WorldWideScience
1

Radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved double antibody radioimmunoassay method is described for the determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in biological and other fluids. Highly purified second antibody is immobilised on to hydrophilic, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles of a suspendable size to form a solid phase second antibody reagent. The immobilised second antibody reagent is used to precipitate the reaction product of the first antibody with labelled and unlabelled thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-anti-TSH-complex) so as to produce a two-phase system which permits rapid and efficient separation of bound TSH in the solid phase from free TSH in the liquid phase. Details of the preparation of this novel second antibody-polyacrylamide reagent and of the assay procedure for human TSH are described. (U.K.)

2

Thyroid ultrasonography in congenital isolated thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency.  

OpenAIRE

The effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency on thyroid development was examined using ultrasonography in a child with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Ultrasound revealed the thyroid gland was one sixth normal volume, suggesting that TSH plays an important part in thyroid growth, but not a critical role in differentiation.

Wakamoto, H.; Miyazaki, M.; Tatsumi, K.; Amino, N.

1995-01-01

3

A Signaling Network of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone  

OpenAIRE

Human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein secreted by the anterior part of the pituitary gland. TSH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis by modulating the release of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. It induces iodine uptake by the thyroid, promotes thyroid epithelial differentiation and growth, and protects thyroid cells from apoptosis. Impairment of TSH signal transduction pathway leads to thyroid disorders...

Goel, Renu; Raju, Rajesh; Maharudraiah, Jagadeesha; Sameer Kumar, Ghantasala S.; Ghosh, Krishna; Kumar, Amit; Lakshmi, T. Pragna; Sharma, Jyoti; Sharma, Rakesh; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Pan, Archana; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Christopher, Rita; Krishna, V.; Mohan, S. Sujatha

2011-01-01

4

Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in children from Chernobyl.  

OpenAIRE

This study assesses parameters of thyroid function in persons who resided in Ukraine, Belarus, and southern Russia and exposed at 0 to 16 years of age to radioiodine contamination from the Chernobyl accident. Six to eight years after the accident a group of 300 young people who had immigrated to Israel were interviewed, underwent physical and ultrasound thyroid examination, and had their serum tested for thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH), thyroid hormones, thyroglobulin, and antithyroid anti...

Quastel, M. R.; Goldsmith, J. R.; Mirkin, L.; Poljak, S.; Barki, Y.; Levy, J.; Gorodischer, R.

1997-01-01

5

TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... of hypothyroidism in the U.S. It is a chronic autoimmune condition in which the immune response causes inflammation and damage to the thyroid as well as the production of autoantibodies . With Hashimoto thyroiditis, the thyroid produces low levels of thyroid hormone. ...

6

Inappropriate Secretion of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid is an important endocrine gland. It maintains the level of metabolism in the tissues that is optimal for their normal function. Normally in euthyroid state T3, T4 and TSH values remains within normal physiological limit. In hypothyroid state T3 and T4 values are low with high TSH value. On the other hand in hyperthyroid state T3 and T4 values are high with low TSH value. However, in one interesting group of patients, there are high T3, T4 with normal or high TSH. With the greater availability of sensitive and specific TSH assays, now increasing number of the case in the last group are being recognized. In this retrospective study the number of patients with such type of hormone picture of high T3, T4 with normal or high TSH were found out from the assay done in Institute of Nuclear Medicine (INM) and the related literatures were searched. (author) 3 tabs., 21 refs

7

Characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against human thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monoclonal antibodies directed against human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were obtained from hybrid myelomas, following fusion of mouse NSI myeloma cells with mouse spleen cells. Ten different antibodies were obtained from 4 separate fusions. Eight antibodies were of the IgG1 subclass. Affinities of antibodies for TSH were in the range 2 x 108-5 x 1010 M-1. Five of the antibodies were specific for TSH and did not react with LH, FSH or hCG. The remaining antibodies reacted with all these hormones and were assumed to recognise their common (?) subunit. The 5 specific antibodies fell into 3 subgroups recognising distinct antigenic determinants, whereas the 5 non-specific antibodies recognised a single determinant or closely related set of sites. It is concluded that these antibodies should be valuable reagents for use in sensitive and specific two-site immunoradiometric assays. (Auth.)

8

A Signaling Network of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone  

Science.gov (United States)

Human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein secreted by the anterior part of the pituitary gland. TSH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis by modulating the release of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. It induces iodine uptake by the thyroid, promotes thyroid epithelial differentiation and growth, and protects thyroid cells from apoptosis. Impairment of TSH signal transduction pathway leads to thyroid disorders such as goitre, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, which can have complex clinical manifestations. TSH signaling is largely effected through two separate pathways, the adenylate cyclase and the phospholipase C pathways. In spite of its biomedical importance, a concise signaling map of TSH pathway is not available in the public domain. Therefore, we have generated a detailed signaling map of TSH pathway by systematically cataloging the molecular reactions induced by TSH including protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications, protein translocation events and activation/inhibition reactions. We have cataloged 40 molecular association events, 42 enzyme-substrate reactions and 16 protein translocation events in TSH signaling pathway resource. Additionally, we have documented 208 genes, which are differentially regulated by TSH. We have provided the details of TSH pathway through NetPath (http://www.netpath.org), which is a publicly available resource for human signaling pathways developed by our group. We have also depicted the map of TSH signaling using NetSlim criteria (http://www.netpath.org/netslim/) and provided pathway maps in Wikipathways (http://www.wikipathways.org/). We anticipate that the availability of TSH pathway as a community resource will enhance further biomedical investigations into the function and effects of this important hormone. PMID:24255551

Goel, Renu; Raju, Rajesh; Maharudraiah, Jagadeesha; Sameer Kumar, Ghantasala S.; Ghosh, Krishna; Kumar, Amit; Lakshmi, T. Pragna; Sharma, Jyoti; Sharma, Rakesh; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Pan, Archana; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Christopher, Rita; Krishna, V.; Mohan, S. Sujatha; Harsha, H. C.; Mathur, Premendu P.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Keshava Prasad, T. S.

2013-01-01

9

Sensitive and precise radioimmunoassay for human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high-sensitivity radioimmunoassay for human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) has been developed utilizing a highly specific rabbit antibody (developed by AFP) to hTSH with an affinity constant of 4.4 x 1011M-1. Optimal conditions which minimized both 125I-hTSH radiation damage and 125I dissociation included storage at -60 C in 0.25 percent albumin. Repetitive freezing and thawing did not cause loss of structural integrity or of full immunochemical reactivity of 125I-hTSH. Effects of human and calf sera on the precipitation of first antibody-bound 125I-hTSH by second antibody have been tabulated; the addition of TSH-free human serum to the standard curve is necessary to compensate for the serum effect. The minimum detectable amount of TSH in the new assay at a 1: 1,000,000 final dilution of the hTSH antibody is 0.02 ?U/tube. The mean normal hTSH value of 1.5 +- 1.0 ?U/ml (mean +- SD) fell within the central one-third of the logit (B/B0) plot where antigen concentrations are measured with highest precision. This assay gives good precision and reproducibility of measurements throughout the normal range of serum TSH concentrations

10

Negative regulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone alpha gene by thyroid hormone: receptor interaction adjacent to the TATA box.  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid-stimulating hormone alpha and beta subunit genes are negatively regulated by thyroid hormone at the transcriptional level. Transient gene expression studies were used to demonstrate that the erbA beta form of the thyroid hormone receptor mediates negative regulation of the alpha-subunit promoter in a hormone-dependent manner. In JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells, which are deficient in thyroid hormone receptors, coexpression of erbA beta with alpha CAT reporter genes markedly suppressed alp...

Chatterjee, V. K.; Lee, J. K.; Rentoumis, A.; Jameson, J. L.

1989-01-01

11

Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

2015-01-01

12

The Relationships between Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone with Lipid Profile in Euthyroid Men  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aim: Alteration in lipid profile is a common observation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, but the current knowledge on the relationship between lipids and thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid state is insufficient. The current study aimed to determine the association between thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lipid profile in a euthyroid male population. Methods: A total of 708 Chinese and Malay men aged 20 years and above were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Their blood was collected for the determination of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels. The association was analyzed using multiple regression and logistic regression models with adjustment for age, ethnicity, body mass index and FT4/FT3/TSH levels. Results: In multiple regression models, TSH was positively and significantly associated with TG (p0.05). Conclusions: In euthyroid Malaysian men, there are positive and significant relationships between TSH level and TG level, and between FT4 level and cholesterol levels. PMID:24578612

Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

2014-01-01

13

Hypopituitarism in the elderly in the presence of elevated thyroid stimulating hormone levels.  

OpenAIRE

Two cases of primary hypothyroidism with hypopituitarism in elderly patients are reported. The elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone led to delay in the recognition of accompanying pituitary failure. Elderly patients should not be commenced on thyroxine replacement therapy until the possibility of hypopituitarism and cortisol deficiency has been excluded.

Beringer, T.; Mcclements, B.; Weir, I.; Gilmore, D.; Kennedy, L.

1988-01-01

14

Unexplained high thyroid stimulating hormone: a “BIG” problem  

OpenAIRE

Macro-hormones and macro-enzymes are high molecular weight conjugates of hormones or enzymes, respectively, often with immunoglobulins. These are referred to as macromolecular complexes, and may cause artefactually elevated biochemical tests results. Macro enzymes of the most commonly measured serum enzymes have been identified and are recognised as a source of elevated measurements that may cause diagnostic confusion; macro-creatine kinase and macro-amylase are the two better known macro-enz...

Mendoza, Heidi; Connacher, Alan; Srivastava, Rajeev

2009-01-01

15

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?  

OpenAIRE

Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99m...

Kota, Sunil Kumar; Modi, Kirtikumar; Kumaresan, Karuppiah

2011-01-01

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Preparation of quality control samples in radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To days, the radioimmunoassay is becomes the best technique to analysis different concentrations of substance, especially in medical and research laboratories. Although the specificity of RIA techniques, the quality controls must takes place to give good results as possible. In this dissertation i prepared quality control samples of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), to use it in RIA techniques and to control the reliability results of those laboratories which used these methods. We used China production kits of RIA method to determine the level of hormone (low-normal-high) concentration. Statistical parameters were used to drown the control chart of the mean to these data.(Author)

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Prenatal Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants and Neonatal Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels in the CHAMACOS Study  

OpenAIRE

Studies published in the last 3 decades have demonstrated global human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. A growing body of literature suggests that PBDEs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. Although thyroid hormones play an essential role in brain development, few studies have investigated relations between prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neonatal thyroid hormone levels, and none have measured thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in neonates. The autho...

Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Sjo?din, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda

2011-01-01

18

Thyroid-stimulating hormone induces a Wnt-dependent, feed-forward loop for osteoblastogenesis in embryonic stem cell cultures  

OpenAIRE

We have shown that the anterior pituitary hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), can bypass the thyroid to exert a direct protective effect on the skeleton. Thus, we have suggested that a low TSH level may contribute to the bone loss of hyperthyroidism that has been attributed traditionally to high thyroid hormone levels. Earlier mouse genetic, cell-based, and clinical studies together have established that TSH inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption. However, the direct influence of TSH o...

Baliram, Ramkumarie; Latif, Rauf; Berkowitz, Joshua; Frid, Simon; Colaianni, Graziana; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Davies, Terry F.

2011-01-01

19

Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insuffici...

George Jyothis T; Thow Jonathan C; Matthews Bruce; Pye Maurice P; Jayagopal Vijay

2008-01-01

20

Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

Kunii Yasuto

2011-09-01

21

Clinical evaluation of highly sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone immunoradiometric assay (RIABEAD II) kit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To clarify clinical evaluation of highly sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using RIABEAD II kit, we measured serum TSH and its changes after TRH test in normal subjects and patients with hyper- or hypo-thyroidism due to Grave's disease, TSH producing pituitary adenoma and chronic thyroiditis or Refetoff's syndrome. In 12 normals, basal TSH (0.23 - 1.85 ?IU/ml) increased in 2.29 - 18.85 ?IU/ml 30 min after TRH test. In patients whose serum TSH and thyroid hormone showed less than 0.10 ?IU/ml and more than normal level, respectively, no response of TSH to TRH was observed, while in patients whose serum TSH and thyroid hormone showed more than 3.5 ?IU/ml and less than normal level, respectively, hyperresponse of TSH to TRH was observed. In patients with hyper- or hypo-thyroidism, changes in serum TSH after treatment were normalized a few months later after normalizing of thyroid hormone. In patients with TSH-producing pituitary tumor or Refetoff's syndrome, serum TSH increased. These results show that serum TSH using IRMA-(RIABEAD II) kit indicates a precise function of pituitary TSH. (author)

22

Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24836306

Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

2014-08-01

23

Fundamental evaluation of highly sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone immunoradiometric assay kits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Usefulness of three kinds of TSH kits by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was evaluated. They were able to measure low levels (less than 0.1 IU/ml) in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with incubation of short time (4 hours). In particular, RIABEAD II kit had a highly specific affinity for TSH and the normal range (+- 2 S.D.) using it showed from 0.20 to 3.50 IU/ml in 150 normal subjects. In patients with hyperthyroidism and in patients with hypothyroidism, the values of TSH were lower and higher than those of normal subjects, respectively. Another kits showed similar results. These results indicate that these TSH-IRMA kits are useful to evaluate serum TSH levels exactly.

Matsunaga, Katsumi; Yamazaki, Michiko; Murayama, Shoei; Sato, Toshiro; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

1987-04-01

24

Evaluation and comparison of high-sensitivity immunoradiometric assay kits for thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fundamental and clinical characteristics of 3 kinds of high-sensitivity immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kits for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). i.e., RIA BEADS II (kit A), TSH kit Daiichi II (kit B) and Ab tube TSH 'Eiken' (kit C) and one conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit, i.e., TSH kit Daiichi (kit D), were studied. In the recovery test and the reproducibility test, there was no significant difference between the 4 kits. The sensitivities of kits A, B and C were much higher than that of kit D, and those IRMA kits were sensitive enough to distinguish hyperthyroidism from normal samples. For low concentrations of TSH (< 5 ?U/ml), the data from kits D, B, C and A tended to show higher values in that order. The correlation between the data measured by kits B and D, and the tendency of kit A toward lower values agreed well with other reports. (author)

25

Fundamental evaluation of highly sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone immunoradiometric assay kits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Usefulness of three kinds of TSH kits by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was evaluated. They were able to measure low levels (less than 0.1 ?IU/ml) in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with incubation of short time (4 hours). In particular, RIABEAD II kit had a highly specific affinity for TSH and the normal range (± 2 S.D.) using it showed from 0.20 to 3.50 ?IU/ml in 150 normal subjects. In patients with hyperthyroidism and in patients with hypothyroidism, the values of TSH were lower and higher than those of normal subjects, respectively. Another kits showed similar results. These results indicate that these TSH-IRMA kits are useful to evaluate serum TSH levels exactly. (author)

26

Simple, rapid, and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone immunoassay using europium(III) nanoparticle label  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is widely used as a marker of thyroid function. A rapid TSH assay enables diagnosis during the first visit at the doctor's office aiding to faster and cost-effective medical treatment. To accomplish such an assay method europium(III) chelate nanoparticles were coated with anti-TSH monoclonal antibody. Captured anti-TSH monoclonal antibody was immobilized onto single wells by streptavidin-biotin chemistry and the assay was carried out in dry chemistry format using 5 ?l of sample in a 30 ?l assay volume in the commercial AiO immunoassay system. The developed TSH nanoparticle assay was performed in a kinetic mode using a 10-min incubation time. The analytical sensitivity of the developed assay was 0.0012 mIU l-1 corresponding to the fourth generation TSH assay and less than 0.02 mIU l-1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators. The dynamic range of the assay was more than three orders of magnitude and no high-dose hook effect was observed at 100 mIU l-1 of TSH. Correlation with an automated commercial assay was good (y = 0.96 ± 0.02, intercept = 0.12 ± 0.09, Syverticalbarx = 0.49, R = 0.988). Intra- and inter-assay variations were 4-14 and 6-17%, respectively. The developed quantitative one-step all-in-one dry reagent time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay has great potential for rapid analysis of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in a point-of-care environment when antibody-coated care environment when antibody-coated high specific activity Eu(III) nanoparticles were used as labels

27

Effect of storage of reconstituted recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) on thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response testing in euthyroid dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) stimulation testing has long been considered the gold standard for diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism. Unfortunately, bTSH is no longer commercially available. Recently, the use of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) to perform thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation testing in dogs was described. The cost of an rhTSH vial (1.1 mg) limits the practical use of this product. The study reported here was performed to determine the effects of storing rhTSH on the post-TSH increase of serum total (TT4) and free (FT4) thyroxine concentrations during TSH stimulation testing in 12 euthyroid Beagles in a crossover trial. Three TSH tests with recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH; 91.5 microg IV) were performed on each dog during 3 different periods: 1 with freshly reconstituted rhTSH (fresh); 1 with rhTSH, reconstituted and stored at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks (refrigerated); and 1 with rhTSH, reconstituted and frozen at -20 degrees C for 8 weeks (frozen). Blood samples for determination of TT4 and FT4 concentrations were collected before and 4 and 6 hours after rhTSH administration. There was no significant difference in TT4 or FT4 concentration after stimulation with fresh, refrigerated, and frozen rhTSH. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between TT4 or FT4 serum concentration observed 4 and 6 hours after rhTSH administration. In conclusion, reconstituted rhTSH can be stored at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks and at -20 degrees C for 8 weeks without loss of biological activity, allowing clinicians to perform more TSH response tests per vial. PMID:16955801

De Roover, K; Duchateau, L; Carmichael, N; van Geffen, C; Daminet, S

2006-01-01

28

Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males  

OpenAIRE

Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 C...

Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Zhixiao; Sun, Min; Cao, Mengdie; Zhu, Zhenxin; Fu, Qi; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Jia; Li, Yanyun; Shi, Yun; Yang, Fan; Zheng, Shuai; Tang, Wei; Duan, Yu; Huang, Xiaoping

2014-01-01

29

Effect of axitinib (AG-013736) on fatigue, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and biomarkers. A phase I study in Japanese patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Axitinib is an oral, potent, and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3. This phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antitumor activity, and recommended starting dose of axitinib in patients with advanced solid tumors. Twelve patients received single-dose axitinib 5 mg and were monitored for ?48 h. Continuous 5 mg twice-daily dosing was then initiated. One patient had dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 proteinuria and fatigue). Common treatment-related adverse events were anorexia, fatigue, and diarrhea. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events were fatigue and hypertension. Maximum axitinib plasma concentration occurred 1-4 h after steady-state dosing. Eleven patients experienced thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation; time-course change and fatigue onset appeared to be related in some patients. Significant correlation was observed between thyroid-stimulating hormone change and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC; r=0.80, P=0.005). Axitinib decreased plasma soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (s-VEGFR2), with significant correlation between change in s-VEGFR2 and AUC (r=-0.92, P<0.0001). Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed a substantial decrease in tumor metabolic activity associated with axitinib. Tumor size decreased in nine patients. The time-course of thyroid-stimulating hormone change appeared correlated with fatigue. There were sed correlated with fatigue. There were significant correlations between thyroid-stimulating hormone or s-VEGFR2 and axitinib exposure. Axitinib 5 mg twice-daily is the recommended starting dose for Japanese patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT00447005. (author)

30

Genetic confirmation for a central role for TNF? in the direct action of thyroid stimulating hormone on the skeleton  

OpenAIRE

Clinical data showing correlations between low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and high bone turnover markers, low bone mineral density, and an increased risk of osteoporosis-related fractures are buttressed by mouse genetic and pharmacological studies identifying a direct action of TSH on the skeleton. Here we show that the skeletal actions of TSH deficiency are mediated, in part, through TNF?. Compound mouse mutants generated by genetically deleting the Tnf? gene on a Tshr?/?...

Sun, Li; Zhu, Ling-ling; Lu, Ping; Yuen, Tony; Li, Jianhua; Ma, Risheng; Baliram, Ramkumarie; Moonga, Surinder S.; Liu, Peng; Zallone, Alberta; New, Maria I.; Davies, Terry F.; Zaidi, Mone

2013-01-01

31

Falsely elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level due to macro-TSH.  

Science.gov (United States)

We encountered a 60-year-old woman with remarkably elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level as measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA), but with no specific symptoms, and with normal levels of free T3 and free T4. We performed the following investigations: polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation test, human antimouse IgG antibody (HAMA) interference test, and 3 additional TSH measurements by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). We then performed 2 gel filtration chromatography (GFC) procedures; one was at pH 7.2, and the other was at pH 3.0. Although the recovery of TSH shown by the PEG precipitation test was 4% which was extremely low, no HAMA interference was observed. Moreover, 3 CLIA instruments also showed various high values. The first GFC showed that the main peak of TSH immunoreactivity by ECLIA was located at a slightly larger molecular weight position than that of IgG. By the second GFC, the sample from the peak fraction of the first GFC showed that the TSH peak disappeared completely at the previous retention time but newly appeared at the same retention time as the TSH monomer. Protein G-Agarose gel removed the majority of the TSH complex. In conclusion, the majority of TSH in her serum was macro-TSH; TSH and anti- TSH IgG autoantibody complex. We should keep the possibility of macro-TSH in mind in cases with unexpectedly high TSH values, especially in autoimmune thyroidal disorders. PMID:19336948

Sakai, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Gen; Suzuki, Naoko; Watanabe, Choji; Odawara, Masato

2009-01-01

32

Induction of manganese superoxide dismutase by thyroid stimulating hormone in rat thyroid cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alterations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) content of thyroid tissues occurring in association with thyroid dysfunction have been reported. In this study, the Mn-SOD content was found to increase in thyroid tissues of rats administered thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and in thyrocytes cultured in medium supplemented with TSH. Furthermore, in the thyroid glands of rats whose serum TSH level was elevated by inhibiting the synthesis of T3 and T4 by 6-methyl-2-thiouracil, the Mn-SOD increased as the TSH concentration increased. In the cultured thyrocytes, the increase in Mn-SOD induced by TSH was inhibited by the C-kinase inhibitor H7. These findings suggest the induction of Mn-SOD by TSH in thyroid cells and point to a role of C-kinase in this process, thereby indicating that a close relationship exists between the serum TSH level and the change in Mn-SOD content in thyrocytes with thyroid dysfunction. PMID:9369235

Nishida, S; Nakano, T; Kimoto, S; Kusunoki, T; Suzuki, K; Taniguchi, N; Murata, K; Tomura, T T

1997-10-13

33

Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To prepare quality monoclonal antibodies against thyroid stimulating hormone for highly sensitive assay. Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized with synthetic TSH polypeptide. Spleen cells from the immunized mice were fused with myeloma cells of sp2/0, and cultured to produce hybridomas producing anti-human TSH monoclonal antibody. Results: During cell fusion and screening, the rate of fusion was 100% and the positive rate of antibody producing was 15%. Five murine hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies against TSH were established. All McAbs were of IgG1 subclass and showed no cross reactivity with FSH, HCG and LH. The titers of the McAb ascitic fluid varied from 1:5 x 105 -1:1 x 107. All murine hybridomas retained great stability after the freezing-thawing process. Conclusion: The rate of cell fusion was high and the rate of positive antibody was good. Five species-specific murine hybridomas were established, producing McAbs of high titer. The McAbs could be excellent components in TSH assay with high sensitivity and simplicity. (authors)

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Effect of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone on serum thyroxin and thyroid scintigraphy in euthyroid cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the thyroidal response to administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) by means of serum total thyroxine (TT(4)) concentration and pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland in six healthy euthyroid spayed female cats. A pertechnetate scan was performed on day 1 to calculate thyroid/salivary gland (T/S) uptake ratio. On day 3, 25 microg rhTSH was injected intravenously. Six hours later the thyroid scan was repeated as on day 1. Blood was drawn for serum TT(4) measurement prior to injection of rhTSH and performance of the pertechnetate scan. Statistically significant differences in mean serum TT(4) concentration, T/S uptake ratio before and 6h after rhTSH administration and T/S uptake ratio between left and right lobes were noted. We can conclude that 25 microg rhTSH increases pertechnetate uptake in the thyroid glands of cats, this should be taken into account when thyroid scintigraphy after rhTSH administration is interpreted. PMID:18848482

van Hoek, Ingrid M; Peremans, Kathelijne; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Gommeren, Kris; Daminet, Sylvie

2009-04-01

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The application of NIR Raman spectroscopy in the assessment of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum blood samples of euthyroid and thyroidectomized rats treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were analyzed on aluminum substrates using the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (830 nm). Spectra of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), TRH and prolactin standards were obtained. Differences between Raman spectra profiles of control and Tx+TRH samples groups were found. These differences were confirmed by the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), which presents a good classification between groups. It is supposed that these differences are produced by the increment of TSH in the thyroidectomized rats.

Medina-Gutiérrez, C.; Quintanar, J. Luis; Frausto-Reyes, C.; Sato-Berrú, R.

2005-01-01

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Role of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor signaling in development and differentiation of the thyroid gland  

OpenAIRE

The thyroid-stimulating hormone/thyrotropin (TSH) is the most relevant hormone in the control of thyroid gland physiology in adulthood. TSH effects on the thyroid gland are mediated by the interaction with a specific TSH receptor (TSHR). We studied the role of TSH/TSHR signaling on gland morphogenesis and differentiation in the mouse embryo using mouse lines deprived either of TSH (pitdw/pitdw) or of a functional TSHR (tshrhyt/tshrhyt and TSHR-knockout lines). The results reported here show t...

Postiglione, M. P.; Parlato, R.; Rodriguez-mallon, A.; Rosica, A.; Mithbaokar, P.; Maresca, M.; Marians, R. C.; Davies, T. F.; Zannini, M. S.; Felice, M.; Di Lauro, R.

2002-01-01

37

Effects of Levothyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone on bone loss in patients with primary hypothyroidism  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Previous studies on bone mineral density (BMD) abnormalities associated with hypothyroidism are scarce and not conclusive. The effect of thyroid hormone therapy on BMD has shown mixed results. The aim of the present study was to determine the severities of osteoporosis in female patients with hypothyroidism in comparison to healthy women. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 150 women aged over 50 years. Totally, 100 patients with primary hypothyroidism and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups. Group A, which consisted the patients who had been recently diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism. The second group of patients diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism for at least 2 years and was treated with levothyroxine (Group B). The third group of healthy individuals was selected as a control group (Group C). Blood samples were taken for the measurements of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and bone densitometry was performed to determine the BMD reported as T-score in order to measure the severity of osteoporosis. T-score of the lumbar vertebra (L2-L4) and femoral neck were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and were compared between the three groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS using regression analysis and Mann–Whitney, Kruskal–Wallis, or analysis of variances statistical tests. The statistical significance was set at a P < 0.05. Findings: The average age of patients and baseline serum TSH levels in Group B was significantly different from the other two groups (P < 0.001). T-score of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) in Group B was significantly lower than the other groups (P = 0.01). The linear regression between serum TSH levels and BMD categories were not clearly associated. However, after removing the effect of the baseline TSH level in Group B, bone loss was significantly greater than the other two groups (P = 0.01). Conclusion: According to the present study, it seems that the treatment of hypothyroidism with thyroid hormones reduces both serum levels of TSH and bone density. Hence, proper control of this risk factor can be an effective way in prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:25328897

Karimifar, Mansoor; Esmaili, Farah; Salari, Amirhossein; Kachuei, Ali; Faragzadegan, Ziba; Karimifar, Mozhgan

2014-01-01

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Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of comlinear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

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Plasma Retinol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Zinc as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Status  

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Full Text Available Background: Conflicting results on the association between serum retinol level and bone mineral density (BMD have been published. Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and have direct effect on bone formation and resorption. Bone has one of the highest concentrations of zinc of all tissues, and has been shown to release zinc during deficiency for soft tissue metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between plasma levels of retinol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH & zinc and BMD of Egyptian adolescents and adults. Method: The study was a part of a cross sectional national survey conducted by National Nutrition Institute. The sample was a multistage stratified random. Target individuals were classified into two age groups (10- 18 and 28- 59 years. Bone mineral density and plasma levels of retinol, TSH and zinc were determined. Results: Low and high plasma retinol levels were more prevalent among osteoporotic adolescent and adult males respectively than in normal subjects.. The reverse was observed in adult females. Bone mineral density correlated negatively with plasma retinol level in adult males and females and positively in adolescent males, while among females the association was significant (P = 0.030 and stronger. The highest deficiency of TSH was found among adult and adolescent osteoporotic males, followed by osteopenic adult males and adolescent females. Highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001 existed between osteoporotic and normal adult males concerning TSH deficiency. The prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 5.7% to 9.5% for all target individuals. Plasma Zn levels were correlated negatively with bone mineral density in adult males and females. Conclusion: The results of this study reflects the controversy on the association of plasma retinol and BMD. However, the predominant finding revealed that both low and high plasna retinol levels compromise bone health. Bone status and thyroid function support the adverse effect of hyperthyroidism upon either bone osteoporosis or osteopenia and subsequently upon fracture risk. Plasma zinc deficiency correlated negatively with BMD in adult osteoporotic men.

Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny*, Effat A. A., Afifi**, Wafaa M. A. Saleh**, Asmaa, M

2006-12-01

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THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND THYROXINE SCREENING IN THE PRETERM NEWBORN: REFERENCE VALUES  

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Full Text Available The screening test for Congenital Hypothyroidism, performed in the 2nd - 3rd day of life, highlighted in the premature infant significant lower levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroxine (tT4 than those found in the full term newborn. Studies carried out after birth in the preterm infant, showed a persistence of low levels of thyroid hormones (TH in the first two weeks of life, with a tendency toward spontaneous resolution at the end of the first month. This hormone deficiency has an incidence which is inversely related to gestational age (GA. However, there are no works which have evaluated the levels of TSH and tT4 in an appropriate large population of extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs in the 2nd - 3rd day of life divided by different GAs. To assess the levels of TSH and tT4 in the 2nd - 3rd day of life, from the lowest GA up to the end, in order to indicate the reference values which can be used to establish whether a replacement therapy with thyroid hormones in the premature infant is useful or not. In the present study we examined a total population of 1,671 adapted for gestational age newborns (AGA of which 1,159 resulted in full term and 512 resulted in preterm. The population was divided into eight groups of GAs (23-25, 26-28, 29-30, 31-32, 33-34, 35-36, 37-38, 39-42 wks and for each age group the median values of TSH and tT4 was determined. The TSH and tT4 were obtained in the 2nd - 3rd day of life at the screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism. Looking at the whole population examined, the preterm infant presents sig- nificant lower levels of TSH (p=0,00036 and tT4 (p<0,00001 compared to the full term newborn in the 2nd - 3rd day of life. TSH and tT4 levels increase gradually with the advancing of GA, reflecting the progressive maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. A linear and significant correlation (p=0,001 was found between the levels of tT4 and GA. Instead, the TSH values which show an upward trend with the advancing of the GA, confirm a trend which is less clear. In preterm newborns, significant increases of tT4 levels are found for minimal increases of GA, suggesting that even in extremely pre- mature infants (23-25 wks there is already an appropriate function of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, which matures rapidly and progressively. It is believed that even if the preterm newborn tT4 levels are lower than those found in a full term neonate, the metabolic needs of an ELGAN are sufficient. Our reference values in various GAs in preterm infants may be used to determine whether premature newborns may or not be required to make a substitution therapy, which in our opinion should be implemented when the tT4 levels are <2 SD for that gestational age.

Franco Bagnoli

2013-12-01

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A novel ultrasensitive re-equilibration immunometric assay. Its application to the measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a growing commercial and profession interest in ultrasensitive immunoassay for the measurement of low levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in thyroid disorders. The currently available supersensitive methodology is based mainly on an immunometric solid phase system using high avidity monoclonal antibodies with or without signal amplification of the label. An alternative method to improve the sensitivity is to shift the equilibration in favour of antigen and antibody reaction. In the paper such a novel ultrasensitive assay for TSH based on re-equilibrium is proposed. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

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Regulation of Inhibitors of Differentiation Family Proteins by Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells  

OpenAIRE

Members of the inhibitors of differentiation (Id) family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins are known to play important roles in the proliferation and differentiation of many cell types. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) regulates proliferation and differentiation by activating TSH receptor (TSHR) in thyrocytes. In this study, we found that Id2, one of the Id family proteins, is a major target for regulation by TSH in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. TSH rapidly increases the Id2 mRNA level in FRTL-5 th...

Jo, Young Suk; Hwang, Eun Suk; Lee, Ju Hee; Lee, Yunhyeong; Kim, Seul Young; Choi, Yun-sun; Bai, Youn-sun; Hong, Jun Hwa; Kim, Yun-jeung; Lee, Ihn-suk; Rha, So Young; Ro, Heung-kyu; Shong, Minho

2008-01-01

43

Augmented interleukin 6 production by rat thyrocytes (FRTL5): effect of interleukin 1 beta and thyroid-stimulating hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study shows that rat thyroid follicular (FRTL5) cells can produce interleukin 6 (IL-6) spontaneously and that IL-1 beta enhanced the production of IL-6 dose-dependently. In addition, 10 ng/mL of IL-1 beta in combination with 10 to 1,000 microU/mL of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) synergistically enhanced IL-6 production. It is suggested that IL-6 released from thyroid follicular cells may be a costimulator of autoreactive B and T cells in autoimmune thyroid disease and may constitute another link between the immune and endocrine systems. PMID:1873483

Iwamoto, M; Sakihama, T; Kimura, N; Tasaka, K; Onaya, T

1991-07-01

44

Immunization of mice with a newly identified thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor splice variant induces Graves'-like disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have cloned a thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) cDNA from mouse thyroid glands. The sequence of this cDNA indicated that it encoded a 739 amino acid TSHR splice variant that lacked exon 5 (TSHR739). In thyroid gland samples from adult mice, the amount of TSHR739 mRNA was about 10% of the amount of full-length TSHR (TSHR764) mRNA. A eCFP-tagged TSHR739 integrated into plasma membrane, but lacked TSH binding activity and it did not produce cAMP in response to TSH. However, thyroid-stimulating antibodies from patients with Graves' disease stimulated cAMP production in HEK293 cells that expressed TSHR739. Quantitative PCR revealed that TSHR739 transcript levels were low in the fetal mouse thyroid samples, but TSHR739 transcript levels increased after birth and as the mice grew. We used plasmid injection combined with electroporation into skeletal muscles to immunize BALB/c mice with TSHR739, TSHR764,, or control plasmid; TSHR739 caused goiters, high (125)I uptake activity, thyrotoxicosis, and production of thyroid-stimulating antibodies, but TSHR764, or control did not. These results indicated that immunization with an autologous TSHR antigen, TSHR739, induced Graves'-like disease in mice, and that TSHR739 is a candidate autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:23538203

Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Teturo

2013-06-01

45

Neonatal iodine status survey by thyroid-stimulating hormone screening in Surabaya  

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Full Text Available Background lodine deficiency disorders (IDD are a significant public health problem globally. Iodine deficiency may cause subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early infancy. Neonatal thyroid screening of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH to detected hypothyroidism may olso be used to determine the prevcalence of IDD in a population. Previous studies reported mild IDD status in differen parts of Indonesia Objective To evaluate the iodine status of neonates born in Mitra Keluarga Surabaya Hospital (MKSH by TSH screening over a 6-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study conducted in MKSH from January 2005 to December 2010. Of the 5,619 infants took part in this study. Blood specimens for TSH measurement were collected from subjects 2 to 6 days after birth, and sent to a reference laboraratory for evaluation. Using the neonatal TSH values, the iodine deficiency level of the group was determined according to the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of IDD criteria Results A total of 3,349 newborn babies underwent neonatal TSH screening in MKSH. Subjects’ mean TSH concentration was 5.14 mIU/L. A TSH concentration > 5mIU/L was found in 1270 (37.9% subjects, 166 (27.6% in 2005, 252 (44.0% in 2006, 331 (47.1% in 2007, 356 (57.7% in 2008, 114 (20.7% in 2009 and 51 (16.8% in 2010. On the basis of the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder criteria, this frequency corresponded to a moderate level of IDD. Twenty-two neonates had TSH > 20 mIU/L from which 2 infants were confirmed positive for hypothyroidism. Conclusion A 6-year study of 3,349 newborns screenerd for TSH revealed that 37.9% of subjects had TSH concentration of more than 5mIU/L. this frequency indicates a moderate level of IDD in the study population.

Connie Untario

2012-09-01

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The Direct Cooling of the Preoptic-Hypothalamic Area Elicits the Release of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone during Wakefulness but Not during REM Sleep  

OpenAIRE

Thermoregulatory responses to temperature changes are not operant during REM sleep (REMS), but fully operant in non-REM sleep and wakefulness. The specificity of the relationship between REMS and the impairment of thermoregulation was tested by eliciting the reflex release of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH), which is integrated at hypothalamic level. By inducing the sequential secretion of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Thyroid Hormone, TRH intervenes in the regulation of obligator...

Martelli, Davide; Luppi, Marco; Cerri, Matteo; Tupone, Domenico; Mastrotto, Marco; Perez, Emanuele; Zamboni, Giovanni; Amici, Roberto

2014-01-01

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Seasonal changes in serum total thyroxine, free thyroxine, and canine thyroid-stimulating hormone in clinically healthy beagles in Hokkaido.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate seasonal influences on thyroid hormone levels of healthy outdoor dogs in Hokkaido. We surveyed serum basal total thyroxine (tT4), free thyroxine (fT4), and canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH) levels, and tT4 levels after administration of TSH for a year. Basal tT4 levels decreased in January, and increased in August and September. fT4 levels increased in January and November. No significant seasonal variation was found in cTSH. tT4 levels after administration of TSH in August and November increased. These results suggested that the thyroid gland may have been activated in November. We should take seasonal variation into consideration when thyroid function is tested. PMID:11767062

Oohashi, E; Yagi, K; Uzuka, Y; Tanabe, S; Sarashina, T; Ishida, T

2001-11-01

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Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os programas de detecção precoce trazem economias ao sistema de saúde e oferecem a oportunidade de rastrear e tratar precocemente casos de hipotiroidismo congênito. OBJETIVO: Determinar influências de doenças que afetam a dinâmica materno-fetal-placentária sobre programas de detecção preco [...] ce de hipotiroidismo congênito que se baseiam na dosagem do hormônio tirotrófico (TSH). TIPO DE ESTUDO: Ensaio clínico prospectivo não-randomizado com, ao menos, três meses de seguimento. LOCAL: Centro Universitário Público de Referência - Centro de Atendimento Integrado a Saúde da Mulher (CAISM). PARTICIPANTES: 415 recém-nascidos de 5 grupos de parturientes: 83 crianças eram filhas de mães cardiopatas; 98 de mães com toxemia gravídica; 54 de mães diabéticas; 40 de mães portadoras de imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV); e 140 de mães hígidas. PROCEDIMENTOS: Todos os recém-nascidos tiveram amostras de sangue de cordão umbilical coletadas em papel de filtro ao nascimento. VARIÁVEIS ESTUDADAS: Dosagem de TSH em sangue coletado em papel de filtro usando um ensaio imunofluorométrico próprio (sensibilidade em manchas de sangue seco = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTADOS: Não encontramos diferença na média de TSH dos 5 grupos. Além disso, os níveis de TSH estavam acima de 5 mU/L em 48% dos bebês, sugerindo que nossa região é severamente deficiente em iodo. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados demonstram que programas de detecção precoce de hipotiroidismo congênito, que utilizam primariamente TSH, não são afetados por doenças maternas não-tiroidianas. Sugerimos que, além das vantagens técnicas sobre a punção de calcanhar com dosagem primária de T4, os programas de detecção precoce que utilizam primariamente TSH de cordão umbilical também podem ser usados como instrumento de avaliação e controle da carências de iodo. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pos [...] sible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

Laura Sterian, Ward; Ilda Shizue, Kunii; Rui Monteiro de Barros, Maciel.

2000-09-07

49

Nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab{sub 2}) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2} as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab{sub 2}. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab{sub 2}, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab{sub 2} to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} TSH at the 3s{sub B} criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

Cui Yuling; Chen Huafeng; Hou Li; Zhang Bing; Liu Bingqian; Chen Guonan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

2012-08-13

50

Nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. ? Using nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. ? Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. ? Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab2) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L?1 H2O2 by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2 as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab2. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab2, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab2, and polyaniline2, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab2, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab2 to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 ?IU mL?1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 ?IU mL?1 TSH at the 3sB criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

51

Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta  

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Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identificadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA, PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA, FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA. Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo.

Jesús Alvarado-Flores

2009-12-01

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Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH), Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH), Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH) y Prolactina (PRL) en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identi [...] ficadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA), PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA), FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA) y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA). Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo. Abstract in english The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect [...] sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA), PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA), FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA) and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA). These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.

Jesús, Alvarado-Flores; María Del Rosario, Montoya-Garcia; Javier, Ventura Juárez; Roberto, Rico-Martínez.

1049-10-01

53

Evaluation of a human immunometric assay for the determination of thyroid-stimulating hormone in nonhuman primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sera from nine species of clinically healthy nonhuman primates were assayed for T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using human immunoassays (a fluorescence polarization immunoassay for T4, a microparticle enzyme immunoassay for TSH). The T4 levels ranged from 20 to 132 nmol/L (x +/- SD = 62.8 +/- 24.7 nmol/L). Levels of TSH were detected only in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) (range, 0.4-10.8 mIU/L; detectable limit = 0.01 mIU/L). The results suggest that the antibodies used in the commercial TSH immunoassay assessed in this study cross-react with gorilla and orang-utan TSH but not with TSH of primates of the genera Macaca, Papio, Erythrocebus, Ateles, Leontopithecus, and Lemur. PMID:10982149

Lair, S; Crawshaw, G J; Mehren, K G; Perrone, M A

2000-06-01

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Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Suppression for Protection Against Hypothyroidism Due to Craniospinal Irradiation for Childhood Medulloblastoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Hypothyroidism is one of the earliest endocrine effects of craniospinal irradiation (CSI). The effects of radiation also depend on circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts as an indicator of thyrocyte function and is the most sensitive marker of thyroid damage. Hence, our study was launched in 1998 to evaluate the protective effect of TSH suppression during CSI for medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Patients and Methods: From Jan 1998 to Feb 2001, a total of 37 euthyroid children scheduled for CSI for medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor underwent thyroid ultrasound and free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and TSH evaluation at the beginning and end of CSI. From 14 days before and up to the end of CSI, patients were administered L-thyroxine at suppressive doses; every 3 days, TSH suppression was checked to ensure a value <0.3 ?M/ml. During follow-up, blood tests and ultrasound were repeated after 1 year; primary hypothyroidism was considered an increased TSH level greater than normal range. CSI was done using a hyperfractionated accelerated technique with total doses ranging from 20.8-39 Gy; models were used to evaluate doses received by the thyroid bed. Results: Of 37 patients, 25 were alive a median 7 years after CSI. They were well matched for all clinical features, except that eight children underwent adequate TSH suppression during CSI, whereas 17 did not. Hypothyroidism-free survival rates were 70ypothyroidism-free survival rates were 70% for the 'adequately TSH-suppressed' group and 20% for the 'inadequately TSH-suppressed' group (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression with L-thyroxine had a protective effect on thyroid function at long-term follow-up. This is the first demonstration that transient endocrine suppression of thyroid activity may protect against radiation-induced functional damage

55

Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

56

Effect of photoperiod on the thyroid-stimulating hormone neuroendocrine system in the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus).  

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Recent studies have characterised a retrograde mechanism whereby the pineal hormone melatonin acts in the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland to control thyroid hormone action in the hypothalamus, leading to changes in seasonal reproductive function. This involves the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from PT that activates type II deiodinase (DIO2) gene expression in hypothalamic ependymal cells, locally generating biologically active T3, and thus triggering a neuroendocrine cascade. In the present study, we investigated whether a similar regulatory mechanism operates in the European hamster. This species utilises both melatonin signalling and a circannual timer to time the seasonal reproductive cycle. We found that expression of betaTSH RNA in the PT was markedly increased under long compared to short photoperiod, whereas TSH receptor expression was localised in the ependymal cells lining the third ventricle, and in the PT, where its expression varied with time and photoperiod. In the ependymal cells at the base of the third ventricle, DIO2 and type III deiodinase (DIO3) expression was reciprocally regulated, with DIO2 activated under long and repressed under short photoperiod, and the reverse case for DIO3. These data are consistent with recent observations in sheep, and suggest that the PT TSH third ventricle-ependymal cell relay plays a conserved role in initiating the photoperiodic response in both long- and short-day breeding mammals. PMID:19912472

Hanon, E A; Routledge, K; Dardente, H; Masson-Pévet, M; Morgan, P J; Hazlerigg, D G

2010-01-01

57

Low Vitamin D Status is Associated with Increased Titers of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Graves' Disease.  

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Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to link with a variety of autoimmune diseases. However, the relationship between the thyroid autoimmunity in Graves' disease (GD) and vitamin D deficiency is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether increased titers of thyroid autoantibodies were associated with vitamin D deficiency in GD patients.Subjects: Seventy patients with GD and seventy matched control subjects were recruited to our study. The levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), free triodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) in the serum collected from these patients and controls were examined.Results: The levels of 25(OH)D in serum from TRAb positive GD patients were significantly lower than that from healthy controls or TRAb negative patients. However, the levels of PTH in serum were increased in TRAb positive GD patients compared to control subjects. The rates of vitamin D deficiency (defined as serum 25(OH)DTSH.Conclusion: Low vitamin D status is associated with increased titers of TRAb in Graves' disease, suggesting a possible link between vitamin D status and increased thyroid autoimmunity in GD patients. PMID:25370319

Zhang, Hong; Liang, Lingyun; Xie, Zhongjian

2014-11-01

58

Effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995 on a growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone-producing pituitary tumor.  

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Full Text Available A 46-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary adenoma. She had high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels and very high serum growth hormone (GH levels. Transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, post-operative irradiation, frontal craniotomy for removal of residual tumor and large-dose bromocriptine therapy were carried out consecutively. After therapy, serum GH levels gradually decreased, but not to the normal range, and serum TSH levels remained at inappropriately normal levels. Using immunoperoxidase techniques, GH-, TSH- and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-containing cells were demonstrated in the adenoma. A long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995, 600 micrograms/day suppressed the serum GH level to the normal range with a concomitant suppression of TSH. Furthermore, the paradoxical serum GH responses to TRH and LH-RH were slightly improved. No important subjective side-effects were noted. Therefore, SMS 201-995 appeared to be a very effective drug in this patient with a GH- and TSH-producing pituitary tumor.

Hirasawa,Ryoto

1991-04-01

59

Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone in 2008: focus on thyroid cancer management  

OpenAIRE

Ann Gramza1, Kathryn G Schuff21Division of Medical Oncology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USAAbstract: Radioiodine (RAI) ablation following thyroidectomy is standard of care treatment for patients with intermediate or high risk differentiated thyroid cancer. Traditionally, this has been achieved by forgoing thyroid hormone replacement postoperatively, allowing endogenous thyroid stimulati...

Ann Gramza; Schuff, Kathryn G.

2009-01-01

60

Thyrostimulin, a heterodimer of two new human glycoprotein hormone subunits, activates the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor  

OpenAIRE

Human thyrotropin (TSH), luteotropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), and chorionic gonadotropin are members of the heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone family. The common ? subunit forms noncovalent heterodimers with different ? subunits. Two novel human glycoprotein hormonelike genes, ?2 (A2) and ?5 (B5), recently have been identified. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, the two subunits were found as potential heterodimerization partners. Immunological analyses confirmed the heterodimerization of A2...

Nakabayashi, Koji; Matsumi, Hirotaka; Bhalla, Alka; Bae, Jeehyeon; Mosselman, Sietse; Hsu, Sheau Yu; Hsueh, Aaron J. W.

2002-01-01

61

High Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Level is Associated with the Risk of Developing Atherosclerosis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism.  

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The aim of our study was to assess the potential role of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the risk of developing atherosclerosis in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). A cohort of 240 SCH patients and 150 euthyroid volunteers were recruited for the study. SCH patients were stratified into 2 groups according to TSH levels (group A: TSH10?mIU/l). All subjects were examined for clinical and biochemical parameters. Visfatin, omentin-1, and circulating endothelial biomarkers were measured. Patients in group B received l-thyroxine replacement to achieve euthyroidism; after 6 months of euthyroidism all measurements were repeated. Patients with SCH had higher total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lower nitric oxide (NO) and omentin-1 levels compared to euthyroid subjects (all pomentin-1 levels increased significantly after l-thyroxine replacement. Based on multivariate liner stepwise regression analysis, omentin-1 was independently correlated with BMI and TSH; NO was independently correlated with age, TSH, LDL-C, and omentin-1. High TSH level contributes to endothelial dysfunction in SCH, while TSH-induced decrease of omentin-1 provides a new link between SCH and atherogenic risk. PMID:25372775

Gao, Cx; Yang, B; Guo, Q; Wei, L H; Tian, Lm

2015-03-01

62

Detection of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) by radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) were determined in 100 patients using radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of RRA and ELISA were found to be 70.6% and 88.2% respectively (n=51). The specificity of both assays were 100% (n=16). With RRA as the standard test the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 75.8% and 86.8%. In the untreated hyperthyroid the RRA result which expressed as % specific 125I-TSH inhibition was 33.6% (n=51), decline to 26.9% in the treated hyperthyroid (n=33) and 14.1% in the euthyroid (n=16). The mean 0.D492nm of TRAb-ELISA were 0.861 in untreated hyperthyroid, 0.437 in treated hyperthyroid and 0.135 in euthyroid Phi coefficient analysis show that the RRA was 60.4% correlated to hyperthyroidism where as TRAb-ELISA was 80.1%

63

Use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyrotropin stimulation test in healthy, hypothyroid and euthyroid sick dogs.  

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Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) was evaluated for the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism, using TSH response tests. Phase I stimulation tests were performed in 6 healthy dogs weighing over 20 kg, using 50 and then 100 microg of freshly reconstituted rhTSH administered intravenously. In phase II, the same dogs were stimulated by using 100 microg of rhTSH frozen for 3 months at -20 degrees C. Phase III stimulation tests were performed by using 50 or 100 microg of freshly reconstituted or frozen rhTSH in healthy (n = 14), euthyroid sick (n = 11) and hypothyroid dogs (n = 9). A dose of 100 microg of rhTSH was judged more appropriate for dogs weighing more than 20 kg. Biological activity of rhTSH after freezing at -20 degrees C for up to 12 weeks was maintained. When stimulated, significant (P < 0.05) increases in total thyroxine concentration were observed only in healthy and euthyroid sick dogs. Results of this study show that the rhTSH stimulation test is able to differentiate euthyroidism from hypothyroidism in dogs. PMID:18189051

Daminet, Sylvie; Fifle, Lyanne; Paradis, Manon; Duchateau, Luc; Moreau, Maxim

2007-12-01

64

Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level in a euthyroid neonate caused by macro thyrotropin-IgG complex  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was discovered by routine neonatal screening in a newborn with no clinical symptoms. Thyroid function tests were repeated and confirmed a high TSH value but normal total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). However, the mother also had elevated serum TSH with normal levels of T4 and T3. The results suggested a transmitted maternal interfering factor, and no treatment was started while further investigation was performed. Gel filtration chromatography of serum from both the infant and the mother showed a peak TSH with molecular mass consistent with a TSH-IgG complex (macro-TSH). TSH in the infant decreased to a normal level within 8?months in accordance with a normal rate of elimination of maternal IgG, whereas the TSH level of the mother remained high. Conclusion:? This case suggests that interfering macro-TSH should be considered in a euthyroid neonate with elevated serum TSH and normal T4 and T3 levels to avoid unnecessary treatment.

Rix, Mariane; Laurberg, Peter

2011-01-01

65

Purification of bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone by a monoclonal antibody  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monoclonal antibody directed against bovine TSH was obtained by hybridoma technology. This antibody was specific for TSH and did not react with bovine LH and FSH. Affinity chromatography of crude TSH was performed on anti-TSH Sepharose. Bovine TSH was purified in a single step to near homogeneity by this technique, as shown by cation exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified TSH. The biological activity of the hormone was not affected during the purification, as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation of the TSH-dependent FRTL5 cell line. The results indicate that affinity purification of TSH by means of a monoclonal antibody is a simple one-step procedure for the production of biologically active, highly purified TSH

66

Purification of bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone by a monoclonal antibody  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A monoclonal antibody directed against bovine TSH was obtained by hybridoma technology. This antibody was specific for TSH and did not react with bovine LH and FSH. Affinity chromatography of crude TSH was performed on anti-TSH Sepharose. Bovine TSH was purified in a single step to near homogeneity by this technique, as shown by cation exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified TSH. The biological activity of the hormone was not affected during the purification, as determined by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation of the TSH-dependent FRTL5 cell line. The results indicate that affinity purification of TSH by means of a monoclonal antibody is a simple one-step procedure for the production of biologically active, highly purified TSH.

Lock, A.J.; van Denderen, J.; Aarden, L.A.

1988-01-01

67

Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and developmental regulation of a novel receptor from Drosophila melanogaster structurally related to members of the thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor family from mammals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using oligonucleotide probes derived from consensus sequences for glycoprotein hormone receptors, we have cloned an 831-amino acid residue-long receptor from Drosophila melanogaster that shows a striking structural homology with members of the glycoprotein hormone (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG)) receptor family from mammals. This homology includes a very large, extracellular N terminus (20% sequence identity with rat TSH, 19% with rat FSH, and 20% with the rat LH/CG receptor) and a seven-transmembrane region (53% sequence identity with rat TSH, 50% with rat FSH, and 52% with the rat LH/CG receptor). The Drosophila receptor gene is >7.5 kilobase pairs long and contains 17 exons and 16 introns. Seven intron positions coincide with introns in the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes and have the same intron phasing. This indicates that the Drosophila receptor is evolutionarily related to the mammalian receptors. The Drosophila receptor gene is located at position 90C on the right arm of the third chromosome. The receptor is strongly expressed starting 8-16 h after oviposition, and the expression stays high until after pupation. Adult male flies express high levels of receptor mRNA, but female flies express about 6 times less. The expression pattern in embryos and larvae suggests that the receptor is involved in insect development. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a glycoprotein hormone receptor family member from insects.

Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P

1997-01-01

68

Comparison of radioiodine biokinetics following the administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and after thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid carcinoma  

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Iodine kinetics were studied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer while euthyroid under exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and while hypothyroid to detect differences in radioiodine uptake, distribution and elimination. Nine patients with total or near-total thyroidectomy on thyroid hormone suppressive therapy received two or three daily doses of 0.9 mg recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) followed by administration of a diagnostic activity of 2 mCi (74 MBq) iodine-131. After the biokinetics assessments had been performed, patients stopped taking thyroid hormones to become hypothyroid. A second 2 mCi (74 MBq) diagnostic activity of {sup 131}I was administered, followed by a second set of biokinetics assessments. One week later the patients underwent remnant ablation with a therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I. A comparison of the {sup 131}I kinetics in the patients while euthyroid and while hypothyroid showed major differences in the doses to the remnant as well as in residence times and radiation exposure to the blood. In the first diagnostic assessment the remnant dose was higher in eight of the nine patients and clearance of the activity from the blood was faster in all of them. The data from this study suggest that radioiodine administration is potent and safe when administered to euthyroid patients following rhTSH administration. Enhanced residence time in the remnant and decreased radiation exposure to the blood were noted when patients were euthyroid compared to when they were rendered hypothyroid. However, all patients received diagnostic activities in the same order: first while euthyroid, followed by hypothyroidism. It is quite possible that ''stunning'' from the radioiodine administered in the initial uptake study inhibited the subsequent uptake of radioiodine by the remnant lesions in the second uptake study. (orig.)

Luster, Markus; Lassmann, Michael; Haenscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sherman, Steven I. [Section of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Skarulis, Monica C. [Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Reynolds, James R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren Grant Magnusen Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

2003-10-01

69

Reliability of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies level determination in diagnosing and prognosing of immunogenic hyperthyroidism  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Graves disease (GD is defined as hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter caused by immunogenic disturbances. Antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors of thyroid gland (TRAb have crucial pathogenetic importance in the development and maintenance of autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to identify sensitivity, specificity, positive an negative predictive value of TRAb level in sera of patients with GD as well as to estimate significance of TRAb level for remission and GD relapses occurrence. Methods. We studied prospectively and partly retrospectively 149 patients, 109 female and 40 male patients, 5-78 years old, in the period 1982-2007. There were 96 patients with GD. The control group consisted of 53 patients, 21 with hyperthyroidism of second etiology and 32 patients on amiodarone therapy, with or without thyroid dysfunction TRAb was measured by radioreceptor assay (TRAK Assay and DYNO Test TRAK Human Brahms Diagnostica GMBH. Results. According to the results the sensitivity (Sn of TRAb test was 80%, specificity (Sp 100%, positive predictive value (PP 100% and negative predictive value (NP 83%. Also, the Sn of hTRAb test was 94%, Sp 100%, PP 100% and NP 94%. Our results show that an increased level of TRAb/hTRAb at the beginning of the disease and the level at the end of medical therapy is associated with an increased number of GD relapses and a shorter remission duration. Conclusion. Detection and measurement of TRAb in serum is a very sensitive method for diagnosing GD and very highly specific in vitro method for differential diagnosis of various forms of hyperthyroidism. Clinical significance of differentiating various forms of hyperthyroidism, using this in vitro assay, lays in adequate therapeutic choice for these entities.

Aleksi? Aleksandar Z.

2009-01-01

70

Glutamine and glutamic acid enhance thyroid-stimulating hormone ? subunit mRNA expression in the rat pars tuberalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing cells of the pars tuberalis (PT) display distinct characteristics that differ from those of the pars distalis (PD). The mRNA expression of TSH? and ?GSU in PT has a circadian rhythm and is inhibited by melatonin via melatonin receptor type 1; however, the detailed regulatory mechanism for TSH? expression in the PT remains unclear. To identify the factors that affect PT, a microarray analysis was performed on laser-captured PT tissue to screen for genes coding for receptors that are abundantly expressed in the PT. In the PT, we found high expression of the KA2, which is an ionotropic glutamic acid receptor (iGluR). In addition, the amino acid transporter A2 (ATA2), also known as the glutamine transporter, and glutaminase (GLS), as well as GLS2, were highly expressed in the PT compared to the PD. We examined the effects of glutamine and glutamic acid on TSH? expression and ?GSU expression in PT slice cultures. l-Glutamine and l-glutamic acid significantly stimulated TSH? expression in PT slices after 2- and 4-h treatments, and the effect of l-glutamic acid was stronger than that of l-glutamine. In contrast, treatment with glutamine and glutamic acid did not affect ?GSU expression in the PT or the expression of TSH? or ?GSU in the PD. These results strongly suggest that glutamine is taken up by PT cells through ATA2 and that glutamic acid locally converted from glutamine by Gls induces TSH? expression via the KA2 in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner in the PT. PMID:22219301

Aizawa, Sayaka; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

2012-03-01

71

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

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Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years, who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P < 0.001, a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2. Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 ± 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase, 1.80 ± 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 ± 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%, painful thyroiditis (29.4% and hypothyroidism (52.9%. Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 ± 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001 and by 46.0 ± 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001. Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects.

G.J. Paz-Filho

2007-12-01

72

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances {sup 131}I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 {+-} 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to {sup 131}I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 {+-} 64.4 mL. {sup 131}I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean {sup 131}I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 {+-} 9.7 to 49.6 {+-} 13.4% (P < 0.001), a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2). Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 {+-} 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase), 1.80 {+-} 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 {+-} 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%), painful thyroiditis (29.4%) and hypothyroidism (52.9%). Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 {+-} 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001) and by 46.0 {+-} 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of {sup 131}I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

Paz-Filho, G.J.; Mesa-Junior, C.O.; Boguszewski, C.L.; Carvalho, G.A.; Graf, H. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; Olandoski, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Bioestatistica; Woellner, L.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Goedert, C.A. [Centro de Tomografia Computadorizada, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2007-12-15

73

Hormonal regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I genes in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells: thyroid-stimulating hormone induces a cAMP-mediated decrease in class I expression.  

OpenAIRE

Thyrocytes normally express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, but not class II, cell surface antigens. A rat thyrocyte cell line, FRTL-5, also expresses MHC class I antigens, in addition to a variety of thyroid-specific genes. Treatment of FRTL-5 thyrocytes with physiological concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been shown to induce increased expressed of thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase but to simultaneously decrease expression of the TSH receptor. The re...

Saji, M.; Moriarty, J.; Ban, T.; Kohn, L. D.; Singer, D. S.

1992-01-01

74

High-affinity and specific recognition of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) by in vitro-selected 2'-amino-modified RNA.  

OpenAIRE

RNA sequences containing 2'-amino pyrimidines that bind with high-affinity to human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) were isolated from a random sequence library by an in vitro selection-amplification procedure. A representative RNA ligand (T-15) has an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 2.5 nM for its interaction with hTSH and can discriminate between other members of the glycohormone family; no detectable binding was observed at low micromolar concentrations of hCG (human chorionic...

Lin, Y.; Nieuwlandt, D.; Magallanez, A.; Feistner, B.; Jayasena, S. D.

1996-01-01

75

Microarray Analysis of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1, and Insulin-Induced Gene Expression in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells  

OpenAIRE

To determine which genes are regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH), insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the rat thyroid, we used the microarray technology and observed the changes in gene expression. The expressions of genes for bone morphogenetic protein 6, the glucagon receptor, and cyclin D1 were increased by both TSH and IGF-1; for cytochrome P450, 2c37, the expression was decreased by both. Genes for cholecystokinin, glucuronidase, beta, demethyl-Q 7...

Lee, You Jin; Park, Do Joon; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Bo Youn

2007-01-01

76

The effect of oral cimetidine on the basal and stimulated values of prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.  

OpenAIRE

The effect of cimetidine on the basal values of PRL, TSH, FSH and LH and on the TRH/LHRH-stimulated values of these hormones was investigated in patients with peptic ulcer. No difference was found between the values before, during or after cimetidine maintenance treatment. To evaluate whether a rise in PRL occurs during the early phase of cimetidine treatment, daily estimations were made of basal PRL values during the first week of cimetidine adminstration in volunteers. No significant differ...

Nelis, G. F.; Meene, J. G.

1980-01-01

77

Relapse of Graves disease after medical therapy: predictive value of thyroidal technetium-99m uptake and serum thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 49 patients with Graves disease, the 20-min thyroidal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc and serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody were estimated at presentation and at intervals during a 1-yr course of carbimazole and triiodothyronine. In the 12 mo after cessation of therapy, 29 patients developed recurrent thyrotoxicosis. Thyroidal /sup 99m/Tc uptake had a poor predictive value for recurrence of thyrotoxicosis, both at presentation and during therapy. A very high level of TSH receptor antibody was present in seven patients at presentation, all of whom relapsed on withdrawing therapy. An abnormal value of TSH receptor antibody at the end of the course of medical therapy was present in 24/29 (83%) patients who relapsed and in 1/20 (5%) patients who remained euthyroid 1 yr after stopping antithyroid drugs

78

Assays for thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies employing different ligands and ligand partners may have similar sensitivity and specificity but are not interchangeable  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The best biochemical marker of Graves' disease (GD) is the presence in serum of autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR-Ab). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of two sensitive hTSHR-Ab assays with a specific focus on the clinical importance of differences in results. Both assays are competitive in nature but employ quite different types of ligands. In the "M22-pTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with a labeled monoclonal antibody (M22*) against the thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor for binding to porcine TSH receptors. In the "bTSH-rhTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with labeled bovine TSH for binding to recombinant human TSH receptors.

Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Handberg, Aase

2010-01-01

79

Identification of a novel epitope in the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor ectodomain acting as intramolecular signaling interface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHRs) differ from the other seven transmembrane receptors mainly through a complex activation mechanism that requires the binding of a large hormone toward a large N-terminal ectodomain. The intramolecular mechanism of the signal transduction to the serpentine domain upon hormone binding at the ectodomain is not understood. To identify determinants at the GPHR ectodomain that may be involved in signal transduction, we first searched for homologous structural features. Based on high sequence similarity to the determined structures of the Nogo-receptor ectodomain and the intermolecular complex of the Interleukin-8 ligand (IL8) and the N-terminal peptide of the IL8 receptor (IL8RA), the hypothesis was developed that portions of the intramolecular components, Cysteine-box-2 and Cysteine-box-3, of the GPHR ectodomain interact and localize at the interface between ectodomain and serpentine domain. Indeed, point mutations within the D403EFN406 motif at Cysteine-box-3 of the thyrotropin receptor resulted in increased basal cAMP levels, suggesting that this motif may be important for transduction of the signal from the ectodomain to the transmembrane domain. New indications are provided about the tight spatial cooperation and relative location of the new epitope and other determinants at the thyrotropin receptor ectodomain, such as the leucine-rich repeat motif Ser281 and the cysteine boxes. According to the high sequence conservation, the results are of general relevance for the signal transduction mechanism of other glycoprotein hormone receptors such as choriogonadotrophic/luteinizing hormone receptor and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor. PMID:15345720

Kleinau, Gunnar; Jäschke, Holger; Neumann, Susanne; Lättig, Jens; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

2004-12-01

80

Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

1988-01-01

81

Influence of thyroid-stimulating hormone on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In poorly differentiated thyroid cancer originating from thyroid follicular cells, the ability to concentrate iodine is lost. This makes recurrence undetectable by 131I whole-body scan. In this situation, other radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI), are used to evaluate recurrence or metastasis. Some reports suggest that 18F-FDG uptake is increased by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation. This study aimed to determine the influence of TSH on 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro. The cells were stimulated with 1000 ?U/ml of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) for 1 day, 3 days, and 5 days. Each cell was incubated with 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 18F-FDG or 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 99mTc-MIBI for 1 h at 37degC. The uptake of each radiopharmaceutical in the cells was quantified as a percent of whole radioactivity per total viable cell number. The quantification of glucose transporter 1, 2, 3 and 4 mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TSH stimulation increased 18F-FDG uptake in a time-dependent manner. Following 5 days of rhTSH stimulation, 18F-FDG uptake was approximately 2.2 times that of the control. The increase in 18F-FDG uptak The increase in 18F-FDG uptake following rhTSH stimulation was correlated to the increase in GLUT4 mRNA level. The GLUT1 mRNA level was unchanged. An increased uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was observed with a pattern similar to that of 18F-FDG. The 99mTc-MIBI uptake was approximately 1.5 times that of the control 5 days later. These results suggest that TSH stimulates 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in poorly differentiated papillary thyroid cancer, and therefore 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) or 99mTc-MIBI scans under TSH stimulation may be more accurate than under suppression. (author)

82

The Effects of Simvastatin on the Serum Concentrations of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Free Thyroxine in Hypothyroid Patients Treated with Levothyroxine  

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Full Text Available Background: Statins, such as simvastatin, are the drugs of choice for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. On the other hand hypercholesterolmia can occur in hypothyroid patients, who receive levothyroxine. There are few clinical case reports in regards to drug interaction between levothyroxine and lovastatin or simvastatin, indicating decreased levothyroxine effects. This study aimed at determining possible interaction between simvastatin and levothyroxine in hypothyroid patients by assessing serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (FT4, the two important laboratory indices for levothyroxine therapy. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 41 eligible hypothyroid patients receiving levothyroxine (50-150 µg/d were selected. Blood samples were taken before and after three months of simultaneous treatment with simvastatin (20 mg/d and levothyroxine to determine the serum levels of TSH and FT4. Results: There was no significant difference between the serum levels of TSH (P=0.77 or FT4 (P=0.76 before and after three months of simultaneous treatment. Also, there was no aggravation or initiation of any sign or symptom of hypothyroidism in the patients during the study period. Conclusion: Considering that FT4 and TSH are the most reliable indicators for the levothyroxine treatment, the findings of the present study suggest that there may not be any significant interaction between simvastatin and levothyroxine

Mohammad Abbasinazari

2011-06-01

83

Thyroid-stimulating hormone-regulated growth and cell cycle distribution of thyroid cells involve type I isozyme of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal growth and differentiation of normal rat thyroid FRTL5 cells depend strictly on the presence of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). FRTL5 cells deprived of TSH cease dividing and become quiescent. Addition of TSH to quiescent cells, which activates the cyclic AMP-mediated pathway, is sufficient to stimulate cell entry into S phase of the cell cycle. We have previously shown that the differential expression of the two isozymes, type I and type II, of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) correlates with cell growth and differentiation of several rodent and human cell lines. We have studied the role of PKA in the TSH-regulated growth and cell cycle distribution of FRTL5 cells. Upon addition of TSH to FRTL5 cells deprived of hormone, a rapid induction of RI alpha mRNA species occurred within 30 min after treatment, reaching the levels of proliferating FRTL5 cells at 12 h. RII alpha mRNA levels slightly increased after TSH addition, whereas C alpha mRNA levels did not show major changes. Photoaffinity labeling of PKA receptor proteins showed that addition of TSH to quiescent FRTL5 cells induced a progressive increase in RI alpha levels starting at 6 h after stimulation, whereas RII alpha receptor levels increased only slightly. When FRTL5 cells were treated with an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted against the RI alpha regulatory subunit, their growth was arrested, whereas an antisense against the RII alpha regulatory subunit produced only a mild growth inhibition. Moreover, exposure to the antisense RI alpha oligomer resulted in accumulation of cells in the G0-G1 compartment, as during TSH deprivation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8518230

Tortora, G; Pepe, S; Cirafici, A M; Ciardiello, F; Porcellini, A; Clair, T; Colletta, G; Cho-Chung, Y S; Bianco, A R

1993-05-01

84

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodotyronine and Thyroxine Concentrations and Their Relationship with Metabolic Parameters, Anthropometric Variables and Body Composition in Premenopausal Euthyroid Obese Women  

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Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the potential relationships of thyroid hormones, metabolic parameters, and anthropometric variables with body composition in premenopausal women. Material and Method: A total of 84 women with a mean age of 35.12±8.11 years were investigated. Subjects with a history of diabetes, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, chronic liver, and renal disease were excluded from the study. In all subjects, anthropometric parameters were evaluated and body composition was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Fasting serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, triiodothyrionine (T3, thyroxine (T4, fasting blood glucose (FBG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 were measured by enzymatic methods. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was determined by Friedewald formula. Results: Serum TSH, CRP and TC levels in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p<0.05. Serum TSH concentration was positively associated with waist to hip ratio (WHR and fat mass and, negatively associated with fat-free mass (p<0.05. There was also a positive relationship between T3 and TG and between T4 and LDL-C in all participants. In comparison of subjects with different body fat percentage, subjects with higher body fat had also higher amount of TSH concentrations (p=0.015. Discussion: Our results showed a relationship of fat mass and lipid profile with thyroid function in premenopausal women. Further researches are needed to clarify the nature and mechanism of these relationships.

Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi

2015-03-01

85

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ? The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ? method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L?1 and became 0.003 mIU L?1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L?1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routirIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

86

Role of vitamin B 12 , folate, and thyroid stimulating hormone in dementia: A hospital-based study in north Indian population  

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Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 and folate represent modifiable risk factors for dementia. They may increase the risk of Alzheimer?s dementia (AD and vascular dementia (VaD as their deficiency can increase the homocysteine level due to slowed methylation reaction. Homocysteine has a neurotoxic effect that could lead to neurologic disturbances. Hence, it is important to explore the status of serum B 12 and folate in AD and VaD to evolve the treatment strategies for the same. Objectives: A retrospective study was conducted to assess the levels of vitamin B 12 , folate, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in serum and the relationship of these factors, including age and sex to cognitive decline in VaD, AD, and dementia due to other causes (DOC. Materials and Methods: Serum vitamin B 12 , folate, TSH, and total cholesterol were studied in 32 AD patients (mean age: 65 years, 12 VaD patients (mean age: 61 years, 83 DOC (mean age: 65 years, and 127 control subjects (mean age: 49 years. Results: In AD, VaD, and DOC, the levels of vitamin B 12 and folate were significantly lower (P < 0.002; 0.026; 0.002 for vitamin B 12 and P < 0.000 in all the 3 groups for folate as compared with the controls. Similarly, TSH levels were significantly lower in AD and DOC (P < 0.008; 0.038 as compared with the controls. Conclusion: Vitamin B 12 and folate were significantly low in both AD and VaD patients. Hence, B vitamin supplementation should be considered as possible targets for the therapeutic intervention in dementia.

Agarwal Rachna

2010-01-01

87

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

2012-04-13

88

Comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The physiological changes in thyroid gland during pregnancy have been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic causes of preeclampsia.Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this case?control study, 40 normal pregnant women and 40 cases of preeclampsia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated. They were compared for serum levels of Free T3 (FT3, Free T4 (FT4 and TSH. The data was analyzed by SPSS software with the use of t?student, Chi?square, Independent sample T-test and Bivariate correlation test. p?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was not statistically different between two groups (p=0.297. No significant difference was observed in terms of parity between two groups (p=0.206. Normal pregnant women were not significantly different from preeclampsia cases in the view of FT3 level (1.38 pg/ml vs. 1.41 pg/ml, p=0.803, FT4 level (0.95 pg/ml vs. 0.96 pg/ml, p=0.834 and TSH level (3.51 ?IU/ml vs. 3.10 ?IU/ml, p=0.386. Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the hypothesis that changes in FT3, FT4 and TSH levels could be possible etiology of preeclampsia

Nayereh Khadem

2012-01-01

89

Serial changes of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone after total thyroidectomy or withdrawal of suppressive thyroxine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and whole-body scanning are the fundamentals of treatment and follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is generally accepted that a Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level of at least 30 {mu}U/ml is a prerequisite for the effective use of RAI, and that it requires 4-6 weeks of off-thyroxine to attain these levels. Because thyroxine withdrawal and the consequent hypothyroidism are often poorly tolerated, and occasionally might be hazardous, it is important to be certain that these assumptions are correct. We have measured serial changes in serum TSH after total thyroidectomy or withdrawl of thyroxine in patients with thyroid cancer. Serum TSH levels were measured weekly after thyroidectomy in 10 patients (group A) and after the discontinuation of thyroxine in 12 patients (group B). Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were also evaluated weekly by modified Billewicz diagnostic index. By the second week, 78% of group A patients and 17% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the third week, 89% of group A patients and 90% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the fourth week, all patients in two groups achieved target TSH levels and there were no overt hypothyroidism. In all patients, serum TSH elevated to the target concentration ({>=} 30 {mu}U/ml) within 4 weeks without significant manifestation of hypothyroidism. The schedule of RAI administration could be adjusted to fit. the needs and circumstances of individual patients with a shorter preparation period than the conventional.

Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae; Seo, Ji Hyoung [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2004-12-01

90

Thyroid-stimulating hormone and cyclic AMP activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Involvement of protein kinase A, rac1, and reactive oxygen species.  

Science.gov (United States)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38-MAPKs) are activated by cytokines, cellular stresses, growth factors, and hormones. We show here that p38-MAPKs are activated upon stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or cAMP. TSH caused the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the human TSH receptor but not in wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells. The effect of TSH was fully mimicked by the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, and by a permeant analog of cAMP. The effect of forskolin was reproduced in FRTL5 rat thyroid cells. TSH also stimulated the phosphorylation of MAPK kinase 3 or 6, over the same time scale as that of p38-MAPKs. TSH and forskolin stimulated the activity of the alpha-isoform of p38-MAPK assayed by phosphorylation of the transcription factor ATF2. The activity of MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 was stimulated by TSH and forskolin. This stimulation was abolished by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38-MAPKs. The protein kinase A inhibitor H89 inhibited the stimulation of phosphorylation of p38-MAPKs by forskolin, whereas inhibitors of protein kinase C, p70(S6k), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase were ineffective. Expression of the dominant negative form of Rac1, but not that of Ras, blocked forskolin-induced p38-MAPK activation. Diphenylene iodonium, a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase(s), and ascorbic acid, an effective free radical scavenger, suppressed TSH- or forskolin-stimulated p38-MAPK phosphorylation, indicating that the generation of reactive oxygen species plays a key role in signaling from cAMP to p38-MAPKs. Inhibition of the p38-MAPK pathway with SB203580 partially but significantly, attenuates cAMP- and TSH-induced expression of the sodium iodide symporter in FRTL-5 cells. These results point to a new signaling pathway for the G(s)-coupled TSH receptor, involving cAMP, protein kinase A, Rac1, and reactive oxygen species and resulting in the activation of a signaling kinase cascade that includes MAPK kinase 3 or 6, p38-MAPK, and MAPK-activated protein kinase-2. PMID:11006268

Pomerance, M; Abdullah, H B; Kamerji, S; Correze, C; Blondeau, J P

2000-12-22

91

Day-night variations in thyroid stimulating hormone and its relation with clinical status and metabolic parameters in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate day-night variations in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and its relation with clinical status and metabolic parameters in patients with cirrhosis. Forty-one patients with negative thyroid antibodies and normal thyroid function tests who were diagnosed with cirrhosis were included. Thirty-five age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were included in control group.TSH, fT3, and fT4 levels, which were measured both in the morning and late evening. The difference between nocturnal TSH and morning TSH (?TSH) were compared between groups. Relation between Child-Turcotte-Pugh, model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and MELD-Na scores and levels of thyroid hormones, ?TSH and serum sodium (Na) levels was investigated. Relation between ?TSH and clinical status and metabolic parameters was also evaluated. The mean morning fT3, nocturnal fT3, nocturnal TSH, and ?TSH levels were significantly lower, morning and nocturnal fT4 levels were higher in patients with cirrhosis (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.004, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001).As the ROC analysis, day-night variation was detected to be impaired in the event that difference between nocturnal TSH level and morning TSH level was lower than 1 uIU/mL in patients with cirrhosis with a sensitivity of 92.7 % and specificity of 71.4 % (p < 0.001).A significant positive correlation was found between serum Na levels and fT3 in patients with cirrhosis (r = 0.479, p = 0.001), and a significant negative correlation was found between the severity of clinical status and low levels of fT3 in patients with cirrhosis (p < 0.001).Nocturnal TSH increase does not occur in cases of cirrhosis without known thyroid disease and with normal thyroid function tests, which may be an early finding of impaired thyroid functions in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:25063309

Atalay, Roni; Ersoy, Reyhan; Demirezer, Aylin Bolat; Ak?n, Fatma Ebru; Polat, Sefika Burcak; Cakir, Bekir; Ersoy, Osman

2014-07-26

92

Thyroid stimulating hormone, independent of thyroid hormone, can elevate the serum total cholesterol level in patients with coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between TSH and the lipid profile is contradictory because few studies have excluded the potential influence of the thyroid hormones (TH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH levels and the lipid profile independent of TH. Methods 1302 CHD patients diagnosed by coronary angiography were retrospectively studied. The prevalence and distribution of thyroid dysfunction were analyzed first. To assess the impact of TSH on serum lipids, Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed after adjustments for classic factors and TH. To calculate the extent of the effect of TSH on the serum cholesterol level, the partial least squares method and additional statistical methods were used. Results After the exclusions, a total of 568 patients (270 males and 298 females with a mean age of 63.56?±?11.376?years were selected. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among the patients was 18.66%, and the prevalence of hypothyroidism (15.32% was higher than that of hyperthyroidism (3.34%. Even after adjusting for confounding factors, such as sex, age, smoking status, fasting plasma glucose levels and TH, a significant positive impact of TSH on the serum total cholesterol (TC level was revealed (r?=?0.095, p?=?0.036. Each 1 mIU/L increase in the TSH level might be linked to a 0.015580712?mmol/L elevation of the serum TC value. Conclusions TSH can increase the TC level in CHD patients independent of TH. The present study suggests a potential physiological role of TSH and the importance of maintaining an appropriate TSH level in CHD patients.

Xu Chao

2012-05-01

93

Thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 synergize to elevate 1,2-diacylglycerol in rat thyroid cells. Stimulation of DNA synthesis via interaction between lipid and adenylyl cyclase signal transduction systems.  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) synergistically stimulate DNA synthesis in thyroid cells. In this report, a novel mechanism for mediation of this synergistic interaction is described in rat thyroid (FRTL-5) cells. Because phorbol myristate acetate stimulates DNA synthesis, the effects of TSH, IGF-1 and insulin on FRTL-5 cell content of 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DG), the endogenous activator of protein kinase C, were measured. After 6 d, TSH, IGF-1 and ...

Brenner-gati, L.; Berg, K. A.; Gershengorn, M. C.

1988-01-01

94

Casos clínicos en Endocrinología (n.º 2): niña de diez años con alteraciones de la hormona estimulante del tiroides / Clinical cases in Endocrinology (nº 2): a ten year old girl with thyroid stimulating hormone alteration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Continuando con los casos clínicos de Endocrinología, se presenta una niña de diez años derivada de un centro de salud por alteraciones de la hormona estimulante del tiroides. En este artículo trataremos especialmente de la disminución de la función tiroidea (hipotiroidismo). [...] Abstract in english Continuing with clinical cases in endocrinology we report the case of a 10 years old girl referred from a primary care center with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) alteration. In this paper we'll specially address the reduction in thyroid function (hypothyroidism). [...

N., Álvarez Gil; T., Angulo Sacristán.

2014-03-01

95

Specificity of cognate ligand-receptor interactions: fusion proteins of human chorionic gonadotropin and the heptahelical receptors for human luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone.  

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The family of glycoprotein hormones and their homologous heptahelical receptors represent an excellent system for comparative structure-function studies. We have engineered single chain molecules of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) fused to its cognate receptor, LH receptor (LHR), and to the noncognate receptors, TSH receptor (TSHR) and FSH receptor (FSHR; N-beta-alpha-receptor-C), to create the yoked (Y) complexes YCG/LHR, YCG/TSHR, and YCG/FSHR. The expression and bioactivity of these fusion proteins were examined in transiently transfected HEK 293 cells. Western blot analysis and antibody binding assays demonstrated that each of the proteins was expressed. In the case of YCG/LHR, minimal binding of exogenous hormone was observed due to the continued occupation of receptor by the fused ligand. The presence of hCG in the YCG/TSHR and YCG/FSHR, however, did not prevent binding of exogenous cognate ligand, presumably due to the lower affinity of hCG. The basal cAMP levels in cells expressing the YCG/LHR complex was approximately 20-fold higher than that in cells expressing LHR. Increases in basal cAMP production were also observed with YCG/TSHR and YCG/FSHR, e.g. 13- and 4-fold increases, respectively. Whereas the affinity and specificity of hCG for LHR are extraordinarily high, the hormone is capable of binding to and activating both TSHR and FSHR under these conditions that mimic high ligand concentrations. These findings were confirmed by adding high concentrations of hCG to cells expressing TSHR and FSHR. Although the functional interaction of hCG and TSHR has been recognized in gestational hyperthyroidism, there are no reports linking hCG to FSHR activation. This study, however, suggests that such a functional interaction is capable of occurring under conditions of high circulating levels of hCG, e.g. the first trimester of pregnancy and in patients with hCG-secreting tumors. PMID:12488338

Schubert, Rebecca L; Narayan, Prema; Puett, David

2003-01-01

96

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-directed induction of the CREM gene in the thyroid gland participates in the long-term desensitization of the TSH receptor.  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid gland function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis via the secretion of TSH, according to environmental, developmental, and circadian stimuli. TSH modulates both the secretion of thyroid hormone and gland trophism through interaction with a specific guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor (TSH receptor; TSH-R), which elicits the activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. After TSH stimulation, the levels of TSH-R RNA are known to decrease dramatically ...

Lalli, E.; Sassone-corsi, P.

1995-01-01

97

Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. Aims: The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson's correlation analysis. Results: Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 ?IU/ml, median: 7.37 ?IU/ml, range: 0.074-211 ?IU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Conclusions: Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules. PMID:25589800

Pruthi, Ankur; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Manoj; Taywade, Sameer

2015-01-01

98

Inappropriate secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From a total of 2904 patients with thyroid disorders treated with thyreostatic drugs or with thyroxin we observed a discrepancy between TSH-values and T-4. In primary hyperthyreosis (Graves disease or toxic adenoma) thyreostatic drugs produced long lasting suppression of TSH (under 0.07 mIE/ml), or in high levels of T-4 the level of TSH remained in normal range or the level of TSH was very high in patients with normal level of T-4. The clinical status of the patients was relevant, additional laboratory tests (Free thyroxin, T-3 levels) were necessary. (Original)

99

Bromine and thyroid hormone activity.  

OpenAIRE

AIMS--To examine the possible consequences of high plasma concentrations of bromine on thyroid hormone. METHODS--Bromine was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the plasma of 799 patients consulting for thyroid disorders. Because the mean (SD) bromine concentration in the plasma of healthy subjects is 4 (1) mg/l, concentrations above 6 mg/l were regarded as outside the normal range. Bromine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values were compar...

Allain, P.; Berre, S.; Krari, N.; Laine, P.; Barbot, N.; Rohmer, V.; Bigorgne, J. C.

1993-01-01

100

Prolactin and thyrotrophin response to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone in growth hormone deficiency.  

OpenAIRE

Basal and thyroid-releasing hormone-stimulated (200 micrograms/m2) prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured in 31 patients with hypopituitarism (13 isolated growth-hormone deficiencies and 18 multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies). The results were compared with the prolactin response in 76 healthy prepubertal children. Normal prolactin concentrations were found in 13 patients whereas 11 had increased levels. TSH levels were either normal or increased in patients...

Frisch, H.; Herkner, K.; Schober, E.; Sto?gmann, W.; Waldhauser, F.; Weissel, M.

1982-01-01

101

Hormone levels  

Science.gov (United States)

... level Cortisol - urine DHEA-sulfate Folicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Growth hormone HCG (qualitative - blood) HCG (qualitative - urine) HCG (quantitative) Luteinizing hormone (LH) LH response to GnRH Parathormone Prolactin PTH-related ...

102

Hormone assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

103

HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

104

Hormone Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

... is no scientific evidence that compounded hormones are safer or more effective than standard hormone therapy. Vaginal ... stored in a retrieval system, posted on the Internet, or transmitted, in any form or by any ...

105

Efectos del fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental en los niveles plasmáticos de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH) / Phothoperiod and Environmental Temperature Effects on Plasmatic Levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Estudios realizados en el Alto Valle del R ío Negro, Patagonia Argentina, indican que existe una prevalencia de bocio ligeramente superior a la línea de corte establecida por el Internacional Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders con un grado de nutrición de yodo apropiado; prevalen [...] cia que podría ser atribuida a factores ambientales y/o nutricionales que interfieren con el metabolismo tiroideo. La concentración de TSH circulante responde a variaciones circadianas y es influenciada por las estaciones y la temperatura ambiental. Las características geográficas, el clima semidesértico o la presencia de sustancias que actúan como disruptores endocrinos, son factores que podrían relacionarse a modificaciones en la producción hormonal en zonas urbanas o rurales. Objetivos: a) Evaluar la posible asociación entre la variación anual de los valores de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH), el fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental. b) Estimar si los valores plasmáticos de TSH son significativamente diferentes en poblaciones rurales y urbanas de Alto Valle del Río Negro. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 1393 pacientes sanos residentes en el Alto Valle: 226 masculinos y 1167 femeninos, que acudieron por control clínico en el año 2010. Se utilizó para el análisis el software SPSS 17.0. Se encontraron variaciones significativas en el Log-TSH con un pico máximo al comienzo del otoño-invierno y un pico mínimo en primavera-verano. Se obtuvo una diferencia significativa en valores de Log-TSH en área rural: 0,46 uUI/ml (0,30-0,61) contra 0,28 uUI/ml (0,26-0,30) con p Abstract in english Studies carried out in Alto Valle del Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina, show a prevalence of goiter slightly above the cut-off line established by the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IC-CIDD), with an appropriate iodine nutrition grade; such prevalence could be at [...] tributed to environmental and/ or nutritional factors that interfere with thyroid metabolism. Blood TSH concentration responds to circadian variations and is influenced by seasonality and environmental temperature. The geographic characteristics, semi-desert climate or the presence of endocrine disruptors are factors that could be related to hormonal production modifications in urban or rural areas. Objectives: a) To evaluate the potential association between annual variation in TSH levels, photoperiod and environmental temperature. b) To estimate if plasma TSH values are significantly different in populations from rural and urban areas in Alto Valle del Rio Negro. We retrospectively evaluated 1393 healthy patients living in Alto Valle del Río Negro: 226 males and 1167 females, who presented for routine clinical check-up during 2010. SPSS 17.0 software was used for the analysis. Significant variations were found in Log-TSH, with a maximal peak at the beginning of the fall-winter and a minimal peak in spring-summer. There is a significant difference in the values of TSH between rural and urban areas, (values of Log-TSH in rural area: 0.46 uUI/ml (0.30-0.61) vs. urban area: 0.28 uUI/ml (0.26-0.30) with p

Villagrán, De Rosso; CM, Elizondo; Posadas, Martinez; D, Giunta; EI, Barragán.

2013-09-01

106

Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010 Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey  

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Full Text Available Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

Lorena Mosso

2013-01-01

107

Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010 / Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean [...] National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

Lorena, Mosso; Paula, Margozzini; Pamela, Trejo; Angélica, Domínguez; Sandra, Solari; Gonzalo, Valdivia; Eugenio, Arteaga.

2013-01-01

108

Stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion by thyrotropin in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.  

OpenAIRE

Bovine thyroid stimulating hormone administered to three beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, was effective in producing an increase in circulating levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine. A single dose of 10 I.U. of thyroid stimulating hormone resulted in a 145% increase in triiodothyronine and a 35% increase in thyroxine after nine hours in a whale tested within two hours after capture. The response was less pronounced in an animal tested with the same does on two occasions after four and...

St Aubin, D. J.

1987-01-01

109

Hormone therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

... progestin therapy have an increased risk for developing gallstones. SIDE EFFECTS OF HORMONE THERAPY As with all ... heart disease. Obstet Gynecol . 2008;112:1189-1192. Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement ...

110

Hormonal evaluation in erectile dysfunction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Erectile dysfunction (ED is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between ED and hormonal abnormalities. Material and methods: We evaluated 178 patients between the ages of 25 and 85 years old. Medical histories and details were collected, and the IIEF question test was completed by all patients. After the basic evaluation, serum total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured.Results: The mean age of the patients and IIEF scores were 50.5±12.3 and 12.8±6.13, respectively. The mean testosterone, prolactin, TSH, LH and FSH were 426±152 ng/dL, 15.8±45.6 ng/mL, 1.56±1.2 micro IU/mL, 5.5±4.3 m IU/mL and 7.7±6.9 m IU/mL, respectively. Two patients had abnormal TSH levels, and 27 patients had abnormal LH levels. Abnormal FSH levels were detected in 6 patients. Eight patients had abnormal testosterone levels, and twenty had abnormal prolactin levels.Conclusion: ED is an illness that affects older men, and multiple factors cause this illness. Hormonal abnormalities are one of these factors that can be corrected. When appropriate, hormone levels should be measured and treated in patients who present with ED.

Selahattin Çal??kan

2012-03-01

111

Effect of HCV Treatment on Circulating Pituitary Hormones  

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Full Text Available AIM: To analyse the relationship between pegylated interferontherapy and levels of pituitary hormones.METHODS: 49 chronic HCV patients were recruited at specializedhepatology clinic in National Hepatology and Tropical MedicineResearch Institute (NHTMRI, Cairo; they were treated withpegylated interferon and ribavirin according to the standard treatmentcriteria and regimen. Pituitary hormones levels were assessed at week0, 24 of treatment.RESULTS: Significant changes in the pituitary hormones levelswere noticed with perceived rise in Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH, Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH, Human growth hormone. (HGH, Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEAS, Prolactin and Cortisol, while significant reduction inthe levels of Testosterone, free Testosterone and sex hormone wereobserved.CONCLUSION: Treatment of HCV with Peg-INF/RBV may beassociated with pituitary hormonal dysfunction which may lead tomany neglected side effects like libido, erectile dysfunction andgalactorrhea.

Amin Abdel Baki

2013-07-01

112

Menopause: Hormone Replacement Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

MENU Return to Web version Menopause | Hormone Replacement Therapy What is hormone replacement therapy? Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a type of treatment where the body is given hormones to prevent ...

113

Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtype-selective analogues differentially suppress in vitro growth hormone and prolactin in human pituitary adenomas. Novel potential therapy for functional pituitary tumors.  

OpenAIRE

Previously, we have shown somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtype-specific regulation of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin (PRL) secretion in human fetal pituitary cultures, where GH and thyroid-stimulating hormone are mediated by both SSTR2 and SSTR5, whereas SSTR2 preferentially mediates PRL secretion. We now tested SSTR subtype-selective analogues in primary human GH- and PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma cultures. Analogue affinities determined by membrane radioli...

Shimon, I.; Yan, X.; Taylor, J. E.; Weiss, M. H.; Culler, M. D.; Melmed, S.

1997-01-01

114

Lack of Association Between Peripheral Activity of Thyroid Hormones and Elevated TSH Levels in Childhood Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Ob­jec­ti­ve: An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is a frequent finding in obese children, but its association with peripheral hormone metabolism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that in obesity, the changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in peripheral tissues might lead to dysregulation in the thyroid axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of TSH with thyroid hormones in a group of obese children as compared to normal-weight controls.

Lobotkova?, Denisa; Stani?kova?, Daniela; Stani?k, Juraj; Cervenova?, Ol’ga; Bzdu?ch, Vladimi?r; Ticha?, L’ubica

2014-01-01

115

Thyroid Hormone Signaling In Vivo Requires a Balance between Coactivators and Corepressors  

OpenAIRE

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), a human syndrome, is characterized by high thyroid hormone (TH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Mice with mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR?) gene that cannot bind steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and Src-1?/? mice both have phenotypes similar to that of RTH. Conversely, mice expressing a mutant nuclear corepressor 1 (Ncor1) allele that cannot interact with TR?, termed NCoR?ID, have low TH levels and normal TSH. ...

Vella, Kristen R.; Ramadoss, Preeti; Costa-e-sousa, Ricardo H.; Astapova, Inna; Ye, Felix D.; Holtz, Kaila A.; Harris, Jamie C.; Hollenberg, Anthony N.

2014-01-01

116

Thyroid hormone status in protein energy malnutrition in Indian children  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid hormonal status was measured in 80 malnourished children of different grades (I–IV) of protein energy malnutrition (PEM). Serum levels of tri-iodo thyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The results were compared with 20 healthy, age and sex matched controls. Levels of T3 and T4 were significantly low in PEM cases whereas TSH levels were similar in PEM cases when compared to controls.

Abrol, Pankaj; Verma, Ashok; Hooda, H. S.

2001-01-01

117

Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age [Corrigendum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CorrigendumJolobe OM. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:299–301.On page 299, note that the title was incorrectly listed as "Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". The correct title is "Upper limit of the normal range for thyroid-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". On line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".On page 301, line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".Read the original letter

Jolobe OM

2013-04-01

118

Exaggerated and prolonged thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) test responses in tertiary hypothyroidism.  

OpenAIRE

A 60 year old man with panhypopituitarism due to a large meningioma and prolonged and exaggerated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) responses is described. Initial investigations showed a subnormal urinary free cortisol concentration, a low serum cortisol taken at 0900 hours, and a low free T4 concentration. The TSH was towards the upper end of the normal range. Subsequently pituitary function tests showed subnormal production of luteinising hormone in response to luteinising hormone releasin...

Mills, G. H.; Ellis, R. D.; Beck, P. R.

1991-01-01

119

Resistance to thyroid hormone – an incidental finding  

OpenAIRE

A 16-year-old female with mild hirsutism was noted to have a small, smooth, non-tender goitre. A resting peripheral tremor, but no other symptoms or signs of thyroid dysfunction were present. Her only medication was the contraceptive pill. There was no family history of thyroid disease. Investigation showed elevated free thyroxine (28 pmol/l) and total triiodothyronine (3.4 nmol/l) with non-suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (1.4 mU/l). Radioiodine uptake scan of the thyroid showed bilate...

Chantler, Donna; Moran, Carla; Schoenmakers, Erik; Cleland, Stephen; Panarelli, Maurizio

2012-01-01

120

MOLECULAR BASIS OF INFERTILITY–II: RELATED TO DEFECTIVE BIOSYNTHESIS, SECRETION AND ACTION OF FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The anterior pituitary gland of vertebrates synthesizes and secretes three glycoprotein hormones. Two of these i.e. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH and Luteinizing Hormone (LH are called gonadotropins. They exert diverse and direct effects upon the gonads (Ovary and Testes including regulation and maintenance of essential reproductive processes such as gametogenesis, steroidogenesis, ovulation, implantation etc. Indirectly, even the third glycoprotein hormone i.e. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH as well as Growth Hormone (GH and Prolactin (PRL regulate many gonadal functions.

Lima Kidwai, Imran Moin, Shah Saddad Hussain and K Muralidhar

2013-01-01

121

Hormones and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

122

Hormone Health Network  

Science.gov (United States)

... A SHORT SURVEY ABOUT OUR SITE Brainy Hormones Brain injuries can affect hormone levels - See how in the latest infographic March is Brain Injury Awareness Month Learn more about how traumatic brain ...

123

Deciding about hormone therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

... compared to not taking any hormones at all. GALLSTONES Taking hormone therapy may increase your risk of gallstones. ... therapy for women. Menopausal Medicine . 2012;20(2). Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement ...

124

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... a hormone that stimulates the production of cortisol. Cortisol is a steroid hormone important for regulating glucose, protein, and lipid metabolism , ... drugs are sometimes used to stimulate or suppress cortisol production, including ... hormone, and metyrapone (metapyrone). Some drugs and conditions can ...

125

Prolonged weightlessness effect on postflight plasma thyroid hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood drawn before and after spaceflight from the nine Skylab astronauts showed a statistically significant increase in mean plasma thyroxine (T-4) of 1.4 micro g/dl and in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of 4 microunits ml. Concurrent triiodothyronine (T-3) levels decreased 27 ng/dl indicating inhibited conversion of T-4 to T-3. The T-3 decrease is postulated to be a result of the increased cortisol levels noted during and following each mission. These results confirm the thyroidal changes noted after the shorter Apollo flights and show that thyroid hormone levels change during spaceflight.

Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Driscoll, T. B.

1977-01-01

126

Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats  

OpenAIRE

Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simul...

Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-sil

2012-01-01

127

A woman with Pituitary Microadenoma: May Thyroid Hormone Resistance be a Cause? A case report and Review of the Literature  

OpenAIRE

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is an inherited syndrome characterized by reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone. It is usually first suspected due to findings of high serum free thyroxine (T4) and free triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations and normal or slightly high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Herein, we report a 37-year-old woman presented with anxiety and sleeplessness. She was found to have elevated free T3 and T4 plasma concentrations ...

Ece Harman; Ilg?n Y?ld?r?m ?im?ir; Murat Tanju Zungur; Ahmet Gökhan Özgen

2011-01-01

128

Thyroid hormone replacement therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption phase, associated with palpitations. Liothyronine (T(3)) has the same drawback and requires twice-daily administration in view of its short half-life. Synthetic levothyroxine (L-T(4)) has many advantages: in view of its long half-life, once-daily administration suffices, the occasional missing of a tablet causes no harm, and the extrathyroidal conversion of T(4) into T(3) (normally providing 80% of the daily T(3) production rate) remains fully operative, which may have some protective value during illness. Consequently, L-T(4) is nowadays preferred, and its long-term use is not associated with excess mortality. The mean T(4) dose required to normalize serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is 1.6 microg/kg per day, giving rise to serum free T(4) (fT(4)) concentrations that are slightly elevated or in the upper half of the normal reference range. The higher fT(4) values are probably due to the need to generate from T(4) the 20% of the daily T(3) production rate that otherwise is derived from the thyroid gland itself. The daily maintenance dose of T(4) varies widely between 75 and 250 microg. Assessment of the appropriate T(4) dose is by assay of TSH and fT(4), preferably in a blood sample taken before ingestion of the subsequent T(4) tablet. Dose adjustments can be necessary in pregnancy and when medications are used that are known to interfere with the absorption or metabolism of T(4). A new equilibrium is reached after approximately 6 weeks, implying that laboratory tests should not be done earlier. With a stable maintenance dose, an annual check-up usually suffices. Accumulated experience with L-T(4) replacement has identified some areas of concern. First, the bioequivalence sometimes differs among generics and brand names. Second, many patients on T(4) replacement have a subnormal TSH. TSH values of < or =0.1 mU/l carry a risk of development of atrial fibrillation and are associated with bone loss although not with a higher fracture rate. It is thus advisable not to allow TSH to fall below--arbitrarily--0.2 mU/l. Third, recent animal experiments indicate that only the combination of T(4) and T(3) replacement, and not T(4) alone, ensures euthyroidism in all tissues of thyroidectomized rats. It is indeed the experience of many physicians that there exists a small subset of hypothyroid patients who, despite biochemical euthyroidism, continue to complain of tiredness, lack of energy, discrete cognitive disorders and mood disturbances. As organs vary in the extent to which their T(3) content is derived from serum T(3) or locally produced T(3) from T(4), these complaints may have a biologic substrate; for example, brain T(3) content is largely determined by local deiodinase type II activity. Against this background it is of interest that a number of psychometric scores improved significantly in hypothyroid patients upon substitution of 50 microg of their T(4) replacement dose by 12.5 microg T(3). Confirmatory studies on this issue are urgently awaited. It could well be that a slow-release preparation containing both T(4) and T(3) might improve the quality of life, compared with T(4) replacement alone, in some hypothyroid patients. PMID:11786691

Wiersinga, W M

2001-01-01

129

Development of antiserum against bovine-luteinizing hormone for radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antiserum against bovine luteinzing hormone (bLH) was raised in male rabbits, and tested against cross-reacting contaminants by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. The anti-bLH showed cross-reaction against bovine follicle-stimulating hormone (bFSH), bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (bTSH) and normal calf serpm (NCS) but on cross-reaction with bovine prolactin and bovine growth hormone. The cross reaction of anti-bLH against bFSH and NCS disappeared on absorption with these antigens. A slight cross-section against bTSH was observed after absorption of the antiserum with bTSH. Absorbed antiserum when tested through inhibition binding studies showed negligible cross-reaction due to bFSH and bTSH. The antiserum had a high working titre. (author)

130

Does High Quality Fat Diet Cause Hormonal Level Changes?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty adult male albino rats arranged into three equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of adding 15% oil, normal or fried, to the rat diet for two months on the levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), corticosterone, testosterone and progesterone. Addition of 15% normal oil to the rat diet for two months caused non-significant changes in all these hormones while fried oil (thermally oxidized fat) caused increases in T4, testosterone and decrease in corticosterone. These results denoted that although high fat diet affect numerous blood components, adding 15% of normal oil to the diet had no affect on thyroid, stress or sex hormones while fried oil disturbed some hormones, most probably due to high lipid peroxides found in fried oil.

131

Hormone-related headache.  

Science.gov (United States)

The normal female life cycle is associated with hormonal milestones including menarche, pregnancy, OC use, menopause, and the use of HRT. Menarche marks the onset of menses and cyclic changes in hormone levels. Pregnancy is associated with rising noncyclic levels of sex hormones. Menopause is associated with declining noncyclic levels. Hormonal OC use during the reproductive years and HRT in menopause are therapeutic hormonal interventions that alter the levels and cycling of sex hormones. These events and interventions may cause a change in the prevalence or intensity of headache. Headaches associated with OC use or menopausal HRT may be related, in part, to periodic discontinuation of oral sex hormone preparations. The treatment of migraine associated with changes in sex hormone levels is difficult, and patients often are refractory to therapy. Based on what is known of the pathophysiology of migraine, a logical approach to the treatment of headaches that are associated with menses, menopause, and OCs using abortive and preventive medications and hormonal manipulations has been presented. PMID:11480256

Silberstein, S D

2001-07-01

132

Headaches and hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is clear that hormones play an important role in modulating and exacerbating headaches. From an epidemiologic standpoint, we know that before puberty, incidence of new headache is similar for boys and girls. By age 18, however, most new cases of migraine occur in young women. The role of sex hormones in headache is described in the context of pubertal development. Obesity and Pseudotumor also impact headache through hormonal influences. Menstrual migraine will often present in the teenage years. Oral contraceptives may worsen or ameliorate headache. This article will introduce these concepts and help the reader become familiar with the role of hormones in headache. PMID:20541101

Pakalnis, Ann; Gladstein, Jack

2010-06-01

133

Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

A fact sheet about the results of research on menopausal hormone therapy. Includes information about the effect of menopausal hormone therapy on the body. Also outlines the benefits and risks of using menopausal hormones.

134

Elevated prealbumin level following high thyroid hormones levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is the first to report about a patient with high prealbumin level [56.8 mg/dL (reference range 22.0-40.0 mg/dL] following elevation in thyroid hormones levels. Among the thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine (free T4 and total T4 level showed an elevation. Triiodothyronine (free T3 and total T3 level was within normal limits. Since prealbumin mainly transports T4, the elevation of prealbumin level along with T4 level is reaso- nable. When patients have chronic hyperthyroidism without thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb, a diagnosis will be Negative Graves’ disease. However, a part of patients with Negative Graves’ disease may be High prealbumin syndrome.

Fumiatsu Yakushiji

2013-01-01

135

Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine t [...] he profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F), free thyroxine (T4F), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibody (TPO), and estradiol (E2). Estrogen receptor ß (ERß) was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P

P.P., Saraiva; N.B., Figueiredo; C.R., Padovani; M.M., Brentani; C.R., Nogueira.

2005-05-01

136

Blood-plasma hormone response to a range of gamma-ray doses in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At 22 hours after exposing rats to acute gamma-ray doses ranging from 0.0129 K/kg to 0.1032 K/kg (4 dose levels), plasma concentrations were assayed of the following hormones: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone, and prolactin. Radiation was found to raise the levels of TSH and prolactin. Changes in contents of ACTH, aldosterone, cortisol, and T4 failed to show any distinct relation to radiation dose. Neither was a relation discernible between changes in TSH and ACTH levels, on the one hand, and those in T4, aldosterone, and cortisol levels, on the other

137

Effect of radiation on proteo-hormones activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of pituitary hormones were irradiated by a 60Co source. A dose rate of 1.0-1.1 Mrad/hour and the doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5 Mrad were used. The hormone preparations in the dry solid state or in solution were sealed into glass ampules. After sterilization they were kept at 40C until the biological activity had been tested. The biological activity of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, subjected to a sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrad of gamma radiation, was found to have decreased when tested 3-5 months after irradiation. TSH remained fully active for up to 1 month after sterilization. The activity of vasopressin dropped off markedly during the 3-4 week period after irradiation. Biological activity of growth hormone tested shortly after irradiation was found to be unaffected. The activities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone were not affected. The experiments can be considered promising since they show that pituitary proteohorm, one preparations in the solid state may be sterilized. The stability on storage needs, however, to be carefully checked individually for every single hormone

138

On the role of gallbladder emptying and incretin hormones for nutrient-mediated TSH suppression in patients with type 2 diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Bile acids are possible candidate agents in newly identified pathways through which energy expenditure may be regulated. Preclinical studies suggest that bile acids activate the enzyme type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, which deiodinates thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active triiodothyronine (T3). We aimed to evaluate the influence of bile acid exposure and incretin hormones on thyroid function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormon...

Sonne, David P.; Lund, Asger; Faber, Jens; Holst, Jens J.; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K.

2014-01-01

139

Effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy on ovarian volume and androgen hormones in patients with untreated primary hypothyroidism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hypothyroidism may be associated with ovarian enlargement and/ or cyst formation. We evaluated the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy on hormonal changes, ovarian volume and sonographic appearance. Design and Setting: Open, prospective study of women admitted to university gynecology clinic. Patients and Methods: The study included 26 patients with untreated hypothyroidism who had polycystic (n=10 or normal-appearing (n=16 ovaries and 20 euthyroidic controls. Basal serum total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandosterone-sulfate, prolactin, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, free T3, free T4 and thyroid-stimulating horone, together with ovarian volumes, were determined and repeated after euthyroidism was achieved. Results: Ovarian volumes of patients with hypothyroidism were significantly greater compared with controls, and their magnitudes diminished significantly during thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Hypothyroidic patients with polycystic ovaries had significantly higher serum free testosterone and dehydroepiandosterone-sulfate, but lower androstenodione levels compared with those who had normal-appearing ovaries. Serum total testosterone concentrations were significantly higher in hypothyroidic patients without polycystic ovaries, and thyroid hormone replacement therapy achieved a significant reduction in total as well as free testosterone. Conclusion: Severe longstanding hypothyroidism leads to increased ovarian volume and/or cyst formation. A decrease in ovarian volume, resolution of ovarian cysts and reversal of the polycystic ovary syndrome-like appearance, together with improvement in serum hormone levels, occurred after euthyroidism was achieved.

Muderris Iptisam

2011-01-01

140

The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Thyroid Hormones in 9?13 Years Old Pre?Menarche Girls  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Muslims fast from dawn to dusk during Ramadan. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on endocrine hormones have been studied in healthy adults but no previous study has investigated this effect on children. This study aimed to evaluate the feasible changes in serum level of thyroxin (T3), tetraiodothyronin (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and body composition in pre-menarche girls. Methods: This cohort study was performed through Ramadan 2012. We enrolled fifty-ei...

Shohereh Bahrayni; Rahim Vakili; Mohsen Nematy; Abdolreza Norouzy; Seyed Isaac Hashemy; Mehdi Ebrahimi; Elham Masoumi; Habibolla Esmaeili

2013-01-01

141

Sex hormones and headache.  

Science.gov (United States)

The normal female life cycle is associated with a number of hormonal milestones: menarche, pregnancy, contraceptive use, menopause, and the use of replacement sex hormones. Menarche marks the onset of menses and cyclic changes in hormone levels. Pregnancy is associated with rising noncyclic levels of sex hormones, and menopause with declining noncyclic levels. Hormonal contraceptive use during the reproductive years and hormone replacement in menopause are therapeutic hormonal interventions that alter the levels and cycling of sex hormones. These events and interventions may cause a change in the prevalence or intensity of headache. The menstrual cycle is the result of a carefully orchestrated sequence of interactions between the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, and endometrium, with the sex hormones acting as modulators and effectors at each level. Estrogen and progestins have potent effects on central serotonergic and opioid neurons, modulating both neuronal activity and receptor density. The primary trigger of Menstrually-related migraine (MM) appears to be the withdrawal of estrogen rather than the maintenance of sustained high or low estrogen levels. However, changes in the sustained estrogen levels with pregnancy (increased) and menopause (decreased) appear to affect headaches. Headaches associated with OC use or menopausal hormonal replacement therapy may be related, in part, to periodic discontinuation of oral sex hormone preparations. The treatment of migraine associated with changes in sex hormone levels is frequently difficult and the patients are often refractory to therapy. Based on what is known of the pathophysiology of migraine, we have attempted to provide a logical approach to the treatment of headaches that are associated with menses, menopause, and OCs using abortive and preventive medications and hormonal manipulations. Considerable evidence suggests a link between estrogen and progesterone, the female sex hormones, and migraine. (Silberstein and Merriam, 1997; Lipton and Stewart, 1993; Epstein et al., 1975; Goldstein and Chen, 1982; Selby and Lance, 1960) Although no gender difference is apparent in prepubertal children, with migraine occurring equally in 4p. 100 of boys and girls, (Goldstein and Chen, 1982, Waters and O'Connor, 1971) migraine occurs more frequently in adult women (18p. 100) than in men (6p. 100). (Lipton and Stewart, 1993) Migraine develops most frequently in the second decade, with the peak incidence occurring with adolescence. (Selby and Lance, 1960; Epstein et al., 1975) Menstrually-related migraine (MM) begins at menarche in 33p. 100 of affected women (Epstein et al. , 1975). MM occurs mainly at the time of menses in many migrainous women, and exclusively with menses (true menstrual migraine [TMM]) in some (Epstein et al., 1975). Menstrual migraine can be associated with other somatic complaints arising before and often persisting into menses, such as nausea, backache, breast tenderness, and cramps and like them appears to be the result of falling sex hormone levels (Silberstein and Merriam, 1997; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). In addition, premenstrual migraine can be associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD), also called "premenstrual syndrome" (PMS), which is distinct from the physical symptoms of the perimenstrual period and is probably not directly driven by declining progesterone levels (Mortola, 1998). Migraine occurring during (rather than prior to) menstruation is usually not associated with PMS (Silberstein and Merriam, 1997). Migraine may worsen during the first trimester of pregnancy and, although many women become headache-free during the last two trimesters, 25p. 100 have no change in their migraine (Silberstein, 1997). MM typically improves with pregnancy, perhaps due to sustained high estrogen levels (Silberstein, 1997). Hormonal replacement with estrogens can exacerbate migraine and oral contraceptives (OCs) can change its character and frequency PMID:11139745

Silberstein, S D

2000-01-01

142

Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Menopause Share: Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD Richard Santen, MD What is menopause? Menopause is the time of life when monthly ...

143

LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... a 24-hour urine collection may be taken Test Preparation Needed? None, but the timing of a ... will be correlated with her menstrual cycle. The Test Sample What is being tested? Luteinizing hormone (LH) ...

144

Thyroid Hormone Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... muscles, and other organs working as they should. Definition, Therapy & Treatment Thyroid hormone replacement therapy Many people ... of T4 is much longer, ensuring a steady supply of T3. A preparation of synthetic T3 (Cytomel®) ...

145

Headache And Hormones  

OpenAIRE

There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the u...

Shukla Rakesh

2002-01-01

146

Thyroid hormone deiodination  

OpenAIRE

The enzymatic deiodination of thyroid hormone is an important process since it concerns- among other things- the regulation of thyromimetic activity at the site of the target organ. To understand the mechanism of this regulation it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the mode of action of the enzyme(s) involved in the metabolism of thyroid hormone. My investigations of the deiodination of iodothyronines at the subcellular level, forming the basis of this thesis, are...

Visser, T. J.

1980-01-01

147

Hormonal Link to Autoimmune Allergies  

OpenAIRE

IgE recognition of autoantigens might augment allergic inflammation in the absence of exogenous allergen exposure. Among allergy and autoimmunity, there is disproportionate representation of males before puberty and females after puberty, suggesting a role for sex hormones. Hormone allergy is an allergic reaction where the offending allergens are one's own hormones. It is an immune reaction to the hormones, which can interfere with the normal function of the hormones. It can occur perimenstru...

Shah, Shilpa

2012-01-01

148

Evaluation of thyroid hormones in children receiving carbamazepine or valproate: a prospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the alterations in thyroid function during carbamazepine or valproate monotherapy in a prospective study. Forty patients treated with valproate, 33 patients treated with carbamazepine, and 36 control patients, all aged between 2 and 18 years, were enrolled in our study. Serum levels of thyroid hormones were measured before the beginning of the antiepileptic therapy and at 6 and 12 months of treatment. Carbamazepine-treated patients showed mean serum thyroid hormone levels significantly lower than baseline evaluation and the control group. Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels at 6 and 12 months were not significantly different in carbamazepine treated patients. Serum hormone levels did not change during valproate treatment. Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were significantly higher at the 12th month of valproate treatment. Our data suggest that although carbamazepine causes significant alterations in thyroid hormone levels, these changes do not lead to clinical symptoms at the follow-up period of 12 months. PMID:24736121

Kafadar, ?hsan; K?l?ç, Betül Ayd?n; Arapoglu, Mujde; Yalç?n, Koray; Dalg?ç, Nazan

2015-01-01

149

[Hormone receptor system].  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression, structure and function of estrogen receptor (ER), and the mechanism of action of hormonal treatments of breast cancer were discussed in order to formulate the rationale for the hormonal treatment of patients with advanced and/or recurrent breast cancer. The ER molecule were not observed in the epithelial cells of normal breast tissues, but they appeared in the cells of either hyperplastic adenosis or cancer. The ER negative cells, however, were existed in some degree even in ER rich cases. The ER staining was positive during almost all stages of cell cycle of ER positive breast cancer cell line. The estrogen-dependent growth of breast cancer has been proven to be mediated with the ER system. The structural change of ER after binding with estradiol provokes the expression of growth relating protein genes and put the cells into the DNA synthetic stage of cell cycle. On the other hand, the mechanism of action of hormonal treatment of breast cancer is mainly demonstrated through the interference on the function of ER. The cells sensitive to hormonal treatment are stabilized within the G0-G1 stages of cell cycle. The hormone non-dependent cells escape from these effects of treatment. Therefore, the exclusive hormonal treatment has only a limited indication for patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. Concomitant chemoendocrine therapy should be as the treatment of choice in those cases. The suitable combination of drugs, the duration of treatment, the sequential administration or withdrawal of drugs, should be analyzed. The possible usefulness of "missile therapy" targeting ER or growth factors using radio-labeled estradiol or anti-growth factor antibodies was suggested. PMID:3196039

Kobayashi, S

1988-12-01

150

SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)  

Science.gov (United States)

... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... Get Tested? To evaluate whether the concentration of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is affecting the amount ...

151

Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test  

Science.gov (United States)

ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

152

Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

153

Controversies in hormone replacement therapy  

OpenAIRE

Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteopor...

Baziad, A.

2001-01-01

154

Recombinant hormones in osteoporosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For the last 10 years, bone anabolic therapy with the recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) analogue, teriparatide (rhPTH[1 - 34]), or full-length rhPTH(1 - 84) has been an option in the treatment of osteoporosis. Both drugs are given as a daily subcutaneous injection. In the USA, only teriparatide is marketed.

Rejnmark, Lars; Rejnmark, Lars

2013-01-01

155

Terapia hormonal da menopausa Menopausal hormone therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM, estrogênica (TE ou estro-progestagênica (TEP. A principal indicação para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida.Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT, estrogen therapy (ET, and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT. The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal women remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

Dolores Pardini

2007-08-01

156

Terapia hormonal da menopausa / Menopausal hormone therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM), estrogênica (TE) ou estro-progestagênica (TEP). A principal indica [...] ção para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida. Abstract in english Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET), and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT). The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal w [...] omen remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT) of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

Dolores, Pardini.

2007-08-01

157

Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer  

OpenAIRE

Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin fold-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i) they ma...

AntonioBianco

2012-01-01

158

Growth hormone and surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone (GH) is a very potent anabolic agent released in the physiological situation in a pulsative manner from the pituitary gland. GH stimulates the protein synthesis and increases the intracellular transport of amino acids. When GH is administered to surgical patients, nitrogen retention is regularly seen, and in most situations fast mobilization takes place. The present data indicate that GH has a beneficial effect on the healing processes after surgery and trauma. PMID:8300057

Revhaug, A; Mjaaland, M

1993-01-01

159

A case of thyroid hormone resistance: a rare mutation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones (RSTH) is a rare disease that affects about 3,000 individuals, belonging to about 1,000 families. It results from reduced intracellular action of thyroid hormones (TH) genetically determined and manifests as persistent hyperthyroxinemia with non-suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). We describe a 67-years old, Caucasian woman, with past history of subtotal thyroidectomy due to diffuse goiter, who presents with a recurrence of goiter. Although she is clinically euthyroid, laboratory evaluation shows persistent hyperthyroxinemia with non-suppressed TSH. Response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) test was normal and TSH concentrations were not suppressed during oral administration of suprafisiologic doses of levothyroxine (L-T4). Peripheral blood DNA was extracted from the patient and a mutation was found localized in cluster one, at codon 346 of the ligand binding domain of the THRB gene. The patient's son underwent thyroid function testing (TFT) and genetic study, both negative, suggesting a sporadic mutation. RSTH should be considered in all hyperthyroxinemic patients who are clinically euthyroid. Mutations interfering with three major steps required for TH action on target tissues have been, so far, identified (TR-?, TR-?, MCT8, SPB2). Each mutation is associated with a distinctive syndrome. Goal of management is to maintain a normal serum TSH level and a eumetabolic state and offer appropriate genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Inappropriate treatment of eumetabolic patients results in hypothyroidism and need for TH replacement. PMID:25627054

Gonçalves, Ana Pires; Aragüés, José Maria; Nobre, Ema; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Mascarenhas, Mario

2014-12-01

160

Israel EQAS for thyroid related hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free Thyroxine (FT4) radioimmunoassay (RIA) was operated in 36 laboratories. The 17 serum pools distributed covered analyte concentrations from subnormal to elevated values. Five of these were based on ''zero analyte'' pools artificially prepared by treatment with Amberlite. ''Spiked'' sera was used for recovery studies. Eleven pools were analyzed more than once. Abnormal, method dependent results with large interlaboratory variation was observed in the Amberlite treated pools. A ''matrix effect' was suspected and the results excluded from analysis. The All Laboratory Trimmed Mean (ALTM) was stable to within 4% for each analyte and taken as target value. Overall recovery for T3, T4, and TSH was 101, 91, and 89 per cent. Laboratory performance was assessed from the bias of each result and the variability of bias (as CV of bias for each test), over one year. Performance has improved, especially for TSH, where median bias decreased to 1% from 39%. Percentage of laboratories with unacceptable performance fell from 79% to 32%. A trend towards increased use of IRMA for TSH and of F-T4 was observed. However, F-T4 results proved method dependent. TSH IRMA is suggested as the best supplementary test to T4 for thyroid function testing. Refs, figs and tabs

161

Thyroid hormones and male sexual function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of thyroid hormones in the control of erectile functioning has been only superficially investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between thyroid and erectile function in two different cohorts of subjects. The first one derives from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS study), a multicentre survey performed on a sample of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years (mean 60 ± 11 years). The second cohort is a consecutive series of 3203 heterosexual male patients (mean age 51.8 ± 13.0 years) attending our Andrology and Sexual Medicine Outpatient Clinic for sexual dysfunction at the University of Florence (UNIFI study). In the EMAS study all subjects were tested for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4). Similarly, TSH levels were checked in all patients in the UNIFI study, while FT4 only when TSH resulted outside the reference range. Overt primary hyperthyroidism (reduced TSH and elevated FT4, according to the reference range) was found in 0.3 and 0.2% of EMAS and UNIFI study respectively. In both study cohorts, suppressed TSH levels were associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with an increased risk of severe erectile dysfunction (ED, hazard ratio = 14 and 16 in the EMAS and UNIFI study, respectively; both p < 0.05), after adjusting for confounding factors. These associations were confirmed in nested case-control analyses, comparing subjects with overt hyperthyroidism to age, BMI, smoking status and testosterone-matched controls. Conversely, no association between primary hypothyroidism and ED was observed. In conclusion, erectile function should be evaluated in all individuals with hyperthyroidism. Conversely, assessment of thyroid function cannot be recommended as routine practice in all ED patients. PMID:22834774

Corona, G; Wu, F C W; Forti, G; Lee, D M; O'Connor, D B; O'Neill, T W; Pendleton, N; Bartfai, G; Boonen, S; Casanueva, F F; Finn, J D; Giwercman, A; Han, T S; Huhtaniemi, I T; Kula, K; Lean, M E J; Punab, M; Vanderschueren, D; Jannini, E A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

2012-10-01

162

Use of a cytochemical bioassay for determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in clinical investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently a highly sensitive cytochemical bioassay (CBA) for the determination of human TSH has been developed. We could show that this assay is specific for TSH and measurements done on plasma of normal euthyroid persons agree well with radioimmunological findings. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the CBA we were able to detect low but measurable TSH levels in patients with primary hyperthyroidism, which were not increased by TRH treatment before therapeutic treatment. After therapeutic treatment, TRH application was able to stimulate additional biologically active TSH release which, however, barely reached the lowest limit of detection by RIA. In certain pathological cases we were able to detect elevated plasma TSH levels, which were active immunologically but inactive biologically. (orig.)

163

Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone is associated with elevated cortisol in healthy young men and women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Recent attention has been given to subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevation of TSH (4.5-10 uIU/L) with T4 and T3 levels still within the normal range. Controversy exists about the proper lower limit of TSH that defines patients in the subclinical hypothyroidism range and about if/when subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated. Additional data are needed to examine the relationship between markers of thyroid function in the subclinical hypothyroidism range, bi...

Walter Kimberly N; Corwin Elizabeth J; Ulbrecht Jan; Demers Laurence M; Bennett Jeanette M; Whetzel Courtney A; Klein Laura

2012-01-01

164

Harmonization protocols for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) immunoassays: different approaches based on the consensus mean value.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The lack of interchangeable laboratory results and consensus in current practices has underpinned greater attention to standardization and harmonization projects. In the area of method standardization and harmonization, there is considerable debate about how best to achieve comparability of measurement for immunoassays, and in particular heterogeneous proteins. The term standardization should be used only when comparable results among measurement procedures are based on calibration traceability to the International System of Units (SI unit) using a reference measurement procedure (RMP). Recently, it has been promoted the harmonization of methods for many immunoassays, and in particular for thyreotropin (TSH), as accepted RMPs are not available. In a recent paper published in this journal, a group of well-recognized authors used a complex statistical approach in order to reduce variability between the results observed with the 14 TSH immunoassay methods tested in their study. Here we provide data demonstrating that data from an external quality assessment (EQA) study allow similar results to those obtained using the reported statistical approach. PMID:25241732

Clerico, Aldo; Ripoli, Andrea; Zucchelli, Gian Carlo; Plebani, Mario

2015-02-01

165

A thyroid hormone receptor mutation that dissociates thyroid hormone regulation of gene expression in vivo  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is most often due to point mutations in the ?-isoform of the thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR-?). The majority of mutations involve the ligand-binding domain, where they block TH binding and receptor function on both stimulatory and inhibitory TH response elements. In contrast, a few mutations in the ligand-binding domain are reported to maintain TH binding and yet cause RTH in certain tissues. We introduced one such naturally occurring human RTH mutation (R429Q) into the germline of mice at the TR-? locus. R429Q knock-in (KI) mice demonstrated elevated serum TH and inappropriately normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, consistent with hypothalamic–pituitary RTH. In contrast, 3 hepatic genes positively regulated by TH (Dio1, Gpd1, and Thrsp) were increased in R429Q KI animals. Mice were then rendered hypothyroid, followed by graded T3 replacement. Hypothyroid R429Q KI mice displayed elevated TSH subunit mRNA levels, and T3 treatment failed to normally suppress these levels. T3 treatment, however, stimulated pituitary Gh levels to a greater degree in R429Q KI than in control mice. Gsta, a hepatic gene negatively regulated by TH, was not suppressed in R429Q KI mice after T3 treatment, but hepatic Dio1 and Thrsp mRNA levels increased in response to TH. Cardiac myosin heavy chain isoform gene expression also showed a specific defect in TH inhibition. In summary, the R429Q mutation is associated with selective impairment of TH-mediated gene repression, suggesting that the affected domain, necessary for TR homodimerization and corepressor binding, has a critical role in negative gene regulation by TH. PMID:19439650

Machado, Danielle S.; Sabet, Amin; Santiago, Leticia A.; Sidhaye, Aniket R.; Chiamolera, Maria I.; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M.; Wondisford, Fredric E.

2009-01-01

166

Thyroid Hormones and Methylmercury Toxicity  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid hormones are essential for cellular metabolism, growth, and development. In particular, an adequate supply of thyroid hormones is critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Thyroid hormone tissue activation and inactivation in brain, liver, and other tissues is controlled by the deiodinases through the removal of iodine atoms. Selenium, an essential element critical for deiodinase activity, is sensitive to mercury and, therefore, when its availability is reduced, brain development might be ...

Soldin, Offie P.; O’mara, Daniel M.; Aschner, Michael

2008-01-01

167

Growth hormone, inflammation and aging  

OpenAIRE

Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO) mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. ...

Masternak, Michal M.; Andrzej Bartke

2012-01-01

168

GONADAL HORMONES, WOMEN AND PAIN  

OpenAIRE

The clear presence of sex differences in chronic pain and the number of studies showing the power of gonadal hormones to modify pain-induced behavioral responses appear to have convinced clinicians and researchers. In the present review, the old and new literature is summarized to put together data on pain and its modulation by gonadal hormones, particularly estrogens. Targets of these hormones are discussed.

Anna Maria Aloisi; Paolo Fiorenzani

2013-01-01

169

GONADAL HORMONES, WOMEN AND PAIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The clear presence of sex differences in chronic pain and the number of studies showing the power of gonadal hormones to modify pain-induced behavioral responses appear to have convinced clinicians and researchers. In the present review, the old and new literature is summarized to put together data on pain and its modulation by gonadal hormones, particularly estrogens. Targets of these hormones are discussed.

Anna Maria Aloisi

2013-12-01

170

Mammalian sex hormones in plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17?-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture

Andrzej Skoczowski

2011-08-01

171

Mammalian sex hormones in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture. PMID:16044944

Janeczko, Anna; Skoczowski, Andrzej

2005-01-01

172

Frailty, sarcopenia, and hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frailty is now a definable clinical syndrome with a simple screening test. Age-related changes in hormones play a major role in the development of frailty by reducing muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia). Selective Androgen Receptor Molecules and ghrelin agonists are being developed to treat sarcopenia. The role of Activin Type IIB soluble receptors and Follistatin-like 3 mimetics is less certain because of side effects. Exercise (resistance and aerobic), vitamin D and protein supplementation, and reduction of polypharmacy are keys to the treatment of frailty. PMID:23702408

Morley, John E; Malmstrom, Theodore K

2013-06-01

173

[Sex hormones in podagra].  

Science.gov (United States)

Male patients with gout exhibit a decrease in the blood content of testosterone and estradiol and an increase in the content of progesterone. The amount of androgen and estrogen changed insignificantly but the level of gestagen abruptly dropped in female patients. Irrespective of the sex the concentration of lutropine and follitropine appeared to be decreased. Whereas the level of uric acid in men was in inverse relation to the production of estradiol, in the group of women--to the indices of progesteron. Changes in sex hormones depended on the form of arthritis and the type of nephropathy. PMID:1805324

Siniachenko, O V; Kosheleva, E N; Diadyk, A I; Ignatenko, G A; Siniachenko, T Iu; Shtoda, L A

1991-01-01

174

Effects of EDTA and Sodium Citrate on hormone measurements by fluorometric (FIA and immunofluorometric (IFMA methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurements of hormonal concentrations by immunoassays using fluorescent tracer substance (Eu3+ are susceptible to the action of chemical agents that may cause alterations in its original structure. Our goal was to verify the effect of two types of anticoagulants in the hormone assays performed by fluorometric (FIA or immunofluorometric (IFMA methods. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 30 outpatients and were drawn in EDTA, sodium citrate, and serum separation Vacutainer®Blood Collection Tubes. Samples were analyzed in automatized equipment AutoDelfia™ (Perkin Elmer Brazil, Wallac, Finland for the following hormones: Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle stimulating homone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, growth hormone (GH, Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, insulin, C peptide, total T3, total T4, free T4, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. Statistical analysis was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis method and Dunn's test. Results No significant differences were seen between samples for LH, FSH, PRL and free T4. Results from GH, TSH, insulin, C peptide, SHBG, total T3, total T4, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone were significant different between serum and EDTA-treated samples groups. Differences were also identified between serum and sodium citrate-treated samples in the analysis for TSH, insulin, total T3, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Conclusions We conclude that the hormonal analysis carried through by FIA or IFMA are susceptible to the effects of anticoagulants in the biological material collected that vary depending on the type of assay.

Lando Valeria

2002-05-01

175

The effects of PCB exposure and fish consumption on endogenous hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may alter thyroid function, but data on effects of PCB exposure on other endogenous hormones has been lacking. The current study is ancillary to a larger investigation of the effects of Great Lakes fish consumption on PCBs and reproductive function. In the current study we examine associations of PCBs, 1,1-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE), and fish consumption with thyroid and steroid hormones in 178 men and PCBs, DDE, and fish consumption with thyroid hormones in 51 women from the original study. Serum PCB level and consumption of Great Lakes fish are associated with significantly lower levels of thyroxine (T(4)) and free thyroxine index (FTI) in women and with significantly lower levels of T(4) in men. Fish consumption, but not PCB level, is significantly and inversely associated with triiodothyronine (T(3)) in men. Results for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are inconsistent. Among men, there are significant inverse associations of both PCB and fish consumption with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-bound testosterone, but no association with SHBG or free testosterone. There are no significant overall associations of PCB, DDE, or fish consumption with estrone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies showing effects of fish consumption and PCB exposure on thyroid hormones and suggest that PCBs may also decrease steroid binding to SHBG. Elucidation of specific mechanisms must await future investigations. PMID:11748036

Persky, V; Turyk, M; Anderson, H A; Hanrahan, L P; Falk, C; Steenport, D N; Chatterton, R; Freels, S

2001-12-01

176

The effects of PCB exposure and fish consumption on endogenous hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may alter thyroid function, but data on effects of PCB exposure on other endogenous hormones has been lacking. The current study is ancillary to a larger investigation of the effects of Great Lakes fish consumption on PCBs and reproductive function. In the current study we examine associations of PCBs, 1,1-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE), and fish consumption with thyroid and steroid hormones in 178 men and PCBs, DDE, and fish consumption with thyroid hormones in 51 women from the original study. Serum PCB level and consumption of Great Lakes fish are associated with significantly lower levels of thyroxine (T(4)) and free thyroxine index (FTI) in women and with significantly lower levels of T(4) in men. Fish consumption, but not PCB level, is significantly and inversely associated with triiodothyronine (T(3)) in men. Results for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are inconsistent. Among men, there are significant inverse associations of both PCB and fish consumption with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-bound testosterone, but no association with SHBG or free testosterone. There are no significant overall associations of PCB, DDE, or fish consumption with estrone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies showing effects of fish consumption and PCB exposure on thyroid hormones and suggest that PCBs may also decrease steroid binding to SHBG. Elucidation of specific mechanisms must await future investigations. PMID:11748036

Persky, V; Turyk, M; Anderson, H A; Hanrahan, L P; Falk, C; Steenport, D N; Chatterton, R; Freels, S

2001-01-01

177

Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

2013-05-01

178

Plasma follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormones in patients with gout.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, progesterone, 17 beta-estradiol, and cortisol were examined in normal subjects and gout patients under baseline conditions and after clomiphene stimulation. A significant decrease in follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and 17 beta-estradiol was observed both in male and female gout patients; in the same patients, the plasma testosterone: 17 beta-estradiol ratio was found to be significantly higher than in control subjects. The changes observed suggest a possible role played by 17 beta-estradiol in the regulation of purine biosynthesis and uric acid metabolism. PMID:3918542

Marinello, E; Riario-Sforza, G; Marcolongo, R

1985-02-01

179

Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)  

Science.gov (United States)

... of menopause. Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone ... high blood pressure during pregnancy); depression; epilepsy (seizures); migraine headaches; liver, heart, gallbladder, or kidney disease; jaundice ( ...

180

Plant Hormones: Bioassay for Gibberellin  

Science.gov (United States)

This simply assay makes use of the ability of the plant hormone GA3 to induce starch breakdown in the endosperm of a barley seed from which the embryo has been removed. The effect of the hormone is clear and repeatable.

Sandra L. Biroc (University of Colorado; )

1988-06-06

181

Migraine: is it related to hormonal disturbances or stress?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rachna Parashar,1 Payal Bhalla,2 Nirendra K Rai,3 Abhijit Pakhare,4 Rashmi Babbar5 1Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 2Department of Physiology, Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 5Department of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India Background: Common neurological syndrome (migraine without aura is more common among women than men. Migraine is among the top 20 causes of disability. Menstruation is known to be a powerful trigger for migraine, and so is stress, but the presentation of headache is similar in both. Also, women are more vulnerable to stress as well as migraine, and this makes a complex relationship of menstruation, stress, and migraine. Objective: This study was done to understand the association of hormonal fluctuation in menstruation and stress with common migraine. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 40 young adult females, of whom 20 participants were cases of migraine without aura (18–35 years old, and the remaining 20 participants were age-matched controls. The study was done in Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. Study participants were selected on the basis of International Headache Society (ICHD-IIA1.1 (2004 classification. Study participants with neurological disorders, chronic diseases, and disease suggestive of any hormonal disturbances were excluded. Clinically diagnosed migraine cases were asked to maintain a headache diary and to fill in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales questionnaire. Biochemical assessment of hormonal status for thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin was also done on the second day of their menstrual cycle. We used the Mann–Whitney U test to compare hormonal levels and the ?2 test to compare anxiety- or depression-related stress among the migraine and nonmigraine groups. Results: Significantly higher values of prolactin were observed in cases (mean ± standard deviation, 152.7 mIU/L±30.5 compared to controls (76.1 mIU/L±8.7, with a P-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant difference observed in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (P=0.081, estrogen (P=0.086, luteinizing hormone (P=0.091, or follicle-stimulating hormone (P=0.478. Also, anxiety with stress or depression with stress was significantly higher among the migraine group than the controls (P=0.002. Odds of any stress in migraine were higher in the migraine group than in the nonmigraine group (odds ratio 12, 95% confidence interval 2.7–53.33. Conclusion: Migraine, particularly without aura, in women is mainly associated with stress-related anxiety or depression, and are more susceptible to stress in the premenstrual period. Keywords: migraine, menstruation, stress

Parashar R

2014-10-01

182

Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving Anticonvulsive Drugs  

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Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate serum thyroid hormone levels in epileptic children receiving anticonvulsive drugs.Materials & MethodsIn this case- control study, 30 epileptic children who were receiving anticonvulsive drugs (case group were compared with 30 healthy children (control group. This study was carried out in the Qazvin Children's Hospital (Qazvin, Iran from October to December 2007. Both groups were matched for age and sex. Thyroid hormone levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Student's t-tests.ResultsThe mean serum T3 and T4 levels in the case group were 2.36 ± 0.73 nmol/L and 95.96 ± 27.01 nmol/L, respectively, and the corresponding values in the control group were 1.88 ± 0.93 nmol/L and 147.46 ± 35.77 nmol/L, respectively. The mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in the case and control groups were 2.73±0.73 mIU/mL and 2.49 ± 2.17mIU/mL, respectively.ConclusionThis study revealed that long-term consumption of anticonvulsive drugs resulted in a decline in serum T4 levels and an increase in serum T3 levels, but had no effect on TSH levels.

Abolfazl MAHYAR

2011-09-01

183

Discovery of substituted benzamides as follicle stimulating hormone receptor allosteric modulators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), acting on its receptor (FSHR), plays a pivotal role in the stimulation of follicular development and maturation. Multiple injections of protein formulations are used during clinical protocols for ovulation induction and for in vitro fertilization that are followed by a selection of assisted reproductive technologies. In order to increase patient convenience and compliance several research groups have searched for orally bioavailable FSH mimetics for innovative fertility medicines. We report here the discovery of a series of substituted benzamides as positive allosteric modulators (PAM) targeting FSHR. Optimization of this series has led to enhanced activity in primary rat granulosa cells, as well as remarkable selectivity against the closely related luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). Two modulators, 9j and 9k, showed promising in vitro and pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:24685543

Yu, Henry N; Richardson, Thomas E; Nataraja, Selva; Fischer, David J; Sriraman, Venkataraman; Jiang, Xuliang; Bharathi, Pandi; Foglesong, Robert J; Haxell, Thomas F N; Heasley, Brian H; Jenks, Mathew; Li, Jane; Dugas, Melanie S; Collis, Regina; Tian, Hui; Palmer, Stephen; Goutopoulos, Andreas

2014-05-01

184

[Melatonin: a popular hormone].  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution makes an attempt to critically reassess the impressive career of melatonin (MEL) from a stepchild of hormone research to a best-seller of drug marketing. Melatonin, the hormone of the pineal gland, provides temporal information on diurnal and seasonal variation to the body and brain and it is involved in the synchronization of many different aspects of circadian systems to the light-dark cycle. In addition to these receptor-mediated functions, MEL may act as a modulator of intracellular signal transduction to enhance or suppress the responses of many different cells to other incoming signals. Melatonin is also a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species and may thus protect cells and tissues against radical-mediated damages. The production of MEL declines with increasing age, and circulating MEL levels are affected by certain pharmacological or physiological manipulations. Animal and cell culture experiments suggest that MEL may have beneficial effects on certain aspects of aging and age-associated diseases. Of particular interest in this respect are reports on the influence of MEL on the brain and the immune system. The sole sufficiently investigated indication in humans is the treatment of certain sleep disorders from the group of sleep-wake-rhythm disturbances. These manifest themselves by sleep time of the day, i.e. in shift workers, after flights across time zones and in some aged persons. Clinical studies need to be performed in order to identify possible side effects of long-term MEL treatment. Serious concerns are raised about the use of uncontrolled, impure, or partially degraded MEL preparations. PMID:9676179

Tarquini, B; Perfetto, F; Tarquini, R

1998-05-01

185

Impact of growth hormone administration on other hormonal axes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Growth hormone regulates several other hormonal systems and vice versa. The present review focusses on the effect of GH administration in adults on selected hormonal systems. Growth hormone treatment has been linked to development of central hypothyroidism in hypopituitary children. We now know that GH enhances the extra-thyroidal conversion of T(4) to T(3). Lowering of T(4) during GH treatment therefore reflects biochemical unmasking of subclinical central hypothyroidism. In normal adults GH administration does not affect the pituitary-gonadal axis. There is, however, evidence to suggest that GH substitution in hypopituitary adults enhances peripheral actions of sex steroids (males) and stimulates gonadal function (females). Both increased, unchanged and reduced basal and ACTH stimulated glucocorticoid levels have been reported during GH treatment. Several groups have recorded reduced levels of cortisol binding globulin with unchanged free cortisol concentrations. Regular assessment of thyroid and glucocorticoid status during GH substitution in GH-deficient patients is recommended.

JØrgensen, J O; Ovesen, Per Glud

1999-01-01

186

Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.  

OpenAIRE

In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N...

Jana?ky, T.; Juha?sz, A.; Bajusz, S.; Csernus, V.; Srkalovic, G.; Bokser, L.; Milovanovic, S.; Redding, T. W.; Re?ka?si, Z.; Nagy, A.

1992-01-01

187

Regulation of ecdysis-triggering hormone release by eclosion hormone.  

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Ecdysis behavior in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) is triggered through reciprocal peptide signaling between the central nervous system and the epitracheal endocrine system. Recent evidence indicates that eclosion hormone may initiate endocrine events leading to ecdysis through its action on epitracheal glands to cause the release of ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH). Here, we report that direct exposure of epitracheal glands to eclosion hormone in vitro leads to secretion of ETH. The threshold concentration of eclosion hormone needed to evoke release of ETH is approximately 3 pmol l-1. Eclosion hormone also induces elevation of cyclic GMP, but not cAMP, concentration in epitracheal glands at concentrations similar to those causing release of ETH. Both cGMP and 8-Br-cGMP mimic the secretory action of eclosion hormone. The sensitivity of the secretory response to eclosion hormone occurs during a narrow window of development, beginning approximately 8 h prior to pupal ecdysis. However, eclosion hormone can cause elevation of cGMP levels in epitracheal glands long before they acquire competence to release ETH, showing that the initial portion of the signal transduction cascade is in place early in development, but that the absence of a downstream step in the cascade prevents secretion. Measurements of cGMP levels in epitracheal glands during the ecdysis sequence show a sudden elevation some 30 min after the onset of pre-ecdysis, well after ETH secretion has been initiated. ETH secretion can therefore be viewed as a two-step process, beginning at pre-ecdysis when cGMP levels are relatively low, followed by a massive release resulting from a logarithmic elevation of cGMP levels. PMID:9364030

Kingan, T G; Gray, W; Zitnan, D; Adams, M E

1997-12-01

188

Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone  

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Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

189

Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years  

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After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

1978-01-01

190

PLANT SCIENCE: Nodules and Hormones  

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Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A hormone-signaling pathway is crucial to the ability of certain plants to form nodules when stimulated by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Giles E. D. Oldroyd (John Innes Centre; Department of Disease and Stress Biology)

2007-01-05

191

Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid hormone (TH) is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR) isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action ...

Raparti, Girish; Jain, Suyog; Ramteke, Karuna; Murthy, Mangala; Ghanghas, Ravi; Ramanand, Sunita; Ramanand, Jaiprakash

2013-01-01

192

Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients  

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Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor ß (ERß was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

Saraiva P.P.

2005-01-01

193

Maternal and fetal hormonal profiles of anemic pregnant women of Eastern Sudan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaemia is defined as reduction in circulating hemoglobin mass below the critical level expected for age and sex. Anaemia affects almost two- thirds of pregnant women in developing countries, it is associated with poor maternal and prenatal outcomes. Anaemia during pregnancy through many endocrine alterations-may influence the maternal and fetal environment. To investigate the anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal profiles in paired maternal and cord blood samples and to compare between the two groups, anaemic (n=68) and non-anaemic groups (n=57), in order to study the endocrine effects of anaemia during pregnancy in the mothers and their neonates. This cross sectional study was conducted in Gadarif hospital, Eastern Sudan. Women were classified into two groups based on the WHO classification of anaemia: Group 1(normal control-no anaemia Hb>11.0 g/dl) Group 2 anaemic, (Hb11g/dl). There was no significant difference in the fetal anthropometrics parameters (weight, length and placental weight) between the anaemic (Hb11g/dl). Maternal prolactin was significantly higher in anaemic group when compared with non anaemic group with p-value =.002. Cord serum albumin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anaemic group with p-value=.04. Cord serum ferritin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anemic group with p-value<.001. There was no significant difference was observed in the other maternal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). There was no significant difference was observed in the other fetal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). In this study there were some maternal and fetal endocrine modulations due to anaemia during pregnancy as indicated by the high levels of maternal prolactin in blood of the anemic women group and also the high values of albumun and ferritin in the cord blood of the anemic women group.(Author)

194

Associations of organochlorines with endogenous hormones in male Great Lakes fish consumers and nonconsumers.  

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This study investigated the relationships of steroid and thyroid hormones with total noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxins-like organochlorines, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in 56 male frequent and infrequent Great Lakes sport caught fish consumers. Significant negative associations were found for triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)-bound testosterone with PCBs, for TSH with total TEQs, and for estrone sulfate with DDE, adjusting for age, body mass index, and medication use. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, free testosterone, and SHBG were not significantly associated with organochlorines. Models that accounted for exposure to both PCBs and TEQs predicted T4, estrone sulfate, and SHBG-bound testosterone better than models that included either PCBs or TEQs alone, with the lowest hormone levels occurring in the participants with both higher PCB levels and lower TEQ levels. These data suggest that exposure to PCBs, dioxin-like organochlorines, and DDE, alone and potentially in combination, may be associated with effects on the endocrine system in adult males. Further studies should help delineate specific exposure effects and effects of exposures to other common environmental contaminants alone and in combination with PCBs. PMID:16563369

Turyk, Mary E; Anderson, Henry A; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G; Steenport, Dyan N; Knobeloch, Lynda; Imm, Pamela; Persky, Victoria W

2006-11-01

195

Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

196

Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer  

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Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

AntonioBianco

2012-06-01

197

Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia / Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pit [...] uitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

Julio, Brito; Lya, Sáez; Melchor, Lemp; Claudio, Liberman; Harold, Michelsen; A Verónica, Araya.

2008-07-01

198

Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas  

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Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone (GH producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

Julio Brito

2008-07-01

199

Nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid hormones, T3 and T4, modulate a vast number of metabolic processes in mammalian tissues. High affinity, low capacity binding sites for T3 and T4 have been demonstrated in cell nuclei of target organs using both in vivo and in vitro labelling techniques. The displacement of [125I]T3 from nuclear binding sites by thyroid hormone analogues correlates well with the thyromimetic activities of the analogues tested. Dose-response relationships between T3 occupancy and growth hormone secretion as a function of free T3 concentration have been established with the GH1 cell line. The equilibrium dissociation constant of the equation which describes how T3 binds to the nuclei of intact cells is essentially the same as the free T3 concentration that elicits the half-maximal biological response of the hormone. It is becoming apparent that these nuclear binding sites represent specific thyroid hormone receptors, whose function may be to regulate gene activity in target tissues. This report concerns the binding of the rat liver nuclear receptor to duplex and random coil DNA as well as to non-mammalian and synthetic DNAs. We postulate that the receptor binds in vivo to native DNA in the minor groove of the DNA helix

200

Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

201

Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

202

Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormonereleasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormo [...] ne to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormonereceptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p

Cibele N., Peroni; Cesar Y., Hayashida; Nancy, Nascimento; Viviane C., Longuini; Rodrigo A., Toledo; Paolo, Bartolini; Cyril Y., Bowers; Sergio P.A., Toledo.

203

The endocytic catalysts, Rab5a and Rab7, are tandem regulators of thyroid hormone production  

Science.gov (United States)

Rab proteins are small GTPases that control distinct vesicular transport steps. Along the endocytic pathway, Rab5a is a rate-limiting catalyst of internalization, and Rab7 controls trafficking through late endosomes to lysosomes. The dependence of thyroid hormone production by thyrocytes on thyroglobulin endocytosis and intracellular processing in late endosomes/lysosomes suggests that its rate can be regulated by the expression or function of these endocytic catalysts. We compared the expression level and membrane recruitment of Rab5a and Rab7 in autonomous thyroid adenomas (where the cAMP cascade is constitutively activated) and surrounding quiescent tissues. The concentrations of Rab5a and Rab7, but not of Rab8, were coordinately increased up to 6-fold in adenomas, and correlated with a proportionate decrease in soluble thyroglobulin content (reflecting colloid depletion by accelerated endocytic uptake in hyperactive tissue). In adenomas, a higher proportion of Rab5a and Rab7 was membrane associated, and the equilibrium density of particulate Rab7 and iodine shifted toward lysosomal fractions, indicating that progression along the degradation pathway also was promoted. In cultures of polarized human thyrocytes from normal patients, thyroid-stimulating hormone or forskolin increased, to a similar extent, Rab5a and Rab7 but not Rab8 expression, apical endocytosis of thyroglobulin and lucifer yellow, and basolateral secretion of T3 and T4. Taken together, these in vivo and in vitro observations demonstrate that thyroid-stimulating hormone, via cAMP, coordinately enhances the expression of Rab5a and Rab7, which promote Tg endocytosis and transfer to lysosomes, respectively, resulting in accelerated thyroid hormone production. PMID:12034881

Croizet-Berger, Karine; Daumerie, Chantal; Couvreur, Marianne; Courtoy, Pierre J.; van den Hove, Marie-France

2002-01-01

204

Impairing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) signaling in vivo: targeted disruption of the FSH receptor leads to aberrant gametogenesis and hormonal imbalance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pituitary gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone stimulate the gonads by regulating germ cell proliferation and differentiation. FSH receptors (FSH-Rs) are localized to testicular Sertoli cells and ovarian granulosa cells and are coupled to activation of the adenylyl cyclase and other signaling pathways. Activation of FSH-Rs is considered essential for folliculogenesis in the female and spermatogenesis in the male. We have generated mice lacking FSH-R by homologous recombination. FSH-R-deficient males are fertile but display small testes and partial spermatogenic failure. Thus, although FSH signaling is not essential for initiating spermatogenesis, it appears to be required for adequate viability and motility of the sperms. FSH-R-deficient females display thin uteri and small ovaries and are sterile because of a block in folliculogenesis before antral follicle formation. Although the expression of marker genes is only moderately altered in FSH-R -/- mice, drastic sex-specific changes are observed in the levels of various hormones. The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in females is enlarged and reveals a larger number of FSH- and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-positive cells. The phenotype of FSH-R -/- mice is reminiscent of human hypergonadotropic ovarian dysgenesis and infertility. PMID:9811848

Dierich, A; Sairam, M R; Monaco, L; Fimia, G M; Gansmuller, A; LeMeur, M; Sassone-Corsi, P

1998-11-10

205

Diurnal changes in serum metabolites and hormones in lean and obese Zucker rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of diurnal patterns of serum hormone levels was made in genetically lean and obese Zucker rats. Serum glucose and insulin were elevated in the obese through the 24-hour period; immunoreactive insulin being 12 times higher in the obese rat. A similar pattern of serum hormone levels in lean and obese rats was found for triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin. At peak levels, prolactin was 2.5 times higher in lean than obese rats (P is less than .01). Thyroxine levels tended to be lower in the obese rats throughout the sampling periods when compared to lean rats. Growth hormone levels were severely depressed in the obese rat with the largest differences between lean and obese rats being observed during the light periods of the cycle. These differences in growth hormone secretion may be responsible for the impaired nitrogen retention in the obese rat. Serum levels of corticosterone were highest at the beginning of the dark cycle and decreased drastically thereafter in the lean rats. The obese rat did not exhibit a distinct pattern of corticosterone secretion and tended to be elevated throughout the periods tested. PMID:566707

Martin, R J; Wangsness, P J; Gahagan, J H

1978-05-01

206

Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T4) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), tri iodine thyronine (T3) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

207

Sorption of steroidal hormones by electrodialysis membranes  

OpenAIRE

The mechanisms of sorption of four steroidal hormones – estradiol, estrone, progesterone and testosterone – to electrodialysis (ED) membranes were investigated as a function of solution pH and presence of humic acid (HA). Hormone-membrane partition coefficients (log KAEM/CEM) determined through sorption isotherm experiments suggested that hormone sorption was due to hydrogen bonding and cation–? interactions between hormone and membrane functional groups. Progesterone sorption at pH 7 ...

Banasiak, Laura Joan; Scha?fer, Andrea

2010-01-01

208

Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a discovery of this peptide, b mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

A.-M.J. Lengyel

2006-08-01

209

Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the sto [...] mach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a) discovery of this peptide, b) mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c) regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

A.-M.J., Lengyel.

1003-10-01

210

Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

2009-01-01

211

Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 240, ?. 1 (2014), s. 55-76. ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.376, year: 2013

Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ond?ej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Ture?ková, Veronika; Grúz, Ji?í; Rol?ík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

2014-01-01

212

The hormonal regulation of life processes in insects (2.) The anti-juvenile hormones (1.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Those compounds that decrease either the level or activity of natural endogenous juvenile hormones in insects are called anti-juvenile hormones (AJH). The possible effects of anti-juvenile hormones are manifold: they may inhibit special enzymes or the bindings of juvenile hormones to receptors and transport proteins or may cause the destruction of corpora allata, the sources of juvenile hormones. The most obvious possibility to elicit an anti-juvenile hormone effect lies in the inhibition of enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones

213

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes th [...] e levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

Jose Carlos, Pereira Jr.; Marcia, Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins, Pessoa.

214

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.

2010-01-01

215

Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem.La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven.Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

Milena Bastos Brito

2011-04-01

216

Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular / Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system / Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese, Spanish Abstract in portuguese A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, reali [...] zamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem. Abstract in spanish La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujere [...] s con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven. Abstract in english Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascu [...] lar disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

Milena Bastos, Brito; Fernando, Nobre; Carolina Sales, Vieira.

2011-04-01

217

Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.

Sermin Kesebir

2010-12-01

218

A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb negative Graves’s disease (GD is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia forty years ago. She did not show characteristic symptoms for hyperthyroidism, such as swelling of thyroid, exophthalmos, tachycardia and tremor, however, she showed only psychomotor agitation. Serum free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels were elevated and TSH level was suppressed, suggesting the existence of hyperthyroidism. However, both the first generation TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb1 and the thyroid stimulating autoantibody (TSAb were negative. Slightly increased blood flow and swelling was detected by thyroid echography. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse and remarkably elevated uptake of 123I uptake. Finally, we diagnosed her as having GD. She was treated by using methimazole, and hyperthyroidism and her psychiatric symptoms were promptly ameliorated. Discussion We experienced a patient with GD who did not show characteristic symptoms except for psychiatric symptoms, and also showed negativity for both TRAb1 and TSAb. Thyroid autoantibody-negative GD is extremely rare. Thyroid scintigraphy was useful to diagnose such a patient.

Hamasaki Hidetaka

2012-12-01

219

Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

220

Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior. PMID:25224609

Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

2014-11-01

221

Hormonal Replacement: advantages and disdvantagens Reposição Hormonal: vantagens e desvantagens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deficiency of estrogens was considered by many people as a physiological condition and not pathological one probably because the ovarian inadequacy is genetically programmed. However with the increase of the expection of the women´s life, the negative impact of the deficiency of estrogens became more significant. Although this deficiency is easy to take care less than, 20% of the women post menopáusicas receive estrogens. The therapy of hormonal replacement (THR in the menopause it appeared as the mainly treatment form, to alleviate the symptoms and act as prevention, reducing the emergence of diseases, as the cardiovascular and the osteoporosis, but THR is not totally unproved of risks. The hormonal therapeutical has past the last years for doubts and uncertainties, in consequence of several related publications of its use, this way it becomes important to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this therapy. Analyse througha wide bibliographical revision, the advantages and disadvantages of the TRH replacement in women climatérias, as well as evaluate if the possible risks of this therapy overcomes s the benefits proportionate for the same . It was used as methodology bibliographical researches made in libraries and internet. The texts of books and scientific articles were studied and the contents of them were selected for the elaboration of this work. The THR is recommended to alleviate the vasomotores symptoms , treatment of vaginal atrophy and prevention of osteoporosis. In spite of the acquaintances advantages, approximately 70% of the women interrupt the treatment after the first year. One of the principal causes of the low adherence of THR is the bleed irregular , other reasons includes mastalgia, nausea, chronic headache, profit of weight and hidrica retention, besides the fear of cancer. The decision of a woman to use the TRH is a complex process and it is recommended by the doctor, who is taking care of her by the individual risk of diseases, by the attitudes toward the menopause and THR, values menopausais, symptoms and to the middle to which the woman belongs. A deficiência de estrogênio foi considerada por muitos uma condição fisiológica ,e não patológica, provavelmente porque a insuficiência ovariana é geneticamente programada. Entretanto com o aumento da expectativa de vida das mulheres, o impacto negativo da deficiência de estrogênio tornou-se mais significativo. Embora essa deficiência seja tratável, menos de 20% das mulheres pós menopáusicas recebem estrogênio. Embora a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH na menopausa não seja totalmente isenta de riscos,ela tem sido utilizada com o objetivo de aliviar sintomas e de agir preventivamente e assim reduzir o aparecimento de doenças, como as cardiovasculares e a osteoporose. A terapêutica hormonal tem passado os últimos anos por duvidas e incertezas, em conseqüência de diversas publicações relacionadas a seu uso, desta forma torna-se importante analisar as vantagens e desvantagens dessa terapia: analisar através de uma ampla revisão bibliográfica, as vantagens e desvantagens da terapia de reposição hormonal em mulheres climatérias, bem como avaliar se os possíveis riscos dessa terapia superam os benefícios proporcionados pela mesma. Utilizou-se como metodologia a pesquisa bibliográfica efetuada em bibliotecas e internet e os textos de livros e artigos científicos foram estudados e os conteúdos selecionados para a elaboração do trabalho.A terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH é recomendada para alivio dos sintomas vasomotores, tratamento da atrofia vaginal e prevenção da osteoporose. Apesar das conhecidas vantagens, aproximadamente 70% das mulheres cessam o tratamento após o primeiro ano. Uma das principais causas da baixa aderência a TRH é o sangramento irregular, outras razões incluem mastalgia, náusea, cefaléia, ganho de peso e retenção hídrica, além do medo de câncer. A decisão de uma mulher em usar terapia de reposição hormonal é um processo complexo determinado pela r

Eliane Aparecida Campesatto Mella

2006-10-01

222

Sex, Hormones and Neuroeffector Mechanisms  

OpenAIRE

Incidence and rate of cardiovascular disease differ between men and women across the life span. Although hypertension is more prominent in men than women, there is a group of vasomotor disorders [i.e. Raynaud’s disease, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes) of menopause and migraine] with a female predominance. Both sex and hormones interact to modulate neuroeffector mechanisms including integrated regulation of the Sry gene and direct effect ...

Hart, Emma C.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Miller, Virginia M.

2010-01-01

223

Female sex hormones and migraine.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the reproductive years migraine is three times more common in women than in men. Although it is often assumed that this female preponderance is associated with the additional trigger of fluctuating sex hormones of the menstrual cycle, few studies have been undertaken to confirm or refute this. There is increasing evidence confirming an association between estrogen 'withdrawal' and attacks of migraine without aura, as well as evidence for an association between high estrogen states and attacks of migraine with aura. PMID:16141956

MacGregor, E A

2005-07-01

224

Hormonal modulation of plant immunity  

OpenAIRE

Plant hormones have pivotal roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and reproduction. Additionally, they emerged as cellular signal molecules with key functions in the regulation of immune responses to microbial pathogens, insect herbivores, and beneficial microbes. Their signaling pathways are interconnected in a complex network, which provides plants with an enormous regulatory potential to rapidly adapt to their biotic environment and to utilize their limited resources for gr...

Pieterse, C. M. J.; Does, A.; Zamioudis, C.; Leon Reyes, H. A.; Wees, S. C. M.

2012-01-01

225

Gut hormones in acute diarrhoea.  

OpenAIRE

The gut hormone response to a breakfast meal was studied in 12 subjects hospitalised for an episode of acute diarrhoea (presumed infective) who were otherwise well and in 13 healthy control subjects. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were low but basal insulin concentrations were raised. Basal concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide and both basal and postprandial responses of motilin, enteroglucagon, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were also significantly greater than control...

Besterman, H. S.; Christofides, N. D.; Welsby, P. D.; Adrian, T. E.; Sarson, D. L.; Bloom, S. R.

1983-01-01

226

Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts  

OpenAIRE

Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycer...

Shen Wen-Jun; Kraemer Fredric B

2006-01-01

227

Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin: structural elucidation of the sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides on bovine, ovine, and human pituitary glycoprotein hormones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have elucidated the structures of the anionic asparagine-linked oligosaccharides present on the glycoprotein hormones lutropin (luteinizing hormone), follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone), and thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone). Purified hormones, isolated from bovine, ovine, and human pituitaries, were digested with N-glycanase, and the released oligosaccharides were reduced with NaB(/sup 3/H)/sub 4/. The /sup 3/H-labeled oligosaccharides from each hormone were then fractionated by anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into populations differing in the number of sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties. The sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures, which together comprised 67-90% of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the pituitary glycoprotein hormones, were highly heterogeneous and displayed hormone- as well as animal species-specific features. A previously uncharacterized dibranched oligosaccharide, bearing one residue each of sulfate and sialic acid, was found on all of the hormones except bovine lutropin. In this study, they describe the purification and detailed structural characterizations of the sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated oligosaccharides found on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin from several animal species.

Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

1988-01-05

228

Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evalto be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

229

Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author).

Chen, Ming-Shen; Lin, Fang-Jen; Huang, Miau-Ju; Wang, Pei-Wan; Tang, Simon; Leung, Wei-Man; Leung, Wan (Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan))

1989-09-01

230

Sex hormones and macronutrient metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this "bias" and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to "normal," i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the "reference man" vs. the "reference woman" in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

2015-01-01

231

Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

HuguesDardente

2014-02-01

232

Sex, hormones and neuroeffector mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incidence and rate of cardiovascular disease differ between men and women across the life span. Although hypertension is more prominent in men than women, there is a group of vasomotor disorders [i.e. Raynaud's disease, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes) of menopause and migraine] with a female predominance. Both sex and hormones interact to modulate neuroeffector mechanisms including integrated regulation of the Sry gene and direct effect of sex steroid hormones on synthesis, release and disposition of monoamine neurotransmitters, and distribution and sensitivity of their receptors in brain areas associated with autonomic control. The interaction of the sex chromosomes and steroids also modulates these effector tissues, that is, the heart, vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. Although involvement of central serotonergic centres has been studied in regard to mood disorders such as depression, their contribution to cardiovascular risk is gaining attention. Studies are needed to further evaluate how hormonal treatments and drugs used to modulate adrenergic and serotonergic activity affect progression and risk for cardiovascular disease in men and women. PMID:20874808

Hart, E C; Charkoudian, N; Miller, V M

2011-09-01

233

Neutralization of TNF does not influence endotoxininduced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in endotoxin-induced changes in plasma thyroid hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations, 24 healthy postabsorptive humans were studied on a control study day (n = 6), after infusion of a recombinant TNF receptor IgG fusion protein (TNFR:Fc; 6 mg/m2; n = 6) after intravenous injection of endotoxin (2 ng/kg; n = 6), or after administration of endotoxin with TNFR:Fc (n = 6). Administration of TNFR:Fc alone did not affect thyroid hormone or TSH levels when compared with the control day. Endotoxin induced a transient rise in plasma TNF activity (1.5 h: 219 +/- 42 pg/ml), which was completely prevented by TNFR:Fc (P < 0.05). After endotoxin administration, plasma L-thyroxine (T4), free T4, 3,5, 3'-triiodothyronine (T3), and TSH were lower and 3,3', 5'-triiodothyronine was higher than on the control day (all P < 0. 05). Coinfusion of TNFR:Fc with endotoxin did not influence these endotoxin-induced changes. Our results suggest that endogenous TNF does not play an important role in the alterations in plasma thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations induced by mild endotoxemia in healthy humans. PMID:9950912

van der Poll, T; Endert, E; Coyle, S M; Agosti, J M; Lowry, S F

1999-02-01

234

The relationship between iron status and thyroid hormone concentration in iron-deficient adolescent Iranian girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive data from animal and human studies indicate that iron deficiency impairs thyroid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine thyroid hormone status in iron-deficient adolescent girls. By stepwise random sampling from among all public high schools for girls in Lar and its vicinity in southern Iran, 103 out of 431 iron deficient subjects were selected. Urine and serum samples were collected and assayed for urinary iodine and serum ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroid hormones (fT4 and fT3), triiodothyronine resin uptake (T3RU), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), selenium and albumin concentrations. Hematological indices for iron status confirmed that all subjects were iron-deficient. There was a significant correlation between T4 and ferritin (r = 0.52, P < 0.001) and between TSH and ferritin (r = -0.3, P < 0.05). Subjects with low serum ferritin had a higher ratio of T3/T4 (r = -0.42, P < 0.01). Using stepwise regression analysis, only ferritin contributed significantly to the rT3 concentration (r = -0.35, P < 0.01). The results indicate that the degree of iron deficiency may affect thyroid hormone status in iron-deficient adolescent girls. PMID:16500878

Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Jalali, Mahmood; Elguero, Eric; Eshraghian, Mohammad R; Simondon, Kirsten B

2006-01-01

235

Variations of Endocrine Hormones Concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under Simulated Seasonal Acclimatized: Role of Leptin Sensitivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seasonal variations in endocrine hormones concentrations are important for the survival of small mammals during acclimatization. In order to understand the role of leptin sensitivity on other endocrine hormones concentrations, we examined body mass, serum leptin level, serum insulin, tri-iodothyronine (T 3, thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under seasonal acclimatized (The simulated temperature and photoperiod in winter: 5°C and SD, 8h:16h Light:Dark; the simulated temperature and photoperiod in summer: 30°C and SD, 16h:8h Light:Dark for 4 weeks. The results showed that body mass, serum leptin level, serum T3, T4 concentrations and T3/T4 showed significant variation, but serum insulin and TSH concentrations showed no variations between treatment group. There were positive correlation between serum leptin level and insulin, T4 concentrations, and were negative correlation between serum leptin level and body mass, T3 concentrations. However, no correlation was found between serum TSH concentrations and serum leptin level. The present results suggested T. belangeri overcome winter thermogenesis challenges by adjusting body mass and endocrine hormones concentrations. Furthermore, leptin may play an potential role in their body mass regulation in T. belangeri.

Zhu, Wan-long

2013-04-01

236

VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyroxine (T3. The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4, Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3?IU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 57-59

Pallavi Chaurasia

2011-04-01

237

Thyroid hormone levels in patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted with three main objectives, to study thyroid hormones (T 4, T 3) and TSH levels in patients with CRF under haemodialysis and to compare them with normal subjects, to study best means of treatment and to compare these findings with results from other parts of the world. This study was done on 61 patients with renal failure in Khartoum dialysis and kidney transplant centre U of K, 45 males and 16 females with ages ranging from 17-75 years and 42 symptoms-free subjects 14 males and 23 females with age ranging from 16-60 years. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used for the determination of serum T 4, T 3 and TSH. By using t-test found that the mean concentrations of T 4, T 3 of normal subjects were much higher than those of the patients (p0.05). These results also illustrated that 45.9% of patients with renal failure of low T 4, and 91.8%, 90.26 of patients had T 3 and TSH hormone levels in the normal range, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean of thyroid hormones (T 4, T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormones between males and females (p>0.05). The T 3 and T '4 concentrations in patients at all age groups (year) was less than the age groups of the control group, and this decrease was statistically significant (p0.05).(Author)

238

Hormones in Synergy: Regulation of the Pituitary Gonadotropin Genes  

OpenAIRE

The precise interplay of hormonal influences that governs gonadotropin hormone production by the pituitary includes endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), activin and steroids. However, most studies of hormonal regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gonadotrope have been limited to analyses of the isolated actions of individual hormones. LH? and FSH? subunits have distinct patt...

Thackray, Varykina G.; Mellon, Pamela L.; Coss, Djurdjica

2009-01-01

239

Alterations in TSH and Thyroid Hormones following Mobile Phone Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives In recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has lead to a public debate about possible detrimental effects on human health. In spite of years of research, there is still a great controversy regarding the possibility of induction of any significant physiological effects in humans by microwave radiations emitted by mobile phones. This study aims to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields induced by the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones on the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones in humans. Methods 77 healthy university students participated in this study. The levels of T3, T4 and TSH were measured by using appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Human, Germany). Results The average levels of T3, T4 and TSH in students who moderately used mobile phones were 1.25±0.27 ng/ml, 7.76±1.73 µg/dl and 4.25±2.12 µu/l respectively. The levels in the students who severely used mobile phones were 1.18±0.30, 7.75±1.14 and 3.75±2.05 respectively. In non-users, the levels were 1.15±0.27, 8.42±2.72 and 2.70±1.75, respectively. The difference among the levels of TSH in these 3 groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion As far as the study is concerned, this is the first human study to assess the associations between mobile phone use and alterations in the levels of TSH and thyroid hormones. Based on the findings, a higher than normal TSH level, low mean T4 and normal T3 concentrations in mobile users were observed. It seems that minor degrees of thyroid dysfunction with a compensatory rise in TSH may occur following excessive use of mobile phones. It may be concluded that possible deleterious effects of mobile microwaves on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis affects the levels of these hormones. PMID:22216380

Mortavazi, Seyed; Habib, Asadollah; Ganj-Karami, Amir; Samimi-Doost, Razieh; Pour-Abedi, Atefe; Babaie, Ali

2009-01-01

240

Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system  

OpenAIRE

A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em...

Milena Bastos Brito; Fernando Nobre; Carolina Sales Vieira

2011-01-01

241

Disfunción eréctil de origen hormonal / Hormonal etiology in erectile dysfunction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adecuado funcionamiento del mecanismo de la erección depende de la correcta interrelación de factores psicológicos, vasculares, neurológicos y hormonales. Las enfermedades endocrinas afectan a la función sexual y la disfunción sexual puede ser uno de los síntomas de alguna alteración hormonal. La [...] diabetes mellitus es la alteración endocrina que con más frecuencia causa disfunción eréctil debido a las frecuentes complicaciones vasculares y neurológicas que conlleva. Es importante la determinación de glucosa en la evaluación inicial del varón con disfunción eréctil, así como intentar un adecuado control de los niveles de glucemia para evitar el empeoramiento. La disfunción eréctil del diabético es multifactorial, de mayor severidad y responde peor al tratamiento oral. La hiperprolactinemia es causante de alteraciones en la esfera sexual, ya que provoca descenso de la testosterona. En estos casos, la sintomatología sexual se trata corrigiendo los niveles de prolactina. La determinación rutinaria de la prolactina no está clara y parece que debe determinarse cuando las cifras de testosterona están disminuidas. Las alteraciones de la hormona tiroidea (tanto el hiper como el hipotiroidismo) se asocian a disfunción eréctil, que en la mitad de los casos remitirá con la normalización de la hormona tiroidea. No está claro el papel que juegan las hormonas suprarrenales en la función eréctil y su determinación rutinaria no se contempla en la evaluación diagnóstica de la disfunción eréctil. Tampoco se conoce bien el papel del estradiol en la regulación del mecanismo de la erección, aunque se sabe que cifras elevadas de este pueden provocar disfunción eréctil. Dentro de las alteraciones endocrino-metabólicas reseñar las dislipemias, con la hipercolesterolemia como factor de riesgo importante de disfunción eréctil y aunque su corrección puede prevenir el deterioro del sistema vascular, no está claro el papel de las estatinas en la disfunción eréctil. Abstract in english The proper function of erection mechanisms depend on correct interrelationship between psychological, vascular, neurological and hormonal factors. Endocrine diseases affect sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may be one of the symptoms of some hormonal anomalies. Diabetes mellitus is the endocri [...] ne disease most frequently causing erectile dysfunction due to the frequent vascular and neurological complications associated. It is important to determine blood glucose in the initial evaluation of a male with erectile dysfunction, as well as to try an adequate control of blood glucose levels to avoid worsening. Diabetic male erectile dysfunction is multifactorial, more severe and has worse response to oral treatment. Hyperprolactinemia causes disorders of the sexual sphere because it produces a descent of testosterone. In these cases, sexual symptoms are treated by correcting the levels of prolactin. Routine determination of prolactin is not clear and it seems it should be determined when testosterone levels are diminished. Thyroid hormone disorders (both hyper and hypotyroidism) are associated with erectile dysfunction, which will subside in half the patients with thyroid hormone normalization. The role of adrenal hormones in erectile function is not clear and their routine determination is not considered in the diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction. The role of estradiol in the regulation of the erection mechanism is not well known either, although it is known that high levels may cause erectile dysfunction. Among endocrine-metabolic disorders we point out dyslipemias, with hypercholesterolemia as an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction and, though its correction may prevent vascular system deterioration, the role of statins in erectile dysfunction is not clear.

José María, Martínez Jabaloyas.

2010-10-01

242

Free thyroid hormones in health and disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T3 is slightly enhanced. Free T4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T4 substitution free T4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.)

243

Hormones and sexual orientation: a questionable link.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper critically reviews the studies which explore a possible causal relationship between sex hormones and the development of sexual orientation. Early studies focused on hormone measurements in adult men and women. While definitive interpretations are hindered by methodological problems, the studies as a whole do not support a causal relationship between postnatal hormone levels and sexual orientation. More recently, a theory that prenatal hormone levels produce varying degrees of brain androgenization and subsequent dimorphic sex role behavior has consistently been supported by studies in lower mammals. Attempts to generalize the causes of sexual orientation from animals to humans have been controversial. Efforts to measure the estrogen feedback as an indication of brain androgenization have produced inconsistent results. Studies of men and women who experienced defect in hormone metabolism (i.e., CAH and testicular feminization) have not found a concurrent increase in homosexual behavior. Overall, the data do not support a causal connection between hormones and human sexual orientation. PMID:7560930

Banks, A; Gartrell, N K

1995-01-01

244

Pharmacologic Development of Male Hormonal Contraceptive Agents  

OpenAIRE

The world population continues to increase dramatically despite the existence of contraceptive technology. The use of male hormonal contraception may help in preventing unintended pregnancies and managing future population growth. Male hormonal contraception relies on the administration of exogenous hormones to suppress spermatogenesis. Clinical trials have tested several regimens using testosterone, alone or in combination with a progestin. These regimens were shown to be >90% effective in p...

Roth, My; Amory, Jk

2010-01-01

245

Monitoring Plant Hormones During Stress Responses  

OpenAIRE

Plant hormones and related signaling compounds play an important role in the regulation of plant responses to various environmental stimuli and stresses. Among the most severe stresses are insect herbivory, pathogen infection, and drought stress. For each of these stresses a specific set of hormones and/or combinations thereof are known to fine-tune the responses, thereby ensuring the plant's survival. The major hormones involved in the regulation of these responses are jasmonic acid (JA), sa...

Engelberth, Marie J.; Engelberth, Jurgen

2009-01-01

246

Anterior pituitary hormone control by interleukin 2.  

OpenAIRE

Several monokines, proteins secreted by monocytes and macrophages, alter release of hormones from the anterior pituitary. We report here the ability of femtomolar concentrations of interleukin 2 (IL-2), a lymphokine released from T lymphocytes, to alter directly pituitary hormone release. The effects of concentrations of IL-2 ranging from 10(-17) to 10(-9) M on anterior pituitary hormone release were evaluated in vitro. Hemipituitaries were preincubated in 1 ml of Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buf...

Karanth, S.; Mccann, S. M.

1991-01-01

247

Transport of thyroid hormone in brain  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid hormone (TH) transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS) function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating thyroid hormone uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present i...

JosefKöhrle; EvaKWirth

2014-01-01

248

Allosteric activation of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor by selective, nonpeptide agonists.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pituitary glycoprotein hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), act through their cognate receptors to initiate a series of coordinated physiological events that results in germ cell maturation. Given the importance of FSH in regulating folliculogenesis and fertility, the development of FSH mimetics has been sought to treat infertility. Currently, purified and recombinant human FSH are the only FSH receptor (FSH-R) agonists available for infertility treatment. By screening unbiased combinatorial chemistry libraries, using a cAMP-responsive luciferase reporter assay, we discovered thiazolidinone agonists (EC50's = 20 microm) of the human FSH-R. Subsequent analog library screening and parallel synthesis optimization resulted in the identification of a potent agonist (EC50 = 2 nm) with full efficacy compared with FSH that was FSH-R-selective and -dependent. The compound mediated progesterone production in Y1 cells transfected with the human FSH-R (EC50 = 980 nm) and estradiol production from primary rat ovarian granulosa cells (EC50 = 10.5 nm). This and related compounds did not compete with FSH for binding to the FSH-R. Use of human FSH/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor chimeras suggested a novel mechanism for receptor activation through a binding site independent of the natural hormone binding site. This study is the first report of a high affinity small molecule agonist that activates a glycoprotein hormone receptor through an allosteric mechanism. The small molecule FSH receptor agonists described here could lead to an oral alternative to the current parenteral FSH treatments used clinically to induce ovarian stimulation for both in vivo and in vitro fertilization therapy. PMID:16540466

Yanofsky, Stephen D; Shen, Emily S; Holden, Frank; Whitehorn, Erik; Aguilar, Barbara; Tate, Emily; Holmes, Christopher P; Scheuerman, Randall; MacLean, Derek; Wu, May M; Frail, Donald E; López, Francisco J; Winneker, Richard; Arey, Brian J; Barrett, Ronald W

2006-05-12

249

Lack of Association Between Peripheral Activity of Thyroid Hormones and Elevated TSH Levels in Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Ob­jec­ti­ve: An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is a frequent finding in obese children, but its association with peripheral hormone metabolism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that in obesity, the changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in peripheral tissues might lead to dysregulation in the thyroid axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of TSH with thyroid hormones in a group of obese children as compared to normal-weight controls. Methods: Serum TSH, free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were measured in 101 obese children and in 40 controls. Serum reverse T3 (rT3) levels were also measured in a subgroup of 51 obese children and in 15 controls. Results: Serum TSH level was significantly higher in obese children compared to controls (2.78 vs. 1.99 mIU/L, p<0.001), while no difference was found in fT4, fT3, rT3 levels and in fT3/rT3 ratio. In the obese group, fT3 level positively correlated with fT4 (r=0.217, p=0.033) and inversely with rT3 (r=-0.288, p=0.045). However, thyroid hormone levels and TSH levels were not correlated. Conclusion: In obese children, normal fT4, fT3 and rT3 levels suggest an undisturbed peripheral hormone metabolism. These levels show no correlation with elevated TSH levels. PMID:24932603

Lobotková, Denisa; Staníková, Daniela; Staník, Juraj; Cervenová, Ol’ga; Bzdúch, Vladimír; Tichá, L’ubica

2014-01-01

250

Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters. PMID:25719333

Hampl, Richard; Bi?íková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

2015-03-01

251

Functional differences of invariant and highly conserved residues in the extracellular domain of the glycoprotein hormone receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple interactions exist between human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the N-terminal hormone-binding fragment of the human FSH receptor (FSHR) extracellular domain (ECD). Binding of the other human glycoprotein hormones to their cognate human receptors (luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR)) was expected to be similar. This study focuses on amino acid residues in ?-strands 2 (Lys(74)), 4 (Tyr(124), Asn(129), and Thr(130)), and 5 (Asp(150) and Asp(153)) of the FSHR ECD identified in the human FSH·FSHR ECD crystal structure as contact sites with the common glycoprotein hormone ?-subunit, and on noncontact residues in ?-strands 2 (Ser(78)) and 8 (Asp(224) and Ser(226)) as controls. These nine residues are either invariant or highly conserved in LHR and TSHR. Mutagenesis and functional characterization of these residues in all three human receptors allowed an assessment of their contribution to binding and receptor activation. Surprisingly, the six reported ?-subunit contact residues of the FSHR ECD could be replaced without significant loss of FSH binding, while cAMP signaling potency was diminished significantly with several replacements. Comparative studies of the homologous residues in LHR and TSHR revealed both similarities and differences. The results for FSH/FSHR were analyzed on the basis of the crystal structure of the FSH·FSHR ECD complex, and comparative modeling was used to generate structures for domains, proteins, and complexes for which no structures were available. Although structural information of hormone-receptor interaction allowed the identification of hormone-receptor contact sites, functional analysis of each contact site was necessary to assess its contribution to hormone binding and receptor activation. PMID:20736161

Angelova, Krassimira; de Jonge, Hugo; Granneman, Joke C M; Puett, David; Bogerd, Jan

2010-11-01

252

[Hormone profiles and hormone therapy in early pregnancy (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormone profiles in early pregnancy were established in 67 women and correlated to simultaneously performed ultrasonic examinations. Normal values for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), human chorionic somatotropin (HCS), oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) were established from the data obtained in 30 early pregnancies which culminated in the birth of a living child. Lowered HCG values were found in 17 out of 23 pregnancies which ended in miscarriage. In these cases ultrasonic examination failed to detect any heart action. Lowered HCS values after the 9th week of pregnancy are also certain proof of missed abortion. P and E2 values are shown to be a parameter reflecting activity of the corpus luteum graviditatis. In clomiphene- and gonadotropin-induced pregnancies higher values were found than in pregnancies managed by substitution treatment with twice weekly 10 mg oestradiolvalerianate + 500mg 17alpha-hydroxyprogesteronecapronate. Lowered P and E2 values with HCG values in the normal range indicate imminent insufficiency of the corpus luteum graviditatis. Pros and cons of hormonal therapy in early pregnancy are discussed. PMID:676313

Friedrich, F; Kemeter, P; Salzer, H; Kratochwil, A; Knapp-Groll, E

1978-08-11

253

Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in TH activity.

Darras V.M.

2000-01-01

254

Green Light for Steroid Hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, D. Russell describes two papers--one in this week's issue of Science (Li et al., p. 398) and one in the 19 April issue of Cell (M. Szekeres et al.)--which report on two enzymes that synthesize steroid hormones cloned from Arabidopsis. These enzymes, DET2 and CPD, are in the biosynthetic pathway for brassinolides, steroids that seem to participate in the regulation of gene expression by light.

David W. Russell (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Department of Molecular Genetics)

1996-04-19

255

Free thyroid hormones in pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following parameters were measured in 95 euthyroid subjects and in 55 healthy pregnant women: TT4, TT3, rT3, RT3-Uptake, TSH, FT4 and FT3. In addition, FT4-index, TT4/TBG, FT3-index, TT3/TBG and the balance of free hormone indices were calculated. The results of FT4 and FT3 measurement indicated an euthyroid status in late pregnancy. Though the FT4 and FT3 levels were significantly lower than those of the euthyroid subjects, they did not fall outside the normal range. (orig.)

256

Hormone action and chromatin remodelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current attention in transcriptional regulation is focused on the properties of coactivators and corepressors that mediate communication between sequence-specific transcription factors, the basal transcriptional machinery and the chromatin environment. Nuclear and steroid hormone receptors represent the best-understood transcription factors that utilize coactivators and corepressors. This review considers the access of these receptors to chromatin, the modifications of chromatin structure that the receptors instigate and the implications for transcriptional control. Nucleosome positioning and targeted histone modification emerge as central controlling elements for gene expression. PMID:9539951

Robyr, D; Wolffe, P

1998-02-01

257

Hormones as doping in sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge. PMID:22990405

Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

2013-04-01

258

Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

Shen Wen-Jun

2006-02-01

259

Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone (TH) is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR) isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action on TR. Studying the structure–activity relationship of TR led to the development of compounds like GC1 and KB141, which preferentially act on the ?1 isoform of TR. More recently, eprotirome was developed and has been studied in humans. It has shown to be effective in dyslipidemia by the lipid-lowering action of TH in the liver and also in obesity. Another compound, 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA), binds to both ?- and ?-type TRs with relatively low affinity and has been shown to be effective in heart failure (HF). In postinfarction models of HF and in a pilot clinical study, DITPA increased cardiac performance without affecting the heart rate. TR antagonists like NH3 can be used in thyrotoxicosis and cardiac arrhythmias. However, further larger clinical trials on some of these promising compounds and development of newer compounds with increased selectivity is required to achieve higher precision of action and avoid adverse effects seen with TH. PMID:23776891

Raparti, Girish; Jain, Suyog; Ramteke, Karuna; Murthy, Mangala; Ghanghas, Ravi; Ramanand, Sunita; Ramanand, Jaiprakash

2013-01-01

260

Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

Wang, Jian.

1989-01-01

261

Radioligand receptor assay (RRA) for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using Triton X-100 solubilized receptor preparation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioligand receptor assay (RRA) was evaluated by working with solubilized TSH receptor from human thyroid. Solubilization of the receptor was achieved by incubation with 1% Triton X-100. This solubilized receptor bound 125I-TSH. This binding could be inhibited by unlabelled TSH and by thyrotropin-binding-inhibiting antibody (TBIAb), which plays a role in the diagnosis and prognosis of Graves' disease. With the RRA, it was possible to measure down to 10 ?U TSH. For the measurement of TBIAb, this assay has the advantages of being easier to do and more sensitive. (author)

262

A study on the diagnostic significance of measurement of serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in various thyroid states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioimmunoassay of TSH (human thyrotropin) was performed by utilizing anti-h-TSH antibody and purified human thyrotropin supplied from Daiichi Radioisotope company in Japan. From Jan. 1978 through Aug. 1980 the serum concentration of TSH was measured on 41 cases with various thyroid diseases, and 22 normal persons. Among 41 cases, 9 (22%) were primary hypothyroidism, 17 (41%) Graves' disease, 8 (20%) subacute or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, and 7 (17%) nodular goiter. (author)

263

Serum thyroxin (T/sub 4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in cord blood of newborns in Lahore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The primary aim of this study was the early detection and treatment of hypothyroidism in neonates. This paper describes the determination of cord blood serum T/sub 4/ and TSH levels, their mean levels reference ranges and interrelationship. Results: Mean (Plus minus SD) T/sub 4) leveling cord blood serum was 115 plus minus 36 nmol/L (range: 15-350 nmol/L) and mean TSH level was found to be 5.6 plus minus 5.1 mlU/L (range: 0.05 - 150). The reference range for T/sub 4/ and TSH was 49-189 nmol/L and 0.4-17.6 mlU/L respectively. A trend in T/sub 4/ and TSH levels distributions towards higher values was noted Serum T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were not correlated significantly. Except at lowest and highest levels no reciprocal relationship between T/sub 4/ and TSH levels was found as is observed in adults. T/sub 4/ and TSH levels no reciprocal relationship between T/sub 4/ and TSH levels was found as is observed in adults. T/sub 4/ and TSH levels in 90% neonates were between 60-173 nmol/L and 1.0-14.2 mlU/L respectively. Conclusion: In most neonates, level of cord serum T/sub 4/ was independent of TSH level. Mean T/sub 4/ and TSH levels and their normal ranges were lower as compared to an iodine-sufficient country like USA. In 11.4% of neonates TSH levels were above 10 mlU/L, corresponding to mild degree of iodine deficiency disorders in Lahore. (author)

264

Characterization of recombinant human and bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone preparations by mass spectrometry and determination of their endotoxin content  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: The TSH stimulation test to confirm canine hypothyroidism is commonly performed using a recombinant human TSH (rhTSH), as up to date, canine TSH is not yet commercially available. Limiting factors for the use of rhTSH are its high costs and occasional difficulties in product availability. Less expensive bovine TSH preparations (bTSH) purified from bovine pituitary glands are readily commercially available. The aim of this study was to evaluate two different bTSH products as altern...

Schaefer, S.; Hassa, P. O.; Sieber-ruckstuhl, N. S.; Piechotta, M.; Reusch, C. E.; Roschitzki, B.; Boretti, F. S.

2013-01-01

265

Hormone Resistance at the Clinical Level  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation introduces clinical aspects of hormone resistance through a number of case studies that illustrate how molecular defects at various steps in hormone production, signaling, or responsiveness can produce disease in humans. The presentation also shows how careful phenotyping of such patients has triggered decades of translational research.

Ze'ev Hochberg (Haifa; Technion-Israel Institute of Technology REV)

2010-10-12

266

Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

Gaard, Greta

1995-01-01

267

The Hormonal Control of Food Intake  

OpenAIRE

Numerous circulating peptides and steroids produced in the body influence appetite through their actions on the hypothalamus, the brain stem, and the autonomic nervous system. These hormones come from three major sites—fat cells, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreas. In this Review we provide a synthesis of recent evidence concerning the actions of these hormones on food intake.

Coll, Anthony P.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; O Rahilly, Stephen

2007-01-01

268

HORMONES AND SEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN MENOPAUSAL TRANSITION  

OpenAIRE

The relative contribution of hormones (androgens and estrogen) to female sexuality and psychosocial status is controversial in menopausal transition. We compare the changes of hormonal and psychosocial factors in perimenopausal women with the changes of sexual function. Among DHEAS, FSH, LH, estradiol and free Testesterone (T), free T is the only variable that is significantly associated (P

Emine Co?ar; Mithat Erenus

2007-01-01

269

Method to determine the thyroid hormone content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention deals with a method to determine the thyroid hormone content, e.g. in blood, using radioactively labelled hormone. Before radioactivity measurement, the sample liquid is separated from solid matter by a special sorption agent (e.g. phosphate, silicate). (VJ)

270

Sequential growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly.  

OpenAIRE

This is the case of a patient with a pituitary tumour presenting initially with growth hormone deficiency and requiring treatment with human growth hormone. Eight years later he represented with acromegaly. This sequence of events has not to my knowledge been reported previously.

Heffernan, A.

1988-01-01

271

Significance of total and free thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in chronic hepatitis B patients and normal controls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatitis B destroys the liver cells. Proteins (albumin, pre albumin and thyroid binding globulin) produced by liver cells play an important role in metabolism and transport of thyroid hormones, therefore liver dysfunction is likely to disturb the transport of thyroid hormones resulting in disease. To determine the significance of thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in Chronic Hepatitis B patients. It was a cross sectional study conducted at National Health Research Complex (NHRC) and department of Gastroenterology Sheikh Zayed Medical Complex Lahore. One hundred Chronic Hepatitis B patients diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reaction were matched with 100 healthy persons, served as control, were selected for total and free thyroid hormones using ELISA, while serum proteins were estimated spectrophotometrically. Serum total protein levels were within the normal range in both Chronic Hepatitis B patients and controls with mean value of 6.55 g/dl and 7.2 g/dl respectively, however serum albumin levels were lower in Chronic Hepatitis B patients (mean 2.69 g/dl) as compared to controls (mean 4.1 g/dl). Serum globulin was increased (4.09 g/dl) in patients as compared to controls (mean 3.1 g/dl).Albumin globulin ratio was 1(mean 13.5). Consequently, increased globulin resulted in more binding of T4 (mean 194 nmol/L) in Chronic Hepatitis B patients as compared to controls (mean 123 nmol/L). Conversred to controls (mean 123 nmol/L). Conversion of T4 to T3 in Chronic Hepatitis B cases was also disturbed resulting in slight decrease of total T3 (mean 1.77 nmol/L) as compared to controls (mean 2.3 nmol/L). Free T3 (mean 3.56 pmol/L) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (mean 0.68 mIU/ml) also showed slight decrease when compared with controls (mean 4.5 pmol/L, mean 1.52 mIU/ml). FT4 remained within normal range in both the groups. In Chronic Hepatitis B related liver disease and cirrhosis, serum albumin levels go down while globulins go up and these changes alter the binding of thyroid hormones and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone resulting in disturbance in thyroid hormone levels. (author)

272

Transport of thyroid hormones is selectively inhibited by 3-iodothyronamine  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid hormone transporters are responsible for the cellular uptake of thyroid hormones, which is a prerequisite for their subsequent metabolism and action at nuclear thyroid hormone receptors. A recently discovered thyroid hormone derivative, 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), has distinct biological effects that are opposite those of thyroid hormone. Here we investigate the effects of T1AM on thyroid hormone transporters using COS-1 cells transfected with the multispecific organic anion transportin...

Ianculescu, Alexandra G.; Friesema, Edith C. H.; Visser, Theo J.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Scanlan, Thomas S.

2010-01-01

273

Alteration of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae exposed to mercury chloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes endocrine disorder to human and other organisms. But little is known about the response of the thyroid functions and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to mercury in teleosts and the few studies that are available have not yielded consistent results. In this study, expression profiles of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (tsh?), solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter) member 5 (slc5a5), thyroglobulin (tg), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (tr?) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (tr?) genes were determined in whole-body of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae after exposure to different levels of Hg(2+) (0, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/l) for 4 days, as well as the thyroid hormones (THs) levels. Moreover, the 96-h lethal concentration of Hg(2+) on rare minnow larvae was determined as 0.32 mg/l. The results showed that crh, tg, tr? and tr? mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae, but the gene expression of tsh? and slc5a5 was not significantly changed in our study. Besides, the THs levels increased in the whole-body of fish, especially the thyroxine (T4) level. The above results indicated that Hg(2+) could alter some genes expression in the HPT axis which could be used as the potential biomarkers for evaluating the environmental Hg(2+)-induced stress in fish. PMID:25064382

Li, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yan-Hua; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Feng; Ni, Zhao-Hui

2014-07-01

274

Effects of waterborne cadmium on thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium is a heavy metal abundant in the environment that can induce endocrine disorder and toxicity in aquatic organisms at low levels. However, its effects on the thyroid system in fish are still unclear. In this study, the thyroid hormone (TH) levels and the expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic- pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (tsh?), solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter) member 5 (slc5a5), thyroglobulin (tg), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (tr?) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (tr?), were determined in whole body of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae after exposure to different levels of Cd(2+) (0, 0.5 and 2.5mg/L) for 4days. And the 96-h lethal concentration of Cd(2+) on rare minnow larvae was determined as 2.59mg/L. The results showed that crh, slc5a5, tg and tsh? mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae, but the gene expression of tr? and tr? was down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Besides, the THs levels decreased in the whole-body of fish, especially the thyroxine (T4) level. The above results indicated that Cd(2+) could alter gene expression in the HPT axis that might subsequently contribute to thyroid disruption. PMID:24521933

Li, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yan-Hua; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Feng; Ni, Zhao-Hui

2014-04-01

275

The effect of thyroid hormone and bone metablism-associated growth factor on the patients of hyperthyreosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the effect of high concentration of thyroid hormone and cell growth factor content on the bone metabolism of hyperthyreosis. Methods: Radiation immunological test and chemiluminescence methods are employed to determinate the content of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), insulin-like growth factor II(IGF-II), calcitonic (CT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) of serum in health adult and parts of hyperthyreosis patients. Results: Hyperthyreosis patients have a higher content of FT4, FT3 and IL-6 than those of health adult (t was 16.69,11.33,7.92, respectively, P<0.01), while the content of TSH, IGF-II, CT, TNF are obvious decreasing (t was 13.08, 8.34, 5.29, 8.75, respectively, P<0.01). Conclusion: In patients with hyperthyreosis, high concentration thyroid hormone cause accentuation of protein metabolism, decrease calcium homeostasis by disorders of phosphorus and calcium metabolism, high concentration thyroid hormone and low level CT resulted in bone loss. Decreased ICF-II may be the main cause of osteoporosis as the result of high concentration thyroid hormone. (authors)

276

Sex hormone receptor repertoire in breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classification of breast cancer as endocrine sensitive, hormone dependent, or estrogen receptor (ER) positive refers singularly to ER ? . One of the oldest recognized tumor targets, disruption of ER ? -mediated signaling, is believed to be the mechanistic mode of action for all hormonal interventions used in treating this disease. Whereas ER ? is widely accepted as the single most important predictive factor (for response to endocrine therapy), the presence of the receptor in tumor cells is also of prognostic value. Even though the clinical relevance of the two other sex hormone receptors, namely, ER ? and the androgen receptor remains unclear, two discordant phenomena observed in hormone-dependent breast cancers could be causally related to ER ? -mediated effects and androgenic actions. Nonetheless, our understanding of regulatory molecules and resistance mechanisms remains incomplete, further compromising our ability to develop novel therapeutic strategies that could improve disease outcomes. This review focuses on the receptor-mediated actions of the sex hormones in breast cancer. PMID:24324894

Higa, Gerald M; Fell, Ryan G

2013-01-01

277

A case of myxedema coma caused by isolated thyrotropin stimulating hormone deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myxedema coma (MC) is a rare, but often fatal endocrine emergency. The majority of cases that occur in elderly women with long-standing primary hypothyroidism are caused by particular triggers. Conversely, MC of central origin is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of MC with both central and primary origins. A 56-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital due to loss of consciousness; a chest x-ray demonstrated severe cardiomegaly. Low body temperature, bradycardia, and pericardial effusion suggested the presence of hypothyroidism. Endocrinological examination revealed undetectable levels of serum free thyroxine (T(4)) and free triiodothyronine (T(3)), whereas serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were not elevated. The woman's serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and anti-thyroglobulin antibody tests were positive, indicating that she had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Provocative tests to the anterior pituitary revealed that she had TSH and growth hormone (GH) deficiency; however, GH levels were restored after supplementation with levothyroxine for 5 months. This was not only a rare case of MC with TSH deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis; the patient also developed severe osteoporosis and possessed transient elevated levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). This atypical case may suggest the role of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, as well as hypothyroidism, in the regulation of bone metabolism. PMID:21206138

Iida, Keiji; Hino, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Takeshi; Chihara, Kazuo

2011-01-01

278

The Relationship between Perchlorate in Drinking Water and Cord Blood Thyroid Hormones: First Experience from Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Considering the controversial information regarding the effects of perchlorate on thyroid function of high risk population as neonates, and given the high prevalence rate of thyroid disorders specially congenital hypothyroidism in our region, this study aims to investigate for the first time in Iran, the relationship between drinking groundwater perchlorate and cord blood thyroid hormones level in an industrial region. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, drinking groundwater perchlorate level of rural areas of Zarinshahr, Isfahan was measured. Simultaneously, cord blood level of thyroid hormones of neonates born in the studied region was measured. Thyroid function test of neonates in regions with low and high perchlorate level were compared. Results: In this study, 25 tap water samples were obtained for perchlorate measurement. Level of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T4 and T3 of 25 neonates were measured. Mean (standard deviation) of perchlorate, TSH, T4 and T3 was 3.59 (5.10) ?g/l, 7.81 (4.14) mIU/m, 6.06 (0.85) mg/dl, and 63.46 (17.53) mg/dl, respectively. Mean levels of thyroid function tests were not different in low ( 0.05). Conclusions: Perchlorate did not appear to be related to thyroid function of neonates in the studied industrial region. It seems that iodine status of the regions, as well as other environmental contaminants and genetic background, could impact on its relation with thyroid function of neonates. PMID:25789149

Javidi, Ashraf; Rafiei, Nasim; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hovsepian, Silva; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya; Taghian, Zahra; Mofateh, Samaneh; Poursafa, Parinaz

2015-01-01

279

Serum dioxin concentrations and thyroid hormone levels in the Seveso Women's Health Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant. Although experimental evidence suggests that TCDD alters thyroid hormone levels in rodents, human data are inconsistent. In 1976, a trichlorophenol plant exploded in Seveso, Italy. Women living in highly exposed areas were followed through the Seveso Women's Health Study. TCDD concentrations were measured in 1976 (n = 981) and 1996 (n = 260), and levels of total thyroxine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were measured in 1996 (n = 909) and 2008 (n = 724). We used conditional multiple linear regression and marginal structural models with inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to evaluate associations and causal effects. TCDD concentration in 1976 was inversely associated with total thyroxine level in 1996 but not in 2008. Associations were stronger among women who had been exposed before menarche. Among these women, associations between total thyroxine and concurrent 1996 TCDD were slightly weaker than those with 1976 TCDD. A model including both 1976 and 1996 measurements strengthened the relationship between 1976 TCDD and total thyroxine but drove the association with 1996 TCDD to the null. TCDD exposure was not associated with levels of other thyroid hormones. TCDD exposure, particularly exposure before menarche, may have enduring impacts on women's total thyroxine levels. Initial exposure appears to be more influential than remaining body burden. PMID:25096280

Chevrier, Jonathan; Warner, Marcella; Gunier, Robert B; Brambilla, Paolo; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo

2014-09-01

280

Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18–357 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23–435 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enableediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

281

Subacute Microcystin-LR Exposure Alters the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio Rerio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microcystin-LR (MC-LR has been detected extensively in the aquatic environment and has the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system. However, limited information is available on the effects of subacute MC-LR exposure on fish thyroid hormone (TH metabolism. In the present study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio were exposed to MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 25 ?g/L for 28 days. Whole-body TH content and thyroid follicle histology were used as direct endpoints to assess thyroid disruption. The activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs and the transcription of selected genes associated with TH synthesis were also investigated to study the underlying mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Exposure of zebrafish to MC-LR significantly increased whole-body thyroxine (T4 content but decreased whole-body triiodothyronine (T3 content. We also observed hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid follicle epithelial cells, as well as up-regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid peroxidase (TPO, and transthyretin (TTR genes. The decreases in ID1 and ID2 activities coupled with an increase in ID3 activity were observed in MC-LR treatment groups. These results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR at environmental concentrations results in the disturbance of TH homeostasis by disrupting the synthesis and conversion of THs.

Zidong Liu

2015-01-01

282

Subacute microcystin-LR exposure alters the metabolism of thyroid hormones in juvenile zebrafish (Danio Rerio).  

Science.gov (United States)

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been detected extensively in the aquatic environment and has the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system. However, limited information is available on the effects of subacute MC-LR exposure on fish thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. In the present study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 25 ?g/L) for 28 days. Whole-body TH content and thyroid follicle histology were used as direct endpoints to assess thyroid disruption. The activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) and the transcription of selected genes associated with TH synthesis were also investigated to study the underlying mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Exposure of zebrafish to MC-LR significantly increased whole-body thyroxine (T4) content but decreased whole-body triiodothyronine (T3) content. We also observed hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid follicle epithelial cells, as well as up-regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and transthyretin (TTR) genes. The decreases in ID1 and ID2 activities coupled with an increase in ID3 activity were observed in MC-LR treatment groups. These results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR at environmental concentrations results in the disturbance of TH homeostasis by disrupting the synthesis and conversion of THs. PMID:25647779

Liu, Zidong; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng; Hu, Qing; Wang, Ying

2015-02-01

283

Subacute Microcystin-LR Exposure Alters the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)  

Science.gov (United States)

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been detected extensively in the aquatic environment and has the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system. However, limited information is available on the effects of subacute MC-LR exposure on fish thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. In the present study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 25 ?g/L) for 28 days. Whole-body TH content and thyroid follicle histology were used as direct endpoints to assess thyroid disruption. The activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) and the transcription of selected genes associated with TH synthesis were also investigated to study the underlying mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Exposure of zebrafish to MC-LR significantly increased whole-body thyroxine (T4) content but decreased whole-body triiodothyronine (T3) content. We also observed hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid follicle epithelial cells, as well as up-regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and transthyretin (TTR) genes. The decreases in ID1 and ID2 activities coupled with an increase in ID3 activity were observed in MC-LR treatment groups. These results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR at environmental concentrations results in the disturbance of TH homeostasis by disrupting the synthesis and conversion of THs. PMID:25647779

Liu, Zidong; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng; Hu, Qing; Wang, Ying

2015-01-01

284

Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18-357 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23-435 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

Tietge, Joseph E., E-mail: tietge.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Degitz, Sigmund J., E-mail: degitz.sigmund@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Haselman, Jonathan T., E-mail: haselman.jon@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Butterworth, Brian C., E-mail: butterworth.brian@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Korte, Joseph J., E-mail: korte.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Kosian, Patricia A., E-mail: kosian.pat@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie J., E-mail: lind1020@d.umn.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); and others

2013-01-15

285

Characteristics of hormonal profile of children with allergic diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the purpose to determine features of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases, the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and cortisol were investigated in 110 children in the age from 6 to 17 years. Of them 79 children with allergic diseases (40 children from Zaporozhye and 39 children – from eco¬friendly clean Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area and 31 healthy children (16 children - from Zaporozhye and 15 - with conventionally ecofriendly clean districts of the Zaporozhye area. Levels of hormones (ACTH (pg/ml, TSH (mkIU/ml, cortisol (ng/ml were determined through diagnostic test systems by a standard method in laboratories of the Zaporozh?e state medical university. By research results it is set, that in the conditions of large industrial city Zaporozh?e, forming of allergic pathology in children took place during activating of the hypophysis-adrenal system with the increase of TSH, cortisol, ACTH secretion with a high risk of exhaustion of immunoreactions and persistence of antigens; this was confir¬med by increase of values of their medians in relation to healthy children. In children with allergic diseases, habitants of ecologically favourable Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area, vice versa, lower indexes of medians of ACTH, TSH and cortisol were registered; this testifies to sup¬pression of hypothalamus function and hypophysis system with violation of protective reaction and adaptation mechanisms in response to forming of allergic inflammation. Thus, adjusting of hormonal activity by principle of ne¬gative reverse link in children with allergic diseases was not executed, regardless of place of residence. In addition, indexes of median of ACTH, TSH, cortisol in children with different clinical forms of allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis in comparison to healthy ones, testified that for children with bronchial asthma the highest level of index of medians of ACTH (37,39 (29,1-56,11 pg/ml and cortisol (249,23 (169,57-293,83 ng/ml was registered, for children with a rhin¬allergosis – indexes of medians of cortisol were the lowest (84,69 (84,06-92,81 ng/ml, and indexes of medians of TSH were reliably higher only in comparing groups of children with bronchial asthma (2,73 (1,13-3,18 mkMU/ml with healthy (1,96 (1,59-1,99 mkMU/ml. As a result of the conducted research, it was well-proven that indexes of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases depend not only on their place of residence but also on the clinical forms of allergic pathology; this must be taken into account in individual selection of doses and duration of treatment even by inhalation and by topical glucocorthicosteroid agents.

Shumna T.Ye.

2013-03-01

286

Hormone studies in females with androgenic hairloss.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on hormone analysis in androgenic hairloss in the female show partly contradicting results. Elevated as well as normal-range androgen levels have been found. The present study aimed at the investigation of a possibly more differentiated hormonal constellation by hormone analysis and additional determination of the hypophyseal level by the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test. In 46 female patients with androgenic hairloss blood sampling for hormone analysis was performed. Determination of the androgens testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 17-hydroxy-progesterone acetate (17-OHP) and free testosterone (FT), of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), cortisol (F) and the hypophyseal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was performed by standard radioimmunoassay methods. The TRH-test is based on feedback mechanisms between the hypothalamic TRH which stimulates hypophyseal TSH and PRL release. Thus, even mild forms of hypothyroidism or hyperprolactinaemia can be detected. The control group for the TRH test consisted of 45 volunteer females without hairloss or any other hormonal or menstrual disturbances. Statistical analysis was performed according to the Wilcoxon two-sample test. The results of the study show no significant elevation of androgens in females with androgenic hairloss, but a more complex condition with involvement of the glandula suprarenalis and the hypophyseal level. Significantly elevated TSH levels prior to and after TRH stimulation in the hairloss group indicate that hypothyroidism may be an important hormonal disturbance in androgenic hairloss. Interactions between hypothyroidism and androgen metabolism are possible at various links.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1832134

Schmidt, J B; Lindmaier, A; Trenz, A; Schurz, B; Spona, J

1991-01-01

287

Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. PMID:18385901

Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

2008-05-01

288

Development of specific antiserum against bovine follicle stimulating hormone (bFSH) and production of second antibody for bFSH radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antisera against bovine follicle stimulating hormone (bFSH) and rabbit gamma globulins (RGG) were raised in male rabbits and male goats, respectively. The anti bFSH crossreacted with bovine luteinzing hormone (bLH), bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) and normal calf serum (NCS). The crossreaction with bLH and bTSH was almost absent when anti bFSH serum was treated with NCS and the antigen (1 mg/ml) was diluted twice or more. Antibody titre curve determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) demonstrated that NCS treated bFSH antiserum could bind approximately 52% and 28% with 1:2,000 and 1:10,000 final dilutions respectively. When the antiserum against RGG (ARGG) was tested against its antigen, ARGG serum showed very strong precipitin band. The ARGG serum of 1:16 final dilution preipitated the bound fraction maximum when used as a second antibody in RIA. (author)

289

Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth- and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu, an e-waste area in southern China. We quantified eight PBDE congeners using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, lead and cadmium utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, three thyroids with radioimmunoassay and two types of growth hormones by an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 162 children, 4 to 6 years old, from Guiyu. In blood, median total PBDE was 189.99 ng/g lipid. Lead and cadmium concentrations in blood averaged 14.53±4.85 µg dL?1 and 0.77±0.35 µg L?1, respectively. Spearman partial correlation analysis illustrated that lead was positively correlated with BDE153 and BDE183. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively correlated with almost all PBDE congeners and negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were negatively correlated with BDE154. However, no correlation between the hormones and blood lead or cadmium levels was found in this study. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed that total PBDEs was negatively associated with FT3 and positively associated with TSH. Notably, FT4 was positively correlated with FT3, house functions as a workshop, and father's work involved in e-waste recycling and negatively correlated with vitamin consumptions. TSH was negatively related with FT4, paternal residence time in Guiyu, working hours of mother, and child bean products intake. IGFBP-3 was positively correlated with IGF-1 and house close to an e-waste dump. These results suggest that elevated PBDEs and heavy metals related to e-waste in Guiyu may be important risk factors for hormone alterations in children. PMID:25415336

Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

2014-01-01

290

Growth hormone and early treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained. PMID:25734895

Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

2015-06-01

291

Thyroid hormone transporters and resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellular entry is an important step preceding intracellular metabolism and action of thyroid hormone (TH). Transport of TH across the plasma membrane does not take place by simple diffusion but requires transporter proteins. One of the most effective and specific TH transporters identified to date is monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), the gene of which is located on the X chromosome. Although MCT8 is expressed in many tissues, its function appears to be most critical in the brain. Hemizygous MCT8 mutations in males cause severe psychomotor retardation, known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), and abnormal serum TH levels. AHDS thus represents a type of TH resistance caused by a defect in cellular TH transport. PMID:23392090

Visser, Theo J

2013-01-01

292

Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

Persky Victoria

2012-08-01

293

Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

Krauss, R.M.

1991-12-01

294

Reproductive hormone influences on thermoregulation in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present discussion reviews current knowledge regarding influences of the primary reproductive hormones on mechanisms of thermoregulatory control in women. The human body is remarkably capable of maintaining body temperature within a few tenths of a degree of normal (37°C) over a wide range of activity and environmental exposures; this regulation is accomplished via integration of central and peripheral thermal information at the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH). We describe both central and peripheral mechanisms involved in controlling thermoregulation in humans, and how these mechanisms are affected by sex and hormone exposure. Estrogens generally promote vasodilation, heat dissipation, and lower body temperature and progesterone or progestins generally have the opposite effect. Estrogens and progesterone/progestins can also interact with androgens; this is an important point because androgens in the body can increase in both older and younger women. The study of reproductive hormone (estrogens, progesterone, luteinizing, and follicle stimulating hormones) effects on body systems is challenging because of the complex and multifaceted influences of these hormones, both individually and in combination. Thus, a number of methods to alter hormone exposure are explained in this article. We conclude that men and women do not exhibit major quantitative differences in physiological thermoregulatory responses to exercise and/or body heating when factors such as fitness and body size are taken into account. However, female and male reproductive hormones have important influences that can significantly alter individual thermoregulatory responses at various points throughout the lifespan. PMID:24715568

Charkoudian, Nisha; Stachenfeld, Nina S

2014-04-01

295

Incretin hormone secretion over the day  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies, although some studies have demonstrated reduced incretin hormone secretion in type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes our knowledge on regulation of incretin hormone secretion and its potential changes in disease states.

Ahren, B; Carr, RD

2010-01-01

296

[Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system].  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well established that thyroid hormones affect the cardiovascular system through genomic and nongenomic actions. TRalpha1 is the major thyroid hormone receptor in the heart. T3 suppresses increased mitotic activity of stimulated cardiomyocytes. Hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and the chronotropic and inotropic properties of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism, however, is characterized by opposite changes. In addition, thyroid hormones decrease peripheral vascular resistance, influence the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS), and increase blood volume and erythropoetin secretion with subsequent increased preload and cardiac output. Thyroid hormones play an important role in cardiac electrophysiology and have both pro- and anti-arrhytmic potential. Thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with a less favorable lipid profile. Selective modulation of the TRbeta1 receptor is considered as a potential therapeutic target to treat dyslipidemia without cardiac side effects. Thyroid hormones have a beneficial effect on limiting myocardial ischemic injury, preventing and reversing cardiac remodeling and improving cardiac hemodynamics in endstage heart failure. This is crucial because a low T3 syndrome accompanies both acute and chronic cardiac diseases. PMID:25345279

Fraczek, Magdalena Maria; ?acka, Katarzyna

2014-09-01

297

Mechanisms of genotoxic effects of hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A concept that compounds commonly present in biological systems lack genotoxic and mutagenic activities is generally in use, hence a low number of endogenous substances have ever been tested to mutagenicity. Epidemiological and experimental analyses indicated, however, that sexual steroids could contribute to initiation and/or continuation of malign diseases. Detailed studies using methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, cytogenetics and other branches, showed that not only epigenetic mechanisms, such as a stimulation of cell proliferation, but also certain hormones, that can express genotoxic effects, such as covalent DNA modification, then chromosomal lesions and chromosomal aberrations, are in the background of malign transformation under activities of hormones. In the case of oestrogens, it was shown that excessive hormonal stimulation led to a metabolic conversion of these hormones to reactive intermediates with formation of reactive oxygenic derivates, so that cells were virtually under conditions of oxidative stress. Individual and tissue susceptibility to occurrence of deterioration of DNA and other cell components generally results from the differences in efficiency of enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms of resistance against oxidative stress. Besides, steroid thyeroid hormones and catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine and adrenaline can express genotoxic effects in some test-systems. It is interesting that all above mentioned hormones have a phenolic group. Data on possible genotoxic effects of peptide and protein hormones are very scarce, but based on the available literature it is considered that this group of hormones probably lacks mutagenic activities. The possibility that hormones, as endogenous substances, express mutagenic activities results from the fact that DNA is, regardless of chemical and metabolic stability susceptible, to a certain extent, to changeability compatible with the processes of the biological evolution.

?eli? Ninoslav J.

2002-01-01

298

HORMONES AND SEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN MENOPAUSAL TRANSITION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relative contribution of hormones (androgens and estrogen to female sexuality and psychosocial status is controversial in menopausal transition. We compare the changes of hormonal and psychosocial factors in perimenopausal women with the changes of sexual function. Among DHEAS, FSH, LH, estradiol and free Testesterone (T, free T is the only variable that is significantly associated (P<0.05 with sexual satisfaction. Sexual functioning declines with the menopausal transition. Endogenous hormone levels except androgens do not seem to explain this decline.

Emine Co?ar

2007-01-01

299

TIME AND DOSE-DEPENDENT THYROID HORMONE RELEASE FROM XENOPUS THYROID GLAND CULTURES IN RESPONSE TO THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND INHIBITION BY METHIMAZOLE  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis....

300

Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

Gutkowska J.

2000-01-01

301

Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during [...] parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

J., Gutkowska; M., Jankowski; S., Mukaddam-Daher; S.M., McCann.

2000-06-01

302

Age-related growth hormone-releasing activity of growth hormone secretagogues in humans.  

OpenAIRE

Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic molecules with strong, dose-related and reproducible growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in humans. GHRPs act at both the pituitary and the hypothalamic level, where specific receptors have been located. In adults, GHRPs release more GH than does GH-releasing hormone (GHRP), whilst their co-administration has a synergistic effect, indicating that they have, at least partially, different mechanisms of action. However, normal activity o...

Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Camanni, Franco

1997-01-01

303

Potentiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy by growth hormone-releasing hormone agonists  

OpenAIRE

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and its agonistic analogs, besides augmenting the release of growth hormone from the pituitary, can exert direct stimulatory effects on various extrapituitary tissues. Present oncologic evaluation of growth of a glioblastoma cell line revealed that the combination of GHRH agonist, JI-34, with doxorubicin (DOX) produced greater inhibition in vivo than either drug alone. In vitro, JI-34 also potentiated the effects of DOX, decreased the expression of the ...

Jaszberenyi, Miklos; Rick, Ferenc G.; Popovics, Petra; Block, Norman L.; Zarandi, Marta; Cai, Ren-zhi; Vidaurre, Irving; Szalontay, Luca; Jayakumar, Arumugam R.; Schally, Andrew V.

2013-01-01

304

Hormone patterns in early human gestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

305

Strategies for the Determination of Plant Hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes methods for isolating, purifying, and analyzing plant hormones (molecules involved in plant growth regulation and development). The presentation reflects the historical development of analyses, beginning with bioassays and ending with novel immunochemical assays. (JN)

Davis, Gregory C.; And Others

1985-01-01

306

FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... or 24-hour urine collection may be taken Test Preparation Needed? None, but the timing of a ... will be correlated with her menstrual cycle. The Test Sample What is being tested? Follicle-stimulating hormone ( ...

307

A second chance for hormone replacement therapy?  

OpenAIRE

Hormone replacement therapy for older women has been vilified after two major studies showed that it increased their susceptibility to various diseases. But scientists maintain that, used differently, it can still help to protect against neurological and cardiovascular diseases

Brower, Vicki

2003-01-01

308

Growth hormone replacement therapy in Costello syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Costello syndrome (CS) is considered an overgrowth disorder given the macrosomia that is present at birth .However, shortly after birth the weight drops dramatically and the patients are usually referred for failure to thrive. Subsequently, affected patients develop the distinctive coarse facial appearance and are at risk for cardiac anomalies and solid tumor malignancies. Various endocrine disorders, although not very often, have been reported in patients with CS, including growth hormone deficiency, hypoglycemia, ACTH deficiency, cryptorchidism and hypothyroidism. We report a case of Costello syndrome with hypothyroidism, cryptorchidism and growth hormone deficiency and we evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of growth hormone replacement therapy. The index patient is a paradigm of successful and safe treatment with growth hormone for almost 7 years. Since patients with CS are at increased risk for cardiac myopathy and tumor development they deserve close monitoring during treatment. PMID:25459872

Triantafyllou, Panagiota; Christoforidis, Athanasios; Vargiami, Euthymia; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

2014-12-01

309

Gut hormones: the future of obesity treatment?  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. The treatment options are severely limited. The development of novel anti-obesity drugs is fraught with efficacy and safety issues. Consequently, several investigational anti-obesity drugs have failed to gain marketing approval in recent years. Anorectic gut hormones offer a potentially safe and viable option for the treatment of obesity. The prospective utility of gut hormones has improved drastically in recent years with the development of longer acting analogues. Additionally, specific combinations of gut hormones have been demonstrated to have additive anorectic effects. This article reviews the current stage of anti-obesity drugs in development, focusing on gut hormone-based therapies. PMID:22452339

McGavigan, Anne K; Murphy, Kevin G

2012-12-01

310

Thyroid hormones in pregnancy and preeclampsia  

OpenAIRE

Objective: There is a state of hypothyroxinemia in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia, when biochemically raised TSH occurs. Identification of changes in thyroid hormones in preeclampsia might be of help in preventing the occurrence of preeclampsia.Material and Methods: The present study was carried out in a hundred women with preeclampsia, 100 age- and parity matched normotensive pregnant women and 50 age-matched healthy non-pregnant women. Thyroid hormones [total T3,T4 and TSH], serum alb...

Divya Sardana; Smiti Nanda; Simmi Kharb

2009-01-01

311

Proinsulin: From Hormonal Precursor to Neuroprotective Factor  

OpenAIRE

In the last decade, non-canonical functions have been described for several molecules with hormone-like activities in different stages of vertebrate development. Since its purification in the 1960s, proinsulin has been one of the best described hormonal precursors, though it has been overwhelmingly studied in the context of insulin, the mature protein secreted by the pancreas. Beginning with our discovery of the presence and precise regulation of proinsulin mRNA in early neurulation and neuro...

FloraDe Pablo

2011-01-01

312

Sex Hormone Receptor Repertoire in Breast Cancer  

OpenAIRE

Classification of breast cancer as endocrine sensitive, hormone dependent, or estrogen receptor (ER) positive refers singularly to ER?. One of the oldest recognized tumor targets, disruption of ER?-mediated signaling, is believed to be the mechanistic mode of action for all hormonal interventions used in treating this disease. Whereas ER? is widely accepted as the single most important predictive factor (for response to endocrine therapy), the presence of the receptor in tumor cells is als...

Higa, Gerald M.; Fell, Ryan G.

2013-01-01

313

Gut hormone release after intestinal resection.  

OpenAIRE

To investigate the possible role of gut and pancreatic hormones in the adaptive responses to gut resection, plasma concentrations of the circulating hormones were measured, in response to a test breakfast, in patients with either small or large intestinal resection and in healthy control subjects. In 18 patients with partial ileal resection a significant threefold rise was found in basal and postprandial levels of pancreatic polypeptide, a fourfold increase in motilin, and more than a twofold...

Besterman, H. S.; Adrian, T. E.; Mallinson, C. N.; Christofides, N. D.; Sarson, D. L.; Pera, A.; Lombardo, L.; Modigliani, R.; Bloom, S. R.

1982-01-01

314

State of hormones in blood, ch. 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To ensure the validity of radioimmunoassay, it is necessary to know the state and heterogeneity of the hormones in blood plasma or tissue extracts. Methods for evaluating and characterizing heterogeneity of peptide hormones in the unknown sample of biologic fluid are described. The methods are based on immunochemical reaction, sephadex gel filtration, electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. Table and graphs of the applications of both ultracentrifugation and gel filtration of 125I-labelled ACTH are given. Chemical and biological aspects of heterogeneity are discussed

315

Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone  

OpenAIRE

As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric indicatio...

Paul Saenger

2009-01-01

316

Localization and functions of steroid hormone receptors  

OpenAIRE

This review focuses on the subcellular localization of steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), taking into account the technical problems of immunohistochemistry and the characteristics of nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of each receptor, on the interaction between SHKs and cellular components, and on the possible roles of sex SHRs in the reproductive organs. It is concluded that SHRs are basically localized in the nucleus, regardless of hormonal status, and that...

Yamashita, S.

1998-01-01

317

Reproductive hormone replacement alters sleep in mice  

OpenAIRE

Several studies have reported that reproductive hormones can alter baseline sleep-wake states, however, no studies in mice have examined whether reproductive hormone replacement in adult females and males influences sleep. In this study, we determined whether androgen replacement in males and estrogen replacement in females alter sleep-wake amount and sleep rebound after extended wakefulness. The gonads from adult male and female C57BL/6J mice were removed and animals were implanted with cont...

Paul, Ketema N.; Laposky, Aaron D.; Turek, Fred W.

2009-01-01

318

Recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer and hormone therapy  

OpenAIRE

The role of hormone therapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer is not clear. Data on the efficacy and safety of antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors in recurrent ovarian cancer have been accumulated through phase II clinical studies. Most of these studies were conducted in platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, and although complete response rates were not high, reported adverse events were low. If administered to patients who are positive for estrogen receptors, hormone therapy may b...

Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Mizunuma, Hideki

2013-01-01

319

Laboratory measurement of growth hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone (GH) measurements are complicated by the heterogeneous nature of GH, as well as by the presence of the GH binding protein in plasma. Several isoforms of GH exist, and specific assays for each are currently either unavailable, impractical, or not clinically indicated. Bioassays include the in vivo assays based on rat weight gain, tibial line widening, or IGF-I generation. In vitro bioassays, based on the proliferation of cell lines expressing the prolactin receptor or GH receptor, are sensitive but prone to nonspecific interference by factors present in serum. Immunoassays (RIA, IRMA, ELISA, and immunofunctional assay design) are widely used in the clinical laboratory because of speed, sensitivity, and convenience. Discrepancies among results rendered by different immunoassays have become more apparent as monoclonal assays have superseded polyclonal assays, presumably because different antibodies recognize different epitopes among the heterogeneous mixture of GH isoforms in serum. Some assays, especially those with short, nonequilibrium incubation times are vulnerable to interference by the GH binding protein present in serum. Recommendations are given for strategies designed to minimize disparity of results obtained by different GH immunoassays applied to serum. Urinary GH measurements, while technically feasible, are of limited clinical utility because of biological variation in urinary GH excretion. PMID:15530455

Popii, Violeta; Baumann, Gerhard

2004-12-01

320

Molecular Models of Plant Hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper "Synthesis of Plant Auxin Derivatives and Their Effects on Ceratopteris richardii" by Corey E. Stilts and Roxanne Fisher describing an experiment begun in the organic labs and completed in a biochemistry cell biology lab provides the featured molecules for this month. The molecules in Figure 1 of that paper have been added to the collection. There is nothing particularly surprising about their structures, but students might be interested in seeing whether they can determine any structure/regulating effect relationships as the number of synthesized auxin derivatives grows. Additionally, students with little or no biochemistry background might wish to explore other systems that act as growth regulating hormones in plants, as an introduction to the variety of molecular structures that can display such bioactivity. Such molecules range from the very simple, ethene, to the adenine-derived cytokinins (an example of which, zealtin, is shown here) and the brassinosteroids. Brassinolide, a commonly occurring brassin, is also shown. These latter two structures have also been added to the molecule collection. All of the structures have been optimized at the HF/6-31G(d) level.

321

Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [125I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [125I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

322

Effects of commercial formulations of deltamethrin and/or thiacloprid on thyroid hormone levels in rat serum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deltamethrin (DEL) and thiacloprid (THIA) are the two commonly used synthetic insecticides applied either separately or as a mixture. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the serum levels of thyroid hormones exposure to these compounds in rats. The animals were orally gavaged with a single dose of DEL (15 mg/kg), THIA (112.5 mg/kg) or DEL + THIA (15 + 112.5 mg/kg) for 24 h (acute treatments) or DEL (3 mg/kg per day), THIA (22.5 mg/kg per day) or DEL + THIA (3 + 22.5 mg/kg per day) for 30 days (subacute treatments). Although all independent and combined treatments with DEL and THIA changed the levels of TSH, these alterations were not significant. Statistically significant increases in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) serum hormone levels were observed in the independent treatment with THIA and the combined treatment with DEL and THIA for 30 days. The results of this study suggest that in vivo exposure to subacute treatments of commercial formulations of THI and mixture of DEL + THIA increased serum FT3 and FT4 levels in rats. Further studies are required to determine the effects of endocrine disruptors and potential health risks of these insecticides in human, especially in children because of the importance of these hormones during growth and development. PMID:22677783

Sekeroglu, V; Sekeroglu, Z Atli; Demirhan, Es

2014-02-01

323

Effects of carbamazepine on male reproductive hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Reproductive endocrine disorders and sexual dysfunction are common among men with epilepsy. We investigated sexual hormone serum levels among men with newly diagnosed epilepsy, before starting any antiepileptic drug (AED), and then after starting carbamazepine (CBZ), to determine the role and effects of epilepsy versus CBZ in creating reproductive endocrine disorders. Methods: In this prospective study, male patients 20 to 40 years of age who due to new-onset seizure(s) were referred to the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from 2009 through 2012 were studied. A blood sample was obtained to evaluate the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, free-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and sex hormone binding globulin. CBZ was started after blood works. After at least three months of taking CBZ, another blood sample was obtained to determine the serum levels of those hormones again. Results: Twenty patients were included. Their mean age (± standard deviation) was 28 years (± 5). The statistical analysis with paired sample tests did not show any significant changes in serum levels of sex hormones before and after CBZ therapy. Conclusion: Despite the fact that, sexual dysfunction and reproductive disorders are common among men with epilepsy, the exact pathophysiology of these problems is not clear yet. Further studies are required to determine the exact role of epilepsy itself, AEDs, and other possible determinants. PMID:25694997

Asadi-Pooya, Ali A.; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ashjazadeh, Nahid

2014-01-01

324

The reciprocal regulation of stress hormones and GABAA receptors  

OpenAIRE

Stress-derived steroid hormones regulate the expression and function of GABAA receptors (GABAARs). Changes in GABAAR subunit expression have been demonstrated under conditions of altered steroid hormone levels, such as stress, as well as following exogenous steroid hormone administration. In addition to the effects of stress-derived steroid hormones on GABAAR subunit expression, stress hormones can also be metabolized to neuroactive derivatives which can alter the function of GABAARs. Neur...

JamieMaguire; IstvanMody

2012-01-01

325

Hormonal input in plant meristems: A balancing act.  

OpenAIRE

Plant hormones are a group of chemically diverse molecules that control virtually all aspects of plant development. Classical plant hormones were identified many decades ago in physiology studies that addressed plant growth regulation. In recent years, biochemical and genetic approaches led to the identification of many molecular components that mediate hormone activity, such as hormone receptors and hormone-regulated genes. This has greatly contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms ...

Galinha, C.; Bilsborough, G.; Tsiantis, M.

2009-01-01

326

The significance of clinical euthyroidism on reference range for thyroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The reference range for thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is usually established either by using the manufacturer's recommendations or by analyzing blood tests from a serum bank or from the local laboratory staff, assuming that they are healthy and euthyroid. The aim of this study was to examine the significance of clinical euthyroidism and a normal basal oxygen consumption on the reference range for thyroid hormones and TSH. METHODS: A clinical examination, including information on medication, was performed on 31 apparently healthy persons. The following determinations were made for all of the subjects: basal oxygen consumption, serum TSH, serum total T(3), and serum total T(4). T(4) uptake for calculation of FT(4)I was also measured. RESULTS: The clinical examination and determination of VO(2) reduced what initially appeared to be a euthyroid and healthy population by 32%. This also resulted in a narrower reference interval than that suggested by the manufacturer (range) (TSH: 0.35-5.50 mU/l, T(4): 58-140 nmol/l, T(3): 0.9-2.8 nmol/l) or than that established in the initially selected population (TSH=0.76-3.90 mU/l, T(4)=54-168 nmol/l, T(3)=1.27-2.74 nmol/l, FT(4)I=64-123 a.u.). In the finally selected population, this was TSH=0.76-3.90 mU/l, T(4)=59-127 nmol/l, T(3)=1.45-2.74 nmol/l, and FT(4)I=64-120 a.u. CONCLUSION: The method of selecting the population for establishing the reference interval for thyroid hormones and TSH influences the reference ranges. Neglecting to deal with this problem may invalidate screening procedures, especially for subclinical diseases. PMID:13678757

Kvetny, Jan

2003-08-01

327

[Hormonal interaction and hair growth].  

Science.gov (United States)

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. This continuous process results in a form of alopecia that follows a definite pattern in those individuals who are genetically predisposed. Although clinically different, the pathogenetic pathways leading to this type of hair loss are thought to be similar in both sexes. A genetic predisposition is a feature of AGA, but the predisposing genes are still unknown. Our understanding, however, of the hormonal effects on hair growth is far more advanced. AGA can be defined as a dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-dependent process with continuous miniaturization of sensitive hair follicles. So far, we do not understand the molecular steps involved in androgen-dependent beard growth versus androgen-dependent hair loss. However, the local androgen metabolism plays a central role in the intrafollicular conversion of weak androgens, such as DHEAS, to more potent androgens such as T or DHT within the hair follicle. The dermal papilla plays a central role by exhibiting an array of important steroidogenic isoenzymes. Provided that the dermal papilla (DP) cell triggers and regulates the growth of hair follicles, this physiological role may be reflected by metabolic differences, which could account for differences in androgen sensitivity as observed in hair follicles from different body sites, and in conditions such as male pattern baldness. The observation of STS, 17beta-HSD, 3beta-HSD, 3alpha-HSD and type 2 5alpha-R-activity within the DP could be a clue to understanding the regulation of androgen action in the human hair follicle by local androgen modification on target cell level. Hence, some of the intrafollicular steroidogenic enzymes would be potential pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of AGA or hirsutism. PMID:12223960

Hoffmann, R

2002-05-01

328

Menopause and hormone replacement therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

Ali Baziad

2001-11-01

329

Secretion of neuron-specific enolase, prolactin, growth hormone, luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone by "functionless" and endocrine-active pituitary tumours in vitro.  

OpenAIRE

Secretion of the neuroendocrine marker neuron-specific enolase by 24 pituitary tumours was measured in maintenance tissue culture. Eleven endocrine-active and 13 "functionless" tumours were defined by measurement of prolactin, growth hormone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion rates in vitro and the corresponding plasma hormone levels. Measurement of prolactin secretion provided a clear distinction between true prolactinomas and "functionless" tumours ca...

Lawton, N. F.; Evans, A. J.; Pickard, J. D.; Perry, S.; Davies, B.

1986-01-01

330

Assays of thyroid-stimulating antibody  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison is presented of the two major assay methods of thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) of Graves' disease. The basic procedures involve: (1) some index of thyroid stimulation, usually in vitro, using TSAb to indicate its activity; and (2) indirect recognition by assessment of the inhibition of binding of radioiodinated thyrotropin (TSH) to a preparation of its receptor, i.e., TSH-binding inhibition or TBI. There is potential for misinterpretation of data acquired by testing patients' sera by one or the other basic procedure

331

Assays of thyroid-stimulating antibody  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison is presented of the two major assay methods of thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) of Graves' disease. The basic procedures involve: (1) some index of thyroid stimulation, usually in vitro, using TSAb to indicate its activity; and (2) indirect recognition by assessment of the inhibition of binding of radioiodinated thyrotropin (TSH) to a preparation of its receptor, i.e., TSH-binding inhibition or TBI. There is potential for misinterpretation of data acquired by testing patients' sera by one or the other basic procedure.

McKenzie, J.M.; Zakarija, M.

1985-01-01

332

Levels of endocrine hormones and lipids in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between endocrine hormones, lipid levels and clinical parameters in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Materials and methods: Fifteen male patients with CTS and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum free T3, free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were analyzed. Symptom severity and hand function were assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire in clinical examination.Results: Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were similar between CTS patients and controls (p> 0.05. Also, there was no statistically significant correlation between laboratory parameters and clinical characteristics in patients with CTS (p> 0.05.Conclusion: The serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels seem within normal range in male CTS patients. Further studies are needed to investigate association endocrine factors, lipid levels such as triglyceride and total cholesterol with CTS in male and female patients.

Hülya Uzkeser

2011-12-01

333

Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo / Hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitarism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada [...] por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada deficiência, dosagens, vias de administração, efeitos colaterais e monitorização clínico-laboratorial durante os diferentes períodos da vida para cada reposição hormonal: hormônio de crescimento na criança e no adulto, hormônios tiroideanos no hipotiroidismo central, glicocorticóides no hipoadrenalismo central, análogos de vasopressina no diabetes insípidus central, esteróides sexuais no homem e na mulher, da puberdade à senescência e gonadotrofinas no tratamento da infertilidade. As informações aqui contidas resultam de uma revisão crítica da literatura aliada à nossa experiência de mais de duas décadas no diagnóstico e tratamento do paciente hipopituitário na Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Abstract in english This article brings an updated review of hypopituitarism with emphasis in hormone replacement therapy. The physiological basis of hormone replacement therapy and practical aspects of treating hypopituitary patients were both taken into account to provide a rational strategy for treatment. The review [...] is organized by individual pituitary hormone deficiency and covers epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of hypopituitarism, as well as the most relevant hormone preparations currently available for treating each hormone deficiency. Practical guidelines to hormone dosing, routes of administration, side effects and clinical and laboratory monitoring during the entire lifespan are given for each individual hormone replacement therapy: growth hormone in GH-deficient children and adults, thyroid hormone in central hypothyroidism, glucocorticoid in central hypoadrenalism, vasopressin analogs in diabetes insipidus, sex hormones in man and women from puberty to senescence, and gonadotropins for treating infertility. In addition to the literature review, we took into account our own experience of more than two decades in investigating, diagnosing, and treating hypopituitary patients at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

Julio, Abucham; Teresa C. Alfinito, Vieira; Erika Ribeiro, Barbosa; Rogério Silicani, Ribeiro; Manoel R. Alves, Martins.

2003-08-01

334

Secondary amenorrhea in a woman with spinocerebellar degeneration treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone: a case report and in vitro analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While thyrotropin-releasing hormone is known to be a prolactin-release stimulating factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate and its derivative, taltirelin hydrate, are used for the treatment of spinocerebellar degeneration, a degenerative disease characterized mainly by motor ataxia. We report the case of a patient being treated with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation for spinocerebellar degeneration who developed amenorrhea after a dose increase. Her hormonal background was analyzed and the effect of prolonged exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone on pituitary prolactin-producing cells was examined in vitro. Case presentation Our patient was a 36-year-old Japanese woman who experienced worsening of gait disturbance at around 23 years of age, and was subsequently diagnosed as having spinocerebellar degeneration. She had been treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate for four years. Taltirelin hydrate was added to the treatment seven months prior to her presentation, followed by an improvement in gait disturbance. Around the same period, she started lactating and subsequently developed amenorrhea three months later. Taltirelin hydrate was discontinued and she was referred to our hospital. She was found to have normal sex hormone levels. A thyrotropin-releasing hormone provocation test showed a normal response of thyroid-stimulating hormone level and an over-response of prolactin at 30 minutes (142.7 ng/mL. Resumption of menstruation was noted three months after dose reduction of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. In our in vitro study, following long-term exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, cells from the rat pituitary prolactin-producing cell line GH3 exhibited an increased basal prolactin promoter activity but showed a marked decrease in responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Conclusions Physicians should be aware of hyperprolactinemia-associated side effects in patients receiving thyrotropin-releasing hormone treatment. Long-term treatment with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation might cause a large amount of prolactin to accumulate in prolactin-producing cells and be released in response to exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation.

Kanasaki Haruhiko

2011-12-01

335

Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-? due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

Hüseyin Baki Ç?FTC?

2013-02-01

336

Food restriction in young Japanese quails: effects on growth, metabolism, plasma thyroid hormones and mRNA species in the thyroid hormone signalling pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Young birds, in their post-natal growth period, may reduce their growth and metabolism when facing a food shortage. To examine how such responses can be mediated by endocrine-related factors, we exposed Japanese quail chicks to food restriction for either 2 days (age 6-8 days) or 5 days (age 6-11 days). We then measured growth and resting metabolic rate (RMR), and circulating 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (T4) levels as well as expression patterns of genes involved in growth (insulin-like growth factor-I: IGF-I) and thyroid hormone signalling (thyroid-stimulating hormone-beta: TSHbeta, type II iodothyronine deiodinase: D2, thyroid hormone receptors isoforms: TRalpha and TRbeta). The food-restricted chicks receiving a weight-maintenance diet showed reductions in structural growth and RMR. Plasma levels of both T3 and T4 were reduced in the food-restricted birds, and within the 5 days food-restricted group there was a positive correlation between RMR and T3. IGF-I mRNA showed significantly higher abundance in the liver of ad libitum fed birds at day 8 compared with food-restricted birds. In the brain, TSHbeta mRNA level tended to be lower in food-restricted quails on day 8 compared with controls. Furthermore, TRalpha expression was lower in the brain of food-restricted birds at day 8 compared with birds fed ad libitum. Interestingly, brain D2 mRNA was negatively correlated with plasma T3 levels, tending to increase with the length of food restriction. Overall, our results show that food restriction produced significant effects on circulating thyroid hormones and differentially affected mRNA species in the thyroid hormone signalling pathway. Thus, we conclude that the effects of food restriction observed on growth and metabolism were partly mediated by changes in the endocrine-related factors investigated. PMID:19749098

Rønning, Bernt; Mortensen, Anne S; Moe, Børge; Chastel, Olivier; Arukwe, Augustine; Bech, Claus

2009-10-01

337

Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss in fast muscle function (power), and accumulation of fat in skeletal muscle. Further HRT raises the protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscle after resistance training, and has an anabolic effect upon connective tissue in both skeletal muscle and tendon, which influences matrix structure and mechanical properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal muscle. PMID:23636830

Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael; Pöllänen, Eija; Atkinson, Ross A; Hansen, Mette; Kovanen, Vuokko

2013-06-01

338

Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss in fast muscle function (power), and accumulation of fat in skeletal muscle. Further HRT raises the protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscle after resistance training, and has an anabolic effect upon connective tissue in both skeletal muscle and tendon, which influences matrix structure and mechanical properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal muscle.

Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco

2013-01-01

339

Hormonal responses during early embryogenesis in maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant hormones have been shown to regulate key processes during embryogenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanisms that determine the peculiar embryo pattern formation of monocots are largely unknown. Using the auxin and cytokinin response markers DR5 and TCSv2 (two-component system, cytokinin-responsive promoter version #2), as well as the auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1a (PINFORMED1a), we have studied the hormonal response during early embryogenesis (zygote towards transition stage) in the model and crop plant maize. Compared with the hormonal response in Arabidopsis, we found that detectable hormone activities inside the developing maize embryo appeared much later. Our observations indicate further an important role of auxin, PIN1a and cytokinin in endosperm formation shortly after fertilization. Apparent auxin signals within adaxial endosperm cells and cytokinin responses in the basal endosperm transfer layer as well as chalazal endosperm are characteristic for early seed development in maize. Moreover, auxin signalling in endosperm cells is likely to be involved in exogenous embryo patterning as auxin responses in the endosperm located around the embryo proper correlate with adaxial embryo differentiation and outgrowth. Overall, the comparison between Arabidopsis and maize hormone response and flux suggests intriguing mechanisms in monocots that are used to direct their embryo patterning, which is significantly different from that of eudicots. PMID:24646239

Chen, Junyi; Lausser, Andreas; Dresselhaus, Thomas

2014-04-01

340

The heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, GPA2/GPB5, regulates ion transport across the hindgut of the adult mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

Science.gov (United States)

A family of evolutionarily old hormones is the glycoprotein cysteine knot-forming heterodimers consisting of alpha- (GPA) and beta-subunits (GPB), which assemble by noncovalent bonds. In mammals, a common glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (GPA1) pairs with unique beta-subunits that establish receptor specificity, forming thyroid stimulating hormone (GPA1/TSH?) and the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (GPA1/LH?), follicle stimulating hormone (GPA1/FSH?), choriogonadotropin (GPA1/CG?). A novel glycoprotein heterodimer was identified in vertebrates by genome analysis, called thyrostimulin, composed of two novel subunits, GPA2 and GPB5, and homologs occur in arthropods, nematodes and cnidarians, implying that this neurohormone system existed prior to the emergence of bilateral metazoans. In order to discern possible physiological roles of this hormonal signaling system in mosquitoes, we have isolated the glycoprotein hormone genes producing the alpha- and beta-subunits (AedaeGPA2 and AedaeGPB5) and assessed their temporal expression profiles in the yellow and dengue-fever vector, Aedes aegypti. We have also isolated a putative receptor for this novel mosquito hormone, AedaeLGR1, which contains features conserved with other glycoprotein leucine-rich repeating containing G protein-coupled receptors. AedaeLGR1 is expressed in tissues of the alimentary canal such as the midgut, Malpighian tubules and hindgut, suggesting that this novel mosquito glycoprotein hormone may regulate ionic and osmotic balance. Focusing on the hindgut in adult stage A. aegypti, where AedaeLGR1 was highly enriched, we utilized the Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique (SIET) to determine if AedaeGPA2/GPB5 modulated cation transport across this epithelial tissue. Our results suggest that AedaeGPA2/GPB5 does indeed participate in ionic and osmotic balance, since it appears to inhibit natriuresis and promote kaliuresis. Taken together, our findings imply this hormone may play an important role in ionic balance when levels of Na(+) are limited and levels of K(+) are in excess--such as during the digestion and assimilation of erythrocytes following vertebrate blood-feeding by females. PMID:24466069

Paluzzi, Jean-Paul; Vanderveken, Mark; O'Donnell, Michael J

2014-01-01

341

MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.).

Ichiba, Yozo [National Hospital of Okayama (Japan)

1995-10-01

342

Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration  

Science.gov (United States)

Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

1983-01-01

343

Visualizing hormone actions in the brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Profound and multifaceted effects of hormones on the development, maturation and function of the CNS are well documented. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) permit detailed in vivo studies of cerebral structure and function in humans. Techniques to measure subtle differences in cerebral structure, regional brain activation, changes in blood flow and other physiological biomarkers allow us to translate experimental evidence of hormone effects obtained from animal models to humans. Here we review the imaging techniques available to support studies of hormone effects on the CNS, emphasizing the recent developments of MRI. In summarizing the major current studies we discuss the potential of these techniques for an emerging new field in endocrinology. PMID:21497512

Brabant, Georg; Cain, John; Jackson, Alan; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka

2011-05-01

344

Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: okbgeni@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

2011-04-15

345

Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. ? Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. ? Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor ?, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

346

Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products.Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives.Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile.Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of side effects. To address these knowledge deficits, these aspects should be the focus when distributing information about extended cycle hormonal contraceptive regimens. This may boost the use of a potentially advantageous contraceptive regimen by a population who would derive benefit from its usage.

Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.

2012-01-01

347

Incretin hormones and the satiation signal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 levels and responses to meals may be altered in obese subjects. Clinical trial results have shown further that two GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), exenatide and liraglutide, which are approved for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, also produce weight loss in overweight subjects without diabetes. Thus, GLP-1 RAs may provide a new option for pharmacological treatment of obesity.

Holst, Jens Juul

2013-01-01

348

The hormonal control of protein metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

While all the hormones described have regulatory effects on the rates of protein synthesis and breakdown there is a complex interaction between them in this control process. Insulin, GH and IGF-I play a dominant role in the day-to-day regulation of protein metabolism. In humans insulin appears to act primarily to inhibit proteolysis while GH stimulates protein synthesis. In the post-absorptive state IGF-I has acute insulin-like effects on proteolysis but in the fed state, or when substrate is provided for protein synthesis in the form of an amino acid infusion, IGF-I has been shown to stimulate protein synthesis. Growth hormone and testosterone have an important role during growth but continue to be required to maintain body protein during adulthood. Thyroid hormones are also required for normal growth and development. The hormones glucagon, glucocorticoids and adrenaline are all increased in catabolic states and may work in concert to increase protein breakdown in muscle tissue and to increase amino acid uptake in liver for gluconeogenesis. While increased glucocorticoids result in reduced muscle mass the effects of glucagon may be predominantly in the liver resulting in increased uptake of amino acids. In contrast to the catabolic effect of adrenaline on glucose and lipid metabolism, studies to date suggest that adrenaline may have an anti-catabolic effect on protein metabolism. Despite this adrenaline increases the production of the gluconeogenic amino acid alanine by muscle and its uptake by the splanchnic bed. There is considerable interest in the use of anabolic hormones, either alone or in combination, in the treatment of catabolic states. GH combined with insulin has been shown to improve whole-body and skeletal muscle kinetics while GH combined with IGF-I has a greater positive effect on protein metabolism in catabolic states than either hormone alone. If catabolic states are to be treated successfully a greater understanding of the role of the catabolic hormones in these states and the possible treatment of these states with anabolic hormones is required. PMID:9022951

Umpleby, A M; Russell-Jones, D L

1996-10-01

349

Characterization of thyroid hormone uptake in heart  

OpenAIRE

Transport of T3 and T4 across the plasma membrane is the first step in the sequence of intracellular thyroid hormone action. It is generally accepted that this is mediated by specific carrier proteins. The knowledge about these proteins in liver is abundant, but information about thyroid hormone uptake into the heart is scarce. The aim of this thesis was to characterize the cell physiological properties of T3 and T4 uptake in heart and to obtain information on the molecular structure(s) of th...

Putten, Haidy Hendrica Antonia Gerarda Maria

2002-01-01

350

The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital; Profil des hormones thyroidiennes chez les femmes enceintes: analyse de 125 cas a l'hopital general de Yaounde  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

Dong a ZOK, F. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Yaounde (Cameroon); Mbodj, M. [Hopital General Grand Yoff, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Dakar (Senegal); Mayer, E. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Gyneco-Obstetrique, Yaounde (Cameroon)

2009-10-15

351

The relation between human exposure to mercury and thyroid hormone status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure of 75 mother-child pairs in relation to their thyroid hormone status (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (fT3), thyroxine (T4), and free thyroxine (fT4)). THg and MeHg in blood samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, respectively. The median THg and MeHg levels in maternal blood, cord blood, and blood of 6-month-old children were 0.50, 0.53, and 0.32 and 0.22, 0.32, and 0.08 ?g/L, respectively. There were significant correlations between paired maternal-cord blood levels for THg and MeHg, with a greater transplacental transport of MeHg compared with THg (mean cord/maternal blood ratio, 1.80 vs. 1.24). The maternal blood THg was found to be a better predictor of TSH levels in children than their current THg exposure. There was a positive correlation between maternal THg and children's TSH. T3 and fT3 levels in children were negatively related to cord blood THg in the majority (Caucasian) subgroup, whereas these associations were positive in the Roma subgroup. Mothers with dental amalgam fillings had significantly lower T4 and fT4 levels. Moreover, fT4 in the mothers of boys negatively correlated with maternal THg levels. MeHg exposure lowered T3 levels in the mothers of girls. Our results suggest that low-level exposure to Hg can affect thyroid hormone status during prenatal and early postnatal exposure depending on the form of Hg, gender, ethnicity, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status (dental amalgam fillings). PMID:22426797

Ursinyova, Monika; Uhnakova, Iveta; Serbin, Rastislav; Masanova, Vlasta; Husekova, Zuzana; Wsolova, Ladislava

2012-09-01

352

Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Summary)  

Science.gov (United States)

... each had two people who got CJD. Austria, Qatar, and Ireland have each had one person who ... Australia produced their own hormone. The person in Qatar received hormone made in France. The person in ...

353

Integrated optical microfluidic biosensor using a polycarbazole photodetector for point-of-care detection of hormonal compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A picogram-sensitive optical microfluidic biosensor using an integrated polycarbazole photodiode is developed. The photodetector is mainly composed of the blend heterojunction of poly [N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) and the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transport layer. Analyte detection is accomplished via a chemiluminescent immunoassay performed in a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-gold-glass hybrid microchip, on which antibodies were immobilized and chemiluminescent horseradish peroxidase-luminol-peroxide reactions were generated. Enhanced sensor response to the chemiluminescent light is achieved by optimizing the thickness of PCDTBT:??PC70BM and PEDOT:PSS. Using the optimized polycarbazole photodiode for detecting the human thyroid-stimulating hormone as the model target, the integrated biosensor demonstrates an excellent linearity in the range of 0.03 to 10??ng/ml with an analytical sensitivity of 68??pg/ml. The sensor response shows high specificity and reproducibility. Hormone detection in clinical samples is further demonstrated and compared with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The integrated device reported here has potential to detect other hormonal compounds or protein targets. Moreover, the presented concept enables the development of miniaturized, low-cost but highly sensitive optical microfluidic biosensors based on integrated polymer photodetectors with high potential for point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24002194

Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos; Dong, Tao; Hanke, Ulrik; Hoivik, Nils

2013-09-01

354

The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

355

A woman with Pituitary Microadenoma: May Thyroid Hormone Resistance be a Cause? A case report and Review of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH is an inherited syndrome characterized by reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone. It is usually first suspected due to findings of high serum free thyroxine (T4 and free triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations and normal or slightly high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations. Herein, we report a 37-year-old woman presented with anxiety and sleeplessness. She was found to have elevated free T3 and T4 plasma concentrations without goiter, unsuppressed TSH and pituitary microadenoma. Thus, we performed tests for differential diagnosis between TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma and RTH. The patients with inappropriate TSH secretion caused by RTH or TSHomas are misdiagnosed and incorrectly treated. Current diagnostic strategies suggest that RTH patients are distinguishable from patients with TSH-secreting pituitary tumors by the use of standard laboratory tests and imaging. Here, we present a woman in whom the standard evaluation for inappropriate TSH secretion was insufficient to distinguish these entities. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 130-4

Ece Harman

2011-12-01

356

New approaches to male non-hormonal contraception  

OpenAIRE

A non-hormonal male contraceptive is a contraceptive that does not involve the administration of hormones or hormone blockers. This review will focus on the use of lonidamine derivatives and inhibitors of retinoic acid biosynthesis and function as approaches to male non-hormonal contraception. Two current lonidamine derivatives, Adjudin and H2-gamendazole, are in development as male contraceptives. These potent anti-spermatogenic compounds impair the integrity of the apical ectoplasmic specia...

Nya-ngatchou, Jean-jacques; Amory, John K.

2012-01-01

357

Glycoprotein hormone genes are expressed in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.  

OpenAIRE

Approximately 25% of patients with pituitary adenomas have no clinical or biochemical evidence for excess hormone secretion and are classified as having null cell or nonfunctioning adenomas. To characterize the cell type of these tumors, we analyzed pituitary hormone gene expression in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas using specific oligonucleotide probes for the messenger (m)RNAs encoding growth hormone, prolactin, ACTH, and the glycoprotein hormone subunits, alpha, luteinizing h...

Jameson, J. L.; Klibanski, A.; Black, P. M.; Zervas, N. T.; Lindell, C. M.; Hsu, D. W.; Ridgway, E. C.; Habener, J. F.

1987-01-01

358

Thyroid Hormone Action During Brain Development: More Questions Than Answers  

OpenAIRE

Summary Thyroid hormone is essential for proper brain development since it acts on processes such as neuronal migration and differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis. In this review, we summarize the consequences of thyroid hormone deficiency for brain development with special focus on the cerebellum, an important target of thyroid action. In addition, we discuss the role of iodothyronine deiodinases and thyroid hormone transporters in regulating local thyroid hormone concent...

Horn, Sigrun; Heuer, Heike

2009-01-01

359

Minireview: Cracking the Metabolic Code for Thyroid Hormone Signaling  

OpenAIRE

Cells are not passive bystanders in the process of hormonal signaling and instead can actively customize hormonal action. Thyroid hormone gains access to the intracellular environment via membrane transporters, and while diffusing from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, thyroid hormone signaling is modified via the action of the deiodinases. Although the type 2 deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone T4 to the biologically active T3, the type 3 deiodinase (D3) converts it to reverse T3, an i...

Bianco, Antonio C.

2011-01-01

360

The Impact of Female Sex Hormones on Competitiveness  

OpenAIRE

We use fluctuations of female sex hormones occurring naturally over the menstrual cycle or induced by hormonal contraceptives to determine the importance of sex hormones in explaining gender differences in competitiveness. Participants in a laboratory experiment solve a simple arithmetics task first under a piece rate and then under a competitive tournament scheme. Subjects can then choose which compensation scheme to apply in a third round. We find that sex hormones have a strong effect on w...

Buser, Thomas

2009-01-01

361

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the preoptic-hypothalamic region of the rat contain lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone III, mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, or both peptides  

OpenAIRE

This study utilized a newly developed antiserum, specific for lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone III (l-GnRH-III), to determine the following: in which regions of the rat hypothalamus the neuronal perikarya producing l-GnRH-III are localized; and whether this peptide, known to selectively induce follicle-stimulating hormone release, is coexpressed in neurons containing mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (m-LHRH). Double-label immunocytochemistry was performed by using an l-Gn...

Hiney, J. K.; Sower, S. A.; Yu, W. H.; Mccann, S. M.; Dees, W. L.

2002-01-01

362

Prolactin and growth hormone in fish osmoregulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs during freshwater adaptation. Growth hormone, a member of the same family of hormones as prolactin, promotes acclimation to seawater in several teleost fish, at least in part through the action of insulin-like growth factor I. In branchial epithelia, development and differentiation of the seawater-type chloride cell (and their underlying biochemistry) is regulated by GH, IGF-I, and cortisol, whereas the freshwater-type chloride cell is regulated by prolactin and cortisol. In the epithelia of gastrointestinal tract, prolactin induces cell proliferation during freshwater adaptation, whereas cortisol stimulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose that control of salinity acclimation in teleosts by prolactin and growth hormone primarily involves regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation (the latter including upregulation of specific ion transporters), and that there is an important interaction of these hormones with corticosteroids. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sakamoto, T.; McCormick, S.D.

2006-01-01

363

Biological Functions of Thyroid Hormone in Placenta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thyroid hormone, 3,3,5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3, modulates several physiological processes, including cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism, inflammation and proliferation, via interactions with thyroid hormone response elements (TREs in the regulatory regions of target genes. Infection and inflammation are critical processes in placental development and pregnancy-related diseases. In particular, infection is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, to date, no successful approach has been developed for the effective diagnosis of infection in preterm infants. Pre-eclampsia (PE is a serious disorder that adversely affects ~5% of human pregnancies. Recent studies identified a multiprotein complex, the inflammasome, including the Nod-like receptor (NLR family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC and caspase-1, which plays a vital role in the placenta. The thyroid hormone modulates inflammation processes and is additionally implicated in placental development and disease. Therefore, elucidation of thyroid hormone receptor-regulated inflammation-related molecules, and their underlying mechanisms in placenta, should facilitate the identification of novel predictive and therapeutic targets for placental disorders. This review provides a detailed summary of current knowledge with respect to identification of useful biomarkers and their physiological significance in placenta.

Cheng-Yi Chen

2015-02-01

364

Determination of hormone parathyroid by radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelling of bovine parathyroid hormone and its employment for the determination of seric PTH by radioimmunoanalysis is described. The specific activity of 131I PTH is 200-350mCi/mg and the damage 3-5%. The method used for radioimmunoanalysis was that of C.D. Arnaud and coworkers. (author)

365

Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration.

Ming Li

2014-11-01

366

Insect lipids mobilized by adipokinetic hormones.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2012 - (Langella, J.), s. 99-122 ISBN 978-1-61209-566-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP501/10/1215; GA ?R GAP502/10/1734 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adipokinetic hormones Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

Kodrík, Dalibor; Tom?ala, Aleš; Bárt?, Iva; Socha, Radomír

367

THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

368

Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

July 17, 2014 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove, Room TE406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker: Neal E. Craft, Ph.D. President Craft Technologies, Inc. Print This Page Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies DCEG Seminar News & Events

369

Improved radioimmunoassay for thyroid hormone and reagent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improvements in the radioimmunoassay of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine or triiodothyronine, are described. Hydrolyzed cross-linked polyacrylamide particles covalently bonded against the thyroid hormone are employed as solid phase substrates for the thyroid hormone antibodies. The polyacrylamide particles are dyed yellow or blue to facilitate the various manipulative steps during the radioimmunoassay. The particles are characterized by their ability to form stable hydrophilic suspensions. As a result the reaction mixture, during which thyroid hormone is separated from serum proteins and competitive binding in the presence of radioactive tracer with the antibody occurs, requires no agitation to maintain the desired homogeneous condition. This is in contrast to the settling problems experienced with cellulose, dextran and glass particles. In addition, the non-specific binding property of the polyacrylamide particles is so low that the initially separated solid phase particles following incubation can be directly measured for radioactivity levels without any initial washings thus increasing the speed and convenience of the assay procedure. Details of the preparation of the dyed, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles, the coupling of antiserum to these particles and the radioimmunoassay procedure are given. Data obtained from the radioimmunoassays of hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid sera demonstrated the satisfactory performance of the assay. (U.K.)

370

Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy  

Science.gov (United States)

At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

371

Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada deficiência, dosagens, vias de administração, efeitos colaterais e monitorização clínico-laboratorial durante os diferentes períodos da vida para cada reposição hormonal: hormônio de crescimento na criança e no adulto, hormônios tiroideanos no hipotiroidismo central, glicocorticóides no hipoadrenalismo central, análogos de vasopressina no diabetes insípidus central, esteróides sexuais no homem e na mulher, da puberdade à senescência e gonadotrofinas no tratamento da infertilidade. As informações aqui contidas resultam de uma revisão crítica da literatura aliada à nossa experiência de mais de duas décadas no diagnóstico e tratamento do paciente hipopituitário na Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

Abucham Julio

2003-01-01

372

Deficiência progressiva dos hormônios adeno-hipofisários após radioterapia em adultos Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A radioterapia é um dos fatores desencadeantes do hipopituitarismo, mesmo quando não direcionada diretamente para o eixo hipotálamo-hipofisário, podendo resultar em redução de hormônios adeno-hipofisários, principalmente por lesão hipotalâmica. A perda da função da hipófise anterior é progressiva e geralmente na seguinte ordem: hormônio do crescimento, gonadotrofinas, adrenocorticotrofina e o hormônio estimulante da tireóide. Vários testes estão disponíveis para a confirmação das deficiências, sendo discutidos, neste artigo, os melhores testes para pacientes submetidos à irradiação. Enfatizamos que o desenvolvimento do hipopituitarismo após a radioterapia é dose e tempo dependente de irradiação, com algumas diferenças entre os eixos hipofisários. Portanto, a conscientização da necessidade de terapia em conjunto de endocrinologistas e oncologistas otimizará o tratamento e a qualidade de vida do paciente.Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients.

Rafaela A. Loureiro

2004-10-01

373

Research Progress of the Hormone Regulation of Insect Diapause  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insects growth and development are controlled by hormone. Diapause is a special development state. In this state, the significant characteristics are metabolism reducing and arrest of development. In the process of diapause development, a variety of hormone tends to create a network by intercoordination. Diapause plays an important regulatory role in diapause development. Insect neuroendocrine hormone is synthesized by neuroendocrine system and acts as upstream factor to affect insect diapause by regulating the synthesis and release of the downstream hormone. The regulation function of diapause hormone?pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide and prothoracicotropic hormone in the different type of diapause, insects has been widely studied. Located at the downstream in the network of neuropeptide hormone, the hormones ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone also play important regulatory roles but less studied so far. In addition, the research of hormone receptors will provide an important basis to explain the interaction between hormones; and by adjusting the hormone levels in diapause insect which will provide a new method in the biological control of harmful insects.?

HE Zheng?bo?

2012-07-01

374

Growth hormone releasing factor, somatocrinin, releases pituitary growth hormone in vitro.  

OpenAIRE

Purified (rat) hypothalamic growth hormone releasing factor (GRF), native human GRF isolated from an islet cell tumor of the pancreas that had caused acromegaly, and the synthetic replicates of the human material are potent secretagogues of immunoreactive growth hormone (GH) by primary cultures of rat pituitary cells. Native or synthetic peptides give identical dose-response curves, with identical slopes and identical maximal effects. The median effective dose of the tumor-derived GRF is 15 x...

Brazeau, P.; Ling, N.; Bo?hlen, P.; Esch, F.; Ying, S. Y.; Guillemin, R.

1982-01-01

375

Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues in early breast cancer: updated status of ongoing clinical trials.  

OpenAIRE

In the year 2000, the ongoing meta-analysis of the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group will be updated to include additional data from over 4000 patients treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues, principally goserelin. Four major international trials are currently in progress to evaluate the safety and efficacy of goserelin in comparison with the current standard treatments in early breast cancer, which are chemotherapy or tamoxifen. This paper provides an o...

Kaufmann, M.

1998-01-01

376

Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.85±0.50 kg; treatment: 3.82±0.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.36±0.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.10±0.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.17±1.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.5±1.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm.Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

Andriyanto

2011-05-01

377

Correlations between endogen amylin hormone and some hormonal, biochemical and bone parameters in pullets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the correlations of amylin (a pancreatic polypeptide hormone) with some hormonal, biochemical and bone parameters in pullets. Forty 18-week-old pullets were used. Plasma amylin, CT (calcitonin), 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol ), serum os [...] teocalcin, glucose, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as weight, length and total volume of tibiotarsi were measured. Plasma amylin concentration was negatively correlated with serum cholesterol (p

S, Guzel; N, Gunes.

2014-12-01

378

Diagnostic and clinical aspects of growth hormone- and adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency  

OpenAIRE

This thesis focuses on some diagnostic and clinical aspects of growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone( ACTH) deficiency in adults. It is now widely recognised that GH has an important role in the health of adults as well as in the development of children. The availability of biosynthetic GH made it possible to investigate the effects of GH in adults with GH deficiency more extensively. ... Zie: Summary

Beentjes, Johannes Antonie Maria

2001-01-01

379

Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) reduce prostate size in experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia  

OpenAIRE

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a hypothalamic polypeptide, acts as a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor in many cancers. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a pathologic proliferation of prostatic glandular and stromal tissues; a variety of growth factors and inflammatory processes are inculpated in its pathogenesis. Previously we showed that potent synthetic antagonists of GHRH strongly inhibit the growth of diverse experimental human tumors including prostate cancer by sup...

Rick, Ferenc G.; Schally, Andrew V.; Block, Norman L.; Nadji, Mehrdad; Szepeshazi, Karoly; Zarandi, Marta; Vidaurre, Irving; Perez, Roberto; Halmos, Gabor; Szalontay, Luca

2011-01-01

380

INDUCED SPAWNING OF SILVER CARP, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix USING HORMONES/HORMONAL ANALOGUE WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS  

OpenAIRE

A study was made to investigate the effects of using carp pituitary extract, human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogues (Receptal), with or without dopamine antagonists on the spawning performance parameters of silver carp. Results of the current study indicted successful induction of spawning silver carp using different spawning agents. The breeding response and fecundity were comparable among all treatment groups. Moreover, the current experiment clearly i...

El-hawarry, W. N.

2012-01-01

381

Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%),e score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated with significant fatigue

382

Normal pituitary hormone response to thyrotrophin and gonadotrophin releasing hormones in subjects exposed to elemental mercury vapour.  

OpenAIRE

Exposure to elemental mercury (Hg) vapour results in an accumulation of Hg in the pituitary, the thyroid, and the testis. In this study, basal serum concentrations of pituitary hormones (thyrotrophin (TSH), prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinising hormone (LH] or their response after administration of thyrotrophin and gonadotrophin releasing hormones did not differ between 11 male workers (mean urinary Hg (U Hg) concentration 26 nmol/mmol creatinine) and nine male ...

Erfurth, E. M.; Schu?tz, A.; Nilsson, A.; Barrega?rd, L.; Skerfving, S.

1990-01-01

383

Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

2015-01-01

384

Structural Basis for Antibody Discrimination between Two Hormones That Recognize the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a vital role in the embryonic development of the skeleton and other tissues. When it is produced in excess by cancers it can cause hypercalcemia, and its local production by breast cancer cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis formation in that disease. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the action of PTHrP through its receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, without influencing parathyroid hormone action through the same receptor. Such neutralizing antibodies against PTHrP are therapeutically effective in animal models of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and of bone metastasis formation. We have determined the crystal structure of the complex between PTHrP (residues 1-108) and a neutralizing monoclonal anti-PTHrP antibody that reveals the only point of contact is an {alpha}-helical structure extending from residues 14-29. Another striking feature is that the same residues that interact with the antibody also interact with parathyroid hormone receptor 1, showing that the antibody and the receptor binding site on the hormone closely overlap. The structure explains how the antibody discriminates between the two hormones and provides information that could be used in the development of novel agonists and antagonists of their common receptor.

McKinstry, William J.; Polekhina, Galina; Diefenbach-Jagger, Hannelore; Ho, Patricia W.M.; Sato, Koh; Onuma, Etsuro; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Parker, Michael W.; (SVIMR-A); (Chugai); (Melbourne)

2009-08-18

385

Increase in maternal placental growth hormone during pregnancy and disappearance during parturition in normal and growth hormone-deficient pregnancies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate placental growth hormone levels in maternal circulation throughout pregnancy in normal and growth hormone-deficient women with the use of a specific assay and to determine the clearance of placental growth hormone from maternal circulation after birth.

LØnberg, Ulla; Damm, Peter

2003-01-01

386

Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos / Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonal [...] es o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1) Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2) Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3) Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética), síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP). Abstract in english We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and [...] , more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1) It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2) It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3) It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone), ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP).

L., Forga; E., Anda; J. P., Martínez de Esteban.

2005-08-01

387

Diagnostic usefulness of salivary reproductive hormones: An update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Of late research on the diagnostic use of saliva to measure various biochemical analytes, notably hormones are on the increase.  The collection of saliva is a non invasive procedure and least uncomfortable to the patients.  Special precautions are not required and large volume of specimens could be easily collected.  Many studies have been carried out in this field as early as late 1960’s.  This review article brings out recent findings in the use of saliva to measure both male and female reproductive hormones,since the first line of laboratory tests to evaluate infertile couple start with reproductive hormones measurement. The important reproductive hormones measured in serum are total testosterone, free testosterone , Sex Hormone Binding Globulins (SHBG for men and progesterone, oestrogen,oestrone, cortisol, 17-OHProgesterone for women.  Many studies have  established significant correlations between salivary and serum reproductive hormones and this article highlights the clinical usefulness of such hormones measuredin saliva.

Rajeswari S.

2014-09-01

388

Hormonal contraceptives and travel to high altitude.  

Science.gov (United States)

Keyes, Linda E. Hormonal contraceptives and travel to high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:7-10, 2015-Women frequently ask about the safety and efficacy of using hormonal contraception (HC), either oral contraceptive pills (OC) or other forms, when traveling to high altitude locales. What are the risks and benefits of using HC at high altitude? Does HC affect acclimatization, exercise performance, or occurrence of acute mountain sickness? This article reviews current data regarding the risks and benefits of HC at high altitude, both demonstrated and theoretical, with the aim of helping health care providers to advise women traveling above 2500 meters. Most healthy women can safely use HC when traveling to high altitude, but should be aware of the potential risks and inconveniences. PMID:25759908

Keyes, Linda E

2015-03-01

389

Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonales o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1 Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2 Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3 Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética, síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP.We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and, more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1 It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2 It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3 It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone, ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP.

L. Forga

2005-08-01

390

Determination of the concentration of thyroid hormone in dialysate and assessment of the loss of thyroid hormone during hemodialysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine the hormone concentration in a dialysate, the commercially available radioimmunossay test of Dow-Lepetit for determination of free thyroid hormones in serum had to be modified. The results raised the suspicion that additional protein-bound hormone had passed the membrane. This could be demonstrated by the addition of Thiomersal. In 64 patients examined 1 and 5 hrs after the beginning of hemodialysis the mean total hormone concentration in the dialysate was 12.05 pg/ml for thyroxine and 5.47 pg/ml for triiodothyronine. The resulting loss of total hormone in hemodialysis patients, calculated for 1 week, amounted to 2.25 ?g triiodothyronine and 4.87 ?g thyroxine. The comparison with the physiologic renal elimination of thyroid hormone shows that the hormone elimination in hemodialysis patients is negligibly small. The quantitative determination of the protein concentration in the dialysate however, that the loss of protein is without clinical relevance. (orig.)

391

Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders  

OpenAIRE

Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED).

Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied mult...

Pierpaola D’Arista; Pamela Blanco; Mariangela Rutilo; Alice Mannocci; Antonio Ciocca; Pietro Bria

2008-01-01

392

Pleiotropic actions of the incretin hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The insulin secretory response to a meal results largely from glucose stimulation of the pancreatic islets and both direct and indirect (autonomic) glucose-dependent stimulation by incretin hormones released from the gastrointestinal tract. Two incretins, Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have so far been identified. Localization of the cognate G protein-coupled receptors for GIP and GLP-1 revealed that they are present in numerous tissues in addition to the endocrine pancreas, including the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, central nervous and autonomic nervous systems (ANSs), adipose tissue, and bone. At these sites, the incretin hormones exert a range of pleiotropic effects, many of which contribute to the integration of processes involved in the regulation of food intake, and nutrient and mineral processing and storage. From detailed studies at the cellular and molecular level, it is also evident that both incretin hormones act via multiple signal transduction pathways that regulate both acute and long-term cell function. Here, we provide an overview of current knowledge relating to the physiological roles of GIP and GLP-1, with specific emphasis on their modes of action on islet hormone secretion, ?-cell proliferation and survival, central and autonomic neuronal function, gastrointestinal motility, and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, it is emphasized that despite intensive research on the various body systems, in many cases there is uncertainty as to the pathways by which the incretins mediate their pleiotropic effects and only a rudimentary understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms involved, and these are challenges for the future. PMID:21094896

McIntosh, Christopher H S; Widenmaier, Scott; Kim, Su-Jin

2010-01-01

393

Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives  

OpenAIRE

Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique) when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the l...

Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm D.; Ashley Cetola Pettia, Pharm D.; Albert I Wertheimer, Phd

2012-01-01

394

Hormone replacement therapy and the endometrium  

OpenAIRE

Modern hormone replacement therapy (HRT) regimens contain oestrogen and progestogen, given either in a cyclical or continuous combined manner. Most endometrial biopsies from women on sequential HRT show weak secretory features. Approximately 15% show proliferative activity, although this figure may be less if more than nine days of progestogen is given in each cycle. A small proportion will show an inactive or atrophic endometrium. Up to 50% of biopsies from women on continuous combined HRT c...

Feeley, K.; Wells, M.

2001-01-01

395

Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour  

OpenAIRE

Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted t...

Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah

2010-01-01

396

NUREBASE: database of nuclear hormone receptors  

OpenAIRE

Nuclear hormone receptors are an abundant class of ligand activated transcriptional regulators, found in varying numbers in all animals. Based on our experience of managing the official nomenclature of nuclear receptors, we have developed NUREBASE, a database containing protein and DNA sequences, reviewed protein alignments and phylogenies, taxonomy and annotations for all nuclear receptors. The reviewed NUREBASE is completed by NUREBASE_DAILY, automatically updated every 24 h. Both databases...

Duarte, Jorge; Perrie?re, Guy; Laudet, Vincent; Robinson-rechavi, Marc

2002-01-01

397

Stress hormone dynamics: an adaptation to migration?  

OpenAIRE

The hormone corticosterone (CORT) is an important component of a bird’s response to environmental stress, but it can also have negative effects. Therefore, birds on migration are hypothesized to have repressed stress responses (migration-modulation hypothesis). In contrast to earlier studies on long-distance migrants, we evaluate this hypothesis in a population containing both migratory and resident individuals. We use a population of partially migratory blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in s...

Nilsson, Anna L. K.; Sandell, Maria I.

2009-01-01

398

Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas  

OpenAIRE

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as “pseudomenopause” or “medical oophorectomy,” which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) work by temporarily “switching off” the ovaries. Ovaries can be “switched off” for the therapy and therapeutic tri...

Magon, Navneet

2011-01-01

399

Hormonal levels affect endometrial cancer drug efficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Modulating the hormonal environment in which endometrial cancers grow could make tumors significantly more sensitive to a new class of drugs known as PARP inhibitors, a researcher at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center has shown for the first time. The findings could lead to a novel one-two punch therapy to fight endometrial cancers and provide an alternative option for conventional treatments that, particularly in advanced disease, have limited efficacy.

400

Hormone replacement therapy: dilemmas in 2002.  

OpenAIRE

About 6 million women in the United States are prescribed a combined estrogen-progestin regimen during and after the menopause. The immediate benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are relief of menopausal symptoms. Doctors and their patients have long presumed that the benefits on cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis outweigh the possible increased risk of breast cancer or venous thrombosis. The Women's Health Initiative, a National Institutes of Health program, is the first study ...

Moore, Anne

2003-01-01

401

Neuroendocrine Disruption: More than Hormones are Upset  

OpenAIRE

Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are ...

Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L.

2011-01-01

402

Epigenetic Control of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Neurons  

OpenAIRE

Epigenetic modifications to the genome, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, occur in response to external stimuli. Reproductive function is highly sensitive to environmental conditions including season, diet, hormonal changes, and exposure to chemical contaminants. GnRH neurons, which play a key role in reproduction, are particularly sensitive to various environmental stimuli. We recently reported that the rhesus monkey GnRH gene exhibits distinct epigenetic changes during em...

Kurian, Joseph R.; Terasawa, Ei

2013-01-01

403

Hormonal Reactivity to MRI Scanning in Adolescents  

OpenAIRE

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a procedure that is now widely used to study emotional and cognitive processes in children and adolescents. However, the context within which brain imaging data are collected is a social context that may induce anxiety and stress. Several hormones have been shown to be responsive to environmental stressors. These stress responses may impact ability to successfully complete the procedure or collect imaging data. To investigate these issues, we measured saliv...

Eatough, Erin M.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Pollak, Seth D.

2009-01-01

404

Metabolic hormones, dopamine circuits, and feeding  

OpenAIRE

Recent evidence has emerged demonstrating that metabolic hormones such as ghrelin and leptin can act on ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons to influence feeding. The VTA is the origin of mesolimbic dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to influence behavior. While blockade of dopamine via systemic antagonists or targeted gene delete can impair food intake, local NAc dopamine manipulations have little effect on food intake. Notably, non-dopaminergic ma...

Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Guarnieri, Douglas J.; Dileone, Ralph J.

2009-01-01

405

Growth hormone and aging: A challenging controversy  

OpenAIRE

Andrzej BartkeGeriatrics Research, Departments of Internal Medicine and Physiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USAAbstract: Although advanced age or symptoms of aging are not among approved indications for growth hormone (GH) therapy, recombinant human GH (rhGH) and various GH-related products are aggressively promoted as anti-aging therapies. Well-controlled studies of the effects of rhGH treatment in endocrinologically normal elderly subjects report so...

Andrzej Bartke

2008-01-01

406

IMPLANT WITH RISELLE IN HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY  

OpenAIRE

One of the most important roles of hormone replacement therapy is to remove the symptoms of menopause, especially the vaso-motor and urogenital tract appeared immediately after oophorectomy. The decreased risks of cardiovascular diseases are the long-term benefits. The cardiovascular protective effect of estrogen occurs by different mechanisms, all leading to reduction or slowing atherosclerotic processes and this improves cardiovascular performance. After 2 years of treatment no patient ...

Veronica Luca; Ovidiu Toma; Lidia Rusu; Eugen Ungureanu; Eduard Crauciuc; Veronica Mocanu; Daniela Badoi

2012-01-01

407

New insights into thyroid hormone replacement therapy  

OpenAIRE

It is widely accepted that thyroid hormone replacement for patients with hypothyroidism can be fully accomplished with levothyroxine monotherapy, as assessed by serum thyroid function tests. However, approximately 10% of hypothyroid patients are dissatisfied with the outcome of levothyroxine monotherapy, and physicians continue to report benefits from combined levothyroxine-triidothyronine therapy for some hypothyroid patients. Recently, a large prospective study reported that the benefit of ...

Acosta, Brenda M.; Bianco, Antonio C.

2010-01-01

408

Aspects of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism  

OpenAIRE

The research into thyroid function has a long history. The recognition of goiter as pathology of the thyroid gland dates back to the ancient world of Rome and Greece and possibly even to the early history of chinese medicine. In an excellent review of the historical aspects of the discovery of thyroid hormones and their biological action (1) Pitt-Rivers describes the growing awareness of the significance of iodine for thyroid function early in the 19th century. The actual pr...

Otten, M. H.

1984-01-01

409

Regulation of gastric hormones by systemic rapamycin  

OpenAIRE

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase, is an intracellular fuel sensor critical for cellular energy homeostasis. Gastrointestinal endocrine cells play a vital role in the regulation of energy balance by secreting hormones that inform the brain about energy supply. Here we showed the localization of mTOR signaling molecules in more than 90 % of gastric ghrelin cells and 36 ± 3% of gastrin cells, while no somatostatin-positive cell showed...

Xu, Geyang; Li, Yin; An, Wenjiao; Zhao, Jing; Xiang, Xinxin; Ding, Li; Li, Ziru; Guan, Youfei; Wang, Xian; Tang, Chaoshu; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Nanping; Li, Xiaoying; Mulholland, Michael; Zhang, Weizhen

2010-01-01

410

Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og tumorinduceret osteomalaci. Hyperfosfatæmisk familiær tumoral calcinosis er derimod associeret med forhøjet nedbrydning af FGF23. Måling af FGF23 er et differentialdiagnostisk redskab ved udredning af tilstande med længerevarende hypofosfatæmi. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May 17

Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

2010-01-01

411

Hormonal regulation in green plant lineage families  

OpenAIRE

The patterns of phytohormones distribution, their native function and possible origin of hormonal regulation across the green plant lineages (chlorophytes, charophytes, bryophytes and tracheophytes) are discussed. The five classical phytohormones — auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene occur ubiquitously in green plants. They are produced as secondary metabolites by microorganisms. Some of the bacterial species use phytohormones to interact with the plant a...

Johri, M. M.

2008-01-01

412

Metabolic Impact Of Sex Hormones On Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Obesity and its associated health disorders and costs are increasing. Men and postmenopausal women have greater risk of developing complications of obesity than younger women. Within the brain, the hypothalamus is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. Two of its sub-areas, the ventrolateral portion of the ventral medial nucleus (VL VMN) and the arcuate (ARC) respond to hormones and other signals to control energy intake and expenditure. When large lesions are made in the hypothalamus ...

Brown, Lynda M.; Gent, Lana; Davis, Kathryn; Clegg, Deborah J.

2010-01-01

413

Current trends in hormone replacement therapy.  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT As life span increases, more and more women live longer after the menopause, and see its long-term consequences. The menopause and climacteric have major consequences for the well being of most women, resulting in a variety of symptoms including vasomotor, psychological, sexual symptoms and increased risk of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Prevention of osteoporosis and reduction in cardiovascular risks are the long-term goals of post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy. Post...

Khashoggi, Tariq Y.

2002-01-01

414

Christmas: an event driven by our hormones?  

Science.gov (United States)

No other event in the Christian calendar has such a deep impact on our behaviour as the annual event called Christmas. Christmas is not just 'Christmas Day'; indeed, it is a long developmental rhythm with a period of almost exactly 365 days. Here, I describe the neuronal and hormonal changes and their effects on our behaviour during the preparation and the execution of the event(1) . PMID:22010873

Ludwig, M

2011-12-01

415

Critical evaluation of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels during thyroid hormone suppression therapy versus Tg levels after hormone withdrawal and total body scan: Results in 291 patients with thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were measured during thyroid-hormone suppressive therapy in 291 patients who had been treated for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The findings were compared with those of a subsequent total body scan (TBS) and with Tg levels measured after thyroid-hormone withdrawal. Of the patients with low Tg levels during suppressive therapy, 91.6% were subsequently shown to be free of disease or to have only remnants in the thyroid bed, whereas 8.4% had metastases (false-negative). Of the patients with false-negative findings, 89.3% had nodal metastases; 60.8% of the patients with nodal metastases exhibiting radioiodine uptake and only 23% of those with nonfunctioning nodal metastases had low Tg levels during suppression therapy. After thyroid-hormone withdrawal, all but 1 of the patients with nodal metastases had high Tg levels. All but 2 of the patients with distant metastases had high Tg levels during suppression therapy; 1 of these 2 patients exhibited high Tg levels after T3 withdrawal. No differences between Tg levels in patients with functioning and non-functioning metastases were found. Our study indicates that Tg assays performed during suppressive therapy have a fairly good predictive value and can be used as a general guide in the follow-up of thyroid cancer. However, since most differentiated metastases produce Tg only when stimulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone, measurements of Tg levels after the discontinuation of of Tg levels after the discontinuation of suppressive therapy would also seem to be necessary. (orig.)

416

Reproductive and possible hormonal effects of carbendazim.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to better elucidate reproductive and possible hormonal effects of the fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) through a review of published toxicological studies as well as an evaluation of this fungicide in the Hershberger and uterotrophic assays, which are designed to detect in vivo effects of the sex hormones. The literature review indicates that CBZ induces reproductive and developmental toxicity through alteration of many key events which are important to spermatogenesis. The lower dose of CBZ (100mg/kg) evaluated in the Hershberger test increased prostate weight compared to control group but did not alter the weight of other testosterone-dependent tissues. In the uterotrophic assay, CBZ did not induce an estrogenic or an antiestrogenic effect. In the literature, it has been reported that CBZ may: (1) alter the levels of various hormones (testosterone, LH, FSH, GnRH); (2