ras (NRAS).

Dracopoli, N.C.; Rettig, W.J.; Whitfield, G.K.; Darlington, G.J.; Spengler, B.A.; Biedler, J.L.; Old, L.J.; Kourides, I.A.

1986-03-01

93

Assays for thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies employing different ligands and ligand partners may have similar sensitivity and specificity but are not interchangeable  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The best biochemical marker of Graves' disease (GD) is the presence in serum of autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR-Ab). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of two sensitive hTSHR-Ab assays with a specific focus on the clinical importance of differences in results. Both assays are competitive in nature but employ quite different types of ligands. In the "M22-pTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with a labeled monoclonal antibody (M22*) against the thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor for binding to porcine TSH receptors. In the "bTSH-rhTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with labeled bovine TSH for binding to recombinant human TSH receptors.

Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Handberg, Aase

2010-01-01

94

The association between development and progression of multinodular goiter and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor gene D727E and P52T polymorphisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study has been performed on a Turkish population with multinodular goiter (MNG) to investigate the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene D727E and P52T polymorphisms. METHODS: DNA samples were isolated from 300 patients with MNG and 142 controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and agarose gel electrophoresis were used. RESULTS: The D727E polymorphism G-allele frequency and the CG and GG genotypes were significantly higher in patients with MNG. However, there was no significant difference in the P52T polymorphism between patients and control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: As a conclusion, the D727E polymorphism G allele may be related to MNG development in the studied population.

Bayram B; Sonmez R; Bozari S; Onlu H; Turkoglu Z; Mutlu FS

2013-02-01

95

Changes in plasma melanocyte-stimulating hormone, ACTH, prolactin, GH, LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in response to injection of sulpiride, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, or vehicle in insulin-sensitive and -insensitive mares.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six insulin-sensitive and 6 insulin-insensitive mares were used in a replicated 3 by 3 Latin square design to determine the pituitary hormonal responses (compared with vehicle) to sulpiride and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 2 compounds commonly used to diagnose pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) in horses. Mares were classified as insulin sensitive or insensitive by their previous glucose responses to direct injection of human recombinant insulin. Treatment days were February 25, 2012, and March 10 and 24, 2012. Treatments were sulpiride (racemic mixture, 0.01 mg/kg BW), TRH (0.002 mg/kg BW), and vehicle (saline, 0.01 mL/kg BW) administered intravenously. Blood samples were collected via jugular catheters at -10, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min relative to treatment injection. Plasma ACTH concentrations were variable and were not affected by treatment or insulin sensitivity category. Plasma melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) concentrations responded (P < 0.01) to both sulpiride and TRH injection and were greater (P < 0.05) in insulin-insensitive mares than in sensitive mares. Plasma prolactin concentrations responded (P < 0.01) to both sulpiride and TRH injection, and the response was greater (P < 0.05) for sulpiride; no effect of insulin sensitivity was observed. Plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations responded (P < 0.01) to TRH injection only and were higher (P < 0.05) in insulin-sensitive mares in almost all time periods. Plasma LH and FSH concentrations varied with time (P < 0.05), particularly in the first week of the experiment, but were not affected by treatment or insulin sensitivity category. Plasma GH concentrations were affected (P < 0.05) only by day of treatment. The greater MSH responses to sulpiride and TRH in insulin-insensitive mares were similar to, but not as exaggerated as, those observed by others for PPID horses. In addition, the reduced TSH concentrations in insulin-insensitive mares are consistent with our previous observation of elevated plasma triiodothyronine concentrations in hyperleptinemic horses (later shown to be insulin insensitive as well). PMID:23571008

Valencia, N Arana; Thompson, D L; Mitcham, P B

2013-03-16

96

Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L), Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L) and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L). Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L) with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L) and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L). Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole) and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered when evaluating the cause of hyperthyroidism. Early diagnosis and treatment of such adenomas is critical in reducing neurological and endocrine complications.

George Jyothis T; Thow Jonathan C; Matthews Bruce; Pye Maurice P; Jayagopal Vijay

2008-01-01

97

Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

1988-01-01

98

Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ?g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ?g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ?g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values

1988-01-01

99

Influence of thyroid-stimulating hormone on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In poorly differentiated thyroid cancer originating from thyroid follicular cells, the ability to concentrate iodine is lost. This makes recurrence undetectable by 131I whole-body scan. In this situation, other radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI), are used to evaluate recurrence or metastasis. Some reports suggest that 18F-FDG uptake is increased by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation. This study aimed to determine the influence of TSH on 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro. The cells were stimulated with 1000 ?U/ml of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) for 1 day, 3 days, and 5 days. Each cell was incubated with 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 18F-FDG or 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 99mTc-MIBI for 1 h at 37degC. The uptake of each radiopharmaceutical in the cells was quantified as a percent of whole radioactivity per total viable cell number. The quantification of glucose transporter 1, 2, 3 and 4 mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TSH stimulation increased 18F-FDG uptake in a time-dependent manner. Following 5 days of rhTSH stimulation, 18F-FDG uptake was approximately 2.2 times that of the control. The increase in 18F-FDG uptake following rhTSH stimulation was correlated to the increase in GLUT4 mRNA level. The GLUT1 mRNA level was unchanged. An increased uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was observed with a pattern similar to that of 18F-FDG. The 99mTc-MIBI uptake was approximately 1.5 times that of the control 5 days later. These results suggest that TSH stimulates 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in poorly differentiated papillary thyroid cancer, and therefore 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) or 99mTc-MIBI scans under TSH stimulation may be more accurate than under suppression. (author)

2009-01-01

100

Thyroid stimulating hormone, independent of thyroid hormone, can elevate the serum total cholesterol level in patients with coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The relationship between TSH and the lipid profile is contradictory because few studies have excluded the potential influence of the thyroid hormones (TH). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH levels and the lipid profil...

Xu Chao; Yang Xiaomei; Liu Wenhui; Yuan Haitao; Yu Chunxiao; Gao Ling; Zhao Jiajun

 
 
 
 
101

Ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) heterologously stimulates production of thyroid hormones from Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana and Rana rugulosa) thyroids in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid hormones are important for regulating a variety of developmental processes in vertebrates, including growth, differentiation, metamorphosis, and oxidative metabolism. In particular, this study focused on the in vitro production of thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) from thyroids in American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Chinese bullfrogs (Rana rugulosa Wiegmann), and Chinese soft-shell turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) treated with ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) at different culture intervals (2, 4, 8, and 12 h) and dosages (1, 10, 50 or 100 ng). The levels of T(4) and T(3) in the tested animals were elevated upon stimulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating de novo synthesis of T(4) and T(3). Significantly higher hormone levels were observed in the Chinese bullfrog compared to the other two species, for both the time-course and dose-response experiments. Although the bullfrog secreted significantly higher levels of T(4) and T(3), a higher T(4)-conversion capacity was found in the Chinese soft-shell turtle. The highest ratios of T(3) to T(4) were observed in the American bullfrog and Chinese soft-shell turtle for the time-course and dose-response experiments, respectively. These findings suggest that the Chinese soft-shell turtle and bullfrog thyroids can accept ovine TSH for T(4)- and T(3)-formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, supporting the hypothesis that the binding interactions between TSHs and thyroidal receptors are conserved in vertebrates.

Huang WT; Chien JT; Weng CF; Jeng YY; Lu LC; Yu JY

2009-06-01

102

Ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) heterologously stimulates production of thyroid hormones from Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana and Rana rugulosa) thyroids in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones are important for regulating a variety of developmental processes in vertebrates, including growth, differentiation, metamorphosis, and oxidative metabolism. In particular, this study focused on the in vitro production of thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) from thyroids in American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Chinese bullfrogs (Rana rugulosa Wiegmann), and Chinese soft-shell turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) treated with ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) at different culture intervals (2, 4, 8, and 12 h) and dosages (1, 10, 50 or 100 ng). The levels of T(4) and T(3) in the tested animals were elevated upon stimulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating de novo synthesis of T(4) and T(3). Significantly higher hormone levels were observed in the Chinese bullfrog compared to the other two species, for both the time-course and dose-response experiments. Although the bullfrog secreted significantly higher levels of T(4) and T(3), a higher T(4)-conversion capacity was found in the Chinese soft-shell turtle. The highest ratios of T(3) to T(4) were observed in the American bullfrog and Chinese soft-shell turtle for the time-course and dose-response experiments, respectively. These findings suggest that the Chinese soft-shell turtle and bullfrog thyroids can accept ovine TSH for T(4)- and T(3)-formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, supporting the hypothesis that the binding interactions between TSHs and thyroidal receptors are conserved in vertebrates. PMID:19535032

Huang, Wei-Tung; Chien, Jung-Tsun; Weng, Ching-Feng; Jeng, Yung-Yue; Lu, Li-Chia; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

2009-02-07

103

Role of vitamin B 12 , folate, and thyroid stimulating hormone in dementia: A hospital-based study in north Indian population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 and folate represent modifiable risk factors for dementia. They may increase the risk of Alzheimer?s dementia (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) as their deficiency can increase the homocysteine level due to slowed methylation reaction. Homocysteine has a neurotoxic effect that could lead to neurologic disturbances. Hence, it is important to explore the status of serum B 12 and folate in AD and VaD to evolve the treatment strategies for the same. Objectives: A retrospective study was conducted to assess the levels of vitamin B 12 , folate, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum and the relationship of these factors, including age and sex to cognitive decline in VaD, AD, and dementia due to other causes (DOC). Materials and Methods: Serum vitamin B 12 , folate, TSH, and total cholesterol were studied in 32 AD patients (mean age: 65 years), 12 VaD patients (mean age: 61 years), 83 DOC (mean age: 65 years), and 127 control subjects (mean age: 49 years). Results: In AD, VaD, and DOC, the levels of vitamin B 12 and folate were significantly lower (P 12 and P P Conclusion: Vitamin B 12 and folate were significantly low in both AD and VaD patients. Hence, B vitamin supplementation should be considered as possible targets for the therapeutic intervention in dementia.

Agarwal Rachna; Chhillar Neelam; Kushwaha Suman; Singh Neeraj; Tripathi Chandra

2010-01-01

104

Associations between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in a Mexican-American population, Salinas Valley, California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may alter neurodevelopment in both humans and animals. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to some PCB congeners and commercial mixtures has been shown to decrease free and total thyroxine (T(4)) blood levels in animals. Because thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal neurologic development, it has been suggested that the deleterious neurodevelopmental effect of PCBs may occur through TH disruption. PCBs may in turn affect TH levels by inducing the microsomal enzyme uridinediphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), which is involved in TH elimination. OBJECTIVES: Our goals were to group PCB congeners based on their potential to induce microsomal enzymes in animals, and to examine the relationship between neonatal TSH levels and prenatal exposure to PCB congeners grouped according to their structure and potential mechanisms of action. METHODS: We measured the concentration of 34 PCB congeners in serum samples collected from 285 pregnant women and the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in their children's blood collected shortly after birth. RESULTS: We found no association between the sum of PCB congeners, the toxic equivalents, or structure-based groupings (mono- or di-ortho substituted congeners), and TSH blood concentration. However, we found a positive association between the sum of congeners suspected to be UDP-GT inducers (more specifically cytochrome P450 2B inducers) in animals and neonatal TSH levels. In individual congener analyses, PCBs 99, 138, 153, 180, 183, 187, 194, and 199 were positively associated with neonatal TSH levels after adjustment for covariates. PCBs 194 and 199 remained significant after adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support grouping PCB congeners based on their potential mechanism of action of enzyme induction when investigating associations with TH. Findings also suggest that PCBs affect TH homeostasis even at the low background level of exposure found in the CHAMA-COS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas) population.

Chevrier J; Eskenazi B; Bradman A; Fenster L; Barr DB

2007-10-01

105

Study of thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in subjects with dental fluorosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Apart from its well-known deleterious dental and skeletal effects, fluoride excess can have toxic effects on many other tissues. Fluoride, when in excess, is known to interfere with thyroid gland function. Fluoride-induced thyroid disturbances similar to those observed in iodine deficiency state in spite of adequate iodine intake have been documented. Similar thyroid disturbances in individuals with dental fluorosis have not been well studied in populations with endemic fluorosis. This work was undertaken to study the effects of fluoride-induced thyroid disturbances in individuals with dental fluorosis. METHODS: The study group included 65 subjects with dental fluorosis from endemic fluorosis populations. An additional control group was comprised of 10 subjects without dental fluorosis. The drinking water fluoride levels of the study populations were analyzed. Serum free FT3, FT4, and TSH levels of both groups were assessed. RESULTS: All subjects with dental fluorosis had serum levels of thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4, and TSH) within the normal range, with the exception of 1 individual, who had elevated levels of TSH. Statistical significance was found when FT3 and TSH values were compared with different Dean's index groups by a 1-way ANOVA test: FT3 (F = 3.4572; P=.0377) and TSH (F = 3.2649 and P=.0449). CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study did not show any significant alterations in the levels of the thyroid hormones FT3, FT4, and TSH in subjects with dental fluorosis. Our observations suggest that thyroid hormone levels were not altered in subjects with dental fluorosis. Hence, future studies of this kind, along with more detailed investigations are needed.

Hosur MB; Puranik RS; Vanaki S; Puranik SR

2012-04-01

106

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Induces the Secretion of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? from 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via a Protein Kinase A-Dependent Pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous reports have suggested that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) contributes to insulin resistance in adipocytes by directly stimulating the production of adipokines, such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). The objective of this study was to clarify how TSH regulates TNF-? secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to determine which cell signaling pathways were involved.Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes and then exposed to 0.1 mIU/ml bovine TSH. The optimal treatment duration was determined by measuring the TNF-? concentration in the medium by ELISA. Thereafter, adipocytes were treated with 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mIU/ml bovine TSH, and the optimal TSH dose was determined. To decrease TSHR expression, TSHR shRNA was transfected into adipocytes, and the silencing was confirmed by Western blotting. The TSH signaling pathways responsible for regulating TNF-? secretion were studied. Phospho-NF-?Bp65 Ser276 was quantified by Western blotting, and co-immunopreci-pitations were performed to detect the formation of the I?B?/PKAc complex.TNF-? secretion from adipocytes peaked 4 h after TSH treatment. TSH induced TNF-? secretion in a dose-dependent manner, which was almost completely inhibited by TSHR shRNA. There was a significant positive correlation between phospho-NF-?Bp65 Ser276 levels and TNF-? secretion. H89, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor, significantly inhibited the effects of TSH. Bovine TSH and forskolin, which increases intracellular cAMP, simultaneously stimulated TNF-? secretion. The I?B?/PKAc complex could be detected in TSH-treated cells, but complex formation was inhibited by H89.TSH stimulated the cAMP-PKA pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes to increase TNF-? secretion.

Zhang YJ; Zhao W; Zhu MY; Tang SS; Zhang H

2013-08-01

107

Comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Background: The physiological changes in thyroid gland during pregnancy have been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic causes of preeclampsia.Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this case?control study, 40 normal pregnant women and 40 cases of preeclampsia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated. They were compared for serum levels of Free T3 (FT3), Free T4 (FT4) and TSH. The data was analyzed by SPSS software with the use of t?student, Chi?square, Independent sample T-test and Bivariate correlation test. p?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was not statistically different between two groups (p=0.297). No significant difference was observed in terms of parity between two groups (p=0.206). Normal pregnant women were not significantly different from preeclampsia cases in the view of FT3 level (1.38 pg/ml vs. 1.41 pg/ml, p=0.803), FT4 level (0.95 pg/ml vs. 0.96 pg/ml, p=0.834) and TSH level (3.51 ?IU/ml vs. 3.10 ?IU/ml, p=0.386). Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the hypothesis that changes in FT3, FT4 and TSH levels could be possible etiology of preeclampsia

Nayereh Khadem; Hossein Ayatollahi; Fatemeh Vahid Roodsari; Sedigheh Ayati; Ehsan Dalili; Masoud Shahabian; Taraneh Mohajeri; Mohamad Taghi Shakeri

2012-01-01

108

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ? The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ? method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L?1 and became 0.003 mIU L?1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L?1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

2012-04-13

109

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

2012-04-13

110

Cells co-expressing luteinising hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone are present in the ovine pituitary pars distalis but not the pars tuberalis: implications for the control of endogenous circannual rhythms of prolactin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: A mammalian circannual pacemaker responsible for regulating the seasonal pattern of prolactin has been recently described in sheep. This pacemaker resides within the pars tuberalis, an area of the pituitary gland that densely expresses melatonin receptors. However, the chemical identity of the cell type which acts as the pacemaker remains elusive. Mathematical-modelling approaches have established that this cell must be responsive to the static melatonin signal as well as prolactin negative feedback. Considering that in sheep the gonadotroph is the only cell in the pars tuberalis which expresses the prolactin receptor, and that in other photoperiodic species the thyrotroph is the only cell expressing the melatonin receptor in this tissue, a cell type which expresses both proteins would fulfil the theoretical criteria of a circannual pacemaker. METHODS: Pituitary glands were obtained from female sheep under short days (breeding season) and long days (non-breeding season) and double immunofluorescent staining was conducted to determine the prevalence of bi-hormonal cells in the pars distalis and pars tuberalis using specific antibodies to luteinising hormone-? and thyroid-stimulating hormone-?. RESULTS: The results reveal that whilst such a bihormonal cell is clearly present in the pars distalis and constitute 4% of the gonadotroph population in this region, the same cell type is completely absent from the pars tuberalis even though LH gonadotrophs are abundantly expressed. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, together with existing data, we are able to propose an alternative model where the gonadotroph itself is controlled indirectly by neighbouring melatonin responsive cells, allowing it to act as a pacemaker.

Hodson DJ; Townsend J; Tortonese DJ

2013-01-01

111

Thyroid stimulating hormone, independent of thyroid hormone, can elevate the serum total cholesterol level in patients with coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional design  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between TSH and the lipid profile is contradictory because few studies have excluded the potential influence of the thyroid hormones (TH). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH levels and the lipid profile independent of TH. Methods 1302 CHD patients diagnosed by coronary angiography were retrospectively studied. The prevalence and distribution of thyroid dysfunction were analyzed first. To assess the impact of TSH on serum lipids, Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed after adjustments for classic factors and TH. To calculate the extent of the effect of TSH on the serum cholesterol level, the partial least squares method and additional statistical methods were used. Results After the exclusions, a total of 568 patients (270 males and 298 females with a mean age of 63.56?±?11.376?years) were selected. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among the patients was 18.66%, and the prevalence of hypothyroidism (15.32%) was higher than that of hyperthyroidism (3.34%). Even after adjusting for confounding factors, such as sex, age, smoking status, fasting plasma glucose levels and TH, a significant positive impact of TSH on the serum total cholesterol (TC) level was revealed (r?=?0.095, p?=?0.036). Each 1 mIU/L increase in the TSH level might be linked to a 0.015580712?mmol/L elevation of the serum TC value. Conclusions TSH can increase the TC level in CHD patients independent of TH. The present study suggests a potential physiological role of TSH and the importance of maintaining an appropriate TSH level in CHD patients.

Xu Chao; Yang Xiaomei; Liu Wenhui; Yuan Haitao; Yu Chunxiao; Gao Ling; Zhao Jiajun

2012-01-01

112

The reference intervals of thyroid stimulating hormone in healthy individuals with normal levels of serum free thyroxine and without sonographic pathologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Introduction: The aim of the present study was to investigate the reference intervals for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in healthy individuals with normal levels of serum free thyroxine (fT4) and without sonographic pathologies, and determine the effects of age, gender, and residence on the TSH reference intervals. Subjects and methods: This research was a population-based study conducted in 70 regions. The random sampling method was used to select the 1095 subjects of the study among inhabitants aged 18 and above. Patients who had a previous history of thyroid disease and had been taking medication were excluded from the study as this may have affected their fT4 or TSH levels. In addition, subjects who had serum fT4 without a reference range and abnormal ultrasonography findings were also excluded. A total of 408 subjects were used for establishing the reference intervals for TSH. Results: The data for TSH in the study group were not normally distributed according to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov index. The geometric mean was 1.62?mIU/L, the median was 1.40?mIU/L, and the 95% reference intervals were 0.38-4.22?mIU/L. The median TSH level was higher in females compared to males (p?

Kutluturk F; Yildirim B; Ozturk B; Ozyurt H; Bekar U; Sahin S; Akturk Y; Akbas A; Cetin I; Etikan I

2013-09-01

113

A novel hypothesis for the etiology of Graves' disease: TSAb may be thyroid stimulating animal IgG-like hormone and TBAb may be the precursor of TSAb.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are doubtful points about the theory that autoimmunity with auto-antibody (Ab) to TSH receptor (R) causes hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease (GD). A main doubtful point is no curative effect of corticosteroid on Graves' hyperthyroidism in spite of curative effect of corticosteroid for all autoimmune diseases. Recently we demonstrated the immunological similarity of TSAb and TBAb-IgG to animal IgGs, except for human (h)IgG, by neutralization and purification of TSAb and TBAb-IgG using (1) heterophilic Ab to animal IgG in GD sera and (2) experimentally generated anti-animal IgG Abs [such as dog (d), bovine (b), porcine (p), and rabbit (rb)]. Furthermore, greater immunological similarity of Fab- and F(ab')(2)-portion of TSAb- and TBAb-IgG to bovine Fab, compared to hFab, was demonstrated using goat anti-bovine F(ab')(2) Ab. Existence of b and p TSH-like portions in the LATS-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion) was suggested by a previous report of neutralization of LATS activity by anti-b- or anti-p-TSH Ab. We suggested the existence of a mammalian animal-TSH-like structure, excepting hTSH, in the TSAb-IgG molecule (probably Fab portion), by discovery of anti-mammalian TSH Ab (such as d, b, p, guinea-pig, rat, whale, except h) in sera of GD. Lately, similar TSHR binding of H- and L-chain of human stimulating monoclonal TSHR Ab (M22)-Fab with TSH-? and-? subunit was reported. This evidence suggests that Fab portion of TSAb has a structure like mammalian TSH, but not hTSH. IgG-? type of d, horse, b, p, goat, ovine is 95% and IgG-? type is 5%, while human ? and ? chain is 60:40. Previous report that LATS (TSAb)-IgG composed of predominant ? type is supporting evidence that TRAb-IgG has immunological similarity with these animal IgGs compared to hIgG. We speculate that TSAb-IgG may be referred as a mermaid consisted in face (Fab) and trunk-leg (Fc). Face may be a kind of hormone with animal TSH-like structure and trunk-leg has animal IgG-like structure (in spite of no antibody function). There are many reports for co-existence of TSAb and TBAb-IgG in sera of GD. We reported conversion from TBAb (non-thyroid stimulating type IgG) to TSAb by co-incubation of anti-hIgG Ab (containing anti-animal IgG Ab as a cross-reaction) with TBAb-bound porcine thyroid cells. Thus, we suggest that TBAb may be the precursor form of TSAb.

Ochi Y; Kajita Y; Hachiya T; Hamaoki M

2012-06-01

114

Resistance to thyroid hormone in a Chinese family with R429Q mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene  

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The combination of elevated serum levels of free thyroid hormones with non-suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone suggests the differential diagnoses of resistance to thyroid hormone or thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary tumour. Clinical differentiation of these two conditions can be di...

Kong, APS; Lam, CW; Chan, AOK; Yiu, SF; Tiu, SC

115

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-directed induction of the CREM gene in the thyroid gland participates in the long-term desensitization of the TSH receptor.  

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Thyroid gland function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis via the secretion of TSH, according to environmental, developmental, and circadian stimuli. TSH modulates both the secretion of thyroid hormone and gland trophism through interaction with a specific guanine nucleotide-binding pro...

Lalli, E; Sassone-Corsi, P

116

Antenatal management of recurrent fetal goitrous hyperthyroidism associated with fetal cardiac failure in a pregnant woman with persistent high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody after ablative therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High titer of maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) in patients with Graves' disease could cause fetal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Clinical features of fetal hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, goiter, growth restriction, advanced bone maturation, cardiomegaly, and fetal death. The recognition and treatment of fetal hyperthyroidism are believed to be important to optimize growth and intellectual development in affected fetuses. We herein report a case of fetal treatment in two successive siblings showing in utero hyperthyroid status in a woman with a history of ablative treatment for Graves' disease. The fetuses were considered in hyperthyroid status based on high levels of maternal TRAb, a goiter, and persistent tachycardia. In particular, cardiac failure was observed in the second fetus. With intrauterine treatment using potassium iodine and propylthiouracil, fetal cardiac function improved. A high level of TRAb was detected in the both neonates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the changes of fetal cardiac function in response to fetal treatment in two siblings showing in utero hyperthyroid status. This case report illustrates the impact of prenatal medication via the maternal circulation for fetal hyperthyroidism and cardiac failure.

Matsumoto T; Miyakoshi K; Saisho Y; Ishii T; Ikenoue S; Kasuga Y; Kadohira I; Sato S; Momotani N; Minegishi K; Yoshimura Y

2013-09-01

117

Receptors of thyroid hormones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The important physiological actions of the thyroid hormones are mediated by binding to nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), encoded by two genes TRalpha and TRbeta. These receptors act as hormone-dependent transcription factors by binding to DNA motifs located in the regulatory regions of target genes and recruiting coregulators (coactivators and corepresors), which alter chromatin structure. Novel thyromimetics have been developed that bind preferentially TRbeta could be used for treatment of hyperlipidemia and obesity. TRbeta gene mutations cause resistance to thyroid hormones (RTH), characterized by inappropriately high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels due to lack of feedback inhibition of thyroid hormones on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and to reduced sensitivity of other TRbeta target tissues to thyroid hormones. Very recently, patients heterozygous for TRalpha mutations have been identified. These patients exhibit clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism in TRalpha target tissues such as intestine or hearth and near normal circulating TSH and thyroid hormone levels.

Aranda A; Alonso-Merino E; Zambrano A

2013-09-01

118

Receptors of thyroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The important physiological actions of the thyroid hormones are mediated by binding to nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), encoded by two genes TRalpha and TRbeta. These receptors act as hormone-dependent transcription factors by binding to DNA motifs located in the regulatory regions of target genes and recruiting coregulators (coactivators and corepresors), which alter chromatin structure. Novel thyromimetics have been developed that bind preferentially TRbeta could be used for treatment of hyperlipidemia and obesity. TRbeta gene mutations cause resistance to thyroid hormones (RTH), characterized by inappropriately high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels due to lack of feedback inhibition of thyroid hormones on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and to reduced sensitivity of other TRbeta target tissues to thyroid hormones. Very recently, patients heterozygous for TRalpha mutations have been identified. These patients exhibit clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism in TRalpha target tissues such as intestine or hearth and near normal circulating TSH and thyroid hormone levels. PMID:24079074

Aranda, Ana; Alonso-Merino, Elvira; Zambrano, Alberto

2013-09-01

119

Low-dose immunization with adenovirus expressing the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor A-subunit deviates the antibody response toward that of autoantibodies in human Graves' disease.  

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Immunization with adenovirus expressing the TSH receptor (TSHR) induces hyperthyroidism in 25-50% of mice. Even more effective is immunization with a TSHR A-subunit adenovirus (65-84% hyperthyroidism). Nevertheless, TSHR antibody characteristics in these mice do not mimic accurately those of autoantibodies in typical Graves' patients, with a marked TSH-blocking antibody response. We hypothesized that this suboptimal antibody response was consequent to the standard dose of TSHR-adenovirus providing too great an immune stimulus. To test this hypothesis, we compared BALB/c mice immunized with the usual number (10(11)) and with far fewer viral particles (10(9) and 10(7)). Regardless of viral dose, hyperthyroidism developed in a similar proportion (68-80%) of mice. We then examined the qualitative nature of TSHR antibodies in each group. Sera from all mice had TSH binding-inhibitory (TBI) activity after the second immunization, with TBI values in proportion to the viral dose. After the third injection, all groups had near-maximal TBI values. Remarkably, in confirmation of our hypothesis, immunization with progressively lower viral doses generated TSHR antibodies approaching the characteristics of autoantibodies in human Graves' disease as follows: 1) lower TSHR antibody titers on ELISA and 2) lower TSH-blocking antibody activity without decrease in thyroid-stimulating antibody activity. In summary, low-dose immunization with adenovirus expressing the free TSHR A-subunit provides an induced animal model with a high prevalence of hyperthyroidism as well as TSHR antibodies more closely resembling autoantibodies in Graves' disease. PMID:14576177

Chen, Chun-Rong; Pichurin, Pavel; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D; Aliesky, Holly; Nagayama, Yuji; McLachlan, Sandra M; Rapoport, Basil

2003-10-23

120

Low-dose immunization with adenovirus expressing the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor A-subunit deviates the antibody response toward that of autoantibodies in human Graves' disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immunization with adenovirus expressing the TSH receptor (TSHR) induces hyperthyroidism in 25-50% of mice. Even more effective is immunization with a TSHR A-subunit adenovirus (65-84% hyperthyroidism). Nevertheless, TSHR antibody characteristics in these mice do not mimic accurately those of autoantibodies in typical Graves' patients, with a marked TSH-blocking antibody response. We hypothesized that this suboptimal antibody response was consequent to the standard dose of TSHR-adenovirus providing too great an immune stimulus. To test this hypothesis, we compared BALB/c mice immunized with the usual number (10(11)) and with far fewer viral particles (10(9) and 10(7)). Regardless of viral dose, hyperthyroidism developed in a similar proportion (68-80%) of mice. We then examined the qualitative nature of TSHR antibodies in each group. Sera from all mice had TSH binding-inhibitory (TBI) activity after the second immunization, with TBI values in proportion to the viral dose. After the third injection, all groups had near-maximal TBI values. Remarkably, in confirmation of our hypothesis, immunization with progressively lower viral doses generated TSHR antibodies approaching the characteristics of autoantibodies in human Graves' disease as follows: 1) lower TSHR antibody titers on ELISA and 2) lower TSH-blocking antibody activity without decrease in thyroid-stimulating antibody activity. In summary, low-dose immunization with adenovirus expressing the free TSHR A-subunit provides an induced animal model with a high prevalence of hyperthyroidism as well as TSHR antibodies more closely resembling autoantibodies in Graves' disease.

Chen CR; Pichurin P; Chazenbalk GD; Aliesky H; Nagayama Y; McLachlan SM; Rapoport B

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Elevação de hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH) após as lobectomias: incidência e fatores associados/ Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) rising following hemithyroidectomy: incidence and adjuvant factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de elevação da dosagem sérica do hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH) em pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide, em um período de até 12 semanas após a operação, buscando fatores associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODO: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 88 pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, no período de setembro de 2002 a setem (more) bro de 2004. Realizaram-se dosagens de hormônios tireoideanos a partir de quatro semanas após a cirurgia. Excluíram-se os pacientes com dosagens hormonais pré-operatórias alteradas, os casos que necessitaram de totalização da tireoidectomia e também aqueles em que houve perda do seguimento pós-operatório. Foram analisados os dados quanto à idade e ao sexo dos pacientes, quanto à presença de tireoidite no estudo histopatológico da tireóide e quanto ao tempo de aparecimento do hipotireoidismo. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos foi realizada através do teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Dos 88 pacientes, 71 (80,7%) eram mulheres. A idade média foi de 41,7 anos. Observou-se elevação do TSH em 20 (22,73%) dos 88 pacientes estudados. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de elevação do TSH, quando analisados quanto ao sexo, à idade ou à presença de tireoidite. CONCLUSÃO: A elevação do TSH é freqüente após lobectomias da tireóide e ocorre, muitas vezes, precocemente após a cirurgia. Não se encontraram, neste estudo, fatores que pudessem predizer sua ocorrência a curto prazo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency of serum elevations of thyrotropin in patients submitted to lobectomy within a period of up to 12 weeks after surgery, in the search for factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients submitted to thyroid lobectomy from September 2002 to September 2004 in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery - University of São Paulo Medical School were retrospectively analyzed. Thyroid hormone determinations were performe (more) d from 4 weeks on after the surgery. Cases of patients with altered preoperative hormone determination, need for total thyroidectomy, and loss of postoperative follow-up were excluded. Data regarding age and gender of patients, presence of thyroiditis on histopathologic analysis of the thyroid and time of emergence of hypothyroidism were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: Of the 88 patients, 71 (80.7%) were women. The mean age was of 41.7 years. Elevation of thyrotropin was observed in 20 (22.73%) of the 88 studied patients. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding its incidence in relation to gender, age or the presence of thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: Elevation of thyrotropin is frequent after thyroid lobectomy and it may occur early after surgery. In this study, no factor that could predict its occurrence in the short term were found.

Araújo Filho, Vergillius José Furtado de; Brandão, Lenine Garcia; Carlucci Jr, Dorival; Moysés, Raquel Ajub; Brescia, Marília D'Elboux Guimarães; Ferraz, Alberto Rosseti

2007-04-01

122

Elevação de hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH) após as lobectomias: incidência e fatores associados Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) rising following hemithyroidectomy: incidence and adjuvant factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de elevação da dosagem sérica do hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH) em pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide, em um período de até 12 semanas após a operação, buscando fatores associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODO: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 88 pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, no período de setembro de 2002 a setembro de 2004. Realizaram-se dosagens de hormônios tireoideanos a partir de quatro semanas após a cirurgia. Excluíram-se os pacientes com dosagens hormonais pré-operatórias alteradas, os casos que necessitaram de totalização da tireoidectomia e também aqueles em que houve perda do seguimento pós-operatório. Foram analisados os dados quanto à idade e ao sexo dos pacientes, quanto à presença de tireoidite no estudo histopatológico da tireóide e quanto ao tempo de aparecimento do hipotireoidismo. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos foi realizada através do teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Dos 88 pacientes, 71 (80,7%) eram mulheres. A idade média foi de 41,7 anos. Observou-se elevação do TSH em 20 (22,73%) dos 88 pacientes estudados. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de elevação do TSH, quando analisados quanto ao sexo, à idade ou à presença de tireoidite. CONCLUSÃO: A elevação do TSH é freqüente após lobectomias da tireóide e ocorre, muitas vezes, precocemente após a cirurgia. Não se encontraram, neste estudo, fatores que pudessem predizer sua ocorrência a curto prazo.BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency of serum elevations of thyrotropin in patients submitted to lobectomy within a period of up to 12 weeks after surgery, in the search for factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients submitted to thyroid lobectomy from September 2002 to September 2004 in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery - University of São Paulo Medical School were retrospectively analyzed. Thyroid hormone determinations were performed from 4 weeks on after the surgery. Cases of patients with altered preoperative hormone determination, need for total thyroidectomy, and loss of postoperative follow-up were excluded. Data regarding age and gender of patients, presence of thyroiditis on histopathologic analysis of the thyroid and time of emergence of hypothyroidism were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: Of the 88 patients, 71 (80.7%) were women. The mean age was of 41.7 years. Elevation of thyrotropin was observed in 20 (22.73%) of the 88 studied patients. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding its incidence in relation to gender, age or the presence of thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: Elevation of thyrotropin is frequent after thyroid lobectomy and it may occur early after surgery. In this study, no factor that could predict its occurrence in the short term were found.

Vergillius José Furtado de Araújo Filho; Lenine Garcia Brandão; Dorival Carlucci Jr; Raquel Ajub Moysés; Marília D'Elboux Guimarães Brescia; Alberto Rosseti Ferraz

2007-01-01

123

Thyroid-stimulating hormone induces interleukin-18 gene expression in FRTL-5 cells: immunohistochemical detection of interleukin-18 in autoimmune thyroid disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interleukin (IL)-18 is a cloned cytokine that was identified originally as a factor having potent interferon (IFN)-gamma-inducing activity on Kupffer cells. First, we analyzed IL-18 gene expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells and human thyroid tissue samples. The expression of IL-18 mRNA in FRTL-5 cells was enhanced by thryoid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in a dose-dependent manner. 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) also increased in IL-18 mRNA levels. Furthermore, TGCT clones that exhibited an increase in intracellular cAMP accumulation showed an increased IL-18 mRNA signal when compared to controls. Taken together, these data suggested that the effect of TSH on IL-18 gene expression was mediated by activating protein kinase A. Treatment of FRTL-5 cells with the antithyroid drug, methimazole (MMI), suppressed this stimulatory action of TSH on IL-18 gene expression. Next, we examined IL-18 expression in human thyroid tissue derived from patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). RT-PCR and immunohistology demonstrated that human thyroid follicular cells expressed IL-18. Especially in thyroid tissue from a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, expression was more diffuse and extensive, generally observed in close relation to a lymphocytic infiltrate. Also, IL-18 protein was distributed in the same follicles that express Fas-L and HLA-DR. This study is the first to demonstrate the detection of IL-18 in the thyroid gland. The frequent expression of IL-18 in thyrocytes suggests that IL-18 itself might be a secreted immunomodulator in ATD. PMID:12490070

Takiyama, Yumi; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Tokusashi, Yoshihiko; Ito, Koichi; Kato, Shizuo; Kimura, Shoji; Sato, Keisuke; Katagiri, Makoto

2002-11-01

124

Thyroid-stimulating hormone induces interleukin-18 gene expression in FRTL-5 cells: immunohistochemical detection of interleukin-18 in autoimmune thyroid disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interleukin (IL)-18 is a cloned cytokine that was identified originally as a factor having potent interferon (IFN)-gamma-inducing activity on Kupffer cells. First, we analyzed IL-18 gene expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells and human thyroid tissue samples. The expression of IL-18 mRNA in FRTL-5 cells was enhanced by thryoid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in a dose-dependent manner. 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) also increased in IL-18 mRNA levels. Furthermore, TGCT clones that exhibited an increase in intracellular cAMP accumulation showed an increased IL-18 mRNA signal when compared to controls. Taken together, these data suggested that the effect of TSH on IL-18 gene expression was mediated by activating protein kinase A. Treatment of FRTL-5 cells with the antithyroid drug, methimazole (MMI), suppressed this stimulatory action of TSH on IL-18 gene expression. Next, we examined IL-18 expression in human thyroid tissue derived from patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). RT-PCR and immunohistology demonstrated that human thyroid follicular cells expressed IL-18. Especially in thyroid tissue from a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, expression was more diffuse and extensive, generally observed in close relation to a lymphocytic infiltrate. Also, IL-18 protein was distributed in the same follicles that express Fas-L and HLA-DR. This study is the first to demonstrate the detection of IL-18 in the thyroid gland. The frequent expression of IL-18 in thyrocytes suggests that IL-18 itself might be a secreted immunomodulator in ATD.

Takiyama Y; Miyokawa N; Tokusashi Y; Ito K; Kato S; Kimura S; Sato K; Katagiri M

2002-11-01

125

Immeasurably low and non-TRH-stimulatable TSH associated with normal I-123 uptake in two goitrous euthyroid patients: possible existence of other thyroid-hormone regulated thyroid stimulators other than TSH.  

Science.gov (United States)

We described two euthyroid patients with normally functioning goiters, but with persistently undetectable and non-stimulatable TSH levels. Subject 1 was a 64-year-old woman with a large diffuse goiter who has been clinically and biochemically euthyroid without any medication for at least 19 years. Subject 2 was a 31-year-old woman with a small diffuse goiter who has been euthyroid for 4 years. Both patients had persistently undetectable levels of serum TSH, TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) and thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb). Their basal TSH levels were very low and their T3 responses to TRH were very diminished or absent. In contrast, the basal levels of the other pituitary hormones and their responses to LHRH, GRH and CRH stimulation were all within normal limits in both patients. MRI images of pituitary glands, 123I thyroid uptake, and thyroid scans were normal. Ectopic thyroids were not detected on (99m)TcO4- and 123I total body scans. Factors interfering with the measurement of TSH were excluded by recovery studies. In subject 1 a T3-suppression test was positive and a perchlorate discharge test was negative. In subject 2 a T3-suppression test was negative. Euthyroid Graves' disease, subclinical hyperthyroidism, destructive thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis of extrathyroid origin, central hypothyroidism, and nonthyroidal illness were all ruled out by these observations. These results suggest that an unknown factor, such as thyrostimulin, but not TSH or TSAb, stimulates the thyroid and maintains euthyroidism, and may have a role in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. PMID:15758559

Ikekubo, Katsuji; Hino, Megumu; Saiki, Yasuhiko; Son, Cheol; Iwakura, Toshio; Kobayashi, Hiromasa; Ishihara, Takashi

2005-02-01

126

Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides/ Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares). El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del (more) estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %), en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 %) y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %). En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia. Abstract in english The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was appli (more) ed to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

Marrero Rodríguez, María Teresa

2007-12-01

127

Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares). El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %), en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 %) y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %). En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia.The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

2007-01-01

128

Relationships between the thyroid and somatotropic axes in steers. I: Effects of propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism on growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor I.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced thyroid hormone imbalance on GH, TSH and IGF-I status in cattle were examined. In the first study, four crossbred steers (avg wt 350 kg) were fed a diet dressed with PTU (0, 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg/d BW) in a Latin square design with four 35-d periods. On day 29 in each period, steers were challenged with an intrajugular bolus of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH, 1.0 microgram/kg). Blood samples were obtained to assess the change in plasma GH and TSH as affected by PTU. Plasma IGF-I was measured from blood samples obtained before and after (every 6 hr for 24 hr) intramuscular injection of bovine GH (0.1 mg/kg, day 31). Doses of 1 and 2 mg/kg PTU increased plasma T4 (P < .01). At 4 mg/kg, PTU depressed T4 concentrations to 30% of control (P < .01). Plasma T3 linearly decreased with increasing doses of PTU (P < .01). Plasma TSH increased when PTU was fed at 4 mg/kg (P < .05) while the TSH response to TRH declined with increasing PTU (P < .02). Neither basal nor TRH-stimulated plasma concentration of GH was affected by PTU; the IGF-I response to GH tended to increase at the 1 and 2 mg/kg PTU (P < .01). In a second study 24 crossbred steers were fed PTU (1.5 mg/kg) for 119 d in a 2 x 2 factorial design with implantation of the steroid growth effector, Synovex-S (200 mg progesterone + 20 mg estradiol), as the other main effect. Basal plasma GH and IGF-I were not affected by PTU treatment. Synovex increased plasma concentration (P < .01) of IGF-I without an effect on plasma GH. The data suggest that mild changes in thyroid status associated with PTU affects regulation of T3, T4 and TSH more than GH or IGF-I in steers.

Elsasser TH; Rumsey TS; Norton SA

1992-10-01

129

Inappropriate secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] From a total of 2904 patients with thyroid disorders treated with thyreostatic drugs or with thyroxin we observed a discrepancy between TSH-values and T-4. In primary hyperthyreosis (Graves disease or toxic adenoma) thyreostatic drugs produced long lasting suppression of TSH (under 0.07 mIE/ml), or in high levels of T-4 the level of TSH remained in normal range or the level of TSH was very high in patients with normal level of T-4. The clinical status of the patients was relevant, additional laboratory tests (Free thyroxin, T-3 levels) were necessary. (Original)

1999-01-01

130

TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? TSH Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... and an ultrasensitive TSH? 1. Do doctors test TSH during pregnancy? Doctors do not generally test asymptomatic ...

131

Hormone assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

1977-01-01

132

Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010/ Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured (more) in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

Mosso, Lorena; Margozzini, Paula; Trejo, Pamela; Domínguez, Angélica; Solari, Sandra; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Arteaga, Eugenio

2013-01-01

133

Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010 Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

Lorena Mosso; Paula Margozzini; Pamela Trejo; Angélica Domínguez; Sandra Solari; Gonzalo Valdivia; Eugenio Arteaga

2013-01-01

134

Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies for human luteinising hormone, and mapping of antigenic determinants on the hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twelve mouse monoclonal antibodies for human luteinising hormone were produced. The affinities varied from 4 X 10/sup 7/ to 1 X 10/sup 10/ l/mol. The specificity of each antibody was assessed by determining the relative reactivities with luteinising hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotrophin. Six antibodies bound to the ..cap alpha..-subunit as shown by similar reactivity with all hormones, and the remainder to the ..beta..-subunit as shown by specificity for luteinising hormone. This latter group of antibodies cross-reacted only weakly with thyroid stimulating hormone (approximately 10%) and follicle stimulating hormone (approximately 3%). Three of these antibodies also showed low reactivity towards chorionic gonadotrophin (<10%), though the others did not (80-300%). The ability of different antibodies to bind simultaneously to luteinising hormone was examined and it was shown that several distinct antigenic determinants existed on both subunits. The characterisation of monoclonal binding sites is discussed in relation to the use of antibodies in two-site immunoradiometric assays.

Soos, M.; Siddle, K. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Biochemistry)

1983-10-14

135

Hormonal evaluation in erectile dysfunction  

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Full Text Available Objective: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between ED and hormonal abnormalities. Material and methods: We evaluated 178 patients between the ages of 25 and 85 years old. Medical histories and details were collected, and the IIEF question test was completed by all patients. After the basic evaluation, serum total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured.Results: The mean age of the patients and IIEF scores were 50.5±12.3 and 12.8±6.13, respectively. The mean testosterone, prolactin, TSH, LH and FSH were 426±152 ng/dL, 15.8±45.6 ng/mL, 1.56±1.2 micro IU/mL, 5.5±4.3 m IU/mL and 7.7±6.9 m IU/mL, respectively. Two patients had abnormal TSH levels, and 27 patients had abnormal LH levels. Abnormal FSH levels were detected in 6 patients. Eight patients had abnormal testosterone levels, and twenty had abnormal prolactin levels.Conclusion: ED is an illness that affects older men, and multiple factors cause this illness. Hormonal abnormalities are one of these factors that can be corrected. When appropriate, hormone levels should be measured and treated in patients who present with ED.

Selahattin Çal??kan; Orhan Koca; Metin Öztürk; Mehmet Akyüz; Muhammet ?hsan Karaman

2012-01-01

136

Effect of HCV Treatment on Circulating Pituitary Hormones  

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Full Text Available AIM: To analyse the relationship between pegylated interferontherapy and levels of pituitary hormones.METHODS: 49 chronic HCV patients were recruited at specializedhepatology clinic in National Hepatology and Tropical MedicineResearch Institute (NHTMRI), Cairo; they were treated withpegylated interferon and ribavirin according to the standard treatmentcriteria and regimen. Pituitary hormones levels were assessed at week0, 24 of treatment.RESULTS: Significant changes in the pituitary hormones levelswere noticed with perceived rise in Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH), Human growth hormone. (HGH), Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEAS), Prolactin and Cortisol, while significant reduction inthe levels of Testosterone, free Testosterone and sex hormone wereobserved.CONCLUSION: Treatment of HCV with Peg-INF/RBV may beassociated with pituitary hormonal dysfunction which may lead tomany neglected side effects like libido, erectile dysfunction andgalactorrhea.

Amin Abdel Baki; Mohamed Hassany; Amany Gamal; Nashwa Zaky

2013-01-01

137

A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody  

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Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) negative Graves’s disease (GD) is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizo...

Hamasaki Hidetaka; Yoshimi Taro; Yanai Hidekatsu

138

LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... known as: Luteinizing Hormone; Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone; ICSH Formal name: Luteinizing Hormone, serum Related tests: FSH ; ... referred to as Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone or ICSH in males) levels are relatively constant in men ...

139

THYROID HORMONE  

Science.gov (United States)

There are two thyroid hormones produced and secreted by the thyroid gland, these are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroxine and triiodothyronine are produced from tyrosine both having either 4 (T4) or 3 (T3) iodine atoms on the thyronine ring. Low dietary intake of iodine will lower t...

140

Growth hormone-releasing hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The identification of GRH has been followed by an extraordinarily rapid rate of knowledge accumulation. Within a period of slightly more than 3 yr since the structure of the GRH was determined, nearly 500 papers have been published pertaining to the hormone. Extensive knowledge of its anatomy, chemistry, molecular biology, physiology, and pathology has been gathered and, in particular, studies in humans have proceeded faster than with any other of the hypophysiotropic hormones. New insights have been gained with respect to the pathogenesis of both GH deficiency and GH excess states, and the use of GRH and its analogs as diagnostic and therapeutic agents already represents a reality.

Frohman LA; Jansson JO

1986-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

Thyroid stimulating hormone levels rise after assisted reproductive technology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to determine whether high E2 levels after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation affect TSH. METHODS: Patients completing ART cycles between April-October 2010 were eligible for this cohort study. 180 patients were recruited however those with known thyroid disease were excluded. The final analysis included 154 subjects. Blood was collected at each visit during the ART cycle as well as at the pregnancy test. Samples were frozen at -20 °C and analyzed together for E2 and TSH using the same assay kit once all patients had completed their cycles. All participants were treated at the McGill University Health Center. A paired t-test was used to study the difference in TSH levels recorded at maximal and minimal Estradiol levels during ovarian stimulation. Multiple regression analysis was then used to determine if factors such as anti-thyroid antibodies and ovarian reserve measures affect this change in TSH. We used multiple imputation methods to account for missing data. RESULTS: As E2 levels rose from low to supra-physiologic levels during treatment, TSH levels also rose significantly. This increase was clinically significant by the time of pregnancy test. The factors that potentially affected the change in TSH were: male factor/tubal factor infertility, type of protocol used as well as the presence of thyroid antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Although TSH increases during ART, this change only becomes clinically significant on the day of pregnancy test. Future studies should examine TSH changes specifically in certain "at-risk" sub-groups such as those with antibodies and known thyroid disease.

Reinblatt S; Herrero B; Correa JA; Shalom-Paz E; Ata B; Wiser A; Morris D; Holzer H

2013-08-01

142

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

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Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes th...

Pereira, Jose Carlos; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; de Lins Pessoa, Hugo

143

Hormone profiling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytohormones are low molecular weight compounds that are produced by plants to regulate growth and development and also in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The quantitative analysis of these molecules, which is essential for a better understanding of their physiological functions, is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in plant tissues. In this chapter, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the quantification of acidic plant hormones is described. A fast and simple extraction procedure without purification or derivatization was devised, followed by optimized ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytical procedure was validated in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, recovery, and matrix effects. This protocol facilitates the high-throughput analysis of the main plant hormones and is applicable as a routine tool for a wide range of research fields such as plant-pathogen interactions, mutant screening, or plant development.

Glauser G; Vallat A; Balmer D

2014-01-01

144

Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe two brothers with Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome and the 22A-->T (Lys8X) PHF6 mutation, who presented with the symptoms and signs of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. Biochemical investigations and radiology confirmed growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) as well as gonadotrophin deficiency. They were also found to have optic nerve hypoplasia. This family suggests that the BFL gene product may play an important role in midline neuro-development including the hypothalamo-pituitary axis.

Birrell G; Lampe A; Richmond S; Bruce SN; Gécz J; Lower K; Wright M; Cheetham TD

2003-12-01

145

EFFECTS OF METAL CATIONS ON PITUITARY HORMONE SECRETION IN VITRO (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine, in vitro, the effects of nickel, cadmium, and zinc (50 microM) on both baseline and potassium chloride (KCl)-stimulated pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (Prl), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release. Baseline and stim...

146

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone is not Required for Thyrotropin Secretion in the Perinatal Rat  

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To determine the role of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the regulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion in the perinatal period, a physiological approach of neutralizing circulating TRH in the fetal and early neonatal rat was employed. TRH-antiserum (TRH-AS) raised in rabbits a...

Theodoropoulos, Theodor; Braverman, Lewis E.; Vagenakis, Apostolos G.

147

Thyroid Hormone Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: to replace the function of the thyroid ... organs working as they should. Definition, Therapy & Treatment Thyroid hormone replacement therapy Many people have a thyroid ...

148

Growth hormone stimulation test  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the level of growth hormone (GH) in the blood after you receive ... the pituitary gland to release GH. See also: Growth hormone deficiency Short stature

149

Hormone Therapy Statistics  

Science.gov (United States)

... Releases Press Room Assistance Society Overview Hormone Therapy Statistics Home > Publications > Clinical Practice Materials > Hormone Therapy Statistics (Updated June 2011) HT Prescriptions: A Continued Slow ...

150

[Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. AIM: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the plurihormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. RESULTS: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6+/-3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or plurihormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extension. CONCLUSIONS: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are plurihormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and plurihormonal adenomas.

Brito J; Sáez L; Lemp M; Liberman C; Michelsen H; Araya AV

2008-07-01

151

Use and misuse of thyroid hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic thyroxine has replaced animal thyroid gland extract as the preferred drug in chronic thyroid hormone replacement. Synthetic thyroxine monotherapy is used to treat overt primary and secondary hypothyroidism, and some cases of subclinical hypothyroidism. In addition, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with thyroxine is a component of the chronic treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Liothyronine, however, is conventionally for short-term usage, including thyroid hormone withdrawal preparation for radioactive iodine scanning and treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and some cases of myxoedema coma. On very rare occasions where patients are apparently intolerant of or unresponsive to thyroxine, liothyronine may be used chronically. However, there is controversy concerning the use of alternative regimens of thyroid hormone, such as the use of thyroxine-liothyronine combination and thyroid extracts. Thyroid hormone has also been misused to promote weight loss and treat 'symptomatic' biochemically euthyroid patients. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of thyroid hormone to improve treatment response in depression and severe non-thyroidal illnesses. PMID:23900472

Topliss, Duncan Jake; Soh, Shui Boon

2013-07-01

152

Improved response of growth hormone to growth hormone-releasing hormone and reversible chronic thyroiditis after hydrocortisone replacement in isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a 44-year-old Japanese man who showed a reversible blunted response of growth hormone (GH) to GH-releasing hormone (GRH) stimulation test and reversible chronic thyroiditis accompanied by isolated ACTH deficiency. He was admitted to our hospital because of severe general malaise, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. He showed repeated attacks of hypoglycemia, and his serum sodium level gradually decreased. Finally, he was referred to the endocrinology division, where his adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values were found to be low, and his GH level was slightly elevated. An increased value of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased values of free triidothyronine and free thyroxine were observed along with anti-thyroglobulin antibody, suggesting chronic thyroiditis. Pituitary stimulation tests revealed a blunted response of ACTH and cortisol to corticotropin-releasing hormone, and a blunted response of GH to GRH. Hydrocortisone replacement was then started, and this improved the patient's general condition. His hypothyroid state gradually ameliorated and his titer of anti-thyroglobulin antibody decreased to the normal range. Pituitary function was re-evaluated with GRH stimulation test under a maintenance dose of 20 mg/day hydrocortisone and showed a normal response of GH to GRH. It is suggested that re-evaluation of pituitary and thyroid function is useful for diagnosing isolated ACTH deficiency after starting a maintenance dose of hydrocortisone in order to avoid unnecessary replacement of thyroid hormone.

Inagaki M; Sato H; Miyamoto Y; Hirukawa T; Sawaya A; Miyakogawa T; Tatsumi R; Kakuta T

2009-07-01

153

Improved response of growth hormone to growth hormone-releasing hormone and reversible chronic thyroiditis after hydrocortisone replacement in isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 44-year-old Japanese man who showed a reversible blunted response of growth hormone (GH) to GH-releasing hormone (GRH) stimulation test and reversible chronic thyroiditis accompanied by isolated ACTH deficiency. He was admitted to our hospital because of severe general malaise, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. He showed repeated attacks of hypoglycemia, and his serum sodium level gradually decreased. Finally, he was referred to the endocrinology division, where his adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values were found to be low, and his GH level was slightly elevated. An increased value of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased values of free triidothyronine and free thyroxine were observed along with anti-thyroglobulin antibody, suggesting chronic thyroiditis. Pituitary stimulation tests revealed a blunted response of ACTH and cortisol to corticotropin-releasing hormone, and a blunted response of GH to GRH. Hydrocortisone replacement was then started, and this improved the patient's general condition. His hypothyroid state gradually ameliorated and his titer of anti-thyroglobulin antibody decreased to the normal range. Pituitary function was re-evaluated with GRH stimulation test under a maintenance dose of 20 mg/day hydrocortisone and showed a normal response of GH to GRH. It is suggested that re-evaluation of pituitary and thyroid function is useful for diagnosing isolated ACTH deficiency after starting a maintenance dose of hydrocortisone in order to avoid unnecessary replacement of thyroid hormone. PMID:21318995

Inagaki, Miho; Sato, Haruhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiyasu; Hirukawa, Takashi; Sawaya, Asako; Miyakogawa, Takayo; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Kakuta, Takatoshi

2009-07-20

154

Hormones and the Skin  

Science.gov (United States)

... care Hormones and the skin Hormones and the skin Young Adulthood Acne Acne is the term for ... is returning to its normal growth cycle. Menopause Skin care changes Thinning of the skin with loss ...

155

Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hormone Deficiency in Adults Share: A Patient's Guide Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults June 2011 Download PDFs ... depression, or moodiness What are the benefits of growth hormone therapy? Growth hormone treatment involves injections (shots) ...

156

Prolonged weightlessness effect on postflight plasma thyroid hormones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blood drawn before and after spaceflight from the nine Skylab astronauts showed a statistically significant increase in mean plasma thyroxine (T-4) of 1.4 microgram/dl and in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of 4 muU/ml. Concurrent triiodothyronine (T-3) levels decreased 27 ng/dl indicating inhibited conversion of T-4 to T-3. The T-3 decrease is postulated to be a result of the increased cortisol levels noted during and following each mission. These results confirm the thyroidal changes noted after the shorter Apollo flights and show that thyroid hormone levels change during spaceflight.

Leach CS; Johnson PC; Driscoll TB

1977-07-01

157

Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients — at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that hormonal changes in papillary thyroid cancer include the reduction of thyroxine in blood. In case of papillary thyroid cancer the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is increased at various stages of the spread of neoplasia

Zyablov ?. V.; Chesnokova N.P.; Barsukov V. Yu.

2011-01-01

158

Multiple cutaneous hemangiomas in a patient with combined pituitary hormone deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) refers to a rare heterogeneous group of conditions in which there is a deficiency in at least two anterior pituitary hormones. Patients with POU1F1 mutations show a combined pituitary deficiency with low or absent levels of growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. In this study, a 7-month-old girl with a CPHD is presented. She had facial dysmorphologic features, hypertrichosis, and hypotonia. Additionally, she also presented with multiple cutaneous hemangioma that until now has not been reported in association with this disorder.

Aykut A; Ozen S; S?msek DG; Onay H; Cogulu O; Darcan S; Ozkinay F

2013-09-01

159

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated growth hormone deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

... provides instructions for making a protein called the growth hormone releasing hormone receptor. This receptor attaches (binds) to a molecule called growth hormone releasing hormone. The binding of growth hormone releasing hormone to ...

160

Hormonal therapy for acne.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available.

George R; Clarke S; Thiboutot D

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

An Unliganded Thyroid Hormone ? Receptor Activates the Cyclin D1/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase/Retinoblastoma/E2F Pathway and Induces Pituitary Tumorigenesis  

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting tumors (TSH-omas) are pituitary tumors that constitutively secrete TSH. The molecular genetics underlying this abnormality are not known. We discovered that a knockin mouse harboring a mutated thyroid hormone receptor (TR) ? (PV; TR?PV/PV mouse) spontaneou...

Furumoto, Hiroko; Ying, Hao; Chandramouli, G. V. R.; Zhao, Li; Walker, Robert L.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Willingham, Mark C.

162

Stress and hormones  

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In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. S...

Ranabir, Salam; Reetu, K.

163

Growth Hormone Deficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth hormone deficiency is the most promising entity in terms of response to therapy among the treatable causes of growth retardation. It may be due to genetic or acquired causes. It may be isolated or a part of multiple hormone deficiencies. Diagnostic criteria and therefore treatment indications are still disputed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 36-8)

Ömer Tar?m; Halil Sa?lam

2010-01-01

164

Hormones and female sexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional-motivational and social factors.

Bjelica Artur L.; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Maticki-Sekuli? Milana

2003-01-01

165

Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (more) (N = 22) were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F), free thyroxine (T4F), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibody (TPO), and estradiol (E2). Estrogen receptor ß (ERß) was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P

Saraiva, P.P.; Figueiredo, N.B.; Padovani, C.R.; Brentani, M.M.; Nogueira, C.R.

2005-05-01

166

Combining growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist greatly augments benign prostatic hyperplasia shrinkage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Benign prostatic hyperplasia often affects aging men. Antagonists of the neuropeptide growth hormone-releasing hormone reduced prostate weight in an androgen induced benign prostatic hyperplasia model in rats. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists also produce marked, protracted improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms, reduced prostate volume and an increased urinary peak flow rate in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We investigated the influence of a combination of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone on animal models of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of the growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist JMR-132, given at a dose of 40 ?g daily, the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist cetrorelix, given at a dose of 0.625 mg/kg, and their combination on testosterone induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in adult male Wistar rats in vivo. Prostate tissue was examined biochemically and histologically. Serum levels of growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, dihydrotestosterone and prostate specific antigen were determined. RESULTS: Marked shrinkage of the rat prostate (30.3%) occurred in response to the combination of growth hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists (p<0.01). The combination strongly decreased prostatic prostate specific antigen, 6-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate, interleukin-1?, nuclear factor-?? and cyclooxygenase-2, and decreased serum prostate specific antigen. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist potentiated a reduction in prostate weight in an experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia model. Results suggest that this shrinkage in prostate volume was induced by the direct inhibitory effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists exerted through their respective prostatic receptors. These findings suggest that growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonists and/or their combination with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists should be considered for further development as therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Rick FG; Szalontay L; Schally AV; Block NL; Nadji M; Szepeshazi K; Vidaurre I; Zarandi M; Kovacs M; Rekasi Z

2012-04-01

167

Effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy on ovarian volume and androgen hormones in patients with untreated primary hypothyroidism  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hypothyroidism may be associated with ovarian enlargement and/ or cyst formation. We evaluated the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy on hormonal changes, ovarian volume and sonographic appearance. Design and Setting: Open, prospective study of women admitted to university gynecology clinic. Patients and Methods: The study included 26 patients with untreated hypothyroidism who had polycystic (n=10) or normal-appearing (n=16) ovaries and 20 euthyroidic controls. Basal serum total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandosterone-sulfate, prolactin, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, free T3, free T4 and thyroid-stimulating horone, together with ovarian volumes, were determined and repeated after euthyroidism was achieved. Results: Ovarian volumes of patients with hypothyroidism were significantly greater compared with controls, and their magnitudes diminished significantly during thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Hypothyroidic patients with polycystic ovaries had significantly higher serum free testosterone and dehydroepiandosterone-sulfate, but lower androstenodione levels compared with those who had normal-appearing ovaries. Serum total testosterone concentrations were significantly higher in hypothyroidic patients without polycystic ovaries, and thyroid hormone replacement therapy achieved a significant reduction in total as well as free testosterone. Conclusion: Severe longstanding hypothyroidism leads to increased ovarian volume and/or cyst formation. A decrease in ovarian volume, resolution of ovarian cysts and reversal of the polycystic ovary syndrome-like appearance, together with improvement in serum hormone levels, occurred after euthyroidism was achieved.

Muderris Iptisam; Boztosun Abdullah; Oner Gokalp; Bayram Fahri

2011-01-01

168

[Growth hormone revisited].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth hormone (GH) is a pleiotropic hormone, expressed at pituitary and peripheral level, which plays a number of different roles far beyond of those classically described. Among these effects it is remarkable the neurotropic role of GH: the hormone increases the proliferation and survival of neural precursors in response to neurological injuries. At the cardiovascular level, GH improves the lipidic profile and decreases the factors of cardiac risk; the hormone recovers the endothelial function, improves the cardiac function and potentiates revascularisation in ischemic territories. Differently to that occurring with autocrine GH, exogenous GH administration does not seem to be related to oncogenesis. According to its effects, there are multiple potential clinical applications of GH: acute treatment of brain injury, due to its antiapoptotic effect; central or peripheral neural regeneration; acute treatment of perinatal anoxia, prevention cerebral palsy; revascularisation of ischemic areas; decrease of the time of bone consolidation after a bone fracture; and torpid ulcer healing.

Devesa J; Devesa P; Reimunde P

2010-11-01

169

Hormone Health Network  

Science.gov (United States)

... Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search New From the Network Subscribe Questions and Answers PCOS: What Teens Need ... The Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. Terms & Policies Network Partners The Hormone Health Network partners with other ...

170

MUTAGENOUS EFFECTS OF HORMONES  

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Full Text Available There is a widely accepted view that the endogenous substances, includinghormones, do not have any mutagenous effect when present in the usualphysiological concentrations. However, beside relative stability and permanence ofthe genetic material, its changeability is also needed to provide for the biologicalevolution. Thus, it is possible to expect that certain reactions, due to the complexity ofthe mechanism of the signal transduction under the effect of hormones, still! lead tothe creation of reactive derivatives able to inter-react with the DNA molecules thusencouraging the emergence of mutations. This paper gives a survey of the explorationof the hormones' genotoxic effects in various test-systems, namely, from the bactericthrough the ?eli cultures and experiments in vivo upon laboratory guinea-pigs, up tothe determination of the mutagenous effects in the people that were treated byhormones. The steroid hormones' effects are described in detail in the literaturewhile, on the other hand, there is not sufficient knowledge yet about possible changesof the genetic material under the influence of the non-steroid hormones. Theexaminations of the steroid hormones' geonotoxicity in the bacterial systems havemainly given negative results. Tn more complex eukaryotic systems in vitro and invivo most of the steroid hormones manifest mutagenous effects, though the resultmay vary depending one the type of ?eli or the biological species used in theexperiment. As for the non-steroid hormones, though they have been studied less, itseems that they do not mostly express mutagenous effects. Today it is clear that thesteroid hormones (especially estrogen) are completely carcinogenic and that they arecapable of encouraging the process of carcinogenesis both by inducing covalentsimulating the cell division (tumor promoters).

Ninoslav Djelic; Dijana Djelic

2001-01-01

171

Thyroid hormone transporters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone is essential for the development of the brain and the nervous system. Cellular entry is required for conversion of thyroid hormones by the intracellular deiodinases and for binding of T(3) to its nuclear receptors. Several transporters capable of thyroid hormone transport have been identified. Functional expression studies using Xenopus laevis oocytes have so far identified two categories of transporters involved in thyroid hormone uptake (i.e., organic anion transporters and amino acid transporters). Among the organic anion transporters, both Na(+) taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and various members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family mediate transport of iodothyronines. Because iodothyronines are a particular class of amino acids derived from tyrosine residues, it is no surprise that some amino acid transporters have been shown to be involved in thyroid hormone transport. We have characterized monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter, the gene of which is located on the X chromosome. MCT8 is highly expressed in liver and brain but is also widely distributed in other tissues. MCT8 shows 50% amino acid identity with a system T amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1). TAT1, also called MCT10, has been characterized to transport aromatic amino acids but no iodothyronines. We have also found that mutations in MCT8 are associated with severe X-linked psychomotor retardation and strongly elevated serum T(3) levels in young boys. PMID:15727804

Friesema, Edith C H; Jansen, Jurgen; Milici, Carmelina; Visser, Theo J

2005-01-01

172

Thyroid hormone transporters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid hormone is essential for the development of the brain and the nervous system. Cellular entry is required for conversion of thyroid hormones by the intracellular deiodinases and for binding of T(3) to its nuclear receptors. Several transporters capable of thyroid hormone transport have been identified. Functional expression studies using Xenopus laevis oocytes have so far identified two categories of transporters involved in thyroid hormone uptake (i.e., organic anion transporters and amino acid transporters). Among the organic anion transporters, both Na(+) taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and various members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family mediate transport of iodothyronines. Because iodothyronines are a particular class of amino acids derived from tyrosine residues, it is no surprise that some amino acid transporters have been shown to be involved in thyroid hormone transport. We have characterized monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter, the gene of which is located on the X chromosome. MCT8 is highly expressed in liver and brain but is also widely distributed in other tissues. MCT8 shows 50% amino acid identity with a system T amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1). TAT1, also called MCT10, has been characterized to transport aromatic amino acids but no iodothyronines. We have also found that mutations in MCT8 are associated with severe X-linked psychomotor retardation and strongly elevated serum T(3) levels in young boys.

Friesema EC; Jansen J; Milici C; Visser TJ

2005-01-01

173

Headache And Hormones  

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Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

Shukla Rakesh

2002-01-01

174

Hormonal regulation of lipogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions with severe heath consequences including type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and premature cardiovascular mortality. Understanding the biological processes that govern fat deposition in a tissue-specific manner is therefore crucial if we are to try to design novel and efficacious treatments that might limit fat accumulation and improve metabolic phenotype and clinical prognosis. Lipid accumulation within a given cell type represents a balance between synthesis, mobilization, and utilization. Common endocrine conditions characterized by hormonal excess and deficiency are often associated with profound abnormalities in body composition and fat deposition. This undoubtedly reflects the complex regulation of lipid metabolism by endocrine factors. In this review, we will outline the current literature that has investigated the hormonal regulation of lipogenesis. This is a complex field, and in many studies, its assessment has been oversimplified with a focus on individual hormones acting in isolation and this bears little relationship to the in vivo situation where multiple hormones act in concert. Further, regulation may be different between rodents and humans and this will be explored. Limitation of lipid accumulation still represents a valid therapeutic target, and it is possible that manipulation of hormonal action has the potential to offer a new therapeutic horizon.

Gathercole LL; Morgan SA; Tomlinson JW

2013-01-01

175

Thyroid hormone metabolism and environmental chemical exposure  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated dioxins and –furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that have been proven to influence thyroid metabolism both in animal studies and in human beings. In recent years polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) also have been found to have a negative influence on thyroid hormone metabolism. The lower brominated flame retardants are now banned in the EU, however higher brominated decabromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE) and the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are not yet banned. They too can negatively influence thyroid hormone metabolism. An additional brominated flame retardant that is still in use is tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), which has also been shown to influence thyroid hormone metabolism. Influences of brominated flame retardants, PCDD/F’s and dioxin like-PCBs (dl-PCB’s) on thyroid hormone metabolism in adolescence in the Netherlands will be presented in this study and determined if there are reasons for concern to human health for these toxins. In the period 1987-1991, a cohort of mother-baby pairs was formed in order to detect abnormalities in relation to dioxin levels in the perinatal period. The study demonstrated that PCDD/Fs were found around the time of birth, suggesting a modulation of the setpoint of thyroid hormone metabolism with a higher 3,3’, 5,5’tetrathyroxine (T4) levels and an increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). While the same serum thyroid hormone tests (- TSH and T4) were again normal by 2 years of age and were still normal at 8-12 years, adolescence is a period with extra stress on thyroid hormone metabolism. Therefore we measured serum levels of TSH, T4, 3,3’,5- triiodothyronine (T3), free T4 (FT4), antibodies and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in our adolescent cohort. Methods Vena puncture was performed to obtain samples for the measurement of thyroid hormone metabolism related parameters and the current serum dioxin (PCDD/Fs), PCB and PBDE levels. Results The current levels of T3 were positively correlated to BDE-99. A positive trend with FT4 and BDE-99 was also seen, while a positive correlation with T3 and dl-PCB was also seen. No correlation with TBG was seen for any of the contaminants. Neither the prenatal nor the current PCDD/F levels showed a relationship with the thyroid parameters in this relatively small group. Conclusion Once again the thyroid hormone metabolism (an increase in T3) seems to have been influenced by current background levels of common environmental contaminants: dl-PCBs and BDE-99. T3 is a product of target organs and abnormalities might indicate effects on hormone transporters and could cause pathology. While the influence on T3 levels may have been compensated, because the adolescents functioned normal at the time of the study period, it is questionable if this compensation is enough for all organs depending on thyroid hormones.

Leijs Marike M; ten Tusscher Gavin W; Olie Kees; van Teunenbroek Tom; van Aalderen Wim MC; de Voogt Pim; Vulsma Tom; Bartonova Alena; Krayer von Krauss Martin; Mosoiu Claudia; Riojas-Rodriguez Horacio; Calamandrei Gemma; Koppe Janna G

2012-01-01

176

Thyroid hormone metabolism and environmental chemical exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that have been proven to influence thyroid metabolism both in animal studies and in human beings. In recent years polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) also have been found to have a negative influence on thyroid hormone metabolism. The lower brominated flame retardants are now banned in the EU, however higher brominated decabromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE) and the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are not yet banned. They too can negatively influence thyroid hormone metabolism. An additional brominated flame retardant that is still in use is tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), which has also been shown to influence thyroid hormone metabolism.Influences of brominated flame retardants, PCDD/F's and dioxin like-PCBs (dl-PCB's) on thyroid hormone metabolism in adolescence in the Netherlands will be presented in this study and determined if there are reasons for concern to human health for these toxins. In the period 1987-1991, a cohort of mother-baby pairs was formed in order to detect abnormalities in relation to dioxin levels in the perinatal period. The study demonstrated that PCDD/Fs were found around the time of birth, suggesting a modulation of the setpoint of thyroid hormone metabolism with a higher 3,3', 5,5'tetrathyroxine (T4) levels and an increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). While the same serum thyroid hormone tests (- TSH and T4) were again normal by 2 years of age and were still normal at 8-12 years, adolescence is a period with extra stress on thyroid hormone metabolism. Therefore we measured serum levels of TSH, T4, 3,3',5- triiodothyronine (T3), free T4 (FT4), antibodies and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in our adolescent cohort. METHODS: Vena puncture was performed to obtain samples for the measurement of thyroid hormone metabolism related parameters and the current serum dioxin (PCDD/Fs), PCB and PBDE levels. RESULTS: The current levels of T3 were positively correlated to BDE-99. A positive trend with FT4 and BDE-99 was also seen, while a positive correlation with T3 and dl-PCB was also seen. No correlation with TBG was seen for any of the contaminants. Neither the prenatal nor the current PCDD/F levels showed a relationship with the thyroid parameters in this relatively small group. CONCLUSION: Once again the thyroid hormone metabolism (an increase in T3) seems to have been influenced by current background levels of common environmental contaminants: dl-PCBs and BDE-99. T3 is a product of target organs and abnormalities might indicate effects on hormone transporters and could cause pathology. While the influence on T3 levels may have been compensated, because the adolescents functioned normal at the time of the study period, it is questionable if this compensation is enough for all organs depending on thyroid hormones.

Leijs MM; ten Tusscher GW; Olie K; van Teunenbroek T; van Aalderen WM; de Voogt P; Vulsma T; Bartonova A; Krayer von Krauss M; Mosoiu C; Riojas-Rodriguez H; Calamandrei G; Koppe JG

2012-01-01

177

Oral administration of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogue, taltireline hydrate, in spinal muscular atrophy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spinal muscular atrophy is an entity of neurodegenerative disorders at the anterior horn neuron of the spinal cord caused by telomeric survival motor neuron gene abnormality. There is no definitive treatment for spinal muscular atrophy, but recent reports have indicated the efficacy of intravenous injection, but not oral administration, of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). We treated an 18-year-old male patient with spinal muscular atrophy type III by oral administration of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone analogue, taltireline hydrate. His muscle strength increased significantly after the therapy, and he showed no clinical or laboratory identifiable adverse effects, including thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression that had been observed with intravenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone therapy. Oral administration of this thyrotropin-releasing hormone analogue should be noted as a promising therapy for spinal muscular atrophy.

Kato Z; Okuda M; Okumura Y; Arai T; Teramoto T; Nishimura M; Kaneko H; Kondo N

2009-08-01

178

Facts about Menopausal Hormone Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Menopausal Hormone Therapy Menopause and Hormone Therapy As you age, significant internal ... Taking prescribed medication to control heart disease For Menopausal Symptoms: Hot flashes ? Lifestyle changes. These include dressing ...

179

Side Effects of Hormone Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

... African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: ...

180

Aging changes in hormone production  

Science.gov (United States)

... hormones are, in turn, controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ... produce the same amount at a slower rate. AGING CHANGES The hypothalamus is located in the brain. ...

 
 
 
 
181

Signalling from parathyroid hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

PTH (parathyroid hormone), acting via type 1 PTH receptors, is a major regulator of plasma [Ca(2+)]. The G-protein, G(s), is an essential component of the sequence linking PTH to plasma Ca(2+) regulation, but the relative importance of intracellular signals, including Ca(2+) and cAMP, that lie downstream of G(s) is not resolved. PMID:16856848

Tovey, S C; Dedos, S G; Taylor, C W

2006-08-01

182

Signalling from parathyroid hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PTH (parathyroid hormone), acting via type 1 PTH receptors, is a major regulator of plasma [Ca(2+)]. The G-protein, G(s), is an essential component of the sequence linking PTH to plasma Ca(2+) regulation, but the relative importance of intracellular signals, including Ca(2+) and cAMP, that lie downstream of G(s) is not resolved.

Tovey SC; Dedos SG; Taylor CW

2006-08-01

183

Growth hormone and aging  

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The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH r...

Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-Borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen

184

Terapia hormonal da menopausa Menopausal hormone therapy  

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Full Text Available Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM), estrogênica (TE) ou estro-progestagênica (TEP). A principal indicação para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida.Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET), and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT). The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal women remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT) of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

Dolores Pardini

2007-01-01

185

[Thyroid hormone profile in breast cancer patients in postmenopause].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine thyroid hormone (TH) profile in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer (BC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 12 CaM patients stages I or II, without interventions that could interfere with tumor progression were selected, as well as and a control group with 18 postmenopausal women without CaM. We measured serum anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAB), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4L), estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), before and after surgery, besides immunohistochemistry for estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. RESULTS: Four patients with CaM showed changes in thyroid hormone profile: two had hyperthyroidism, one hypothyroidism, and one was positive for TPO-AB. All of them positive for ER and PR. TSH levels in breast cancer patients were not different from levels found in the control group (1.89 ± 1.56 vs. 2.86 ± 3.12 mIU/mL), but the levels of T4L in patients with CaM were statistically higher than those of the control group (1.83 ± 0.57 vs. 1.10 ± 0.20 ng/dL). CONCLUSION: These results reinforce the need for assessment of thyroid status in CaM patients, since in the absence of E2, changes in clinical HTs can act in E2-controlled processes.

Conde SJ; Luvizotto Rde A; Síbio MT; Saraiva PP; Brentani MM; Nogueira CR

2012-06-01

186

Heparin and thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A rise of serum levels of unbound thyroid hormones T3 and T4 following intravascular injection of heparin has been repeatedly reported. The cause of this phenomenon has so far remained unexplained. Our own in vitro results supported a heparin-triggered modulation of peripheral thyroid hormone receptors. Subsequently, we tested our findings by corresponding in vivo experiments. 16 patients received an intravascular injection of heparin (7500 IU) in the course of angiography. Blood was withdrawn from hepatic vein, aorta and cubital vein simultaneously before and several times after administration. The serum concentrations of free and total T3 and T4 and of heparin were assayed simultaneously. All samples showed a rise of the concentration of unbound T3 and T4 after heparin injection. Additionally a negative concentration gradient of free T3 and T4 was found between hepatic vein and aorta and cubital vein. Modulation of thyroid hormone receptor affinity towards T3 and T4 by heparin takes place predominantly in the liver. Following impairment of receptor affinity towards T3 and T4 a reduction of intracellular uptake of these hormones takes place. In response of metabolic demand of thyroid hormones of peripheral tissues an adaptive rise of free T3 and T4 occurs. Total T4 levels were not increased in our samples. Obviously our experimental conditions in vivo were not vigorous enough to dissociate receptor-bound T4 molecules as in our in vitro experiments. Our data support the hypothesis of a heparin-derived impairment of T3 and T4 receptor affinity. The exact mechanism of this modulation remains unknown. (orig.)

1982-01-01

187

Heparin and thyroid hormones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A rise of serum levels of unbound thyroid hormones T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ following intravascular injection of heparin has been repeatedly reported. The cause of this phenomenon has so far remained unexplained. Our own in vitro results supported a heparin-triggered modulation of peripheral thyroid hormone receptors. Subsequently, we tested our findings by corresponding in vivo experiments. 16 patients received an intravascular injection of heparin (7500 IU) in the course of angiography. Blood was withdrawn from hepatic vein, aorta and cubital vein simultaneously before and several times after administration. The serum concentrations of free and total T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ and of heparin were assayed simultaneously. All samples showed a rise of the concentration of unbound T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ after heparin injection. Additionally a negative concentration gradient of free T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was found between hepatic vein and aorta and cubital vein. Modulation of thyroid hormone receptor affinity towards T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ by heparin takes place predominantly in the liver. Following impairment of receptor affinity towards T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ a reduction of intracellular uptake of these hormones takes place. In response of metabolic demand of thyroid hormones of peripheral tissues an adaptive rise of free T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ occurs. Total T/sub 4/ levels were not increased in our samples. Obviously our experimental conditions in vivo were not vigorous enough to dissociate receptor-bound T/sub 4/ molecules as in our in vitro experiments. Our data support the hypothesis of a heparin-derived impairment of T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ receptor affinity. The exact mechanism of this modulation remains unknown.

Beyer, H.K.; Schulze, B.

1982-12-01

188

Thyroid hormone and wound healing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing.

Safer JD

2013-01-01

189

Biosimilar growth hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is expiring, biosimilars or follow-on -protein products (FOPP's) have emerged. Biosimilar drugs are cheaper than the originator/comparator drug. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Biosimilar soamtropin has been approved in both the US and Europe. The scientific viability of biosimilar drugs and especially growth hormone has been proven by several rigorously conducted clinical trials. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 y for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones which served as reference comparators. The Obama Administration appears to be committed to establish innovative pathways for the approval of biologics and biosimilars in the US. The cost savings in health care expenditures will be substantial as the global sales of biologics have reached $ 93 billion in 2009.

Saenger P

2012-01-01

190

PREVALENCE OF SERUM THYROID HORMONES AND MENSTRUAL IRREGULARETIES WITH INFERTILITY IN UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA  

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Full Text Available It is important to predict the serum thyroid hormones level in females during infertility to prevent its occurrence later on. In this study, we studied serum thyroid hormones and menstrual irregularities during infertility. A case control study was performed in 75 infertile patients with menstrual irregularities and 50 healthy matched women. Three biochemical parameters were measured in serum, hormones triiodothyronine (T3), tetra-iodothyronine (T4) and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by TOSOH-AIA-360, immunoassay method. Out of 75 infertile women sixteen percent (16%) had menstrual irregularities with hypothyroidism. The mean serum thyroid level in 75 infertile women were 0.88±0.34 ng/ml, 7.69±2.87 ?Iu/dl and 5.43±6.88 ?Iu/ml, respectively. Serum T3, T4 and TSH level were statistically highly significant in infertile women. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was found at higher side in infertile women. High incidence of hypothyroidism was found in infertile women and it shows a positive correlation with menstrual disorder.

Neha Sharma et al

2012-01-01

191

Can thyroid hormone mimics affect thyroid hormone measurement by immunoassay?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine whether the environmental pollutant and thyroid mimic, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), interferes with thyroid hormone measurement by immunoassays. DESIGN & METHODS: Hormone-relevant concentrations of TBBPA were added to thyroid hormone-stripped human serum and subjected to 6 different thyroid hormone immunoassays. RESULTS: TBBPA was negative in all of the thyroid hormone immunoassays tested except at very high concentration (above that expected in serum of TBBPA-exposed workers) where it gave a marginally positive result in one immunoassay (in house T4 radioimmunoassay (RIA)). CONCLUSIONS: Serum TBBPA present as a result of workplace exposure or its use as a fabric flame retardant is very unlikely to give false positive results in thyroid hormone immunoassays.

McIver CR; Shaw IC; Gin S; Ellis MJ

2013-09-01

192

Study on changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrome due to the stagnation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To study the changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrom due to the stagnation of liver-qi. Methods: Serum thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), free thyroxine (FT4), cortisol levels were measured with immunoradioassay (IMRA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 30 patients with this type of insomnia and 30 controls. Results: The serum TSH levels were significantly lower and serum TRH, GH, cortisol FT4 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P

2007-01-01

193

Israel EQAS for thyroid related hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free Thyroxine (FT4) radioimmunoassay (RIA) was operated in 36 laboratories. The 17 serum pools distributed covered analyte concentrations from subnormal to elevated values. Five of these were based on ''zero analyte'' pools artificially prepared by treatment with Amberlite. ''Spiked'' sera was used for recovery studies. Eleven pools were analyzed more than once. Abnormal, method dependent results with large interlaboratory variation was observed in the Amberlite treated pools. A ''matrix effect' was suspected and the results excluded from analysis. The All Laboratory Trimmed Mean (ALTM) was stable to within 4% for each analyte and taken as target value. Overall recovery for T3, T4, and TSH was 101, 91, and 89 per cent. Laboratory performance was assessed from the bias of each result and the variability of bias (as CV of bias for each test), over one year. Performance has improved, especially for TSH, where median bias decreased to 1% from 39%. Percentage of laboratories with unacceptable performance fell from 79% to 32%. A trend towards increased use of IRMA for TSH and of F-T4 was observed. However, F-T4 results proved method dependent. TSH IRMA is suggested as the best supplementary test to T4 for thyroid function testing. Refs, figs and tabs

1988-01-01

194

Frailty, sarcopenia, and hormones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Frailty is now a definable clinical syndrome with a simple screening test. Age-related changes in hormones play a major role in the development of frailty by reducing muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia). Selective Androgen Receptor Molecules and ghrelin agonists are being developed to treat sarcopenia. The role of Activin Type IIB soluble receptors and Follistatin-like 3 mimetics is less certain because of side effects. Exercise (resistance and aerobic), vitamin D and protein supplementation, and reduction of polypharmacy are keys to the treatment of frailty.

Morley JE; Malmstrom TK

2013-06-01

195

Frailty, sarcopenia, and hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frailty is now a definable clinical syndrome with a simple screening test. Age-related changes in hormones play a major role in the development of frailty by reducing muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia). Selective Androgen Receptor Molecules and ghrelin agonists are being developed to treat sarcopenia. The role of Activin Type IIB soluble receptors and Follistatin-like 3 mimetics is less certain because of side effects. Exercise (resistance and aerobic), vitamin D and protein supplementation, and reduction of polypharmacy are keys to the treatment of frailty. PMID:23702408

Morley, John E; Malmstrom, Theodore K

2013-06-01

196

A thyroid hormone receptor mutation that dissociates thyroid hormone regulation of gene expression in vivo  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is most often due to point mutations in the ?-isoform of the thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR-?). The majority of mutations involve the ligand-binding domain, where they block TH binding and receptor function on both stimulatory and inhibitory TH response elements. In contrast, a few mutations in the ligand-binding domain are reported to maintain TH binding and yet cause RTH in certain tissues. We introduced one such naturally occurring human RTH mutation (R429Q) into the germline of mice at the TR-? locus. R429Q knock-in (KI) mice demonstrated elevated serum TH and inappropriately normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, consistent with hypothalamic–pituitary RTH. In contrast, 3 hepatic genes positively regulated by TH (Dio1, Gpd1, and Thrsp) were increased in R429Q KI animals. Mice were then rendered hypothyroid, followed by graded T3 replacement. Hypothyroid R429Q KI mice displayed elevated TSH subunit mRNA levels, and T3 treatment failed to normally suppress these levels. T3 treatment, however, stimulated pituitary Gh levels to a greater degree in R429Q KI than in control mice. Gsta, a hepatic gene negatively regulated by TH, was not suppressed in R429Q KI mice after T3 treatment, but hepatic Dio1 and Thrsp mRNA levels increased in response to TH. Cardiac myosin heavy chain isoform gene expression also showed a specific defect in TH inhibition. In summary, the R429Q mutation is associated with selective impairment of TH-mediated gene repression, suggesting that the affected domain, necessary for TR homodimerization and corepressor binding, has a critical role in negative gene regulation by TH.

Machado, Danielle S.; Sabet, Amin; Santiago, Leticia A.; Sidhaye, Aniket R.; Chiamolera, Maria I.; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M.; Wondisford, Fredric E.

2009-01-01

197

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone is associated with elevated cortisol in healthy young men and women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attention has been given to subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevation of TSH (4.5-10 uIU/L) with T4 and T3 levels still within the normal range. Controversy exists about the proper lower limit of TSH that defines patients in the subclinical hypothyroidism range and about if/when subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated. Additional data are needed to examine the relationship between markers of thyroid function in the subclinical hypothyroidism range, biomarkers of health and ultimately health outcomes. Objective We aimed to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels in the 0.5-10 uIU/L range and serum cortisol in a cohort of healthy young men and women without clinical evidence of hypothyroidism. Based on data in frank hypothyroidism, we hypothesized that serum TSH levels would be positively correlated with serum cortisol levels, suggesting derangement of the cortisol axis even in subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in 54 healthy, young (mean 20.98 +/? 0.37 yrs) men (19) and women (35). Lab sessions took place at 1300 hrs where blood was drawn via indwelling catheter for later assessment of basal serum TSH, free T3, free T4, and cortisol levels. Results All but 1 participant had free T3 levels within the normal reference intervals; free T4 levels for all participants were within the normal reference intervals. Linear regression modeling revealed that TSH levels in the 0.5-10 uIU/L were significantly and positively correlated with cortisol levels. This positive TSH-cortisol relationship was maintained below the accepted 4.5 uIU/L subclinical hypothyroid cutoff. Separate regression analyses conducted by systematically dropping the TSH cutoff by 0.50 uIU/L revealed that the TSH-cortisol relationship was maintained for TSH levels (uIU/L) ?4.0, ?3.5, ?3.0, and ?2.5 but not ?2.0. Linear regression modeling did not reveal a relationship between free T3 or free T4 levels and cortisol levels. Conclusions Results suggest a positive relationship between TSH and cortisol in apparently healthy young individuals. In as much as this relationship may herald a pathologic disorder, these preliminary results suggest that TSH levels > 2.0 uIU/L may be abnormal. Future research should address this hypothesis further, for instance through an intervention study.

Walter Kimberly N; Corwin Elizabeth J; Ulbrecht Jan; Demers Laurence M; Bennett Jeanette M; Whetzel Courtney A; Klein Laura

2012-01-01

198

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone is associated with elevated cortisol in healthy young men and women  

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Abstract Background Recent attention has been given to subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevation of TSH (4.5-10 uIU/L) with T4 and T3 levels still within the normal range. Controversy exists about the proper lower limit of TSH that defines patients in the subclinical hypot...

Walter Kimberly N; Corwin Elizabeth J; Ulbrecht Jan; Demers Laurence M; Bennett Jeanette M; Whetzel Courtney A

199

Neonatal Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism and Primary TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to evaluate the quantitation of TSH in cord serum and eluates from blood spotted filter paper specimens as the most sensitive and cost effective screening test to identify infants with primary hypothyroidism. The use of TSH as a si...

T. P. Foley W. H. Murphy

1981-01-01

200

A novel mutation in thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) gene in congenital hypothyroidism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 3-year-old girl had global developmental delay with dysmorphic facies. In addition, she was found to have congenital hypothyroidism. In view of the associated dysmorphism, a karyotype analysis was done. It revealed a novel translocation mutation, 46XX t(1;14) (p22;q32). The association of this mutation with congenital hypothyroidism has been postulated in our case report. To the best of our knowledge, this mutation has never been described before in cases of congenital hypothyroidism.

Nirupam N; Maheshwari A; Gupta S; Aneja S; Seth A

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

A Study On Thyroxine and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Women During Pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study on 50 pregnant women in Allied Hospital, Faisalabad revealed non significant difference in T4 and TSH levels between women of 2nd and 3rd trimester. Similarly, T4 and TSH levels showed no statistical difference between those women used multivitamins and iodine supplements and those did not used. The correlation between T4 and TSH was higher and negative in women having normal body weight to their height and those did not used multivitamins tablets. However, a positive correlation between T4 and TSH was observed in women those used iodine and negative in women those did not used iodine.

Amna Habib; N. Bhatti; A.H. Gilani; M. A. Khan; M. T. Javed; S.B. Zaidi

1999-01-01

202

Modification of thyroid stimulating hormone estimation method in alpha prime LS system (SFRI)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The alpha prime LS (APLS) system consists of both enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) processing arrangements. All the programmes are open and accessible to modification. But, as CLIA kits are system dedicated kits, so the option for user defined progra...

Pal, Shyamali

203

[Male hormonal contraception].  

Science.gov (United States)

Human reproduction is a complex phenomenon remaining at the center of interest of many medical and extra-medical disciplines and the search for new contraceptive methods is an important part of research effort. The development of effective forms of male hormonal contraception (MHC) is one of the priorities of the World Health Organization (WHO Task Force on Methods of Regulation of Male Fertility). The principle of MHC consists in the suppression of spermatogenesis while preserving all other functional aspects of the male glands (especially the sexual functions, bone metabolism and lean muscle mass). It is possible to stop spermatogenesis by blocking gonadotrophin (FSH and LH) secretion by testosterone administration (isolated or in combination with other hormones). The currently existing variants of MHC are based on testosterone application (which has in the same time the role of substitutive treatment--the so-called androgen "add-back") either in monotherapy (oral, intramuscular, transdermal and subcutaneous form) or in combination with various progestins (levonorgestrel, norethisterone, desogestrel, eronogestrel, medroxyprogesterone), antiandrogens or GnRH analogues. The most promising, at present, seem to be the methods which use a combination of depot testosterone preparations with long-acting progestins. To what extent will the role of MHC be important in the future--this can only be judged after establishing their effectiveness, full reversibility, safe application, acceptability, and financial accessibility in clinical practice. PMID:17165528

Porsová-Dutoit, I

2006-11-01

204

Alteration of thyroid hormone homeostasis by antiepileptic drugs in humans: involvement of glucuronosyltransferase induction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: The aim of this review article is to analyse which antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) alter thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans and when this can be explained, at least partially, by the induction of the glucuronoconjugation pathways. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched which have provided more than 300 articles. These have been integrated with fundamental books and personal information by experts in the different areas examined. RESULTS: Alteration of thyroid hormone homeostasis by phenobarbital/primidone, phenytoin, and carbamazepine clearly occurs in humans. However, it is not associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) increase and the clinical significance of altered serum concentrations of thyroid hormones by these antiepileptic drugs has remained unclear. The published information on the effect of the other antiepileptic drugs examined in this review article on thyroid hormones is lacking (felbamate, pregabalin, zonisamide) or limited. Oxcarbazepine appears to have some effects. Topiramate would need further investigations as well as gabapentin. Levetiracetam, tiagabine, vigabatrine, and lamotrigine do not alter at all, or only minimally, thyroid hormone homeostasis. CONCLUSION: Concerning the antiepileptic drugs which alter thyroid hormone homeostasis, it is highly probable that the mechanism of induction of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) is involved, at least partially, in such an alteration. However, it is not possible to estimate the relative contribution of the UGT induction by these drugs on the total alteration observed in thyroid hormone levels, as other mechanisms not investigated, or not examined in the present article, could contribute.

Benedetti MS; Whomsley R; Baltes E; Tonner F

2005-12-01

205

Manganese-induced effects on testicular trace element levels and crucial hormonal parameters of Hyline cocks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Manganese (Mn) is an essential element required for normal development and reproduction. However, little is known about the reproductive toxicity of Mn in birds. To investigate the Mn-induced toxicity on testicular trace element levels and crucial hormonal parameters on male reproduction in birds, 50-day-old male Hyline cocks were fed either a commercial diet or a Mn-supplemented diet. The changes in contents of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) in testis were detected. Hormonal parameters were evaluated including the levels of testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) in the serum. The mRNA levels of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) were determined in this study. The results showed that Mn was accumulated in testis, and the content of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Ca decreased. Exposure to Mn significantly lowered the content of T, LH, FSH, and the mRNA expression levels of LHR and FSHR. Levels of T3 and T4 appeared with a decreased tendency, and TSH presented no obvious regularity. It indicated that Mn exposure resulted in the disbalance of testicular trace elements and influenced hormone levels in the molecular level, which may be possible underlying reproductive toxicity mechanism induced by Mn.

Liu XF; Zhang LM; Zhang Z; Liu N; Xu SW; Lin HJ

2013-02-01

206

Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

2012-12-13

207

Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method.

Jin YB; Choi HD; Kim BC; Pack JK; Kim N; Lee YS

2013-05-01

208

Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient little mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/lit mice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising from mutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p<0.001). In comparison, an intermediate growth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a.

Peroni CN; Hayashida CY; Nascimento N; Longuini VC; Toledo RA; Bartolini P; Bowers CY; Toledo SP

2012-01-01

209

[Growth hormone therapy in adults  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In adult patients with growth hormone deficiency due to organic hypopituitarism, substitution with growth hormone is very useful and well established. Positive influence on numerous target parameters has been investigated in randomised controlled trials (evidence level I) and could be documented. Thus, growth hormone substitution in hypopituitarism is scientifically founded and has been admitted by the authorities in the European Union. Concerning pharmacotherapy with growth hormone in healthy elderly persons without pituitary disease and also doping in sports, the situation is completely different. Use of growth hormone in these circumstances has not sufficiently been investigated concerning indications, efficacy and safety. Ethical and economical aspects have not been evaluated yet. Serious concerns about the therapeutic safety need to be considered.

Kann PH

2005-09-01

210

Free thyroid hormone concentrations during postnatal development in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed by decapitation at 5, 7, 12, 14, 22, 26, 32, and 40 days of age. Adult animals (175 to 225 g) were also studied. Serum-free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations rose rapidly between 5 and 12 days to levels similar to adult concentrations, whereas the percentage of FT4 was relatively high between 5 and 12 days before declining to adult values by 14 days. Serum-free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations rose progressively to attain peak concentrations at 26 days and subsequently declined to adult levels by 40 days. The percentage FT3 rose in parallel with the FT3 concentrations to peak values at 22 to 26 days before declining to adult levels. FT4/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and FT3/THS ratios increased progressively through 22 days of age in parallel with the FT3/FT4 ratio. These data indicate that free thryoid hormone concentrations follow essentially the same developmental profile as do total thyroid hormone concentrations. Progressive maturation of the negative feedback control mechanism for the pituitary-thyroid axis, as assessed by the FT4/TSH and FT3/TSH ratios, occurs through 14 days. However, the continued rise in FT3 concentrations, FT3/TSH, and FT3/FT4 ratios through 26 days suggests a further resetting of the setpoint of the pituitary-thyroid axis possibly related to the stress of weaning. PMID:7383746

Walker, P; Dubois, J D; Dussault, J H

1980-03-01

211

Free thyroid hormone concentrations during postnatal development in the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed by decapitation at 5, 7, 12, 14, 22, 26, 32, and 40 days of age. Adult animals (175 to 225 g) were also studied. Serum-free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations rose rapidly between 5 and 12 days to levels similar to adult concentrations, whereas the percentage of FT4 was relatively high between 5 and 12 days before declining to adult values by 14 days. Serum-free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations rose progressively to attain peak concentrations at 26 days and subsequently declined to adult levels by 40 days. The percentage FT3 rose in parallel with the FT3 concentrations to peak values at 22 to 26 days before declining to adult levels. FT4/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and FT3/THS ratios increased progressively through 22 days of age in parallel with the FT3/FT4 ratio. These data indicate that free thryoid hormone concentrations follow essentially the same developmental profile as do total thyroid hormone concentrations. Progressive maturation of the negative feedback control mechanism for the pituitary-thyroid axis, as assessed by the FT4/TSH and FT3/TSH ratios, occurs through 14 days. However, the continued rise in FT3 concentrations, FT3/TSH, and FT3/FT4 ratios through 26 days suggests a further resetting of the setpoint of the pituitary-thyroid axis possibly related to the stress of weaning.

Walker P; Dubois JD; Dussault JH

1980-03-01

212

Cigarette smoking and thyroid hormone levels in males.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has been linked to thyroid disease, although studies of this problem have not shown consistent affects, with some studies linking smoking to increased thyroid hormone levels, and others to decreased thyroid hormone levels. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of information collected from 4462 Vietnam-era male US Army veterans aged 31-49 years who participated in the Vietnam Experience Study in 1985-1986. The study group consisted of 1962 current smokers and 2406 current non-smokers who had no thyroid abnormalities on physical examination, no current use of thyroid medicine, and no history of thyroid disease. RESULTS: We found that current smokers have higher thyroxine levels and lower thyroid stimulating hormone levels than never smokers and former smokers. The higher thyroxine levels that we detected in smokers, compared to non-smokers, diminished when we controlled for thyroxine-binding globulin and testosterone. We also found that heavy smokers had a smaller increase in thyroxine levels than did light smokers, when compared to non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest at least two distinct mechanisms for the effect of tobacco smoke on thyroid function; one related to higher levels of thyroxine-binding globulin and testosterone among smokers compared to non-smokers and another related to higher levels of thyrotoxins in tobacco smoke in heavy smokers compared to light and moderate smokers.

Fisher CL; Mannino DM; Herman WH; Frumkin H

1997-10-01

213

Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets) were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (36 weeks); for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (36 weeks); and for TSH, values were (?IU/mL): 1.12 ± 0.69 (36 weeks). Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain.

Bocos-Terraz Julia; Izquierdo-Álvarez Silvia; Bancalero-Flores Jose; Álvarez-Lahuerta Rosa; Aznar-Sauca Ana; Real-López Elisabet; Ibáñez-Marco Raquel; Bocanegra-García Virgilio; Rivera-Sánchez Gildardo

2009-01-01

214

Effects of sertraline treatment on plasma cortisol, prolactin and thyroid hormones in female depressed patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of 4 and 24 weeks of sertraline treatment (average dose 42.5 mg/day) on plasma hormone levels in 15 female patients with major depression. Baseline levels of triiodothyronine (T(3)) were lower, while cortisol, prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxin (T(4)) levels did not differ from the values in 16 female controls. There was a positive correlation between the scores on the Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scale and baseline cortisol levels. Treatment with sertraline for 4 weeks increased plasma cortisol levels, while 24 weeks of sertraline treatment increased plasma T(3) levels in depressed patients. Neither 4, nor 24 weeks of sertraline treatment affected PRL, T(4) and TSH levels in depressed patients. The data show different and time-dependent effects of sertraline treatment on plasma cortisol, PRL and thyroid hormones in female depressed patients.

Sagud M; Pivac N; Mück-Seler D; Jakovljevi? M; Mihaljevi?-Peles A; Korsi? M

2002-01-01

215

Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormonereleasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormonereceptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p<0.001). In comparison, an intermediate growth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a.

Cibele N. Peroni; Cesar Y. Hayashida; Nancy Nascimento; Viviane C. Longuini; Rodrigo A. Toledo; Paolo Bartolini; Cyril Y. Bowers; Sergio P.A. Toledo

2012-01-01

216

Growth hormone-releasing hormone: not only a neurohormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is mostly thought to act by stimulating the production and release of growth hormone from the pituitary. However, this neuropeptide emerges as a rather pleiotropic hormone in view of the identification of various extrapituitary sources for GHRH production, as well as the demonstration of a direct action of GHRH on several tissues other than the pituitary. Non-pituitary GHRH has a wide spectrum of activity, exemplified by its ability to modulate cell proliferation, especially in malignant tissues, to regulate differentiation of some cell types, and to promote healing of skin wounds. These findings extend the role of GHRH and its analogs beyond its accepted regulation of somatotropic activity and indicate new possibilities for therapeutic intervention.

Kiaris H; Chatzistamou I; Papavassiliou AG; Schally AV

2011-08-01

217

Hormone signaling in plant development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hormone signaling plays diverse and critical roles during plant development. In particular, hormone interactions regulate meristem function and therefore control formation of all organs in the plant. Recent advances have dissected commonalities and differences in the interaction of auxin and cytokinin in the regulation of shoot and root apical meristem function. In addition, brassinosteroid hormones have recently been discovered to regulate root apical meristem size. Further insights have also been made into our understanding of the mechanism of crosstalk among auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in axillary meristems.

Durbak A; Yao H; McSteen P

2012-02-01

218

Hormone signaling in plant development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormone signaling plays diverse and critical roles during plant development. In particular, hormone interactions regulate meristem function and therefore control formation of all organs in the plant. Recent advances have dissected commonalities and differences in the interaction of auxin and cytokinin in the regulation of shoot and root apical meristem function. In addition, brassinosteroid hormones have recently been discovered to regulate root apical meristem size. Further insights have also been made into our understanding of the mechanism of crosstalk among auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in axillary meristems. PMID:22244082

Durbak, Amanda; Yao, Hong; McSteen, Paula

2012-01-11

219

Hormone therapy in prostate cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of nuclear medicine diagnostic bone scanning is well established in prostate cancer. This case provides an insight into the specific role that bone scanning plays in monitoring response to hormone therapy and an example of significant global skeletal response. The case highlights the remarkable efficacy of timely hormone therapy in high-grade prostate cancer with widespread bony metastasis. In addition, the range of hormone therapy currently available for clinical application in the management of metastatic prostate cancer is detailed. Finally, the case represents an incidental diagnosis of prostate cancer after evaluation of nonspecific symptoms.

Currie GM; Haase M; Hashmi R; Kiat H

2013-03-01

220

Thyroid hormone regulation of the transfected rat growth hormone promoter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A region of the rat growth hormone gene and 5' flanking DNA has been identified which promotes accurate, thyroid hormone-regulated transcriptional initiation. GC rat pituitary tumor cells were transfected with chimaeric plasmids containing various lengths of rat growth hormone gene and 5' flanking DNA fused to the coding region of the dominant selectable marker gene neo. Thyroid hormone induction of rGH-neo RNA was observed by Northern and dot blot analysis of cells transfected with rGH-neo chimaeric genes sharing the rat growth hormone gene and upstream regions from -235 to +11. Initiation of rGH-neo transcription was mapped by S1 nuclease protection to the in vivo initiation site of the natural growth hormone gene. Transcription of the most deleted thyroid hormone responsive construct involved an induction-attenuation cycle qualitatively similar to the response of the natural gene. However, the 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine responsiveness of this deleted construct was approximately 2- to 3-fold less than that of less deleted rGH-neo genes tested. These results suggest that, at a minimum, the sequences required for the cyclic 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine transcriptional response are located within the region of the gene from -235 to +11. Other sequences essential for full responsiveness appear to be located elsewhere in the 5'-flanking DNA. Rat growth hormone promoter utilization appears to be strongly cell-type dependent. We obtained stable transfectants with rGH-neo constructs only in GC cells.

Crew MD; Spindler SR

1986-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

Gouty-Colomer LA; Méry PF; Storme E; Gavois E; Robinson IC; Guérineau NC; Mollard P; Desarménien MG

2010-12-01

222

Recombinant hormones in osteoporosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: For the last 10 years, bone anabolic therapy with the recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) analogue, teriparatide (rhPTH[1 - 34]), or full-length rhPTH(1 - 84) has been an option in the treatment of osteoporosis. Both drugs are given as a daily subcutaneous injection. In the USA, only teriparatide is marketed. AREAS COVERED: Mechanisms of action by which rhPTH induces bone anabolic effects includes changes in bone remodeling, geometry and mineral density. Data from randomized controlled trials on anti-fracture efficacy are reviewed as well as results from a number of recent studies on administration less than once-a-day or intermittent-/cyclic-therapy. Treatment effects are compared with those of anti-resorptive agents. EXPERT OPINION: In terms of anti-fracture efficacy, treatment with rhPTH is not superior to treatment with potent anti-resorptive agents. However, while the process by which osteoporosis emerges is arrested in response to anti-resorptives, rhPTH acts as a bone anabolic with reversal of the process. Although this mechanism of action seems favorable, the use of rhPTH is limited by a much higher cost than that of anti-resorptive agents. As long as a superior anti-fracture efficacy has not been proven, rhPTH should be confined to patients with severe spinal osteoporosis, including patients in whom treatment with an anti-resorptive has failed.

Rejnmark L

2013-08-01

223

Steroid hormones and BDNF.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application.

Pluchino N; Russo M; Santoro AN; Litta P; Cela V; Genazzani AR

2013-06-01

224

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), ch. 7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioimmunoassay method for ACTH is described and special attention is paid to the problems arising from low plasma concentrations, strong affinity of ACTH for adsorption to glassware and incubation damage of labelled ACTH. 125I-labelled ACTH is prepared by the chloramine T method and purified by QUSO granules. The requirements are discussed in detail and a sample protocol for the incubation mixtures is given. Separation of bound and free labelled hormones is performed by adsorption of the free hormone

1976-01-01

225

Growth Hormone in Renal Insufficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth retardation is one of the known complications of chronic renal failure. Although protein-calorie malnutrition, electrolyte disturbances, acidosis and renal osteodystrophy are important factors in the development a growth failure in children with chronic renal failure, recent investigations in therapy of these children with growth hormone are promising. Growth hormone therapy increases growth velocity and final adult high in patients with chronic renal failure.

A Sotoodeh; A Rabbani; F Assadi

2000-01-01

226

Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormonereleasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormonereceptors, were (more) compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p

Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nascimento, Nancy; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Bartolini, Paolo; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P.A.

2012-01-01

227

Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F), free thyroxine (T4F), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibody (TPO), and estradiol (E2). Estrogen receptor ß (ERß) was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05). Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%); hypothyroidism (8%) and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19%) were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18%) found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05), suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

Saraiva P.P.; Figueiredo N.B.; Padovani C.R.; Brentani M.M.; Nogueira C.R.

2005-01-01

228

Thyroid hormone levels improve the prediction of mortality among patients admitted to the intensive care unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: As hormones are strongly associated with mortality in critically ill patients, we investigated whether mortality prediction based on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) is improved by combining this score with hormone measurements. DESIGN AND SETTING: Intensive care units in three hospitals. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: 113 patients admitted to. MEASUREMENTS: Within the first hour after ICU admission we measured total triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, free thyroxine, thyrotropin, cortisol, growth hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and prolactin levels and administered the APACHE. Patients were followed until they died or were discharged from the ICU. RESULTS: The best logistic regression model for ICU mortality included the APACHE score and thyroid-stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine levels. This model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.88, significantly higher than the APACHE score alone with 0.75. The model with hormone levels and APACHE score was also significantly better calibrated than the model with only the APACHE score. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of thyroid hormones to the APACHE score improves the prediction of mortality for ICU patients.

Chinga-Alayo E; Villena J; Evans AT; Zimic M

2005-10-01

229

Hormonal therapy of intrinsic aging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intrinsic skin aging represents the biological clock of the skin cells per se and reflects the reduction processes that are common in internal organs. The reduced secretion of the pituitary, adrenal glands, and the gonads contributes to characteristic aging-associated body and skin phenotypes as well as behavior patterns. Our knowledge of whether there is a direct or indirect connection between hormonal deficiency and skin aging still remains limited. In females, serum levels of 17?-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, growth hormone (GH), and its downstream hormone insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are significantly decreased with increasing age. In males, serum levels of GH and IGF-I decrease significantly, whereas it can decrease in late age in a part of the population. Hormones have been shown to influence skin morphology and functions, skin permeability, wound healing, sebaceous lipogenesis, and the metabolism of skin cells. Prevention of skin aging by estrogen/progesterone replacement therapy is effective if administered early after menopause and influences intrinsically aged skin only. Vitamin D substitution and antioxidant treatment may also be beneficial. Replacement therapy with androgens, GH, IGF-I, progesterone, melatonin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones still remains controversial.

Zouboulis CC; Makrantonaki E

2012-06-01

230

Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

1986-01-01

231

The Children Reference Range of Thyroid Hormones in Northern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is associated with mental and growth abnormality in children. The aim of this study was to determine the reference range of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyroxin (T4) and triodothyronine (T3) of children in Northern Iran. The sample population for this study consists of subjects of 4 age groups up to 21 years. The subjects were selected randomly from people referred to Danesh Medical Diagnostic Laboratory in Gorgan Northern Iran. Thyroid hormone level were investigated with Radio immunoassay. The mean concentration for T4, T3, TSH for the sample population of 4 groups were as follow (113.5, 107.4, 102.9, 99.2 nmol L-1), (1.9, 1.7, 1.9, 1.6 nmol L-1) and (2.1, 3.5, 2.9, 2.7 mIu L-1). The mean value of T3, TSH were higher for females but the mean value of T4 was slightly higher in males. The findings of this investigation indicated that there is an inverse age correlation in particular for T4 in all age groups. On the bases of the results from this study, we conclude that reference range, in all age groups and lower, upper limits of our reference range are not universally similar; therefore determination of reference range in each region is a critical need for clinical practice.

A.R. Mansourian; A.R. Ahmadi; A. Saifi; S. Bakhshandehnosrat

2010-01-01

232

21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section...1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended...

2010-04-01

233

Sekretin--det første hormon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Secretin was discovered by Starling & Bayliss in 1902. Three years later the hormone concept and hormonal regulation were described and early regulatory physiology took a major step forward. After several years of unsuccessful investigations, secretin was isolated with new chromatographic techniques and subsequently synthesised in the 1960s. Radioimmunoassays in the 1970s confirmed the final endocrine role of secretin. Cloning and molecular hybridisation in the 1990s have identified the size of production, precursor, genetic structure, and evolutionary relation to other gastrointestinal peptides. In addition, the secretin receptor has been described. In recent years, synthetic secretin has been applied in the functional and structural diagnostics of pancreatic function and in experimental therapy. Although it was the first bioactive substance to be identified as a hormone, our knowledge of secretin today, 100 years on, is still incomplete. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Jan-14

Henriksen, Jens H; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

2002-01-01

234

Sekretin--det første hormon.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Secretin was discovered by Starling & Bayliss in 1902. Three years later the hormone concept and hormonal regulation were described and early regulatory physiology took a major step forward. After several years of unsuccessful investigations, secretin was isolated with new chromatographic techniques and subsequently synthesised in the 1960s. Radioimmunoassays in the 1970s confirmed the final endocrine role of secretin. Cloning and molecular hybridisation in the 1990s have identified the size of production, precursor, genetic structure, and evolutionary relation to other gastrointestinal peptides. In addition, the secretin receptor has been described. In recent years, synthetic secretin has been applied in the functional and structural diagnostics of pancreatic function and in experimental therapy. Although it was the first bioactive substance to be identified as a hormone, our knowledge of secretin today, 100 years on, is still incomplete.

Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

2002-01-01

235

Factors affecting reproductive hormones in HIV-infected, substance-using middle-aged women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether reproductive hormone levels are affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and drug use. DESIGN: HIV-infected and uninfected women (N=429), median age 45, were interviewed on menstrual frequency, demographic and psychosocial characteristics, and drug use behaviors. Serum was obtained on cycle days 1 to 5 in women reporting regular menses. Premenopausal-, early menopausal, and late menopausal transition and postmenopausal stages were assigned based on menstrual history. Serum was assayed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and inhibin B. Body mass index, HIV serostatus, and CD4+ counts were measured. Factors associated with hormone concentrations were assessed using uni- and multivariable analyses. Hormone concentrations were compared within menstrual status categories using nonparametric comparisons of means. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional analysis, LH and FSH increased, and E2 and inhibin B were significantly lower in women of older age and more advanced menopausal status. Increased body mass index was strongly associated with decreased LH. Opiate use was significantly associated with lower inhibin B and E2 and increased prolactin. Poorer self-rated health was statistically significantly associated with lower LH and FSH, but increased education was associated with higher LH and FSH. Among HIV-seropositive women, opiate users had detectably lower FSH and LH than nonusers, and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy was significantly related to higher LH, FSH, and E2, whereas cocaine use was associated with lower E2. CONCLUSIONS: Age and menopausal status are strongly related to reproductive hormones. Body mass index and use of opiates, cocaine, and highly active antiretroviral therapy as well as educational attainment and perceived health can significantly modify reproductive hormones during the menopausal transition and need to be considered when interpreting hormone levels in middle-aged women.

Santoro N; Lo Y; Moskaleva G; Arnsten JH; Floris-Moore M; Howard AA; Adel G; Zeitlian G; Schoenbaum EE

2007-09-01

236

Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia/ Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, asses (more) sed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

Brito, Julio; Sáez, Lya; Lemp, Melchor; Liberman, Claudio; Michelsen, Harold; Araya, A Verónica

2008-07-01

237

Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

Julio Brito; Lya Sáez; Melchor Lemp; Claudio Liberman; Harold Michelsen; A Verónica Araya

2008-01-01

238

Cardiac resistance to growth hormone in uremia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Since growth hormone is required for maintaining normal cardiac structure and function and as growth hormone has a salutary effect on cardiac remodeling in disease, we postulated that if cardiac resistance to growth hormone develops in chronic renal failure (CRF) this may predispose to the cardiomyopathy of uremia. We set out to test whether in CRF there is resistance to the cardiac action of growth hormone and whether this defect might be caused by altered growth hormone signaling. METHODS: Growth hormone-deficient (dw/dw) rats and growth hormone-intact Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a subtotal nephrectomy or sham operation and pair feeding. RESULTS: In dw/dw rats treated with growth hormone for 8 days there was a significant increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA levels in controls but this response was attenuated in CRF. Next, growth hormone-stimulated Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK2-STAT5) signaling was studied 15 minutes after intravenous growth hormone in dw/dw and Sprague-Dawley rats. Growth hormone receptor, JAK2, STAT5a, and STAT5b protein levels were unaltered in CRF. Growth hormone-induced JAK2, growth hormone receptor (GHR), and STAT5 tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly depressed in CRF as was nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT5. When rats were treated with pharmacologic dose growth hormone, STAT5 phosphorylation increased similarly in CRF and control rats. CONCLUSION: Uremic rats develop cardiac resistance to growth hormone caused at least, in part, by a postreceptor defect in growth hormone-induced signaling that is characterized by impaired phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT5. These findings raise the question whether growth hormone resistance contributes to the cardiac changes of uremia.

Zheng Z; Sun DF; Tummala P; Rabkin R

2005-03-01

239

Principles and pitfalls of free hormone measurements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The free hormone hypothesis states that a hormone's physiological effects depend on the free hormone concentration, not the total hormone concentration. Although the in vivo relationship between free hormone and protein-bound hormone is complex, most experts have applied this view to the design of assays used to assess the free hormone concentration in the blood sampled for testing in vitro. The history of the measurement of free thyroxine, probably the most frequently requested free hormone determination, offers a good example of the approaches that have been taken. Methods that require physical separation of the free hormone from the protein-bound hormone must address both the potential disturbance in the equilibrium between the two, as well as the challenge of quantifying small levels of hormone accurately and precisely. The implementation of mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory has helped to develop proposed reference measurement procedures. These must be utilized to standardize the variety of immunoassay approaches that currently represent options commercially available to the routine clinical laboratory. Practicing endocrinologists should discuss the details of the free hormone assays offered by the clinical laboratory they utilize for patient result reporting, and clinical laboratories should implement the recommendations of published guidelines to ensure that free hormone results using commercially available immunoassays are as accurate and precise as possible.

Faix JD

2013-10-01

240

Antineoplastic action of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some of the antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) are able to inhibit the growth of various experimental human cancers. The antitumor effects of first antagonists seemed to be dependent mainly on the disruption of pituitary secretion of growth hormone (GH), followed by the reduction in the levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, an important growth factor for cancer cells. It seems obvious, that growth hormone deficiency (GHD) induced by GHRH antagonists with all its complications, could limit the beneficial effects of GHRH antagonists therapy, and decrease patients' quality of life. The discovery of local autocrine/paracrine production of GHRH and other related growth factors in many tumoral tissues, in combination with the wide expression of GHRH receptors on cancer cells, directed the research to the synthesis of more potent GHRH antagonists. These compounds exert strong inhibitory effects directly on tumor growth, with scarce endocrine action. The receptor-mediated mechanisms comprise complex and still not completely understood effects on intracellular signaling pathways that are strictly related to human tumorigenesis. This review summarizes recent patents and latest observations on the antineoplastic role of GHRH antagonists in human tumors with emphasis on potential therapeutic applications in clinical oncology.

Siejka A; Lawnicka H; Melen-Mucha G; Motylewska E; Komorowski J; Stepien H

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Growth hormone-releasing hormone: studies in normal subjects and patients with disorders of growth hormone secretion.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has been characterised as a 40-44 residue peptide with full biological activity residing in the first 29 residues. In normal subjects GHRH selectively promotes the release of growth hormone (GH) with little change in responsiveness throughout childhood and you...

Ross, RJ; Grossman, A

242

Bushbaby growth hormone is much more similar to nonprimate growth hormones than to rhesus monkey and human growth hormones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unlike other mammals, Old World primates have five growth hormone-like genes that are highly divergent at the amino acid level from the single growth hormone genes found in nonprimates. Additionally, there is a change in the interaction of growth hormone with its receptor in humans such that human growth hormone functions in nonprimates, whereas nonprimate growth hormone is ineffective in humans. A Southern blotting analysis of the genome of a prosimian, Galago senegalensis, revealed a single growth hormone locus. This single gene was PCR-amplified from genomic DNA and sequenced. It has a rate of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution less than one fourth that of the human growth hormone gene, while the rates of synonymous substitution in the two species are less different. Human and rhesus monkey growth hormones exhibit variation at a number of amino acid residues that can affect receptor binding. The galago growth hormone is conservative at each of these sites, indicating that this growth hormone is functionally like nonprimate growth hormones. These observations indicate that the amplification and rapid divergence of primate growth hormones occurred after the separation of the higher primate lineage from the galago lineage.

Adkins RM; Nekrutenko A; Li WH

2001-01-01

243

Bushbaby growth hormone is much more similar to nonprimate growth hormones than to rhesus monkey and human growth hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike other mammals, Old World primates have five growth hormone-like genes that are highly divergent at the amino acid level from the single growth hormone genes found in nonprimates. Additionally, there is a change in the interaction of growth hormone with its receptor in humans such that human growth hormone functions in nonprimates, whereas nonprimate growth hormone is ineffective in humans. A Southern blotting analysis of the genome of a prosimian, Galago senegalensis, revealed a single growth hormone locus. This single gene was PCR-amplified from genomic DNA and sequenced. It has a rate of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution less than one fourth that of the human growth hormone gene, while the rates of synonymous substitution in the two species are less different. Human and rhesus monkey growth hormones exhibit variation at a number of amino acid residues that can affect receptor binding. The galago growth hormone is conservative at each of these sites, indicating that this growth hormone is functionally like nonprimate growth hormones. These observations indicate that the amplification and rapid divergence of primate growth hormones occurred after the separation of the higher primate lineage from the galago lineage. PMID:11141192

Adkins, R M; Nekrutenko, A; Li, W H

2001-01-01

244

Quality Management of Steroid Hormone Assays  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter describes the principles and practices of quality management of the steroid hormone in clinical laboratory service, and the assessment of the quality of that service by the author's EQA programme (UK NEQAS for Steroid Hormones).

Middle, Jonathan G.

245

Hormone May Help Predict Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Testosterone » Thymus - Z Hormone May Help Predict Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy Aaron Lohr Director, Media Relations Phone: (240) 482- ... the hormone adrenomedullin plays significant role in tubal ectopic pregnancies Chevy Chase, MD —Tubal ectopic pregnancy (TEP) is ...

246

Genetics Home Reference: Combined pituitary hormone deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

... which stimulates the production of breast milk; and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which influences energy production in the body and ... hormones are deficient is variable, with prolactin and ACTH showing the most variability. In many affected individuals, ...

247

[Ectopic hormone secretion by neuroendocrine tumors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ectopic hormone production is a rare complication in neuroendocrine tumors. Tumors producing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are most commonly observed, leading to the classical symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome. Additionally, a very low percentage of neuroendocrine tumors can produce growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) leading to classical features of acromegaly. Moreover, ectopic antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion has been described in neuroendocrine tumors presenting as hyponatremia due to the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion. Other ectopic hormone secretions, such as paraneoplastic gonadotropin release are rarely observed. Ectopic hormone secretion is not usually associated with a detectable pituitary mass and diagnosis is based on the measurement of circulating peptides. This is frequently assisted by imaging techniques, such as somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Therapeutically a curative approach is the primary goal but in advanced tumors palliative treatment aims to control symptoms with the help of specific antihormonal compounds, such as somatostatin analogues.

Hubold C; Brabant G

2012-02-01

248

Bone loss in long-term suppressive therapy with thyroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The trabecular bone density of the spine was measured with CT in 31 women, aged 39-79 years, who had received an average of 13.5 years of thyroid suppressive therapy. The spinal trabecular bone density values in 24 (77%), 18 (58%), and 13 subjects (42%) were respectively below the mean for healthy age-matched controls, the fifth percentile for healthy premenopausal women, and the fifth percentile for age-matched controls. Cortical and trabecular bone loss occurs in hyperthyroidism. Although the intent is not to cause hyperthyroidism in subjects on suppressive therapy, supraphysical doses of thyroid hormone are usually necessary for suppression of thyroid-stimulating hormone. In this study, bone loss was noted in these subjects. Because most of these patients are middle-aged or postmenopausal women, who are at risk for osteoporosis, it is important to be aware of the risk of additional bone loss induced by thyroid suppressive therapy in them.

1987-12-04

249

Growth hormone doping: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH) as a...

Erotokritou-Mulligan I; Holt RI; Sönksen PH

250

Hormonal evaluation in premature ejaculation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Premature ejaculation (PE) is a frequently encountered sexual dysfunction in men. It significantly impairs quality of life of the affected male and his partner. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of hormonal factors in patients with PE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 107 male patients aged between 26 and 64 years (mean 45.1 ± 10.36) who consulted our outpatient clinics with complaints of PE and 94 healthy males (48.1 ± 11.81 years) as a control group were included in the study. RESULTS: When mean serum hormone concentrations of both groups were compared, levels of prolactin and free T4 were found to be significantly higher in the PE group relative to the control group (p < 0.05). At least one of the hormonal parameters was abnormal in 36 cases (33.6%) with PE, compared to only 22 (23.4%) of the controls. The number of hyperprolactinemic cases was found to be significantly increased in the PE group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We feel that during the evaluation of this problem, which affects great numbers of men and their partners throughout the world, consideration of potential effects of hormonal factors might be beneficial.

Oztürk M?; Koca O; Tüken M; Kele? MO; Ilktaç A; Karaman MI

2012-01-01

251

INJECTION HORMONIC CONTRACEPTION FOR WOMEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injection hormonic contraception for women enables reliable, secure and reversible birth control methods independent of coitus. However, it requires a periodical contact with health centre. There are two groups of medicaments for injection contraception: medicaments containing only progestagen Aa well as combined injection medicaments. These methods have become very important in setting up the family.

Milena Veljkovi?

2004-01-01

252

Clinical Aspects of Melatonin Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain. It helps regulate other hormones andmaintains the body's circadian rhythm. In animals circulating levels of the hormone melatonin vary in adaily cycle, thereby allowing the entrainment of the circadian rhythm of several biological function.Chemically melatonin and its metabolites can function as endogenous free-radical scavengers andbroad-spectrum antioxidants. Jet lag, shift work, and poor vision can disrupt melatonin cycles.Melatonin also helps control the timing and release of female reproductive hormones. It helpsdetermine when a woman starts to menstruate the frequency and duration of menstrual cycles and whena woman stops menstruating (menopause). Some researchers also believe that melatonin levels may berelated to aging for example, young children have the highest levels of night time melatonin.Researchers believe these levels drop as we age. Some people think lower levels of melatonin mayexplain why some older adults have sleep problems and tend to go to bed and wake up earlier thanwhen they were younger. However, newer research calls this theory into question. Melatonin has strongantioxidant effects. The immunomodulatory properties of melatonin are well known and it acts on theimmune system by regulating cytokine production of immunocompetent cells. Experimental andclinical data showing that melatonin reduces adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines andmodifies serum inflammatory parameters. As a consequence melatonin improves the clinical course ofillnesses which have anti-inflammatory etiology.

Faisal Mohd; Singh M K; Singh Savita1; D. Gyaneshwari; Tabish Mohd

2011-01-01

253

Growth hormone, inflammation and aging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterize...

Michal M. Masternak; Andrzej Bartke

254

Diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was essentially a clinical one prior to the advent of radioimmunoassay in the mid-1960s. From this point on both clinical and biochemical serum GH responses to a variety of provocation tests were used to define the condition. The definition of an adeq...

Webb, EA; Dattani, MT

255

Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a) discovery of this peptide, b) mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c) regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

A.-M.J. Lengyel

2006-01-01

256

Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T4) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), tri iodine thyronine (T3) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

2012-01-01

257

Testing for growth hormone deficiency in adults: doing without growth hormone-releasing hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes recent advances in testing for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults, focusing on critical appraisal of existing growth hormone (GH) provocative tests as well as newer tests in development. RECENT FINDINGS: The diagnosis of GHD can be challenging and often requires the use of GH provocative testing. The most widely validated of these is insulin-induced hypoglycemia (ITT), which requires close supervision and has significant contraindications and side-effects. The arginine-growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) test had become widely used as a safe and accurate alternative to the ITT, but GHRH is currently unavailable for clinical use in the USA. On the basis of review of recent literature we recommend that in the absence of GHRH, glucagon stimulation testing should be the preferred alternative to ITT. Several synthetic GH secretagogues that mimic the gastric peptide ghrelin are currently in development and may become available for use in the diagnosis of GHD in the near future. Other GH provocative tests suitable for use in children lack adequate specificity for the diagnosis of GHD in adults. SUMMARY: Due to the current unavailability of the arginine-GHRH test in the USA, when ITT is contraindicated or impractical we recommend the glucagon stimulation testing as the GH provocative test of choice. There remains a need for a simple, safe and accurate test for the diagnosis of GHD.

Kargi AY; Merriam GR

2012-08-01

258

Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular/ Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system/ Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contra (more) ceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem. Abstract in spanish La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe lo (more) s datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven. Abstract in english Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contracep (more) tives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

Brito, Milena Bastos; Nobre, Fernando; Vieira, Carolina Sales

2011-04-01

259

Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem.La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven.Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

Milena Bastos Brito; Fernando Nobre; Carolina Sales Vieira

2011-01-01

260

Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.

Sermin Kesebir; Arzu Etlik Aksoy

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.; Marcia Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins Pessoa

2010-01-01

262

Thyroid Hormones and Antithyroid Drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The highly conserved nature of the thyroid gland and the thyroid system amongmammalian species suggests it is critical to species survival. Despite its highlyconserved nature, the thyroid system can have widely different effects on differenttissues in the body. The thyroid hormones (THs) play critical roles in the differentiation,growth, metabolism and physiological function of virtually all tissues. TH binds toreceptors that are ligand regulatable transcription factors belonging to the nuclearhormone receptor super family. Antithryroid drugs, which have been in use for morethan half a century, remain cornerstones in the management of hyperthyroidism,especially for patients with Grave’s disease. The present review considers recentknowledge of thyroid hormones actions and pharmacologic and clinical data related tothe use of antithyroid compounds.

RAVICHAND DM; SHESHAYAMMA V; LAKSHMI KAMESHWARI V; CHAKRADHAR T

2005-01-01

263

[Lacrimal secretion in hormonal imbalance].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The aim of this study is the alteration of lacrimal secretion on a group of female patients with deregulations of the hormonal balance, by the influence of age factor. We have to mention that our female patients have no ocular pathology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study was conducted on a group of patients aged between 20-70 years old, which has been kept in observation in the Endocrinology Clinic and Obstetrics-Gynecology Clinics of Emergency Hospital, during March-August 2003. Their lacrimal secretion was monitored by volumetric tests (Schirmer). RESULTS: We studied the alteration of the lacrimal secretion on female patients with deregulations of the hormonal balance, by the influence of age factor. CONCLUSIONS: It was recorded the alteration of lacrimal secretion on the female patients with aforementioned dysfunction, the age factor being influential.

Oana T

2004-01-01

264

Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

1976-07-26

265

Highly potent growth hormone secretagogues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During an effort to search for more potent growth hormone secretagogues, we discovered a class of compounds of which the best compound 8 was 7-fold more active in vitro than the best compound in the series we revealed before [Tata, J. R.; Lu, Z.; Jacks, T. M.; Schleim, K. D.; Cheng, K.; Wei, L.; Chan, W.-S.; Butler, B.; Tsou, N.; Leung, K.; Chiu, S.-H. L.; Hickey, G. J.; Smith, R. G.; Patchett, A. A. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.1997, 7, 2319.]. Animal studies show that compound 8 can stimulate growth hormone release at the oral dose as low as 0.06 mpk. Chemistry and biological studies are discussed.

Lu Z; Tata JR; Cheng K; Wei L; Chan WW; Butler B; Schleim KD; Jacks TM; Hickey G; Patchett AA

2007-07-01

266

[How to prescribe thyroid hormones].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid substitution is generally considered easy as well by general practitioners as by specialists, considering that a single hormone levothyroxin is recommended and that laboratory tests are readily available for measurement of free T4 and TSH. However cross sectional studies have shown that about 45% of patients are over-treated and under-treated. This paper summarizes the critical information useful to facilitate a better management of hypothyroid patients by promoting long lasting euthyroidism.

Portmann L

2009-04-01

267

Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions.

Barlow JW; Voz ML; Eliard PH; Mathy-Harter M; De Nayer P; Economidis IV; Belayew A; Martial JA; Rousseau GG

1986-12-01

268

Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions. PMID:3466175

Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, P; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, G G

1986-12-01

269

Growth hormone and cognitive function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emerging data indicate that growth hormone (GH) therapy could have a role in improving cognitive function. GH replacement therapy in experimental animals and human patients counteracts the dysfunction of many behaviours related to the central nervous system (CNS). Various behaviours, such as cognitive behaviours related to learning and memory, are known to be induced by GH; the hormone might interact with specific receptors located in areas of the CNS that are associated with the functional anatomy of these behaviours. GH is believed to affect excitatory circuits involved in synaptic plasticity, which alters cognitive capacity. GH also has a protective effect on the CNS, as indicated by its beneficial effects in patients with spinal cord injury. Data collected from animal models indicates that GH might also stimulate neurogenesis. This Review discusses the mechanisms underlying the interactions between GH and the CNS, and the data emerging from animal and human studies on the relationship between GH and cognitive function. In this article, particular emphasis is given to the role of GH as a treatment for patients with cognitive impairment resulting from deficiency of the hormone.

Nyberg F; Hallberg M

2013-06-01

270

Critically low hormone and catecholamine concentrations in the primed extracorporeal life support circuit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first hours of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) are commonly marked by new hemodynamic instability without a known etiology. We measured hormone and catecholamine concentrations in six ECLS primed circuits immediately before joining the patient's circulation to assess a potential role of these agents in this condition. The following hormones were significantly below the lower end of the normal range for the first week of life (data are presented as mean +/- SEM): cortisol 1.95 +/- 0.15 microg/dl (p < 0.001), aldosterone 3.73 +/- 0.74 ng/dl (p < 0.05), free thyroxine 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng/dl (p < 0.05), free triiodothyronine 0.53 +/- 0.03 pg/ml (p < 0.001), thyroid stimulating hormone 0.31 +/- 0.05 microU/ml (p < 0.001), growth hormone (GH) 0.09 +/- 0.01 ng/ml (p < 0.001), estradiol 38.3 +/- 3.72 pg/ml (p < 0.001), IGF-BP1 0.95 +/- 0.1 ng/ml (p < 0.001), glucagon 26 +/- 1.2 pg/ml (p < 0.001), epinephrine 17.3 +/- 3.7 pg/ml (p < 0.001), and norepinephrine 127 +/- 27 pg/ml (p < 0.05). No dopamine was detected. Normal hormone concentrations included IGF-I, IGF-BP3, insulin, parathyroid hormone, leptin, and testosterone. Critically low concentrations of cortisol, thyroid hormones, GH, IGF-BP1, glucagon and catecholamines were measured in the ECLS circuit even though it was primed with fresh frozen plasma. These concentrations may cause significant and precipitous dilutional reductions in the patient's circulating levels immediately after connection to the ECLS circuit and hence contribute to hemodynamic instability.

Agus MS; Jaksic T

2004-01-01

271

Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

1989-01-01

272

VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyroxine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3?IU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000): 57-59

Pallavi Chaurasia; Bhautik Modi; Sarita Mangukiya; Pranay Jadav; Rita Shah

2011-01-01

273

Effect of salinity level on TSH and thyroid hormones of grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (T3, T4) have marked effect on body metabolism and in controlling osmoregulation activity in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water salinity changes on thyroid hormones level and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of grass carp. For this purpose 120 grass carp were divided randomly in to four groups (10 fish in each group and three replicates per treatment). Three groups were held in three different salinities at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1. The fourth group was reared in fresh water and considered as control. After three weeks blood samples were collected from the caudal peduncle vein. Then serum was separated and serum thyroid hormones and TSH were measured by LISA on Microwell plates. Our results indicated that the average of T3 levels in 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 groups were 0.43 ± 0.11, 0.22 ± 0.04 and 0.21 ± 0.04 ?g dL-1, respectively. T3 levels in all experimental groups were significantly lower than those of control group (p 0.05). The level of TSH in salinities of 4 and 8 g L-1 groups was significantly higher than that of control group (p < 0.05). The results showed that increasing water salinity can have significant effect on thyroid activity by decreasing T3 and increasing T4 level in serum of grass carp in experimental condition.

Rahim Peyghan; Ala Enayati; Mostafa Sabzevarizadeh

2013-01-01

274

Relationship between maternal thyroid hormones and the biochemical markers of the first trimester aneuploidy screening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The role of thyroid function in biochemical markers of first trimester screening has not been assessed. The aim of the present study was to investigate if there were any relation between maternal thyroid hormones and free-beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (f?-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels as the biochemical markers of the combined first trimester aneuploidy screening. METHODS: 375 pregnant women between 11 and 14 weeks of gestation who were offered routine first trimester prenatal aneuploidy screening and whose thyroid hormone levels (Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine, free and total triiodothyronine, anti thyroid peroxidase antibody) were measured were assessed. Correlation of free-?-hCG and PAPP-A with maternal thyroid hormones was analyzed. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant correlation between maternal TSH, free and total thyroxine, free and total triiodothyronine, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and free-?-hCG and PAPP-A as biochemical markers of first trimester aneuploidy screening. CONCLUSION: Maternal thyroid function does not seem to affect secretion of f?-hCG and PAPP-A.

Aytan H; Caliskan AC; Demirturk F; Sahin S; Erdogan F; Kuzu Z

2013-06-01

275

Thyroid hormone levels in patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study was conducted with three main objectives, to study thyroid hormones (T 4, T 3) and TSH levels in patients with CRF under haemodialysis and to compare them with normal subjects, to study best means of treatment and to compare these findings with results from other parts of the world. This study was done on 61 patients with renal failure in Khartoum dialysis and kidney transplant centre U of K, 45 males and 16 females with ages ranging from 17-75 years and 42 symptoms-free subjects 14 males and 23 females with age ranging from 16-60 years. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used for the determination of serum T 4, T 3 and TSH. By using t-test found that the mean concentrations of T 4, T 3 of normal subjects were much higher than those of the patients (p0.05). These results also illustrated that 45.9% of patients with renal failure of low T 4, and 91.8%, 90.26 of patients had T 3 and TSH hormone levels in the normal range, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean of thyroid hormones (T 4, T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormones between males and females (p>0.05). The T 3 and T '4 concentrations in patients at all age groups (year) was less than the age groups of the control group, and this decrease was statistically significant (p0.05).(Author)

1998-01-01

276

A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) negative Graves’s disease (GD) is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia forty years ago. She did not show characteristic symptoms for hyperthyroidism, such as swelling of thyroid, exophthalmos, tachycardia and tremor, however, she showed only psychomotor agitation. Serum free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels were elevated and TSH level was suppressed, suggesting the existence of hyperthyroidism. However, both the first generation TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb1) and the thyroid stimulating autoantibody (TSAb) were negative. Slightly increased blood flow and swelling was detected by thyroid echography. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse and remarkably elevated uptake of 123I uptake. Finally, we diagnosed her as having GD. She was treated by using methimazole, and hyperthyroidism and her psychiatric symptoms were promptly ameliorated. Discussion We experienced a patient with GD who did not show characteristic symptoms except for psychiatric symptoms, and also showed negativity for both TRAb1 and TSAb. Thyroid autoantibody-negative GD is extremely rare. Thyroid scintigraphy was useful to diagnose such a patient.

Hamasaki Hidetaka; Yoshimi Taro; Yanai Hidekatsu

2012-01-01

277

Expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenomas of the breast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fibroadenoma is the most prevalent benign breast tumor. It consists of epithelial and stromal components. In general, breast tumors are highly hormonally dependent and growth hormone by its physiology may have a possible oncogenic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas. Study group included 30 randomly chosen fibroadenomas from female patients aged between 18 and 69 years. The expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor was defined in both histologic components of fibroadenomas. Growth hormone was expressed in 96.7% of both epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas, with stronger expression in the stromal component. The same percentage of positive reaction (96.7%) was obtained in the epithelial component of fibroadenomas for growth hormone receptor expression. Only 6.7% of stromal components tested for growth hormone receptor were positive. The high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenoma tissue indicates their possible role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Follow up of patients with high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor may be suggested.

Lenicek T; Kasumovi? D; Stajduhar E; Dzombeta T; Juki? Z; Kruslin B

2013-06-01

278

Reference intervals for thyroid hormones on the architect analyser.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to establish reference intervals for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyronine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) on the Architect i2000 analyser (Abbott). Serum samples were obtained from apparently healthy adults (n=217, age 18-90 years) excluding individuals taking oral contraceptives or under hormone replacement therapy. The second group were ambulatory euthyroid patients (n=323) excluding those with a history of thyroid disorders. We also investigated thyroid hormones in sera from euthyroid hospitalised patients (n=490) excluding those with severe non-thyroidal illness. The reference intervals for the healthy adults were for TSH 0.17-4.23 mIU/l, for FT4 11.24-26.86 pmol/l, for FT3 2.56-6.36 pmol/l, for TT4 55.8-155.1 nmol/l and for TT3 0.90-2.54 nmol/l. TSH and TT3 concentrations were similar in males and females. However, FT4, FT3 and TT4 levels exhibited significant differences between females and males. No significant differences were observed between the concentrations of TSH, FT3, TT3, FT4 and TT4 in healthy subjects and in euthyroid ambulatory patients aged 18-90 years. TSH levels in healthy subjects were the same in younger and older individuals. In contrast, in outpatients and in hospitalised patients TSH concentrations were significantly lower (20%) in subjects older than 50 years compared to those younger than 50 years. For FT3 and TT3 we consistently observed in all three study groups 6-7% and 8-12% higher concentrations in the younger ( 50 years) subjects. For FT4 and TT4 no consistent pattern of correlation with age was detectable when the three study groups were analysed independently. The reference intervals for thyroid hormones determined in this study differ considerably from values found in other European and non-European countries. This underlines the need for population-specific reference ranges. PMID:11939490

Hubl, Walter; Schmieder, Jürgen; Gladrow, Eberhard; Demant, Thomas

2002-02-01

279

Reference intervals for thyroid hormones on the architect analyser.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to establish reference intervals for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyronine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) on the Architect i2000 analyser (Abbott). Serum samples were obtained from apparently healthy adults (n=217, age 18-90 years) excluding individuals taking oral contraceptives or under hormone replacement therapy. The second group were ambulatory euthyroid patients (n=323) excluding those with a history of thyroid disorders. We also investigated thyroid hormones in sera from euthyroid hospitalised patients (n=490) excluding those with severe non-thyroidal illness. The reference intervals for the healthy adults were for TSH 0.17-4.23 mIU/l, for FT4 11.24-26.86 pmol/l, for FT3 2.56-6.36 pmol/l, for TT4 55.8-155.1 nmol/l and for TT3 0.90-2.54 nmol/l. TSH and TT3 concentrations were similar in males and females. However, FT4, FT3 and TT4 levels exhibited significant differences between females and males. No significant differences were observed between the concentrations of TSH, FT3, TT3, FT4 and TT4 in healthy subjects and in euthyroid ambulatory patients aged 18-90 years. TSH levels in healthy subjects were the same in younger and older individuals. In contrast, in outpatients and in hospitalised patients TSH concentrations were significantly lower (20%) in subjects older than 50 years compared to those younger than 50 years. For FT3 and TT3 we consistently observed in all three study groups 6-7% and 8-12% higher concentrations in the younger (< 50 years) compared to the older (> 50 years) subjects. For FT4 and TT4 no consistent pattern of correlation with age was detectable when the three study groups were analysed independently. The reference intervals for thyroid hormones determined in this study differ considerably from values found in other European and non-European countries. This underlines the need for population-specific reference ranges.

Hubl W; Schmieder J; Gladrow E; Demant T

2002-02-01

280

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid ho (more) rmones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

Pereira Jr., Jose Carlos; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Pessoa, Hugo de Lins

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Concentrations of thyroid axis hormones in psychotic patients on hospital admission: the effects of prior drug use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of thyroid axis hormones in psychotic patients on hospital admission and to search for the associations between the concentrations of these hormones and prior drug use as well as mental symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Psychiatric diagnoses, psychotropic drug use, and the severity of psychoses were evaluated using the standard methods on admission. Venous blood from patients and healthy controls was drawn for the analysis of free thyroxin (FT(4)), free triiodothyronine (FT(3)), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations. RESULTS. Eighty-one psychotic patients, free of a thyroid disorder, were enrolled into the study. Compared with the controls, they displayed the higher FT(4) concentrations in the general group (P=0.003) and the higher SHBG concentrations only in men (P=0.013). The FT(4) concentration was higher in the patients who were not taking an antipsychotic drug on admission (P=0.039). No significant correlation was found between the severity of psychosis and concentrations of thyroid axis hormones. However, the FT(3) concentration in the general group and TSH concentration in women correlated with the factor of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale expressing elevated mood. CONCLUSIONS. Our study confirms the higher FT(4) concentrations in a significant proportion of acute psychotic patients. The concentrations of thyroid axis hormones were found to be associated with prior antipsychotic treatment on hospital admission.

Steiblien? V; Mickuvien? N; Prange AJ Jr; Bunevi?ius R

2012-01-01

282

Hormone receptors in renal cancer: an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current literature concerning hormone receptors in renal cell cancer is reviewed. Our own results of histochemical determination of estrogen receptors by means of monoclonal antibodies are presented. Based on the studies that have been reviewed and the differing results of the receptor assays, we conclude that there is a very limited basis to apply hormone therapy in renal cell cancer. However, the new immunohisto-chemical methods should be used to resolve the question about the hormone dependency of renal carcinoma.

Jakse G; Müller-Holzner E

1988-01-01

283

Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes.

Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

1985-05-01

284

[Hormonal therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogens favor the development and/or exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Numerous reports have described the association between estrogens exposure (oral contraceptives and menopause hormonal therapy) and development or exacerbation of SLE. Some new studies showed benefit from oral contraceptives and other hormonal therapies without a change in lupus activity but with increased risk of thrombosis. Hormonal therapy in SLE patients should be individual according to clinical presentation and progression of the disease. PMID:20429261

Kaliterna, Dusanka Martinovi?; Krstulovi?, Danijela Marasovi?; Radi?, Mislav

2009-01-01

285

[Hormonal therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estrogens favor the development and/or exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Numerous reports have described the association between estrogens exposure (oral contraceptives and menopause hormonal therapy) and development or exacerbation of SLE. Some new studies showed benefit from oral contraceptives and other hormonal therapies without a change in lupus activity but with increased risk of thrombosis. Hormonal therapy in SLE patients should be individual according to clinical presentation and progression of the disease.

Kaliterna DM; Krstulovi? DM; Radi? M

2009-01-01

286

Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

Goswami S; Ghosh S; Chowdhury S

2012-09-01

287

Discordances between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in female infertility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) represent the two most frequently utilized laboratory tests in determining ovarian reserve (OR). This study determined the clinical significance of their concordance and discordance in female inf...

Gleicher Norbert; Weghofer Andrea; Barad David H

288

The short-term use of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues in uterine fibroids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twelve patients with uterine fibroids, who were due to undergo myomectomy, were treated preoperatively with the luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue, Zoladex. This resulted in a marked reduction in uterine and fibroid volume and surgery was facilitated.

Van der Spuy ZM; Fieggan AG; Wood MJ; Pienaar CA

1989-01-01

289

Ectopic acromegaly due to growth hormone releasing hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acromegaly secondary to extra-pituitary tumors secreting growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is rarely encountered. We review the literature on ectopic acromegaly and present the index report of ectopic acromegaly secondary to GHRH secretion from a mediastinal paraganglioma. Clinical and pathological manifestations and therapeutic management of 99 patients with ectopic acromegaly are reviewed. Acromegaly secondary to ectopic GHRH secretion is usually caused by a neuroendocrine tumor in the lung and pancreas. We report an additional cause of ectopic acromegaly from a mediastinal paraganglioma. Diagnostic criteria of ectopic GHRH syndrome include biochemical and pathologic tumoral confirmation of GHRH secretion and expression. Management of ectopic acromegaly consists of surgical resection of the primary tumor and biochemical normalization, with possible adjuvant use of somatostatin analogs. The review demonstrates that there are several tumor types, including paragangliomas which may secrete GHRH, leading to acromegaly. Clinical and laboratory manifestations of the syndrome and challenges in diagnosis and management of these rarely encountered patients require early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent long-term morbidity and mortality with ectopic acromegaly. PMID:22983831

Ghazi, Ali A; Amirbaigloo, Alireza; Dezfooli, Azizollah Abbasi; Saadat, Navid; Ghazi, Siavash; Pourafkari, Marina; Tirgari, Farrokh; Dhall, Dheepti; Bannykh, Serguei; Melmed, Shlomo; Cooper, Odelia

2012-09-15

290

Ectopic acromegaly due to growth hormone releasing hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acromegaly secondary to extra-pituitary tumors secreting growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is rarely encountered. We review the literature on ectopic acromegaly and present the index report of ectopic acromegaly secondary to GHRH secretion from a mediastinal paraganglioma. Clinical and pathological manifestations and therapeutic management of 99 patients with ectopic acromegaly are reviewed. Acromegaly secondary to ectopic GHRH secretion is usually caused by a neuroendocrine tumor in the lung and pancreas. We report an additional cause of ectopic acromegaly from a mediastinal paraganglioma. Diagnostic criteria of ectopic GHRH syndrome include biochemical and pathologic tumoral confirmation of GHRH secretion and expression. Management of ectopic acromegaly consists of surgical resection of the primary tumor and biochemical normalization, with possible adjuvant use of somatostatin analogs. The review demonstrates that there are several tumor types, including paragangliomas which may secrete GHRH, leading to acromegaly. Clinical and laboratory manifestations of the syndrome and challenges in diagnosis and management of these rarely encountered patients require early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent long-term morbidity and mortality with ectopic acromegaly.

Ghazi AA; Amirbaigloo A; Dezfooli AA; Saadat N; Ghazi S; Pourafkari M; Tirgari F; Dhall D; Bannykh S; Melmed S; Cooper O

2013-04-01

291

Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

1983-01-01

292

Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH) receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4) secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1) catalyses both outer ring (ORD) and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD). Type II deiodinase (D2) only catalyses ORD while type III (D3) only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in TH activity.

Darras V.M.; van der Geyten S.; Kuehn E.R.

2000-01-01

293

Tandem mass spectrometry in hormone measurement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mass spectrometry methods have the potential to measure different hormones during the same analysis and have improved specificity and a wide analytical range compared with many immunoassay methods. Increasingly in clinical laboratories liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays are replacing immunoassays for the routine measurement of testosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and other steroid hormones. Reference LC-MS/MS methods for steroid, thyroid, and peptide hormones are being used for assessment of the performance and calibration of commercial immunoassays. In this chapter, the general principles of tandem mass spectrometry and examples of hormone assays are described.

Field HP

2013-01-01

294

[Parathyroid hormone and Wnt signaling].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is clinically used as therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in Japan. However, the mechanisms for bone anabolic action of PTH are not fully understood. Recently, numerous studies suggest that PTH enhances bone formation through the suppression of sclerostin, DKK1 and sFRP1, inhibitors of Wnt-?-catenin signal. Moreover, we identified Tmem119 as new osteoblast differentiation factor, which is involved in an increase in?-catenin level by PTH in osteoblasts. Further understanding of Wnt-?-catenin signaling in the bone anabolic action by PTH may lead to the development of novel bone anabolic agent.

Tamura Y; Kaji H

2013-06-01

295

Sexual hormone fluctuation in chinchillas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The data about chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) reproduction are limited and in some cases discordant. The aim of this study was to monitor the sexual hormone fluctuation by fecal progesterone level and colpocytology analysis by vaginal smears in order to evaluate the different phases of the oestrus cycle. Twenty-four non pregnant chinchillas aged from 1 to 4 years old and subdivided in three groups were monitored. In contrast with findings reported in other study, the high values of progesterone recorded in autumn suggested the presence of a ciclicity also in this period. The data indicate that chinchilla presents a continuous cycle.

Celiberti S; Gloria A; Contri A; Carluccio A; Peric T; Melillo A; Robbe D

2013-01-01

296

Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for serum luteinizing hormone was established by using the reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide. The measurement range of this method was 1.5 to 200 IU/L, the sensitivity was 0.08 IU/L, the recovery rate was 96.3% to 112.1%, the coefficient correlation of dilution was 0.995, and the intra-and inter-assay coefficient of variability were 4.09%-8.36% and 5.14%-10.23%, respectively.Compared with Beckman CLIA system, the coefficient correlation was 0.975. (authors)

2010-01-01

297

Cardioprotective effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone agonist after myocardial infarction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whether the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) axis exerts cardioprotective effects remains controversial; and the underlying mechanism(s) for such actions are unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) directly activates cellular reparat...

Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M.; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Takeuchi, Lauro M.; Treuer, Adriana V.; Lamirault, Guillaume

298

The inhibitory effect of anandamide on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone secretion is reversed by estrogen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibited luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in male rats, we hypothesized that the endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), would act similarly. AEA microinjected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) decreased plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) at 30 min in com...

Scorticati, Camila; Fernández-Solari, Javier; De Laurentiis, Andrea; Mohn, Claudia; Prestifilippo, Juan P.; Lasaga, Mercedes

299

Acromegaly caused by ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone production from a bronchial carcinoid tumor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acromegaly is usually caused by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. In rare cases, however, it is caused by the ectopic production of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). We report a case of acromegaly due to ectopic production of GHRH from a bronchial carcinoid in a 42-year-old female. The carcinoid tumor was successfully treated with bilobectomy.

Gudbjartsson T; Agnarsson BA; Palsson PS; Johannesson A

2011-04-01

300

Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

Pueschel, Seigfried M.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Hormones and the stressed brain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The stress system orchestrates brain and body responses to the environment. Cortisol (in humans) or corticosterone (in rodents) are important mediators of the stress system. Their action-in concert-is crucial for individual differences in coping with other individuals, which in turn depend on genetic- and experience-related factors. The actions exerted by cortisol and corticosterone have an enormous diversity. They include the regulation of rapid molecular aggregations, membrane processes, and gene transcription. In the latter transcriptional regulation, the corticosteroid hormones have two modes of operation. One mode is mediated by high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), which control gene networks underlying stabilization of neuronal activity as determinant for the sensitivity to trigger immediate responses to stress organized by corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-1 receptor. Whereas disturbance of homeostasis is prevented by MR-mediated processes, its recovery is facilitated via the low-affinity glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) that require stress levels of cortisol. GRs promote in coordination with CRH-2 receptors and the parasympathetic system behavioral adaptation and enhances storage of energy and information in preparation for future events. The balance in the two stress system modes is thought to be essential for cell homeostasis, mental performance, and health. Imbalance induced by genetic modification or stressors changes specific neural signaling pathways underlying cognition and emotion. This yin-yang concept in stress regulation is fundamental for genomic strategies to understand the mechanistic underpinning of corticosteroid-induced stress-related disorders such as severe forms of depression.

De Kloet ER

2004-06-01

302

Hormones as doping in sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge. PMID:22990405

Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

2012-09-19

303

Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation.

Soares MC; Bshary R; Fusani L; Goymann W; Hau M; Hirschenhauser K; Oliveira RF

2010-09-01

304

Hormones as doping in sports.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

Duntas LH; Popovic V

2013-04-01

305

Juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila aging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormone's source. In contrast, little is known about how juvenile hormone affects adult Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work suggests that insulin signaling may modulate Drosophila aging in part through its impact on juvenile hormone titer, but no data yet address whether reduction of juvenile hormone is sufficient to control Drosophila life span. Here we adapt a genetic approach to knock out the corpora allata in adult Drosophila melanogaster and characterize adult life history phenotypes produced by reduction of juvenile hormone. With this system we test potential explanations for how juvenile hormone modulates aging. RESULTS: A tissue specific driver inducing an inhibitor of a protein phosphatase was used to ablate the corpora allata while permitting normal development of adult flies. Corpora allata knockout adults had greatly reduced fecundity, inhibited oogenesis, impaired adult fat body development and extended lifespan. Treating these adults with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene restored all traits toward wildtype. Knockout females remained relatively long-lived even when crossed into a genotype that blocked all egg production. Dietary restriction further extended the lifespan of knockout females. In an analysis of expression profiles of knockout females in fertile and sterile backgrounds, about 100 genes changed in response to loss of juvenile hormone independent of reproductive state. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced juvenile hormone alone is sufficient to extend the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. Reduced juvenile hormone limits reproduction by inhibiting the production of yolked eggs, and this may arise because juvenile hormone is required for the post-eclosion development of the vitellogenin-producing adult fat body. Our data do not support a mechanism for juvenile hormone control of longevity simply based on reducing the physiological costs of egg production. Nor does the longevity benefit appear to function through mechanisms by which dietary restriction extends longevity. We identify transcripts that change in response to juvenile hormone independent of reproductive state and suggest these represent somatically expressed genes that could modulate how juvenile hormone controls persistence and longevity.

Yamamoto R; Bai H; Dolezal AG; Amdam G; Tatar M

2013-01-01

306

Differential secretion of chicken growth hormone variants after growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulation in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variants of growth hormone (GH) are present in most vertebrates. Chicken GH (cGH) undergoes posttranslational modifications that contribute to its structural diversity. Although the 22-kDa form of GH is the most abundant, some other variants have discrete bioactivities that may not be shared by others. The proportion of cGH variants changes during ontogeny, suggesting that they are regulated differentially. The effect of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) on the release of cGH variants was studied in both pituitary gland and primary cell cultures, employing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and densitometry. GHRH (2 nM, 2 h) stimulated the secretion of most of the size variants of cGH although the amplitude of increase was not equal for each one. A differential effect on the secretion of GH size variants, particularly on the 22- (monomer) and 26-kDa (putatively glycosylated) cGH isoforms was found in both systems. In the whole pituitary culture, the proportion of the 26-kDa immunoreactive cGH increased 35% while the 22 kDa decreased 31% after GHRH treatment in comparison with the controls. In the primary cell culture system, the proportion of the glycosylated variant increased 43% whereas the monomer and the dimer decreased 22.26 and 29%, respectively, after GHRH stimulation. Activators of intracellular signals such as 1 mM 8-bromo-cAMP and 1 microM phorbol myristate acetate had a similar effect to that obtained with GHRH. The data support the hypothesis that GH variants may be under differential control and that GHRH promotes the release of a glycosylated cGH variant that has an extended half-life in circulation.

Martínez-Coria H; López-Rosales LJ; Carranza M; Berumen L; Luna M; Arámburo C

2002-03-01

307

Pharmacology of the luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue, Zoladex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To prevent progression of sex hormone-responsive prostate and breast tumours, anti-androgens and anti-oestrogens are commonly used to induce androgen and oestrogen withdrawal. Zoladex is a potent luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist analogue, which has a selective effect on pituitary gonadotrophin release, and is highly effective at inducing regression of sex hormone-responsive prostate and breast tumours. Its depot formulation, active for at least 28 days, is convenient to administer and well tolerated and for the treatment of sex hormone-responsive tumours in men and women, Zoladex is an effective alternative to surgery.

Furr BJ

1989-01-01

308

Miscellaneous agents--cytotoxics and hormonal agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among the 19 presentations of miscellaneous new agents at this year's meeting, several described novel cytotoxics and hormonal agents. The cytotoxic agents included microtubule inhibitors (eribulin, nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, peptide-bound paclitaxel), a topoisomerase inhibitor (nanoirinotecan), and an alkylating agent (palifosfamide). Hormonal agents included an aromatase inhibitor (anastrazole), an estrogen receptor antagonist (fulvestrant), and a selective androgen receptor modulator (GTx-024).

Gerber DE

2012-12-01

309

Stress and hormone interrelationship in branch growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Calculated stress patterns in lateral branches place the locations of maximum flexural stresses at the same places as the maximum concentrations of growth hormones. The gradients of stress and hormone concentration also have similarity.In branch epinasty and negative geotropism of branches, the directions of the stress vectors correlate with the imbalance of auxin in the upper and lower portions of the branches.

Doerner K

1966-04-01

310

Hormones and aggression in childhood and adolescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review is a survey on recent psychobiosocial studies on association between hormones and aggression/violence in children and adolescents, with a special focus on puberty, given the rapid changes in both hormones and behavior occurring during that developmental period. Since it cannot be assumed...

Ramirez, J. Martin

311

Characterization of thyroid hormone uptake in heart  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transport of T3 and T4 across the plasma membrane is the first step in the sequence of intracellular thyroid hormone action. It is generally accepted that this is mediated by specific carrier proteins. The knowledge about these proteins in liver is abundant, but information about thyroid hormone upt...

Putten, Haidy Hendrica Antonia Gerarda Maria van der

312

Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

Gaard, Greta

1995-01-01

313

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

Paul Saenger

2009-01-01

314

[Growth hormone during oral contraceptive treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone levels were studied in 18 women aged 19-34 years, of whom 7 were being treated with oral contraceptives (Lyndiol, Ovulen, Anovlar, Conluten). A significant increase was observed in the treated women; the range was also larger in these cases. During menstruation, control subjects showed a similar pattern. Free fatty acid levels are also higher in the treated group. There is no evidence that the change in growth hormone levels is of clinical significance, although the changes in glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism observed during contraceptive treatment may be caused by growth hormone. This hormone imbalance is of unknown etiology. It has been suggested that it may be due to increased prolactin synthisis (inhibition of the hypothalamic prolactin releasing inhibitor) when follicle stimulating hormone levels are low, as during treatment with oral contraceptives and during the early part of the menstrual period. PMID:4944955

Steiner, H

1969-07-26

315

The evolution of hormonal signalling systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. A comparative analysis was made of chemosignalling systems responsible for the action of hormones, hormone-like substances, pheromones, etc. in vertebrates--multicellular invertebrates--unicellular eukaryotes. Many common features revealed in structural-functional organization of the above systems give evidence of their evolutionary conservatism. 2. It was shown that some molecular components as well as signal transduction mechanisms similar to those of higher eukaryote hormonal signalling systems are present in such early organisms as bacteria. This allowed a suggestion that the roots of chemosignalling systems are likely to be found in prokaryotes. 3. The evolution of hormonal signalling systems is discussed in terms of current theories of the origin of eukaryotic cell, its organelles and components. A hypothesis is put forward about endosymbiotic genesis of these signal transduction systems in eukaryotes. 4. A possible evolutionary scenario of the formation of hormonocompetent systems is proposed with hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase complex taken as an example.

Pertseva M

1991-01-01

316

[Gastrointestinal hormones in food intake control].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discovery of gut hormones regulating the energy balance has aroused great interest in the scientific community. Some of these hormones modulate appetite and satiety, acting on the hypothalamus or the solitary tract nucleus in the brainstem. In general, the endocrine signals generated in the gut have direct or indirect (through the autonomous nervous system) anorexigenic effects. Only ghrelin, a gastric hormone, has been consistently associated with the initiation of food intake and is regarded as the main orexigenic signal both in animal models and humans. In this review, we provide a brief description of the major gastrointestinal hormones implicated in the regulation of food intake. Given the increased importance of food intake disturbances, especially obesity, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the gastrointestinal hormones might contribute to the development of new molecules that could increase the therapeutic arsenal for treating obesity and its associated comorbidities.

Crespo MA; González Matías LC; Lozano MG; Paz SF; Pérez MR; Gago EV; Ferrer FM

2009-06-01

317

Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity is localized in luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to determine the cell type of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK)-immunoreactive cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Immunoreactive cells were scattered throughout the pars distalis except for the dorso-caudal portion. These cells were immuno-positive for luteinizing hormone (LH), but they were immuno-negative for adrenocorticotrophic, growth, and thyroid-stimulating hormones, as well as prolactin. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that Leu-ENK-like substance and LH co-localized within the same secretory granules. Leu-ENK secreted from gonadotrophs may participate in LH secretion in an autocrine fashion, and/or may participate in the release of sex steroids together with LH.

Suzuki H; Yamamoto T

2013-09-01

318

Serum thyroxin (T/sub 4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in cord blood of newborns in Lahore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: The primary aim of this study was the early detection and treatment of hypothyroidism in neonates. This paper describes the determination of cord blood serum T/sub 4/ and TSH levels, their mean levels reference ranges and interrelationship. Results: Mean (Plus minus SD) T/sub 4) leveling cord blood serum was 115 plus minus 36 nmol/L (range: 15-350 nmol/L) and mean TSH level was found to be 5.6 plus minus 5.1 mlU/L (range: 0.05 - 150). The reference range for T/sub 4/ and TSH was 49-189 nmol/L and 0.4-17.6 mlU/L respectively. A trend in T/sub 4/ and TSH levels distributions towards higher values was noted Serum T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were not correlated significantly. Except at lowest and highest levels no reciprocal relationship between T/sub 4/ and TSH levels was found as is observed in adults. T/sub 4/ and TSH levels no reciprocal relationship between T/sub 4/ and TSH levels was found as is observed in adults. T/sub 4/ and TSH levels in 90% neonates were between 60-173 nmol/L and 1.0-14.2 mlU/L respectively. Conclusion: In most neonates, level of cord serum T/sub 4/ was independent of TSH level. Mean T/sub 4/ and TSH levels and their normal ranges were lower as compared to an iodine-sufficient country like USA. In 11.4% of neonates TSH levels were above 10 mlU/L, corresponding to mild degree of iodine deficiency disorders in Lahore. (author)

2003-01-01

319

Development of a filter paper blood spot radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone suitable for a regional neonatal screening unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The radioimmunoassay described measures TSH in dried whole blood spots collected from neonates onto filter paper Guthrie cards. Microgranular cellulose is added to the precipitating reagent at the critical separation stage of the assay to overcome imprecision caused by the presence of the filter paper sample disc in the tube. The method was developed for a regional neonatal screening unit and has been found to be very reliable during ten months' routine use. It was required to be as precise, sensitive, accurate, rapid, simple, and inexpensive as possible and suitable for use with automatic diluting equipment in order to process large numbers of samples. Other methods were examined for their suitability and found not to fulfil one or more of the above criteria.

Moore H; McMillan M

1983-03-01

320

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)-secretion pituitary adenoma in an 8-year-old boy: case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this report, an extremely rare case of pediatric thyrotropin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma (TSHoma) is described. An 8-year-old boy, complaining of unsteady gait, was suspected of endocrinopathy because of emaciation and muscle weakness of the legs. Endocrinological work-up established a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary macroadenoma with suprasellar and sphenoidal extension without cavernous sinus invasion. He underwent an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal adenomectory due to the diagnosis of TSHoma. The adenoma was soft and it was totally removed. Histopathological staining confirmed diagnosis of TSHoma. Postoperative evaluation revealed a subnormal level of TSH (from 13-21 to 0.03 micro U/ml), normalization of alpha-subunit (from 10.0 to 0.09 ng/ml), and as a result, hypothyroidism. The boy left the hospital with oral levothyroxine that continued until 12 months of discharge. The present 8-year-old case is the youngest case to the best of our knowledge based on a bibliographical search. Reasons for endocrinological remission following adenomectomy are (1) correct diagnosis without delay: lack of cavernous sinus invasion, (2) soft and non-fibrous adenoma tissue, and (3) endoscopic technique with wide vision and illumination: safe even for a 8-year-old child. Early recognition/detection and pituitary-conserving adenomectomy can cure TSHoma and avoid long-term medical therapy and/or irradiation, which contribute to the best interests of patients with TSHoma.

Nakayama Y; Jinguji S; Kumakura S; Nagasaki K; Natsumeda M; Yoneoka Y; Saito T; Fujii Y

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)-secretion pituitary adenoma in an 8-year-old boy: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report, an extremely rare case of pediatric thyrotropin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma (TSHoma) is described. An 8-year-old boy, complaining of unsteady gait, was suspected of endocrinopathy because of emaciation and muscle weakness of the legs. Endocrinological work-up established a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary macroadenoma with suprasellar and sphenoidal extension without cavernous sinus invasion. He underwent an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal adenomectory due to the diagnosis of TSHoma. The adenoma was soft and it was totally removed. Histopathological staining confirmed diagnosis of TSHoma. Postoperative evaluation revealed a subnormal level of TSH (from 13-21 to 0.03 micro U/ml), normalization of alpha-subunit (from 10.0 to 0.09 ng/ml), and as a result, hypothyroidism. The boy left the hospital with oral levothyroxine that continued until 12 months of discharge. The present 8-year-old case is the youngest case to the best of our knowledge based on a bibliographical search. Reasons for endocrinological remission following adenomectomy are (1) correct diagnosis without delay: lack of cavernous sinus invasion, (2) soft and non-fibrous adenoma tissue, and (3) endoscopic technique with wide vision and illumination: safe even for a 8-year-old child. Early recognition/detection and pituitary-conserving adenomectomy can cure TSHoma and avoid long-term medical therapy and/or irradiation, which contribute to the best interests of patients with TSHoma. PMID:21113740

Nakayama, Yoko; Jinguji, Shinya; Kumakura, Shin-ichi; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Natsumeda, Manabu; Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Saito, Takafumi; Fujii, Yukihiko

2012-03-01

322

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), ch. 7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method described for ACTH determination is based on the use of specific ACTH receptors from plasma membrane rich fractions of adrenal cortical tumor homogenates. This receptor is specific for biologically active ACTH. ACTH is labelled with 125I using a modification of the Hunter-Greenwood method. After iodination, the iodinated ACTH is separated from unlabelled ACTH over a column of carboxymethylcellulose, using an ammonium acetate gradien as eluant. The thus obtained 125I-ACTH with high specific activity has a biological activity that varies from 70% when fresh to 40% after 6 weeks. The assay is performed in siliconized glassware. After incubation, the bound and free hormones are separated by adsorption of 125I-ACTH in QUSO pellets

1976-01-01

323

Thyroid hormone transporters and resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cellular entry is an important step preceding intracellular metabolism and action of thyroid hormone (TH). Transport of TH across the plasma membrane does not take place by simple diffusion but requires transporter proteins. One of the most effective and specific TH transporters identified to date is monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), the gene of which is located on the X chromosome. Although MCT8 is expressed in many tissues, its function appears to be most critical in the brain. Hemizygous MCT8 mutations in males cause severe psychomotor retardation, known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), and abnormal serum TH levels. AHDS thus represents a type of TH resistance caused by a defect in cellular TH transport.

Visser TJ

2013-01-01

324

Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

1990-01-01

325

Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and ?-32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

1990-01-01

326

Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and gamma -32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labelled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

Aramburo C; Donoghue D; Montiel JL; Berghman LR; Scanes CG

1990-01-01

327

Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and gamma -32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labelled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer. PMID:2215076

Aramburo, C; Donoghue, D; Montiel, J L; Berghman, L R; Scanes, C G

1990-01-01

328

Reproductive hormones, aging, and sleep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insomnia, disturbed sleep, and fatigue are among the most frequent health complaints of perimenopausal women. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) usually improves sleep, most likely by alleviating vasomotor symptoms. However, sleep difficulties are not restricted to the perimenopausal period. Older postmenopausal women typically experience longer latencies to sleep onset, increased nocturnal waking, increased fragmentation of sleep, and less slow wave (deep) sleep. These sleep changes in older women may be partially related to the postmenopausal profile of sex steroid hormones. Estrogen has powerful effects on several biological factors that directly influence sleep, including body temperature regulation, circadian rhythms, and stress reactivity. The link between sleep disturbance in older women and these CNS effects of estrogen is largely speculative at present. This article reviews what is known, what remains to be addressed, and some clinical implications.

Moe KE

1999-01-01

329

Significance of total and free thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in chronic hepatitis B patients and normal controls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Hepatitis B destroys the liver cells. Proteins (albumin, pre albumin and thyroid binding globulin) produced by liver cells play an important role in metabolism and transport of thyroid hormones, therefore liver dysfunction is likely to disturb the transport of thyroid hormones resulting in disease. To determine the significance of thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in Chronic Hepatitis B patients. It was a cross sectional study conducted at National Health Research Complex (NHRC) and department of Gastroenterology Sheikh Zayed Medical Complex Lahore. One hundred Chronic Hepatitis B patients diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reaction were matched with 100 healthy persons, served as control, were selected for total and free thyroid hormones using ELISA, while serum proteins were estimated spectrophotometrically. Serum total protein levels were within the normal range in both Chronic Hepatitis B patients and controls with mean value of 6.55 g/dl and 7.2 g/dl respectively, however serum albumin levels were lower in Chronic Hepatitis B patients (mean 2.69 g/dl) as compared to controls (mean 4.1 g/dl). Serum globulin was increased (4.09 g/dl) in patients as compared to controls (mean 3.1 g/dl).Albumin globulin ratio was 1(mean 13.5). Consequently, increased globulin resulted in more binding of T4 (mean 194 nmol/L) in Chronic Hepatitis B patients as compared to controls (mean 123 nmol/L). Conversion of T4 to T3 in Chronic Hepatitis B cases was also disturbed resulting in slight decrease of total T3 (mean 1.77 nmol/L) as compared to controls (mean 2.3 nmol/L). Free T3 (mean 3.56 pmol/L) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (mean 0.68 mIU/ml) also showed slight decrease when compared with controls (mean 4.5 pmol/L, mean 1.52 mIU/ml). FT4 remained within normal range in both the groups. In Chronic Hepatitis B related liver disease and cirrhosis, serum albumin levels go down while globulins go up and these changes alter the binding of thyroid hormones and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone resulting in disturbance in thyroid hormone levels. (author)

2010-01-01

330

The case of thyroid hormones: how to learn physiology by solving a detective case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid diseases are prevalent among endocrine disorders, and careful evaluation of patients' symptoms is a very important part in their diagnosis. Developing new pedagogical strategies, such as problem-based learning (PBL), is extremely important to stimulate and encourage medical and biomedical students to learn thyroid physiology and identify the signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to create a new pedagogical approach to build deep knowledge about hypo-/hyperthyroidism by proposing a hands-on activity based on a detective case, using alternative materials in place of laboratory animals. After receiving a description of a criminal story involving changes in thyroid hormone economy, students collected data from clues, such as body weight, mesenteric vascularization, visceral fat, heart and thyroid size, heart rate, and thyroid-stimulating hormone serum concentration to solve the case. Nevertheless, there was one missing clue for each panel of data. Four different materials were proposed to perform the same practical lesson. Animals, pictures, small stuffed toy rats, and illustrations were all effective to promote learning, and the detective case context was considered by students as inviting and stimulating. The activity can be easily performed independently of the institution's purchasing power. The practical lesson stimulated the scientific method of data collection and organization, discussion, and review of thyroid hormone actions to solve the case. Hence, this activity provides a new strategy and alternative materials to teach without animal euthanization.

Lellis-Santos C; Giannocco G; Nunes MT

2011-06-01

331

The case of thyroid hormones: how to learn physiology by solving a detective case.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid diseases are prevalent among endocrine disorders, and careful evaluation of patients' symptoms is a very important part in their diagnosis. Developing new pedagogical strategies, such as problem-based learning (PBL), is extremely important to stimulate and encourage medical and biomedical students to learn thyroid physiology and identify the signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to create a new pedagogical approach to build deep knowledge about hypo-/hyperthyroidism by proposing a hands-on activity based on a detective case, using alternative materials in place of laboratory animals. After receiving a description of a criminal story involving changes in thyroid hormone economy, students collected data from clues, such as body weight, mesenteric vascularization, visceral fat, heart and thyroid size, heart rate, and thyroid-stimulating hormone serum concentration to solve the case. Nevertheless, there was one missing clue for each panel of data. Four different materials were proposed to perform the same practical lesson. Animals, pictures, small stuffed toy rats, and illustrations were all effective to promote learning, and the detective case context was considered by students as inviting and stimulating. The activity can be easily performed independently of the institution's purchasing power. The practical lesson stimulated the scientific method of data collection and organization, discussion, and review of thyroid hormone actions to solve the case. Hence, this activity provides a new strategy and alternative materials to teach without animal euthanization. PMID:21652508

Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Giannocco, Gisele; Nunes, Maria Tereza

2011-06-01

332

Subacute toxicity of p,p'-DDT on rat thyroid: Hormonal and histopathological changes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of p,p'-DDT on thyroid activity of male Wistar rats. Pesticide was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 10 consecutive days at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg/day. At the end of the treatment, the endpoints examined included serum total levels of triiodothyronine (T(3)), total thyroxine (T(4)), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyroid gland histopathology and tissue metabolism of thyroid hormone (T(4) UDP-glucuronyltransferase UDP-GT and 5'-deiodinases) were determined. DDT treatment altered thyroid function namely by increasing hepatic excretion of T(4) glucuronide. At the dose of 50mg/kg it decreased T(4) circulating levels and increased thyroid 5'-deiodinase type I (5'-D-I) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) 5'-deiodinase type II (5'-D-II) activities but it did not affect liver 5'-D-I activity which might contribute to the maintenance of the serum T(3) level. Treatment with 100mgDDT/kg decreased serum thyroid hormone concentration and tissue 5'-D-I activity without affecting BAT 5'-D-II activity. Gland histomorphological analysis showed hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia with abundant colloid. These observations associated to the elevated serum TSH levels and gland hypertrophy suggest that DDT exposure induced an hypothyroidism state with a colloid goiter in rats.

Tebourbi O; Hallègue D; Yacoubi MT; Sakly M; Rhouma KB

2010-05-01

333

Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18–357 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23–435 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

2013-01-15

334

[Thyroid and thyrotropin functions in subjects with pituitary nanism treated with growth hormone  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have evaluated thyroid and thyrotropin functions before the beginning and during Growth Hormone (GH) treatment for a 2-6-year period in a group composed of 21 children (age: 6.6 +/- 1.1 years, m +/- SD) suffering from classic GH deficiency. Circulating levels of thyroxine, and basal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) always resulted in the normal range. TSH response to thyreotropin-releasing hormone administration showed in some subjects (one out of 21 before the start of treatment, 2 out of 16 after 2 years, 3 out of 12 after 4 years and 2 out of 10 after 6 years) a delayed (after 90-120 minutes) and higher peak in comparison to that of normal subjects. All these high and delayed values have been showed in only one occasion by different children, with the exception of a child who has presented the higher values in two occasions. Growth response to GH treatment has not been modified by the change in thyrotropin response, as subjects with high TSH peak have had a height velocity similar to that of the other children in the corresponding periods of study.

Saggese G; Cesaretti G; Di Spigno G; Cinquanta L; Giannessi N; Cioni C; Bracaloni C

1990-09-01

335

Subacute toxicity of p,p'-DDT on rat thyroid: Hormonal and histopathological changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of p,p'-DDT on thyroid activity of male Wistar rats. Pesticide was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 10 consecutive days at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg/day. At the end of the treatment, the endpoints examined included serum total levels of triiodothyronine (T(3)), total thyroxine (T(4)), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyroid gland histopathology and tissue metabolism of thyroid hormone (T(4) UDP-glucuronyltransferase UDP-GT and 5'-deiodinases) were determined. DDT treatment altered thyroid function namely by increasing hepatic excretion of T(4) glucuronide. At the dose of 50mg/kg it decreased T(4) circulating levels and increased thyroid 5'-deiodinase type I (5'-D-I) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) 5'-deiodinase type II (5'-D-II) activities but it did not affect liver 5'-D-I activity which might contribute to the maintenance of the serum T(3) level. Treatment with 100mgDDT/kg decreased serum thyroid hormone concentration and tissue 5'-D-I activity without affecting BAT 5'-D-II activity. Gland histomorphological analysis showed hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia with abundant colloid. These observations associated to the elevated serum TSH levels and gland hypertrophy suggest that DDT exposure induced an hypothyroidism state with a colloid goiter in rats. PMID:21787613

Tebourbi, Olfa; Hallègue, Dorsaf; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

2010-03-09

336

Thyroid hormones and cytogenetic outcomes in backpack sprayers using ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (EBDC) fungicides in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (EBDC) fungicides are used heavily in the United States. EBDCs (e.g., mancozeb, maneb) are metabolized to ethylene thiourea (ETU). The EPA classifies ETU as a carcinogen, based on thyroid and other cancers in rodents, and has restricted the use of EBDCs, while requiring workers to use protective equipment. There are no data on the potential carcinogenicity of EBDCs in humans, and there is only one study on human genotoxicity. ETU is known to cause decreases of thyroxine (T4) and increases in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in rodents. We have studied cytogenetic outcomes and serum thyroid hormone levels among 49 heavily exposed workers without protective equipment spraying EBDC on tomatoes in Mexico. We also studied 14 lightly exposed landowners and 31 nonexposed controls. Urinary ETU was used to compare exposure between groups. We found an increase in TSH (p = 0.05) among applicators compared to controls, but no decrease in thyroid hormone (T4). We found increases in sister chromatid exchange (p = 0.03) and in chromosome translocations (chromosome aberrations that persist through cell division) for applicators compared to controls (p = 0.05). However, the subset of reciprocal translocations showed a lesser increase (p = 0.24). Our data suggest that EBDCs affect the thyroid gland and the lymphocyte genome among heavily exposed workers. However, our data are limited to subclinical outcomes, are of borderline statistical significance, and should be interpreted with caution. PMID:9349837

Steenland, K; Cedillo, L; Tucker, J; Hines, C; Sorensen, K; Deddens, J; Cruz, V

1997-10-01

337

Thyroid hormones and cytogenetic outcomes in backpack sprayers using ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (EBDC) fungicides in Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (EBDC) fungicides are used heavily in the United States. EBDCs (e.g., mancozeb, maneb) are metabolized to ethylene thiourea (ETU). The EPA classifies ETU as a carcinogen, based on thyroid and other cancers in rodents, and has restricted the use of EBDCs, while requiring workers to use protective equipment. There are no data on the potential carcinogenicity of EBDCs in humans, and there is only one study on human genotoxicity. ETU is known to cause decreases of thyroxine (T4) and increases in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in rodents. We have studied cytogenetic outcomes and serum thyroid hormone levels among 49 heavily exposed workers without protective equipment spraying EBDC on tomatoes in Mexico. We also studied 14 lightly exposed landowners and 31 nonexposed controls. Urinary ETU was used to compare exposure between groups. We found an increase in TSH (p = 0.05) among applicators compared to controls, but no decrease in thyroid hormone (T4). We found increases in sister chromatid exchange (p = 0.03) and in chromosome translocations (chromosome aberrations that persist through cell division) for applicators compared to controls (p = 0.05). However, the subset of reciprocal translocations showed a lesser increase (p = 0.24). Our data suggest that EBDCs affect the thyroid gland and the lymphocyte genome among heavily exposed workers. However, our data are limited to subclinical outcomes, are of borderline statistical significance, and should be interpreted with caution.

Steenland K; Cedillo L; Tucker J; Hines C; Sorensen K; Deddens J; Cruz V

1997-10-01

338

Serum levels of hydroxylated PCBs, PCBs and thyroid hormone measures of Japanese pregnant women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between serum concentrations of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and PCBs and measures of thyroid hormone status of Japanese pregnant women. METHODS: The concentrations of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) as well as 16 OH-PCB isomers and 29 PCB isomers were analyzed in the serum of 129 women sampled in the first trimester of gestation. Dietary and lifestyle information of the subjects was obtained by self-administered questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was performed using measures of thyroid hormones as the dependent variable and serum levels of OH-PCBs/PCBs, urinary iodine concentration, and other potential covariates (age, BMI, smoking, etc.) as independent variables. RESULTS: Geometric mean (GM) concentration of the sum of 16 isomers of OH-PCBs was 120 pg/g wet wt. and that of 29 isomers of PCBs was 68 ng/g lipid wt., respectively, in the serum of the subjects. Iodine nutrition was considered adequate to high from urinary iodine level (GM, 370 ?g/g creatinine). The mean concentration of TSH, fT4 and TBG was 1.34 ± 1.37 ?IU/mL, 1.22 ± 0.16 ng/dL and 33.0 ± 6.4 ?g/mL, respectively, with a small number of subjects who were outside the reference range. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum concentrations of OH-PCBs/PCBs were not significantly associated with any of the measures of thyroid hormone status. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure/body burden of OH-PCBs and PCBs at environmental levels does not have a measurable effect on thyroid hormones.

Hisada A; Shimodaira K; Okai T; Watanabe K; Takemori H; Takasuga T; Noda Y; Shirakawa M; Kato N; Yoshinaga J

2013-05-01

339

Radioimmunoassay of pituitary and hypothalamic hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimunoassay (RIA) systems have been developed to quantitate virtually every hormone available in pure form. This exquisitely sensitive technique has revolutionized the fields of endocrine physiology and clinical endocrinology. Bioassay techniques which have been employed for many years are not sufficiently sensitive to measure accurately all the anterior pituitary hormones in plasma; the development of RIAs in biologic fluids and tissues has permitted studies which have greatly expanded our knowledge of the factors involved in an anterior pituitary hormone synthesis, metabolism, and action. A chapter on the general principles of RIAs for anterior pituitary hormones would have the disadvantage of being repetitive, several excellent reviews on this topic being already available in the literature. In view of these points, this chapter, in addition to quoting many papers from the literature describing the technical procedures of pituitary hormone RIAs in several animal species, will focus on some aspects thought to be of peculiar interest. More space will be given to the second part of the chapter, on the RIA detection of hypophysiotropic neurohormones. This is an expanding field on endocrinology, particularly after the recent recognition of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Besides a description of the general problems related to the assay of hypophysiotropic peptides and a critical assessment of available techniques, the significance of determinations of these peptides in brain areas or biologic fluid as an index of neuronal function will be considered.

1987-01-01

340

Incretin hormone secretion over the day  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies, although some studies have demonstrated reduced incretin hormone secretion in type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes our knowledge on regulation of incretin hormone secretion and its potential changes in disease states.

Ahren, B; Carr, RD

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

Krauss, R.M.

1991-12-01

342

Development of specific antiserum against bovine follicle stimulating hormone (bFSH) and production of second antibody for bFSH radioimmunoassay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Antisera against bovine follicle stimulating hormone (bFSH) and rabbit gamma globulins (RGG) were raised in male rabbits and male goats, respectively. The anti bFSH crossreacted with bovine luteinzing hormone (bLH), bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) and normal calf serum (NCS). The crossreaction with bLH and bTSH was almost absent when anti bFSH serum was treated with NCS and the antigen (1 mg/ml) was diluted twice or more. Antibody titre curve determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) demonstrated that NCS treated bFSH antiserum could bind approximately 52% and 28% with 1:2,000 and 1:10,000 final dilutions respectively. When the antiserum against RGG (ARGG) was tested against its antigen, ARGG serum showed a very strong precipition band. The ARGG serum of 1:16 final dilution precipitated the bound fraction maximum when used as a second antibody in RIA.

Galhotra, M.M.; Kaker, M.L.; Madan, M.L.; Razdan, M.N. (Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hissar (India). Dept. of Animal Production and Physiology)

1980-07-01

343

Mechanisms of genotoxic effects of hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A concept that compounds commonly present in biological systems lack genotoxic and mutagenic activities is generally in use, hence a low number of endogenous substances have ever been tested to mutagenicity. Epidemiological and experimental analyses indicated, however, that sexual steroids could contribute to initiation and/or continuation of malign diseases. Detailed studies using methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, cytogenetics and other branches, showed that not only epigenetic mechanisms, such as a stimulation of cell proliferation, but also certain hormones, that can express genotoxic effects, such as covalent DNA modification, then chromosomal lesions and chromosomal aberrations, are in the background of malign transformation under activities of hormones. In the case of oestrogens, it was shown that excessive hormonal stimulation led to a metabolic conversion of these hormones to reactive intermediates with formation of reactive oxygenic derivates, so that cells were virtually under conditions of oxidative stress. Individual and tissue susceptibility to occurrence of deterioration of DNA and other cell components generally results from the differences in efficiency of enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms of resistance against oxidative stress. Besides, steroid thyeroid hormones and catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine and adrenaline) can express genotoxic effects in some test-systems. It is interesting that all above mentioned hormones have a phenolic group. Data on possible genotoxic effects of peptide and protein hormones are very scarce, but based on the available literature it is considered that this group of hormones probably lacks mutagenic activities. The possibility that hormones, as endogenous substances, express mutagenic activities results from the fact that DNA is, regardless of chemical and metabolic stability susceptible, to a certain extent, to changeability compatible with the processes of the biological evolution.

?eli? Ninoslav J.

2002-01-01

344

Measurement of gut hormones in plasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ and was the site where the first hormones were discovered: secretin in 1902 and gastrin in 1905. Discovery of these gut peptides led to the concept of blood-borne communication between cells. Gut peptide hormones and neurotransmitters regulate the complex processes of digestion, motility, epithelial growth, and integrity. Investigation of this complex endocrine organ has depended on the development of well-characterized radioimmunoassays. Radioimmunoassays have increased our understanding of appetite regulation and of pathological processes affecting the gut, including gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The object of this chapter is to provide an overview of measuring gastrointestinal hormones and neuropeptides by radioimmunoassay.

Bloom S; Ghatei M; Bech P

2013-01-01

345

Measurement of gut hormones in plasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ and was the site where the first hormones were discovered: secretin in 1902 and gastrin in 1905. Discovery of these gut peptides led to the concept of blood-borne communication between cells. Gut peptide hormones and neurotransmitters regulate the complex processes of digestion, motility, epithelial growth, and integrity. Investigation of this complex endocrine organ has depended on the development of well-characterized radioimmunoassays. Radioimmunoassays have increased our understanding of appetite regulation and of pathological processes affecting the gut, including gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The object of this chapter is to provide an overview of measuring gastrointestinal hormones and neuropeptides by radioimmunoassay. PMID:23996363

Bloom, Steve; Ghatei, Mohammad; Bech, Paul

2013-01-01

346

The hormonal control of testicular descent.  

Science.gov (United States)

The migration of the testes from the abdomen into the scrotum requires both an anatomical change in connecting structures and regulating signals to mediate this process. The gubernaculum is the principle structure in testicular descent. Its development appears to be controlled by insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3) and androgen. This review article summarises the role of INSL3 and androgen in testicular descent. It also analyses the contribution of other hormones such as Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) and oestrogen to testicular descent. Furthermore, it reiterates findings that hormonal activation of the nervous system leads to neuropeptide secretion and further manipulation of this process. PMID:19696713

Nation, Tamara R; Balic, Adam; Southwell, Bridget R; Newgreen, Donald F; Hutson, John M

2009-09-01

347

Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy. This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin. Physical activity should be promoted, and cigarette smoking reduced if possible. Women at risk of cardiovascular disease will also benefit from hormone replacement therapy. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone therapy will protect against both coronary heart disease and stroke, and there is no increased risk of venous thrombosis or hypertension. A disadvantage of hormone replacement therapy is an increased risk of forming gall-bladder stones and undergoing cholecystectomy. Unopposed estrogen therapy gives a higher incidence of endometrial cancer in women with an intact uterus, but the contribution of progestins for about 10 days every month excludes this risk. Breast cancer in relation to estrogen-progestogen therapy has been given much concern, and the problem is still not fully solved. If there is a risk, it is small, and only after prolonged use of estrogen (15-20 years). The decision whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy should, of course, be taken by the individual woman in question, but her decision should be based on the available scientific information. It is the opinion of the authors that the advantages of hormone replacement therapy far exceed the disadvantages. We suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J

1994-01-01

348

HORMONES AND SEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN MENOPAUSAL TRANSITION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relative contribution of hormones (androgens and estrogen) to female sexuality and psychosocial status is controversial in menopausal transition. We compare the changes of hormonal and psychosocial factors in perimenopausal women with the changes of sexual function. Among DHEAS, FSH, LH, estradiol and free Testesterone (T), free T is the only variable that is significantly associated (P<0.05) with sexual satisfaction. Sexual functioning declines with the menopausal transition. Endogenous hormone levels except androgens do not seem to explain this decline.

Emine Co?ar; Mithat Erenus

2007-01-01

349

Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

Persky Victoria; Piorkowski Julie; Turyk Mary; Freels Sally; Chatterton Robert; Dimos John; Bradlow H; Chary Lin; Burse Virlyn; Unterman Terry; Sepkovic Daniel W; McCann Kenneth

2012-01-01

350

Thyroid system-disrupting chemicals: interference with thyroid hormone binding to plasma proteins and the cellular thyroid hormone signaling pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In vertebrates, thyroid hormones are essential for post-embryonic development, such as establishing the central nervous system in mammals and metamorphosis in amphibians. The present paper summarizes the possible extra-thyroidal processes that environmental chemicals are known to or suspected to target in the thyroid hormone-signaling pathway. We describe how such chemicals interfere with thyroid-hormone-binding protein functions in plasma, thyroid-hormone-uptake system, thyroid-hormone-metabolizing enzymes, and activation or suppression of thyroid-hormone-responsive genes through thyroid-hormone receptors in mammals and amphibian tadpoles. Several organohalogens affect different aspects of the extra-thyroidal thyroid-hormone-signaling pathway but hardly affect thyroid hormone binding to receptors. Rodents and amphibian tadpoles are most sensitive to the effects of environmental chemicals during specific thyroid-hormone-related developmental windows. Possible mechanisms by which environmental chemicals exert multipotent activities beyond one hormone-signaling pathway are discussed.

Yamauchi K; Ishihara A

2006-10-01

351

Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

J. Gutkowska; M. Jankowski; S. Mukaddam-Daher; S.M. McCann

2000-01-01

352

Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase  

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Sulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) ...

Kester, M.H.A.; Visser, T.J.; Dijk, C.H. van; Tibboel, D.; Hood, A.M.; Rose, N.J.; Meinl, W.; Pabel, U.; Glatt, H.; Falany, C.N.

353

Nanobiology and physiology of growth hormone secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone (GH) secretion is controlled by hypothalamic releasing hormones from the median eminence together with hormones and neuropeptides produced by peripheral organs. Secretion of GH involves movement of secretory vesicles along microtubules, transient 'docking' with the porosome in the cell membrane and subsequent release of GH. Release of GH is stimulated by GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and inhibited by somatostatin (SRIF). Ghrelin may be functioning to stimulate GH release from somatotropes acting via the GH secretagogue (GHS) receptor (GHSR). However, recent physiological studies militate against this. In addition, ghrelin does influence GH release acting within the hypothalamus. Release of GH from the somatotropes involves the GH-containing secretory granules moving close to the cell surface followed by transitory fusion of the secretory granules with the porosomes located in multiple secretory pits in the cell membrane. Other peptides/proteins can influence GH secretion, particularly in species of non-mammalian vertebrates. PMID:22312059

Anderson, Lloyd L; Scanes, Colin G

2012-02-06

354

Nanobiology and physiology of growth hormone secretion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth hormone (GH) secretion is controlled by hypothalamic releasing hormones from the median eminence together with hormones and neuropeptides produced by peripheral organs. Secretion of GH involves movement of secretory vesicles along microtubules, transient 'docking' with the porosome in the cell membrane and subsequent release of GH. Release of GH is stimulated by GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and inhibited by somatostatin (SRIF). Ghrelin may be functioning to stimulate GH release from somatotropes acting via the GH secretagogue (GHS) receptor (GHSR). However, recent physiological studies militate against this. In addition, ghrelin does influence GH release acting within the hypothalamus. Release of GH from the somatotropes involves the GH-containing secretory granules moving close to the cell surface followed by transitory fusion of the secretory granules with the porosomes located in multiple secretory pits in the cell membrane. Other peptides/proteins can influence GH secretion, particularly in species of non-mammalian vertebrates.

Anderson LL; Scanes CG

2012-02-01

355

FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... Helzisouer KJ, Alberg AJ, Gordon GB, et al. Serum gonadotropins and steroid hormones and the development of ovarian ... PA, Stene M, Hintz RL (July 1995). Spontaneous serum gonadotropin concentrations in the evaluation of precocious puberty. J ...

356

Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone on the release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone from the rat hypothalamus in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on the release of immunoreactive thyrotropin-releasing hormone (ir-TRH) from the rat hypothalamus in vitro were studied. The rat hypothalamus was incubated in medium 199 with 1.0 mg/ml of bacitracin (pH 7.4) for 20 min. The amount of ir-TRH release into the medium was measured by radioimmunoassay. The ir-TRH release from the rat hypothalamus was inhibited significantly in a dose-related manner with the addition of GRH or CRH. These findings suggest that GRH and CRH inhibit ir-TRH release from the rat hypothalamus in vitro.

Mitsuma T; Nogimori T; Hirooka Y

1987-12-01

357

[New developments in hormone replacement therapy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hormone replacement therapy with estrogen and progesterone does not appear to protect against Alzheimer's disease and does not improve cognitive functioning. Long-term administration of estrogen as monotherapy may be associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Winter R; Haller U; Hepp H

2003-10-01

358

Vitamin D: an ancient hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vitamin D has been produced by plants and animals almost from the time life began. The ability to transport and metabolize vitamin D to more active forms evolved as the structures of plants and animals became more complex, and the cells within these organisms took on more specialized functions. In higher-order animals, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is found in nearly every cell, and the ability of the cell to produce the active hormone, 1,25(OH)2D, is also widely distributed. Furthermore, the physiological functions with which vitamin D signalling is now associated are as diverse as the tissues in which the VDR is located. Why is this, and is there a common theme? This viewpoint article argues that there is. All cells maintain a fairly constant and submicromolar concentration of free calcium. Calcium is an important regulator of many processes within the cell. The ebb and flow of calcium within cells is controlled by calcium pumps, antiporters and channels. Animals with calcified exo- or endoskeletons have an additional need for calcium, a need that changes during the life cycle of the organism. In this article, I make the case that vitamin D signalling evolved to enable the organism to effectively regulate calcium flux, storage and signalling and that such regulation is critical for the evolutionary process.

Bikle DD

2011-01-01

359

Neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neo-adjuvant endocrine therapy has opened new alternatives for locally advanced breast cancer. Such therapy, which has permitted us to expand the treatment role of neo-adjuvant therapies, may be of great benefit to patient groups such as the elderly, those not suited for chemotherapy, and those whose response may not be optimal. This therapy also may be able to help us identify agents that could improve outcomes in the adjuvant setting as well as possible biologic predictors for outcome. The latest generation of endocrine therapy for breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, has proved superior to tamoxifen in terms of toxicity and efficacy in the adjuvant setting and is currently being studied in other clinical trials. Current findings indicate that these agents are less toxic and better tolerated than neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and that third-generation anti-hormonal therapy offers improved tumor response compared with tamoxifen, which has resulted in increased breast conserving surgery. Biomarker findings of improved response in tumors that are both estrogen receptor positive and HER-2 positive as well as progesterone receptor positivity only will be important for planning future selective treatment and clinical trials. PMID:18373643

Valenzuela, Marcia; Julian, Thomas B

2008-03-27

360

Growth hormone doping: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

Erotokritou-Mulligan I; Holt RI; Sönksen PH

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Steroid Hormone Synthesis in Mitochondria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mitochondria are essential sites for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Mitochondria in the steroidogenic cells of the adrenal, gonad, placenta and brain contain the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc, and its two electron-transfer partners, ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin. This enzyme system converts cholesterol to pregnenolone and determines net steroidogenic capacity, so that it serves as the chronic regulator of steroidogenesis. Several other steroidogenic enzymes, including 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 11?-hydroxylase and aldosterone synthase also reside in mitochondria. Similarly, the mitochondria of renal tubular cells contain two key enzymes participating in the activation and degradation of vitamin D. The access of cholesterol to the mitochondria is regulated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, StAR, serving as the acute regulator of steroidogenesis. StAR action requires a complex multi-component molecular machine on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Components of this machine include the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), the voltage-dependent anion chanel (VDAC-1), TSPO-associated protein 7 (PAP7, ACBD3), and protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1? (PKAR1A). The precise fashion in which these proteins interact and move cholesterol from the OMM to P450scc, and the means by which cholesterol is loaded into the OMM, remain unclear. Human deficiency diseases have been described for StAR and for all the mitochondrial steroidogenic enzymes, but not for the electron transfer proteins or for the components of the cholesterol import machine.

Miller WL

2013-04-01

362

Steroid hormone synthesis in mitochondria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondria are essential sites for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Mitochondria in the steroidogenic cells of the adrenal, gonad, placenta and brain contain the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc, and its two electron-transfer partners, ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin. This enzyme system converts cholesterol to pregnenolone and determines net steroidogenic capacity, so that it serves as the chronic regulator of steroidogenesis. Several other steroidogenic enzymes, including 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 11?-hydroxylase and aldosterone synthase also reside in mitochondria. Similarly, the mitochondria of renal tubular cells contain two key enzymes participating in the activation and degradation of vitamin D. The access of cholesterol to the mitochondria is regulated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, StAR, serving as the acute regulator of steroidogenesis. StAR action requires a complex multi-component molecular machine on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Components of this machine include the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO), the voltage-dependent anion chanel (VDAC-1), TSPO-associated protein 7 (PAP7, ACBD3), and protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1? (PKAR1A). The precise fashion in which these proteins interact and move cholesterol from the OMM to P450scc, and the means by which cholesterol is loaded into the OMM, remain unclear. Human deficiency diseases have been described for StAR and for all the mitochondrial steroidogenic enzymes, but not for the electron transfer proteins or for the components of the cholesterol import machine. PMID:23628605

Miller, Walter L

2013-04-28

363

[Hormone replacement therapy: practical aspects].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Menopause is a total follicular depletion leading to menstruation cessation. Climacterics symptoms are linked to estrogen decrease. Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) was developed in 1940s in order to control these signs and to improve women's quality of life. In United States, conjugated equine estrogen, first estrogens developed, are the most common. In France, customs are different with the transdermic estrogen use. The progesterone use is also different between both countries: in USA, medroxyprogesteron acetate is the most common, whereas this treatment does not exist anymore in France. Indeed, lot of different progestagen is available in France: progesterone, dydrogesterone others progestin. Publication of randomized trials, as the Women's Health Initiative, had shown a long-term unfavorable HRT risk/benefit ratio, as prescribed in USA. These studies have led to prescription modification. Due to these results, recent trials, closers to French customs, allowed a new evaluation of HRT risk/benefit ratio. Today, clinical practices are based on these results and new trials are necessary.

Sonigo C; Dray G; Chabbert-Buffet N

2012-11-01

364

Osteoporotic fracture and parathyroid hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteoporosis and age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption, resulting in bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. Stimulating the function of bone-forming osteoblasts, is the preferred pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. Recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH), PTH(1-34), is an anabolic agent with proven benefits to bone strength and has been characterized as a potential therapy for skeletal repair. In spite of PTH’s clinical use, safety is a major consideration for long-term treatment. Studies have demonstrated that intermittent PTH treatment enhances and accelerates the skeletal repair process via a number of mechanisms. Recent research into the molecular mechanism of PTH action on bone tissue has led to the development of PTH analogs to control osteoporotic fractures. This review summarizes a number of advances made in the field of PTH and bone fracture to combat these injuries in humans and in animal models. The ultimate goal of providing an alternative to PTH, currently the sole anabolic therapy in clinical use, to promote bone formation and improve bone strength in the aging population is yet to be achieved.

Nabanita S Datta

2011-01-01

365

Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T4 and T3. In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T4 and T3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T4 and T3. Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

1984-02-03

366

Considerations in the preparation of I131-labelled hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although some problems are common to the preparation of all I131-labelled proteins, certain investigations with I131-labelled hormones involved difficulties not generally encountered in studies with I131-labelled serum proteins. The problems unique to the I131-labelled hormones are determined by the special purposes to which these are put, and distinctive physical and chemical characteristics of protein and polypeptide hormones. I131-labelled hormones have been used in turnover studies, in immunological investigations, and in the immunological assay of hormones. This paper discusses the problems associated with the labelling of hormones and some applications for I131-labelled hormones.

1965-01-01

367

Synthesis of plant hormones labelled by tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reaction of solid-phase catalytic hydrogenation, isotopic exchange with enriched tritium water, catalytic heterogenous isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium, hydrogenolysis as applied to synthesis of plants labelled by tritium were studied. Auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, fusicoccins - representatives of the basic hormones of plants - were objects of investigations. In dependence on synthesis method compounds labelled by tritium were prepared with molar radioactivity from 5 up to 155 Ci/mmol. Order of universal approaches to synthesis of plant hormones labelled by tritium was formulated

1999-01-01

368

Stress and hormone interrelationship in branch growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calculated stress patterns in lateral branches place the locations of maximum flexural stresses at the same places as the maximum concentrations of growth hormones. The gradients of stress and hormone concentration also have similarity.In branch epinasty and negative geotropism of branches, the directions of the stress vectors correlate with the imbalance of auxin in the upper and lower portions of the branches. PMID:16656295

Doerner, K

1966-04-01

369

Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), various experiments such as 125I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

1980-01-01

370

Melatonin and gonadotropin hormones in pubertal sportsgirls.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine the influence of physical training on menstrual disturbances in sportsgirls, the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and melatonin have been studied in young athletes of track and field speciality using the Cooper test. Basal hormone levels and anthropometric data were also studied in age matched control girls. No significant differences in LH, FSH and melatonin hormone concentrations were observed between the PRE and POST Cooper test. However, significantly lower basal levels of LH were found in the early follicular phase or luteal phase of sportsgirls when contrasted with the control girls. No differences in FSH levels were observed in the early follicular phase of sportsgirls but higher FSH levels were found in the luteal phase. Daytime melatonin levels of sportsgirls were significantly higher than those in control girls. Age and anthropometric parameters studied showed no differences in height, weight, tricipital skinfold and percentage of body fat, but abdominal and subescapular skinfold measures were greater in control girls than in sportsgirls. It appears that continuous physical training can produce alterations in antireproductive hormone secretion such as melatonin, which can play an inhibitory role on the menstrual cycle hormone patterns in sportsgirls. PMID:8378573

Díaz, B; García, R; Colmenero, M D; Terrados, N; Fernández, B; Marín, B

1993-03-01

371

Melatonin and gonadotropin hormones in pubertal sportsgirls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to determine the influence of physical training on menstrual disturbances in sportsgirls, the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and melatonin have been studied in young athletes of track and field speciality using the Cooper test. Basal hormone levels and anthropometric data were also studied in age matched control girls. No significant differences in LH, FSH and melatonin hormone concentrations were observed between the PRE and POST Cooper test. However, significantly lower basal levels of LH were found in the early follicular phase or luteal phase of sportsgirls when contrasted with the control girls. No differences in FSH levels were observed in the early follicular phase of sportsgirls but higher FSH levels were found in the luteal phase. Daytime melatonin levels of sportsgirls were significantly higher than those in control girls. Age and anthropometric parameters studied showed no differences in height, weight, tricipital skinfold and percentage of body fat, but abdominal and subescapular skinfold measures were greater in control girls than in sportsgirls. It appears that continuous physical training can produce alterations in antireproductive hormone secretion such as melatonin, which can play an inhibitory role on the menstrual cycle hormone patterns in sportsgirls.

Díaz B; García R; Colmenero MD; Terrados N; Fernández B; Marín B

1993-03-01

372

Studies on radioiodination of bovine parathyroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of this work was to produce highly iodinated bovine parathyroid hormone (BPTH) preparations that retained full biological activity. Parathyroid hormone is rapidly oxidized and inactivated when radioiodinated. A method using ascending paper chromatography and 14C-1-methyl methionine is described that allows prediction of whether a particular iodination technique will cause hormone inactivation. Dilute chloramine-T, lactoperoxidase, and electrolytic radioiodination techniques were evaluated. Electrolytic current at levels sufficient for radioiodination did not oxidize methionine, whereas chloramine-T and H2O2 did. The presence of tyrosine prevented H2O2 oxidation of methionine but did not prevent chloramine-T oxidation. Iodide plus electric current caused methionine oxidation; thus, nascent iodide is an important oxidant to be considered in radioiodination reactions. Chromatographic techniques were developed to determine the specific radioactivity of the labelled hormone product. Liquid isoelectric focusing was able to separate iodinated BPTH from uniodinated hormone in a mixture, but it is not possible to separate oxidized iodinated hormone from activated BPTH. A microelectrolytic method that permits the radioiodination of BPTH to levels of 2000 Ci/m.mol is described. In vivo and in vitro assays are described including adenylate cyclase activation in both renal and bone membranes and a hypercalcemic response assay in chicks

1979-01-01

373

Hormonal manipulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide new viewpoints of hormonal control of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The latest treatment findings with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) finasteride and dutasteride, refined indications, efficacy, and safety are discussed and compared. We also discuss potential new 5-ARIs and other hormonal treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Finasteride and dutasteride have equal efficacy and safety for the treatment and prevention of progression of BPH. 5-ARIs are especially recommended for prostates greater than 40?ml and PSA greater than 1.5?ng/ml. Combination therapy is the treatment of choice in these patients, but with prostate volume greater than 58?ml or International Prostate Symptom Score of at least 20, combinations have no advantage over 5-ARI monotherapy. Updates on the recent developments on BPH therapy with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonist are also reviewed and analyzed. Preclinical studies suggest that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists effectively shrink experimentally enlarged prostates alone or in combination with LHRH antagonists. SUMMARY: New 5-ARIs seem to be the promising agents that need further study. Preclinical studies revealed that GHRH and LHRH antagonists both can cause a reduction in prostate volume. Recent data indicate that prostate shrinkage is induced by the direct inhibitory action of GHRH and of LHRH antagonists exerted through prostatic receptors. The adverse effects of 5ARIs encourage alternative therapy.

Rick FG; Saadat SH; Szalontay L; Block NL; Kazzazi A; Djavan B; Schally AV

2013-01-01

374

Weight control, endocrine hormones and cancer prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of obesity is increasing which becomes worrisome due to its association with several diseases and certain types of cancers. While weight control through dietary caloric restriction and/or physical activity protects against cancer in animal models, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Weight loss due to negative energy balance is associated with alterations of multiple growth factors and endocrine hormones. The altered hormones and hormone-related functions appear to be responsible for anti-cancer mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the recent studies related to weight loss and the altered endocrine hormones, focusing on the reduced levels of the mitogenic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and adipokine leptin as well as the raised levels of adiponectin and glucocorticoids. The potential molecular targets of these hormone-dependent signalling pathways are also discussed. Considering the increasing trends of obesity throughout the world, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms between body weight, endocrine hormones and cancer risk may lead to novel approaches to cancer prevention and treatment.

King B; Jiang Y; Su X; Xu J; Xie L; Standard J; Wang W

2013-05-01

375

Evaluation and clinical application of changes in thyroid hormone and TSH levels in critically ill full-term newborns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The term "euthyroid sick syndrome" (ESS) has been used to describe a pattern of thyroid hormone changes during the course of critical illness in adult patients without thyroid disease, often associated with reduced thyroid hormone secretion. Objective: To describe the thyroid hormone profile in full-term newborns critically ill compared with thyroid hormone profile of healthy infants, and determine if alterations could be related to the severity of the disease and outcome. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational, and prospective study of full-term infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Hospital de Pediatría J.P. Garrahan between July 2007 and April 2008. Serum T3, T4, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured at admission and severity of the disease was evaluated through SNAP, lactic acid, respiratory assistance and number of organs affected. RESULTS: Sick newborns showed significantly lower T3 and T4 levels compared with healthy infants [T3: -0.97 ?g/dL (95% CI -0.89, -1.13) and T4: -4.37 ?g/dL (95% CI -2.95, -5.78)]. Only 29 out of 94 (31%) infants presented a normal profile; 37 (39%) infants showed isolated low T3 levels, 20 (21%) infants had low T3 and T4 levels and eight (9%) infants had low TSH, T3, and T4. Of this latter group, five of eight (62%) children died suggesting a significantly higher risk of death for patients with low T3 associated with low T4 and TSH [Risk ratio (RR) 10.75 95% CI 3.93, 29]. CONCLUSIONS: Full-term sick newborns frequently have lower thyroid hormone levels than healthy ones. These observed thyroid hormones changes might be related to the underlying disease and could be used as a prognostic marker of the severity and fatal outcome of the patient.

Goldsmit GS; Valdes M; Herzovich V; Rodriguez S; Chaler E; Golombek SG; Iorcansky S

2011-01-01

376

Effects of commercial formulations of deltamethrin and/or thiacloprid on thyroid hormone levels in rat serum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deltamethrin (DEL) and thiacloprid (THIA) are the two commonly used synthetic insecticides applied either separately or as a mixture. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the serum levels of thyroid hormones exposure to these compounds in rats. The animals were orally gavaged with a single dose of DEL (15 mg/kg), THIA (112.5 mg/kg) or DEL + THIA (15 + 112.5 mg/kg) for 24 h (acute treatments) or DEL (3 mg/kg per day), THIA (22.5 mg/kg per day) or DEL + THIA (3 + 22.5 mg/kg per day) for 30 days (subacute treatments). Although all independent and combined treatments with DEL and THIA changed the levels of TSH, these alterations were not significant. Statistically significant increases in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) serum hormone levels were observed in the independent treatment with THIA and the combined treatment with DEL and THIA for 30 days. The results of this study suggest that in vivo exposure to subacute treatments of commercial formulations of THI and mixture of DEL + THIA increased serum FT3 and FT4 levels in rats. Further studies are required to determine the effects of endocrine disruptors and potential health risks of these insecticides in human, especially in children because of the importance of these hormones during growth and development.

Sekeroglu V; Sekeroglu ZA; Demirhan ES

2012-06-01

377

Effects of commercial formulations of deltamethrin and/or thiacloprid on thyroid hormone levels in rat serum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deltamethrin (DEL) and thiacloprid (THIA) are the two commonly used synthetic insecticides applied either separately or as a mixture. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the serum levels of thyroid hormones exposure to these compounds in rats. The animals were orally gavaged with a single dose of DEL (15 mg/kg), THIA (112.5 mg/kg) or DEL + THIA (15 + 112.5 mg/kg) for 24 h (acute treatments) or DEL (3 mg/kg per day), THIA (22.5 mg/kg per day) or DEL + THIA (3 + 22.5 mg/kg per day) for 30 days (subacute treatments). Although all independent and combined treatments with DEL and THIA changed the levels of TSH, these alterations were not significant. Statistically significant increases in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) serum hormone levels were observed in the independent treatment with THIA and the combined treatment with DEL and THIA for 30 days. The results of this study suggest that in vivo exposure to subacute treatments of commercial formulations of THI and mixture of DEL + THIA increased serum FT3 and FT4 levels in rats. Further studies are required to determine the effects of endocrine disruptors and potential health risks of these insecticides in human, especially in children because of the importance of these hormones during growth and development. PMID:22677783

Sekeroglu, V; Sekeroglu, Z Atli; Demirhan, E S

2012-06-01

378

Thryroid hormones and hematological indices levels in thyroid disorders patients at moi teaching and referral hospital, Western kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Problem Statement. Thyroid disorders are prevalent in western Kenya, but the effects of disorders on thyroid hormones and hematological indices levels have not been documented. Study Population. Patients treated for thyroid disorders at the MTRH between January 2008 and December 2011. Objectives. To determine the thyroid hormones and hematological indices levels in thyroid disorders patients at the MTRH, western Kenya. Methodology. A retrospective study in which patient data and stored samples of patients, who presented with thyroid pathologies, underwent thyroidectomy, and histological examinations are done. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) blood levels, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), platelet counts, and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were analyzed. Results. Male?:?female ratio was 1?:?10.9 with female representing 368 (95%). The median age was 41 (IQR: 32-48) with a range of 14-89 years. HHormonal levels for immunological thyroid disease patients were higher (P = 0.0232; 0.040) for TSH and (T3) for those aged 30-39 years, respectively. The WBCs, RBCs, HGB, and platelets in immunological thyroid disease were not statistically significant with P values of 0.547, 0.205, 0.291, and 0.488 respectively. Conclusion. The presence of anaemia due to low RBCs in thyroid disease is not significantly associated with thyroid hormone with a P value of 0.512.

Iddah MA; Macharia BN; Ng'wena AG; Keter A; Ofulla AV

2013-01-01

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Presence of a putative steroidal allosteric site on glycoprotein hormone receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous work we found that the insecticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), inhibits the accumulation of cAMP as induced by the bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) in cells transfected with the TSH receptor. In this work, we demonstrate that the DDT molecular analogues, diethylstilbestrol and quercetine, are more potent inhibitors of the TSH receptor activity than DDT itself. The notion that all these compounds interfere with nuclear estrogen receptors, as either agonists (DDT and diethylstilbestrol) or antagonists (quercetin), prompted us to test the ability of the steroid hormone 17-beta-estradiol to inhibit the TSH receptor activity. We found that estrogen exposure causes a modest but significant inhibition of the bTSH induced cAMP accumulation both in transfected CHO-TSH receptor and Fischer Rat Thyroid Low Serum 5% (FRTL-5) cells. When applied to CHO cells transfected with the luteinizing hormone receptor, 17-beta-estradiol proved capable of inhibiting the hCG induced cAMP accumulation at a concentration as low as 10nM, though the effect was not greater than 35%. The effect of 17-beta-estradiol was not estrogen receptors mediated, as co-transfection of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta subunits with LH receptor caused cAMP to increase above the level attained by the sole hCG stimulation, and not to decrease it as expected. These data suggest the presence of a steroidal-like allosteric binding site on glycoprotein hormone receptors. PMID:19766106

Rossi, Mario; Dimida, A