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Sample records for hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone

  1. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  2. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  3. Measurement of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the methods of assay proposed for the quantitative measurement of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (H-TSH) have encountered major difficulties in relation to sensitivity and specificity. The development of radioimmunoassay techniques for the measurement of H-TSH not only resulted in increased sensitivity over the majority of existing techniques, but led to improvements in specificity and practicability. The purpose of this communication is to compare serum TSH values measured by a method of bioassay in vitro with those obtained by a radioimmunoassay developed in this laboratory using reagents provided by the National Pituitary Agency, United States of America. In the bioassay technique goitrous guinea-pig thyroid tissue is incubated in vitro with 131I and H-TSH during which time the tissue takes up 131I and binds it in organic combination. Measurements of the radioactive content of the culture medium are made before and after the addition of KSCN in order to discharge any 131I present in the tissue as iodide, the difference in count-rate being indirectly proportional to the amount of H-TSH present in the incubation fluid. The method can detect as little as 1.0 mU/100 ml serum. The radioimmunoassay technique used was that described by Odell and Garigan in instructions accompanying the reagents. However, modifications to their technique included the use of antiserum at a final dilution of 1/120 000 and the addition of H-TSH at a final concentration of 0.4 ng/ml to mixtures of antiserum and the standard preparation after an incubation period of five days. After a further five days incubation period, the separation of bound and free 131I-H-TSH was carried out by precipitating the bound hormone with NaCl and ethanol. The lower limit of detection in terms of the H-TSH standard A (MRC) is 5 ?U/ml serum (0.5 mU/100 ml). Serum was obtained from children aged one month to 16 years, adults aged 18-40 years and 66-85 years, patients subjected to either pituitary stalk section on 90Y implantation during treatment for advanced diabetic retinopathy, and one patient suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis during periods of suppression by T3 and stimulation by TSH, Assessments of thyroid function were made either by the triiodothyronine uptake test using coated charcoal or by the estimation of the protein-bound iodine content of serum. The correlation between the TSH assay results obtained by the two methods are discussed. (author)

  4. Modification of thyroid stimulating hormone estimation method in alpha prime LS system (SFRI)

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Shyamali

    2007-01-01

    The alpha prime LS (APLS) system consists of both enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) processing arrangements. All the programmes are open and accessible to modification. But, as CLIA kits are system dedicated kits, so the option for user defined programme may only be utilized for modification as and when it is absolutely necessary. The author had, some problem during routine performances with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Monobind, U.S.A, ki...

  5. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Modi, Kirtikumar; Kumaresan, Karuppiah

    2011-01-01

    Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99m...

  6. Neonatal iodine status survey by thyroid-stimulating hormone screening in Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Connie Untario; I Wayan Bikin Suryawan

    2012-01-01

    Background lodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are a significant public health problem globally. Iodine deficiency may cause subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early infancy. Neonatal thyroid screening of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to detected hypothyroidism may olso be used to determine the prevcalence of IDD in a population. Previous studies reported mild IDD status in differen parts of Indonesia Objective To evaluate the iodine status of neonates born in Mitra K...

  7. THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AS MARKER IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SUB CLINICAL THYROID DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimharao B, Sivanageswararao Mekala Venkatarao Vulli and Umaramani Ganta

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most frequent endocrine conditions that clinicians estimate and treat. Such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism which affects mostly adults in India. Mildly elevated or decreased serum thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] or thyrotropin levels are the most common abnormalities related to thyroid function. The present study undergone to determine the relationship between serum T3, T4 and TSH levels from the samples both in sub clinical hypothyroidism ...

  8. Preparation of quality control samples in radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To days, the radioimmunoassay is becomes the best technique to analysis different concentrations of substance, especially in medical and research laboratories. Although the specificity of RIA techniques, the quality controls must takes place to give good results as possible. In this dissertation i prepared quality control samples of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), to use it in RIA techniques and to control the reliability results of those laboratories which used these methods. We used China production kits of RIA method to determine the level of hormone (low-normal-high) concentration. Statistical parameters were used to drown the control chart of the mean to these data.(Author)

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants and Neonatal Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels in the CHAMACOS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Sjödin, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Studies published in the last 3 decades have demonstrated global human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. A growing body of literature suggests that PBDEs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. Although thyroid hormones play an essential role in brain development, few studies have investigated relations between prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neonatal thyroid hormone levels, and none have measured thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in neonates. The autho...

  10. Paracrine interactions of thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulation hormone in the female reproductive tract have an impact on female fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnneliStavreus-Evers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disease often causes menstrual disturbances and infertility problems. Thyroid hormone (TH acts through its receptors, transcription factors present in most cell types in the body. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH stimulates TH synthesis in the thyroid gland, but seems to have other functions as well in the female reproductive tract. The receptors of both TH and TSH increase in the receptive endometrium, suggesting that they are important for implantation, possible by influencing inflammatory mediators such as LIF. The roles of these receptors in the ovary need further studies. However, it is likely that the thyroid system is important for both follicular and embryo development. The association between thyroid disease and infertility indicate that TH and TSH affect the endometrium and ovary on the paracrine level.

  11. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  12. Effects of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level on clinical pregnancy rate via In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Aghahosseini, Marziyeh; Asgharifard, Homa; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Tehrani Banihashemi, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism may adversely affect In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) outcomes. However the cutoff of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for diagnosis and treatment is controversal. The aim of this study was to find the association of clinical pregnancy rate with regard to TSH levels in women undergoing IVF.

  13. THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AS MARKER IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SUB CLINICAL THYROID DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimharao B, Sivanageswararao Mekala Venkatarao Vulli and Umaramani Ganta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most frequent endocrine conditions that clinicians estimate and treat. Such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism which affects mostly adults in India. Mildly elevated or decreased serum thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] or thyrotropin levels are the most common abnormalities related to thyroid function. The present study undergone to determine the relationship between serum T3, T4 and TSH levels from the samples both in sub clinical hypothyroidism and sub clinical hyperthyroidism patients with normal healthy controls under the age group level between 20-65 years. By using Elisa method, the parameters T3, T4 & TSH have been extensively studied on individuals of each disorder and healthy controls. Among these, TSH is a valuable predictive marker for the subclinical hypothyroid and subclinical hyper thyroid disorders.

  14. Relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone and various components of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the relation between thyroid stimulating hormone and various components of metabolic syndrome. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology department, Army Medical College of National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad and Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan; from January to March 2013. Material and Methods: Hundred adult inhabitants (30-60 years) of Rawalpindi participated in this study. Subjects who fulfilled the WHO criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) were included and those who had any thyroid illness, or were using any thyroid medications were excluded from this study. For thyroid function tests (TFT's), serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (TT3), free throxine (FT4) were estimated. Insulin resistance (IR) was measured by Homeostasis Model Assessment for IR (HOMA-IR). Data was analyzed by SPSS-18. Results: Out of 50 subjects of control group, 26 (52%) were male and 24 (48%) were female. Basal metabolic rate (BMI), serum triglyceride (TG), HOMA-IR were higher and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was lower in MetS patients. There was no significant difference in serum TT3 and FT4 between MetS patients and control group, however, mean serum TSH levels were higher in MetS (2.622 + 0.924 vs 5.002 + 1.074 mIU/l, p<0.001). In correlation analysis, serum TSH was positively and significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.344, p=0.014) and HOMA-IR (r=0.419, p<0.002). Conclusion: These results suggest that serum TSH correlates with various components of metabolic syndrome patients. Analysis of serum TSH levels in metabolic syndrome patients may prove beneficial in preventing the various cardiometabolic complications in such patients. (author)

  15. Simple, rapid, and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone immunoassay using europium(III) nanoparticle label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is widely used as a marker of thyroid function. A rapid TSH assay enables diagnosis during the first visit at the doctor's office aiding to faster and cost-effective medical treatment. To accomplish such an assay method europium(III) chelate nanoparticles were coated with anti-TSH monoclonal antibody. Captured anti-TSH monoclonal antibody was immobilized onto single wells by streptavidin-biotin chemistry and the assay was carried out in dry chemistry format using 5 ?l of sample in a 30 ?l assay volume in the commercial AiO immunoassay system. The developed TSH nanoparticle assay was performed in a kinetic mode using a 10-min incubation time. The analytical sensitivity of the developed assay was 0.0012 mIU l-1 corresponding to the fourth generation TSH assay and less than 0.02 mIU l-1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators. The dynamic range of the assay was more than three orders of magnitude and no high-dose hook effect was observed at 100 mIU l-1 of TSH. Correlation with an automated commercial assay was good (y = 0.96 ± 0.02, intercept = 0.12 ± 0.09, Syverticalbarx = 0.49, R = 0.988). Intra- and inter-assay variations were 4-14 and 6-17%, respectively. The developed quantitative one-step all-in-one dry reagent time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay has great potential for rapid analysis of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in a point-of-care environment when antibody-coated care environment when antibody-coated high specific activity Eu(III) nanoparticles were used as labels

  16. Effect of axitinib (AG-013736) on fatigue, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and biomarkers. A phase I study in Japanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axitinib is an oral, potent, and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3. This phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antitumor activity, and recommended starting dose of axitinib in patients with advanced solid tumors. Twelve patients received single-dose axitinib 5 mg and were monitored for ?48 h. Continuous 5 mg twice-daily dosing was then initiated. One patient had dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 proteinuria and fatigue). Common treatment-related adverse events were anorexia, fatigue, and diarrhea. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events were fatigue and hypertension. Maximum axitinib plasma concentration occurred 1-4 h after steady-state dosing. Eleven patients experienced thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation; time-course change and fatigue onset appeared to be related in some patients. Significant correlation was observed between thyroid-stimulating hormone change and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC; r=0.80, P=0.005). Axitinib decreased plasma soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (s-VEGFR2), with significant correlation between change in s-VEGFR2 and AUC (r=-0.92, P<0.0001). Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed a substantial decrease in tumor metabolic activity associated with axitinib. Tumor size decreased in nine patients. The time-course of thyroid-stimulating hormone change appeared correlated with fatigue. There were sed correlated with fatigue. There were significant correlations between thyroid-stimulating hormone or s-VEGFR2 and axitinib exposure. Axitinib 5 mg twice-daily is the recommended starting dose for Japanese patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT00447005. (author)

  17. Monte Carlo loop refinement and virtual screening of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor transmembrane domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Rejwan; Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F; Mezei, Mihaly

    2015-01-01

    Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) loop refinement has been performed on the three extracellular loops (ECLs) of rhodopsin and opsin-based homology models of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor transmembrane domain, a class A type G protein-coupled receptor. The Monte Carlo sampling technique, employing torsion angles of amino acid side chains and local moves for the six consecutive backbone torsion angles, has previously reproduced the conformation of several loops with known crystal structures with accuracy consistently less than 2?Å. A grid-based potential map, which includes van der Waals, electrostatics, hydrophobic as well as hydrogen-bond potentials for bulk protein environment and the solvation effect, has been used to significantly reduce the computational cost of energy evaluation. A modified sigmoidal distance-dependent dielectric function has been implemented in conjunction with the desolvation and hydrogen-bonding terms. A long high-temperature simulation with 2?kcal/mol repulsion potential resulted in extensive sampling of the conformational space. The slow annealing leading to the low-energy structures predicted secondary structure by the MMC technique. Molecular docking with the reported agonist reproduced the binding site within 1.5?Å. Virtual screening performed on the three lowest structures showed that the ligand-binding mode in the inter-helical region is dependent on the ECL conformations. PMID:25012978

  18. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  19. Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of comlinear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

  20. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Thyroglobulin, and Thyroid Hormones and Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma : The EPIC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased levels of thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) risk, but strong epidemiological evidence is lacking. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-seven incident TC case patients (n = 300 women and 57 men; mean age at blood collection = 51.5 years) were identified in the EPIC cohort study and matched with 2 (women) or 3 (men) control subjects using incidence density sampling. Matching included study center, sex, age, date, time, and fasting status at blood collection. Levels of total and free (f) thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-thyronine (T3), TSH, Tg, and anti-Tg antibodies (TgAb) were measured by commercially available immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: TC risk was positively associated with Tg (OR for the highest vs lowest quartile = 9.15; 95% CI = 5.28 to 15.90; P < .001) and negatively associatedwith TSH level (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.81; P = .001). Odds ratios were not modified by adjustment for weight and height and were consistent across sexes, age groups, and countries. The association with Tg was stronger in follicular than papillary TC. The odds ratio for TgAb-positivity was 1.50 (95% CI = 1.05 to 2.15; P = .03). Among case patients, TSH level was stable over time, whereas Tg level was higher in proximity to TC diagnosis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 57% and 74% for TSH and Tg level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: High Tg levels precede by up to 8 years the detection of TC, pointing to a long sojourn time of the disease. Low TSH levels may predispose to TC onset. Neither marker has sufficient accuracy to be a screening test.

  1. Plasma Retinol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Zinc as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Status

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    Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny*, Effat A. A., Afifi**, Wafaa M. A. Saleh**, Asmaa, M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting results on the association between serum retinol level and bone mineral density (BMD have been published. Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and have direct effect on bone formation and resorption. Bone has one of the highest concentrations of zinc of all tissues, and has been shown to release zinc during deficiency for soft tissue metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between plasma levels of retinol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH & zinc and BMD of Egyptian adolescents and adults. Method: The study was a part of a cross sectional national survey conducted by National Nutrition Institute. The sample was a multistage stratified random. Target individuals were classified into two age groups (10- 18 and 28- 59 years. Bone mineral density and plasma levels of retinol, TSH and zinc were determined. Results: Low and high plasma retinol levels were more prevalent among osteoporotic adolescent and adult males respectively than in normal subjects.. The reverse was observed in adult females. Bone mineral density correlated negatively with plasma retinol level in adult males and females and positively in adolescent males, while among females the association was significant (P = 0.030 and stronger. The highest deficiency of TSH was found among adult and adolescent osteoporotic males, followed by osteopenic adult males and adolescent females. Highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001 existed between osteoporotic and normal adult males concerning TSH deficiency. The prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 5.7% to 9.5% for all target individuals. Plasma Zn levels were correlated negatively with bone mineral density in adult males and females. Conclusion: The results of this study reflects the controversy on the association of plasma retinol and BMD. However, the predominant finding revealed that both low and high plasna retinol levels compromise bone health. Bone status and thyroid function support the adverse effect of hyperthyroidism upon either bone osteoporosis or osteopenia and subsequently upon fracture risk. Plasma zinc deficiency correlated negatively with BMD in adult osteoporotic men.

  2. Level of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in Patients with Acute Schizophrenia, Unipolar Depression or Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wysokin?ski, Adam; K?oszewska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate differences in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in patients with acute schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar depression and bipolar mania. Serum level of TSH was measured in 1,685 Caucasian patients (1,064 women, 63.1 %; mean age 46.4). Mean serum TSH concentration was: schizophrenia (n = 769) 1.71 ?IU/mL, unipolar depression (n = 651) 1.63 ?IU/mL, bipolar disorder (n = 264) 1.86 ?IU/mL, bipolar depression (n = 203) 2.00 ?I...

  3. Development of a sensitive, rapid, biotin-streptavidin based chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for human thyroid stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhen; Wang, Xu; Li, Zhen-Jia; Ren, Shi-Qi; Chen, Guo-Nan; Ying, Xi-Tang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2008-05-30

    A highly sensitive "two-site" chemiluminescent immunoassay specific for human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was developed. The signal amplification was achieved via a biotin-streptavidin system (BSAS). The HRP-luminol-H(2)O(2) chemiluminescent system with high sensitivity was chosen as the detection system. Biotinylated anti-TSH monoclonal antibody (MAb) and HRP-labeled streptavidin were first synthesized. Then the signal amplification was achieved through the interaction between the biotinylated anti-TSH MAb and the HRP-streptavidin conjugate. The light intensity developed was in proportion to the TSH present in the samples. The assay showed little cross-reactivity with three other glycoprotein hormones (human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)) due to the high specificity of the antibody. The working range for human thyroid stimulating hormone was 0.1-40 mU L(-1). Both the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 10% for the BSAS based chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). The proposed assay had a sensitivity of 0.01 mU L(-1) which was 10-fold higher than the HRP-MAb conjugate based TSH immunoassay. Thus the higher sensitivity facilitated the clinical testing for thyroid states. The effects of several reaction parameters, such as incubation time, temperature, and reaction volume of the method, were also studied. This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of TSH in human serum. Compared with the commercial enzyme chemiluminescent immunoassay, the correlation was satisfied. PMID:18585170

  4. Neonatal iodine status survey by thyroid-stimulating hormone screening in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Untario

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background lodine deficiency disorders (IDD are a significant public health problem globally. Iodine deficiency may cause subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early infancy. Neonatal thyroid screening of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH to detected hypothyroidism may olso be used to determine the prevcalence of IDD in a population. Previous studies reported mild IDD status in differen parts of Indonesia Objective To evaluate the iodine status of neonates born in Mitra Keluarga Surabaya Hospital (MKSH by TSH screening over a 6-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study conducted in MKSH from January 2005 to December 2010. Of the 5,619 infants took part in this study. Blood specimens for TSH measurement were collected from subjects 2 to 6 days after birth, and sent to a reference laboraratory for evaluation. Using the neonatal TSH values, the iodine deficiency level of the group was determined according to the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of IDD criteria Results A total of 3,349 newborn babies underwent neonatal TSH screening in MKSH. Subjects’ mean TSH concentration was 5.14 mIU/L. A TSH concentration > 5mIU/L was found in 1270 (37.9% subjects, 166 (27.6% in 2005, 252 (44.0% in 2006, 331 (47.1% in 2007, 356 (57.7% in 2008, 114 (20.7% in 2009 and 51 (16.8% in 2010. On the basis of the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder criteria, this frequency corresponded to a moderate level of IDD. Twenty-two neonates had TSH > 20 mIU/L from which 2 infants were confirmed positive for hypothyroidism. Conclusion A 6-year study of 3,349 newborns screenerd for TSH revealed that 37.9% of subjects had TSH concentration of more than 5mIU/L. this frequency indicates a moderate level of IDD in the study population.

  5. The influence of vasopressin or oxytocin on thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid hormones' concentrations in blood plasma of euthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek, J; Stempniak, B

    1997-12-01

    The effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) upon thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) release were studied in euthyroid rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of AVP in doses of 0.5 ng or 5 ng led to significant increases in plasma levels of TSH as well as FT4 and FT3. The effects of OT injected i.c.v. in similar doses were not consistent (there was no parallel between the changes of respective hormones plasma levels). It may be concluded that vasopressin modulate the pituitary-thyroid system function; AVP is probably a physiological stimulator of TSH and thyroid hormones secretion. PMID:9444627

  6. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Sterian, Ward; Ilda Shizue, Kunii; Rui Monteiro de Barros, Maciel.

    2000-09-07

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os programas de detecção precoce trazem economias ao sistema de saúde e oferecem a oportunidade de rastrear e tratar precocemente casos de hipotiroidismo congênito. OBJETIVO: Determinar influências de doenças que afetam a dinâmica materno-fetal-placentária sobre programas de detecção preco [...] ce de hipotiroidismo congênito que se baseiam na dosagem do hormônio tirotrófico (TSH). TIPO DE ESTUDO: Ensaio clínico prospectivo não-randomizado com, ao menos, três meses de seguimento. LOCAL: Centro Universitário Público de Referência - Centro de Atendimento Integrado a Saúde da Mulher (CAISM). PARTICIPANTES: 415 recém-nascidos de 5 grupos de parturientes: 83 crianças eram filhas de mães cardiopatas; 98 de mães com toxemia gravídica; 54 de mães diabéticas; 40 de mães portadoras de imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV); e 140 de mães hígidas. PROCEDIMENTOS: Todos os recém-nascidos tiveram amostras de sangue de cordão umbilical coletadas em papel de filtro ao nascimento. VARIÁVEIS ESTUDADAS: Dosagem de TSH em sangue coletado em papel de filtro usando um ensaio imunofluorométrico próprio (sensibilidade em manchas de sangue seco = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTADOS: Não encontramos diferença na média de TSH dos 5 grupos. Além disso, os níveis de TSH estavam acima de 5 mU/L em 48% dos bebês, sugerindo que nossa região é severamente deficiente em iodo. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados demonstram que programas de detecção precoce de hipotiroidismo congênito, que utilizam primariamente TSH, não são afetados por doenças maternas não-tiroidianas. Sugerimos que, além das vantagens técnicas sobre a punção de calcanhar com dosagem primária de T4, os programas de detecção precoce que utilizam primariamente TSH de cordão umbilical também podem ser usados como instrumento de avaliação e controle da carências de iodo. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pos [...] sible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

  7. Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús, Alvarado-Flores; María Del Rosario, Montoya-Garcia; Javier, Ventura Juárez; Roberto, Rico-Martínez.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH), Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH), Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH) y Prolactina (PRL) en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identi [...] ficadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA), PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA), FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA) y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA). Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo. Abstract in english The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect [...] sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA), PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA), FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA) and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA). These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.

  8. Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alvarado-Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identificadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA, PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA, FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA. Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo.

  9. Nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. ? Using nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. ? Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. ? Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab2) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L?1 H2O2 by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2 as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab2. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab2, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab2, and polyaniline2, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab2, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab2 to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 ?IU mL?1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 ?IU mL?1 TSH at the 3sB criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

  10. Nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Yuling; Chen Huafeng; Hou Li; Zhang Bing; Liu Bingqian; Chen Guonan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2012-08-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab{sub 2}) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2} as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab{sub 2}. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab{sub 2}, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab{sub 2} to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} TSH at the 3s{sub B} criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

  11. Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

  12. Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone in 2008: focus on thyroid cancer management

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Gramza; Schuff, Kathryn G.

    2009-01-01

    Ann Gramza1, Kathryn G Schuff21Division of Medical Oncology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USAAbstract: Radioiodine (RAI) ablation following thyroidectomy is standard of care treatment for patients with intermediate or high risk differentiated thyroid cancer. Traditionally, this has been achieved by forgoing thyroid hormone replacement postoperatively, allowing endogenous thyroid stimulati...

  13. 2012 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Familial and Persistent Sporadic Non-Autoimmune Hyperthyroidism Caused by Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Germline Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, R.; Niedziela, M.; Vaidya, B.; Persani, L.; Rapoport, B.; Leclere, J.

    2012-01-01

    All cases of familial thyrotoxicosis with absence of evidence of autoimmunity and all children with persistent isolated neonatal hyperthyroidism should be evaluated for familial non-autoimmune autosomal dominant hyperthyroidism (FNAH) or persistent sporadic non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (PSNAH). First, all index patients should be analysed for the presence/absence of a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) germline mutation, and if they display a TSHR germline mutation, all other...

  14. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and developmental regulation of a novel receptor from Drosophila melanogaster structurally related to members of the thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P

    1997-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide probes derived from consensus sequences for glycoprotein hormone receptors, we have cloned an 831-amino acid residue-long receptor from Drosophila melanogaster that shows a striking structural homology with members of the glycoprotein hormone (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG)) receptor family from mammals. This homology includes a very large, extracellular N terminus (20% sequence identity with rat TSH, 19% with rat FSH, and 20% with the rat LH/CG receptor) and a seven-transmembrane region (53% sequence identity with rat TSH, 50% with rat FSH, and 52% with the rat LH/CG receptor). The Drosophila receptor gene is >7.5 kilobase pairs long and contains 17 exons and 16 introns. Seven intron positions coincide with introns in the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes and have the same intron phasing. This indicates that the Drosophila receptor is evolutionarily related to the mammalian receptors. The Drosophila receptor gene is located at position 90C on the right arm of the third chromosome. The receptor is strongly expressed starting 8-16 h after oviposition, and the expression stays high until after pupation. Adult male flies express high levels of receptor mRNA, but female flies express about 6 times less. The expression pattern in embryos and larvae suggests that the receptor is involved in insect development. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a glycoprotein hormone receptor family member from insects.

  15. Is suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with subclinical depression in the Danish General Suburban Population Study?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J.; Ellervik, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The first phase of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) including 8214 individuals was an attempt to evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism without or with elevated peroxidase antibodies and depression. No such association was found. In the second phase, including 14,787 individuals, we have focused on suppressed TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and depression. Aims: To evaluate to what extent suppressed TSH is associated with subclinical depression. Methods: The total scores of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were used to evaluate subclinical depression, both by its total score and by an algorithm of the subthreshold depressed by presence of at least three of the 10 ICD-10 depression symptoms. Serum levels of TSH were used to classify the individuals into suppressed (TSH /= 3.8 mIU/l) and normal reference (TSH between 0.4 and 3.7 mIU/l). Results: We identified 285 individuals with suppressed TSH and 1266 individuals with elevated TSH. The MDI total score was 7.55 in suppressed TSH individuals, 6.22 in elevated TSH individuals and 6.52 in normal reference individuals (P = 0.01). When the MDI was used diagnostically to identify subclinical depression, the prevalence was 8.07% in suppressed TSH individuals, 5.8% in normal reference individuals and 5.29% in elevated TSH individuals. Conclusion: This population-based study supports that persons with suppressed TSH (subclinical hyperthyroidism) seem to have a risk, although small, of subclinical depression.

  16. Functional Expression of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor on Nano-Sized Bacterial Magnetic Particles in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Sugamata

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of autoantibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR is important for the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease such as Graves’ disease (GD. Although TSHR from porcine thyroid membrane is commonly used for the measurement of TSHR autoantibodies (TRAb, recombinant human TSHR (hTSHR remains ideal in terms of stable supply and species identity. Here we set out to express recombinant hTSHR on the lipid-bilayer surface of magnetic nanoparticles from a magnetotactic bacterium, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Using a tetracycline-inducible expression system, we successfully overexpressed functional hTSHR on bacterial magnetic particles (BacMPs in AMB-1 via an anchor protein specific for BacMPs. The overexpressed hTSHR was membrane integrated and possessed both ligand and autoantibody binding activity. Our data suggest that hTSHR-displayed BacMPs have potential as novel tools for ligand-receptor interaction analysis or for TRAb immunoassay in GD patients.

  17. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level in a euthyroid neonate caused by macro thyrotropin-IgG complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Mariane; Laurberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was discovered by routine neonatal screening in a newborn with no clinical symptoms. Thyroid function tests were repeated and confirmed a high TSH value but normal total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). However, the mother also had elevated serum TSH with normal levels of T4 and T3. The results suggested a transmitted maternal interfering factor, and no treatment was started while further investigation was performed. Gel filtration chromatography of serum from both the infant and the mother showed a peak TSH with molecular mass consistent with a TSH-IgG complex (macro-TSH). TSH in the infant decreased to a normal level within 8?months in accordance with a normal rate of elimination of maternal IgG, whereas the TSH level of the mother remained high. Conclusion:? This case suggests that interfering macro-TSH should be considered in a euthyroid neonate with elevated serum TSH and normal T4 and T3 levels to avoid unnecessary treatment.

  18. High thyroid-stimulating hormone level is associated with the risk of developing atherosclerosis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C X; Yang, B; Guo, Q; Wei, L H; Tian, L M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the potential role of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the risk of developing atherosclerosis in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). A cohort of 240 SCH patients and 150 euthyroid volunteers were recruited for the study. SCH patients were stratified into 2 groups according to TSH levels (group A: TSHTSH>10?mIU/l). All subjects were examined for clinical and biochemical parameters. Visfatin, omentin-1, and circulating endothelial biomarkers were measured. Patients in group B received l-thyroxine replacement to achieve euthyroidism; after 6 months of euthyroidism all measurements were repeated. Patients with SCH had higher total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lower nitric oxide (NO) and omentin-1 levels compared to euthyroid subjects (all pTSH; NO was independently correlated with age, TSH, LDL-C, and omentin-1. High TSH level contributes to endothelial dysfunction in SCH, while TSH-induced decrease of omentin-1 provides a new link between SCH and atherogenic risk. PMID:25372775

  19. Thyroid-stimulating hormone decreases HMG-CoA reductase phosphorylation via AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Song, Yongfeng; Feng, Mei; Zhou, Xinli; Lu, Yingli; Gao, Ling; Yu, Chunxiao; Jiang, Xiuyun; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-05-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is strictly regulated through the modulation of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Phosphorylation of HMGCR inactivates it and dephosphorylation activates it. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the major kinase phosphorylating the enzyme. Our previous study found that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) increased the hepatocytic HMGCR expression, but it was still unclear whether TSH affected hepatic HMGCR phosphorylation associated with AMPK. We used bovine TSH (bTSH) to treat the primary mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells with or without constitutively active (CA)-AMPK plasmid or protein kinase A inhibitor (H89), and set up the TSH receptor (Tshr)-KO mouse models. The p-HMGCR, p-AMPK, and related molecular expression were tested. The ratios of p-HMGCR/HMGCR and p-AMPK/AMPK decreased in the hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner following bTSH stimulation. The changes above were inversed when the cells were treated with CA-AMPK plasmid or H89. In Tshr-KO mice, the ratios of liver p-HMGCR/HMGCR and p-AMPK/AMPK were increased relative to the littermate wild-type mice. Consistently, the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a downstream target molecule of AMPK, increased. All results suggested that TSH could regulate the phosphorylation of HMGCR via AMPK, which established a potential mechanism for hypercholesterolemia involved in a direct action of the TSH in the liver. PMID:25713102

  20. Electron capture dissociation of divalent metal-adducted sulfated N-glycans released from bovine thyroid stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Sulfated N-glycans released from bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) were ionized with the divalent metal cations Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Co by electrospray ionization (ESI). These metal-adducted species were subjected to infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) and the corresponding fragmentation patterns were compared. IRMPD generated extensive glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, but most product ions suffered from sulfonate loss. Internal fragments were also observed, which complicated the spectra. ECD provided complementary structural information compared with IRMPD, and all observed product ions retained the sulfonate group, allowing sulfonate localization. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of ECD towards metal-adducted sulfated N-glycans released from a glycoprotein. Due to the ability of IRMPD and ECD to provide complementary structural information, the combination of the two strategies is a promising and valuable tool for glycan structural characterization. The influence of different metal ions was also examined. Calcium adducts appeared to be the most promising species because of high sensitivity and ability to provide extensive structural information. PMID:23982932

  1. Comparison of radioiodine biokinetics following the administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and after thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine kinetics were studied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer while euthyroid under exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and while hypothyroid to detect differences in radioiodine uptake, distribution and elimination. Nine patients with total or near-total thyroidectomy on thyroid hormone suppressive therapy received two or three daily doses of 0.9 mg recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) followed by administration of a diagnostic activity of 2 mCi (74 MBq) iodine-131. After the biokinetics assessments had been performed, patients stopped taking thyroid hormones to become hypothyroid. A second 2 mCi (74 MBq) diagnostic activity of 131I was administered, followed by a second set of biokinetics assessments. One week later the patients underwent remnant ablation with a therapeutic activity of 131I. A comparison of the 131I kinetics in the patients while euthyroid and while hypothyroid showed major differences in the doses to the remnant as well as in residence times and radiation exposure to the blood. In the first diagnostic assessment the remnant dose was higher in eight of the nine patients and clearance of the activity from the blood was faster in all of them. The data from this study suggest that radioiodine administration is potent and safe when administered to euthyroid patients following rhTSH administration. Enhanced residence time in the remnant and decreased radiation exposure to the blood were noted when patients ure to the blood were noted when patients were euthyroid compared to when they were rendered hypothyroid. However, all patients received diagnostic activities in the same order: first while euthyroid, followed by hypothyroidism. It is quite possible that ''stunning'' from the radioiodine administered in the initial uptake study inhibited the subsequent uptake of radioiodine by the remnant lesions in the second uptake study. (orig.)

  2. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  3. Reliability of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies level determination in diagnosing and prognosing of immunogenic hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi? Aleksandar Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Graves disease (GD is defined as hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter caused by immunogenic disturbances. Antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors of thyroid gland (TRAb have crucial pathogenetic importance in the development and maintenance of autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to identify sensitivity, specificity, positive an negative predictive value of TRAb level in sera of patients with GD as well as to estimate significance of TRAb level for remission and GD relapses occurrence. Methods. We studied prospectively and partly retrospectively 149 patients, 109 female and 40 male patients, 5-78 years old, in the period 1982-2007. There were 96 patients with GD. The control group consisted of 53 patients, 21 with hyperthyroidism of second etiology and 32 patients on amiodarone therapy, with or without thyroid dysfunction TRAb was measured by radioreceptor assay (TRAK Assay and DYNO Test TRAK Human Brahms Diagnostica GMBH. Results. According to the results the sensitivity (Sn of TRAb test was 80%, specificity (Sp 100%, positive predictive value (PP 100% and negative predictive value (NP 83%. Also, the Sn of hTRAb test was 94%, Sp 100%, PP 100% and NP 94%. Our results show that an increased level of TRAb/hTRAb at the beginning of the disease and the level at the end of medical therapy is associated with an increased number of GD relapses and a shorter remission duration. Conclusion. Detection and measurement of TRAb in serum is a very sensitive method for diagnosing GD and very highly specific in vitro method for differential diagnosis of various forms of hyperthyroidism. Clinical significance of differentiating various forms of hyperthyroidism, using this in vitro assay, lays in adequate therapeutic choice for these entities.

  4. Is thyroid-stimulating hormone within the normal reference range a risk factor for atherosclerosis in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Anna; Muzio, Fulvio; Fiscella, Michela; Sommariva, Domenico; Branchi, Adriana

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between overt hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk has been well documented and some data also suggest an association between cardiovascular risk and subclinical hypothyroidism. The aim of our study was to investigate, in a large cohort of euthyroid women, the association of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) within the normal reference range with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was carried out on 744 women with normal thyroid function (TSH 0.3-4.9 ?U/mL). Women with TSH above the median (?2.1 ?U/mL) were more obese, had greater waist girth, were more hypertensive and had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), blood sugar (BG) and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than women with TSH below the median. TSH was significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, BG, TG, TC, HDL-C and hypertension. Multiple backward stepwise regression analysis with age, waist circumference and TSH as independent variables confirmed the strong association of TSH with BG, TG, HDL-C and hypertension. A total of 205 patients (28%) fulfilled the definition criteria of the metabolic syndrome and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly greater in patients with TSH above than in patients with TSH below the median. Results of logistic analysis, including age and TSH as predictor variables, confirmed the association of TSH with metabolic syndrome.The results of this study suggest that TSH in the upper limits of the reference range (above 2.1 ?U/ml) is associated with a less favourable cardiometabolic profile and consequently with a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22203234

  5. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz-Filho, G.J.; Mesa-Junior, C.O.; Boguszewski, C.L.; Carvalho, G.A.; Graf, H. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; Olandoski, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Bioestatistica; Woellner, L.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Goedert, C.A. [Centro de Tomografia Computadorizada, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances {sup 131}I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 {+-} 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to {sup 131}I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 {+-} 64.4 mL. {sup 131}I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean {sup 131}I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 {+-} 9.7 to 49.6 {+-} 13.4% (P < 0.001), a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2). Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 {+-} 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase), 1.80 {+-} 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 {+-} 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%), painful thyroiditis (29.4%) and hypothyroidism (52.9%). Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 {+-} 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001) and by 46.0 {+-} 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of {sup 131}I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

  6. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Paz-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years, who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P < 0.001, a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2. Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 ± 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase, 1.80 ± 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 ± 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%, painful thyroiditis (29.4% and hypothyroidism (52.9%. Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 ± 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001 and by 46.0 ± 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001. Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects.

  7. Assays for thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies employing different ligands and ligand partners may have similar sensitivity and specificity but are not interchangeable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Handberg, Aase

    2010-01-01

    The best biochemical marker of Graves' disease (GD) is the presence in serum of autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR-Ab). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of two sensitive hTSHR-Ab assays with a specific focus on the clinical importance of differences in results. Both assays are competitive in nature but employ quite different types of ligands. In the "M22-pTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with a labeled monoclonal antibody (M22*) against the thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor for binding to porcine TSH receptors. In the "bTSH-rhTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with labeled bovine TSH for binding to recombinant human TSH receptors.

  8. An electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for thyroid stimulating hormone based on polyamidoamine-norfloxacin functionalized Pd-Au core-shell hexoctahedrons as signal enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuting; Zhang, Qiqi; Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a novel polyamidoamine-norfloxacin (PAMAM-NFLX) complex and core-shell Pd-Au hexoctahedrons (Pd@Au HOHs) as enhancers are employed for development of a sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor to detect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Here, norfloxacin (NFLX) is decorated abundantly on the surface of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer via amide linkage to form PAMAM-NFLX complex. Thus, the resultant PAMAM-NFLX can serve as a novel co-reactant to efficiently amplify the ECL signal of peroxydisulfate-oxygen (S2O8(2-)-O2) system. Pd@Au HOHs were used as nano-carriers to assemble detection antibody (Ab2) and the PAMAM-NFLX complex. Besides, it can further enhance the ECL signal by promoting the generation of intermediate free radical HO(•) during the ECL reaction of S2O8(2-)-O2 system. The proposed immunosensor shows high sensitivity and specificity, and responds linearly to the concentration of TSH from 0.05 to 20?IUmL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.02?IUmL(-1) (S/N=3). Moreover, the immunosensor successfully achieves the detection of TSH in practical human blood serum with desirable results. PMID:25897886

  9. Clinical and subclinical thyroid disorders associated with pernicious anemia. Observations on abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and on a possible association of blood group O with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, R; Spencer, C A

    1982-08-01

    of 162 patients with pernicious anemia whom we studies, 24.1% had clinical thyroid disease; 11.7% were hypothyroid and 8.6% were hyperthyroid. When abnormal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were also considered, thyroid disorders existed in 48.3% of 143 patients. Increased or decreased TSH levels as the sole dysfunction occurred in 14.7% and 6.3% of cases, respectively, and were often associated with thyroid antibodies. The high TSH group fits the picture of subclinical hypothyroidism. The nature of the low TSH group remains to be defined. We conclude that TSH screening in patients with pernicious anemia uncovers frequent abnormalities, which are superimposed on a higher coincidence of overt thyroid disease than previously described. Interestingly, also, eight of nine hyperthyroid patients and all seven patients with low TSH levels had blood type O, contrasting significantly with hypothyroid subjects, who more often had blood type A, and with patients without thyroid disorders. PMID:7103627

  10. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodotyronine and Thyroxine Concentrations and Their Relationship with Metabolic Parameters, Anthropometric Variables and Body Composition in Premenopausal Euthyroid Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the potential relationships of thyroid hormones, metabolic parameters, and anthropometric variables with body composition in premenopausal women. Material and Method: A total of 84 women with a mean age of 35.12±8.11 years were investigated. Subjects with a history of diabetes, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, chronic liver, and renal disease were excluded from the study. In all subjects, anthropometric parameters were evaluated and body composition was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Fasting serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, triiodothyrionine (T3, thyroxine (T4, fasting blood glucose (FBG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 were measured by enzymatic methods. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was determined by Friedewald formula. Results: Serum TSH, CRP and TC levels in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p<0.05. Serum TSH concentration was positively associated with waist to hip ratio (WHR and fat mass and, negatively associated with fat-free mass (p<0.05. There was also a positive relationship between T3 and TG and between T4 and LDL-C in all participants. In comparison of subjects with different body fat percentage, subjects with higher body fat had also higher amount of TSH concentrations (p=0.015. Discussion: Our results showed a relationship of fat mass and lipid profile with thyroid function in premenopausal women. Further researches are needed to clarify the nature and mechanism of these relationships.

  11. The prevalence of elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in childhood/adolescent obesity and of autoimmune thyroid diseases in a subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Samar K.; Dasari, Gayathri; Levens, Kara L.; Rettig, Kenneth R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: 1) To ascertain the frequency of elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in obese children and adolescents and 2) to determine the prevalence of positive thyroid antibodies in the subgroup of obese children with elevated serum TSH concentration. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and prospective observation of 308 children, ages 6-17 years, with nonorganic, nonsyndromic obesity with BMI > 97th percentile. The control population consisted of 286 nonobese, otherwise-healthy children of the same age range. Thyroid function tests (free T4 or T4 with TSH) were obtained on all patients in both groups. Thyroid antibodies (thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin) were determined among those with elevated TSH levels. RESULTS: Elevated TSH levels of > 4 uIU/ml (reference interval 0.4-4) were noted in 36 patients within the obese group (11.7%) but only two in the control group (7.4 uIU/ml, with an average of 9.8 uIU/ml. Thirty-one children in the obese subgroup with negative thyroid antibodies had TSH levels < 6.7 uIU/ml (average 5.33 uIU/ml). CONCLUSION: A higher prevalence of TSH elevation was observed in the obese group (11.7%) than in the control group (0.7%). Positive thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies were observed in higher frequency in the obese subgroup with an elevated TSH level. The obese subgroup with positive thyroid antibodies also had higher TSH levels. Therefore, some instances of high TSH, especially those associated with antibodies, are likely due, at least in part, to thyroid disease, and others (possibly a majority) may be due to obesity, not its cause. It remains to be seen whether any children with mild TSH elevation benefit from thyroid hormone treatment. PMID:17668643

  12. Comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Khadem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physiological changes in thyroid gland during pregnancy have been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic causes of preeclampsia.Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this case?control study, 40 normal pregnant women and 40 cases of preeclampsia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated. They were compared for serum levels of Free T3 (FT3, Free T4 (FT4 and TSH. The data was analyzed by SPSS software with the use of t?student, Chi?square, Independent sample T-test and Bivariate correlation test. p?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was not statistically different between two groups (p=0.297. No significant difference was observed in terms of parity between two groups (p=0.206. Normal pregnant women were not significantly different from preeclampsia cases in the view of FT3 level (1.38 pg/ml vs. 1.41 pg/ml, p=0.803, FT4 level (0.95 pg/ml vs. 0.96 pg/ml, p=0.834 and TSH level (3.51 ?IU/ml vs. 3.10 ?IU/ml, p=0.386. Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the hypothesis that changes in FT3, FT4 and TSH levels could be possible etiology of preeclampsia

  13. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  14. Serial changes of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone after total thyroidectomy or withdrawal of suppressive thyroxine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and whole-body scanning are the fundamentals of treatment and follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is generally accepted that a Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level of at least 30 ?U/ml is a prerequisite for the effective use of RAI, and that it requires 4-6 weeks of off-thyroxine to attain these levels. Because thyroxine withdrawal and the consequent hypothyroidism are often poorly tolerated, and occasionally might be hazardous, it is important to be certain that these assumptions are correct. We have measured serial changes in serum TSH after total thyroidectomy or withdrawl of thyroxine in patients with thyroid cancer. Serum TSH levels were measured weekly after thyroidectomy in 10 patients (group A) and after the discontinuation of thyroxine in 12 patients (group B). Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were also evaluated weekly by modified Billewicz diagnostic index. By the second week, 78% of group A patients and 17% of group B patients had serum TSH levels ? 30 ?U/ml. By the third week, 89% of group A patients and 90% of group B patients had serum TSH levels ? 30 ?U/ml. By the fourth week, all patients in two groups achieved target TSH levels and there were no overt hypothyroidism. In all patients, serum TSH elevated to the target concentration (? 30 ?U/ml) within 4 weeks without significant manifestation of hypothyroidism. The schedule of RAI administration could be adjusted to fit. the neeould be adjusted to fit. the needs and circumstances of individual patients with a shorter preparation period than the conventional

  15. Casos clínicos en Endocrinología (n.º 2): niña de diez años con alteraciones de la hormona estimulante del tiroides / Clinical cases in Endocrinology (nº 2): a ten year old girl with thyroid stimulating hormone alteration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., Álvarez Gil; T., Angulo Sacristán.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuando con los casos clínicos de Endocrinología, se presenta una niña de diez años derivada de un centro de salud por alteraciones de la hormona estimulante del tiroides. En este artículo trataremos especialmente de la disminución de la función tiroidea (hipotiroidismo). [...] Abstract in english Continuing with clinical cases in endocrinology we report the case of a 10 years old girl referred from a primary care center with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) alteration. In this paper we'll specially address the reduction in thyroid function (hypothyroidism). [...

  16. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA encoding pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone beta-subunit of the Chinese soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis and regulation of its gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung-Tsun; Chowdhury, Indrajit; Lin, Yao-Sung; Liao, Ching-Fong; Shen, San-Tai; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

    2006-04-01

    A cDNA encoding thyroid stimulating hormone beta-subunit (TSHbeta) was cloned from pituitary of the Chinese soft-shell turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, and its regulation of mRNA expression was investigated for the first time in reptile. The Chinese soft-shell turtle TSHbeta cDNA was cloned from pituitary RNA by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) methods. The Chinese soft-shell turtle TSHbeta cDNA consists of 580-bp nucleotides, including 67-bp nucleotides of 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 402-bp of the open reading frame, and 97-bp of 3'-UTR followed by a 14 poly (A) trait. It encodes a precursor protein molecule of 133 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids and a putative mature protein of 114 amino acids. The number and position of 12 cysteine residues, presumably forming six disulfide bonds, one putative asparagine-linked glycosylation site, and six proline residues that are found at positions for changing the backbone direction of the protein have been conserved in the turtle as in other vertebrate groups. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Chinese soft-shell turtle TSHbeta mature protein shares identities of 82-83% with birds, 71-72% with mammals, 49-57% with amphibians, and 44-61% with fish. The Chinese soft-shell turtle pituitaries were incubated in vitro with synthetic TRH (TSH-releasing hormone), thyroxine and triiodothyronine at doses of 10(-10) and 10(-8)M. TRH stimulated, while thyroid hormones suppressed, TSHbeta mRNA levels in dose-related manner. The sequences of cDNA and its deduced peptide of TSHbeta as well as the regulation of its mRNA level were reported for the first time in reptile. PMID:16290821

  17. Elevação de hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH após as lobectomias: incidência e fatores associados Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH rising following hemithyroidectomy: incidence and adjuvant factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergillius José Furtado de Araújo Filho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de elevação da dosagem sérica do hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH em pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide, em um período de até 12 semanas após a operação, buscando fatores associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODO: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 88 pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, no período de setembro de 2002 a setembro de 2004. Realizaram-se dosagens de hormônios tireoideanos a partir de quatro semanas após a cirurgia. Excluíram-se os pacientes com dosagens hormonais pré-operatórias alteradas, os casos que necessitaram de totalização da tireoidectomia e também aqueles em que houve perda do seguimento pós-operatório. Foram analisados os dados quanto à idade e ao sexo dos pacientes, quanto à presença de tireoidite no estudo histopatológico da tireóide e quanto ao tempo de aparecimento do hipotireoidismo. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos foi realizada através do teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Dos 88 pacientes, 71 (80,7% eram mulheres. A idade média foi de 41,7 anos. Observou-se elevação do TSH em 20 (22,73% dos 88 pacientes estudados. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de elevação do TSH, quando analisados quanto ao sexo, à idade ou à presença de tireoidite. CONCLUSÃO: A elevação do TSH é freqüente após lobectomias da tireóide e ocorre, muitas vezes, precocemente após a cirurgia. Não se encontraram, neste estudo, fatores que pudessem predizer sua ocorrência a curto prazo.BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency of serum elevations of thyrotropin in patients submitted to lobectomy within a period of up to 12 weeks after surgery, in the search for factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients submitted to thyroid lobectomy from September 2002 to September 2004 in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery - University of São Paulo Medical School were retrospectively analyzed. Thyroid hormone determinations were performed from 4 weeks on after the surgery. Cases of patients with altered preoperative hormone determination, need for total thyroidectomy, and loss of postoperative follow-up were excluded. Data regarding age and gender of patients, presence of thyroiditis on histopathologic analysis of the thyroid and time of emergence of hypothyroidism were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: Of the 88 patients, 71 (80.7% were women. The mean age was of 41.7 years. Elevation of thyrotropin was observed in 20 (22.73% of the 88 studied patients. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding its incidence in relation to gender, age or the presence of thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: Elevation of thyrotropin is frequent after thyroid lobectomy and it may occur early after surgery. In this study, no factor that could predict its occurrence in the short term were found.

  18. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Ankur; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Manoj; Taywade, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Context: F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. Aims: The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson's correlation analysis. Results: Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 ?IU/ml, median: 7.37 ?IU/ml, range: 0.074-211 ?IU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Conclusions: Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules. PMID:25589800

  19. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 ?IU/ml, median: 7.37 ?IU/ml, range: 0.074-211 ?IU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum take value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  20. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website will be limited. Search Help? Growth Hormone Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth Hormone ...

  1. Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides / Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Teresa, Marrero Rodríguez.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma pap [...] ilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares). El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %), en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 %) y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %). En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia. Abstract in english The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular a [...] nd undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

  2. Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares. El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %, en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 % y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %. En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia.The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas. The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %, in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %, and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %. No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

  3. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of typical test results and their potential meaning. TSH Free T4 Free or total T3 Probable Interpretation High Normal Normal Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism High Low Low or normal Hypothyroidism Low Normal ...

  4. Bromine and thyroid hormone activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Allain, P.; Berre, S.; Krari, N.; Laine, P.; Barbot, N.; Rohmer, V.; Bigorgne, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the possible consequences of high plasma concentrations of bromine on thyroid hormone. METHODS--Bromine was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the plasma of 799 patients consulting for thyroid disorders. Because the mean (SD) bromine concentration in the plasma of healthy subjects is 4 (1) mg/l, concentrations above 6 mg/l were regarded as outside the normal range. Bromine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values were compar...

  5. Micro-electrolytic iodination of polypeptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a constant voltage microelectrolytic 125I-labelling procedure and applies it to the iodination of 5-50 ?g quantities of polypeptide hormones (synthetic salmon calcitonin, porcine glucagon, dog growth hormone, bovine growth hormone, bovine lutenizing hormone, bovine parathyroid hormone and bovine thyroid stimulating hormone). The electrolytic technique avoids exposure of the hormones to oxidizing agents which damage hormones and alter their biological and immunological activity. The labeled hormones showed no apparent damage by chromatoelectrophoresis or polyacrylamide gel filtration and all of the labelled hormones tested were either biologically or immunologically active. Finally, this simple, mild, and rapid micro-electrolytic iodination technique is highly reproducible, and rapid micro-electrolytic iodination technique is highly reproducible, yields a high degree of iodination and allows for the preparation of either high or low specific activity labeled hormone molecules. (author)

  6. Transient neonatal hyperthyroidism and maternal thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, T.; Momoi, T.; Akaishi, K.; Yagura, T.; Kasagi, K.; Endo, K.

    1988-01-01

    Serum thyroid stimulating hormone binding inhibitor immunoglobulins (TBII) and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) concentrations were measured in three pregnant women with hyperthyroidism and then in their infants. The results suggested that TBII concentrations in infants in the neonatal period or from mothers during the third trimester of pregnancy showed a good correlation with the development of neonatal hyperthyroidism.

  7. Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Bioactivity in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    TThyroid hormone plays an essential role in a variety of metabolic processes in the human body. Examples are the effects of thyroid hormone on metabolism and on the heart. The production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) via the TSH receptor. The thyroid produces T4, which is not biologically active. Therefore, T4 has to be converted to the active hormone T3, a process that is regulated by three enzymes, the deiodinases (D1...

  8. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  9. Hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Perhaps the largest benefit women receive from hormone therapy is relief from: Hot flashes Night sweats Sleep difficulties Vaginal dryness Anxiety Usually, hot flashes and night sweats are less severe after a couple of years, especially if hormone therapy ...

  10. HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, U. [Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Harmer, C.; Clarke, S.; Moss, L.; Nicol, A.; Clarke, P.; Smellie, J.; McCready, R.; Farnell, K.; Franklyn, J.; John, R.; Nutting, C.; Yap, B.; Lemon, C.; Wadlsey, J.; Gerrard, G.; Roques, T.; Macias, E.; Whitaker, S.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Alvarez, P.; Kadalayil, L.; Hackshaw, A.

    2012-07-01

    Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

  11. Genetic causes of pituitary hormone deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Austin; Nokoff, Natalie J; Meeks, Naomi J L

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, dozens of genes that cause isolated and combined pituitary hormone deficiencies have been discovered. We will review the clinically relevant genes known to cause isolated and combined pituitary hormone deficiencies in humans. This review will address genetic causes of adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency, thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency, growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and diabetes insipidus. Additionally, we will discuss genetic causes of combined pituitary hormone deficiency, septo-optic dysplasia, holoprosencephaly, and multisystemic syndromes in which hypopituitarism is a significant component. With the widespread clinical availability of next generation sequencing and ongoing identification of new disease causing genes, genetic diagnoses are determined for increasing numbers of patients. With new insights into mechanisms of disease resulting from multiple gene interactions, an increasingly nuanced understanding of the underlying genetic etiology of pituitary hormone deficiencies is possible. PMID:25828521

  12. Stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion by thyrotropin in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    OpenAIRE

    St Aubin, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Bovine thyroid stimulating hormone administered to three beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, was effective in producing an increase in circulating levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine. A single dose of 10 I.U. of thyroid stimulating hormone resulted in a 145% increase in triiodothyronine and a 35% increase in thyroxine after nine hours in a whale tested within two hours after capture. The response was less pronounced in an animal tested with the same does on two occasions after four and...

  13. Efectos del fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental en los niveles plasmáticos de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH) / Phothoperiod and Environmental Temperature Effects on Plasmatic Levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Villagrán, De Rosso; CM, Elizondo; Posadas, Martinez; D, Giunta; EI, Barragán.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en el Alto Valle del R ío Negro, Patagonia Argentina, indican que existe una prevalencia de bocio ligeramente superior a la línea de corte establecida por el Internacional Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders con un grado de nutrición de yodo apropiado; prevalen [...] cia que podría ser atribuida a factores ambientales y/o nutricionales que interfieren con el metabolismo tiroideo. La concentración de TSH circulante responde a variaciones circadianas y es influenciada por las estaciones y la temperatura ambiental. Las características geográficas, el clima semidesértico o la presencia de sustancias que actúan como disruptores endocrinos, son factores que podrían relacionarse a modificaciones en la producción hormonal en zonas urbanas o rurales. Objetivos: a) Evaluar la posible asociación entre la variación anual de los valores de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH), el fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental. b) Estimar si los valores plasmáticos de TSH son significativamente diferentes en poblaciones rurales y urbanas de Alto Valle del Río Negro. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 1393 pacientes sanos residentes en el Alto Valle: 226 masculinos y 1167 femeninos, que acudieron por control clínico en el año 2010. Se utilizó para el análisis el software SPSS 17.0. Se encontraron variaciones significativas en el Log-TSH con un pico máximo al comienzo del otoño-invierno y un pico mínimo en primavera-verano. Se obtuvo una diferencia significativa en valores de Log-TSH en área rural: 0,46 uUI/ml (0,30-0,61) contra 0,28 uUI/ml (0,26-0,30) con p Abstract in english Studies carried out in Alto Valle del Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina, show a prevalence of goiter slightly above the cut-off line established by the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IC-CIDD), with an appropriate iodine nutrition grade; such prevalence could be at [...] tributed to environmental and/ or nutritional factors that interfere with thyroid metabolism. Blood TSH concentration responds to circadian variations and is influenced by seasonality and environmental temperature. The geographic characteristics, semi-desert climate or the presence of endocrine disruptors are factors that could be related to hormonal production modifications in urban or rural areas. Objectives: a) To evaluate the potential association between annual variation in TSH levels, photoperiod and environmental temperature. b) To estimate if plasma TSH values are significantly different in populations from rural and urban areas in Alto Valle del Rio Negro. We retrospectively evaluated 1393 healthy patients living in Alto Valle del Río Negro: 226 males and 1167 females, who presented for routine clinical check-up during 2010. SPSS 17.0 software was used for the analysis. Significant variations were found in Log-TSH, with a maximal peak at the beginning of the fall-winter and a minimal peak in spring-summer. There is a significant difference in the values of TSH between rural and urban areas, (values of Log-TSH in rural area: 0.46 uUI/ml (0.30-0.61) vs. urban area: 0.28 uUI/ml (0.26-0.30) with p

  14. Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010 / Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Mosso; Paula, Margozzini; Pamela, Trejo; Angélica, Domínguez; Sandra, Solari; Gonzalo, Valdivia; Eugenio, Arteaga.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean [...] National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

  15. Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010 Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Mosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

  16. Hormonal evaluation in erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Çal??kan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Erectile dysfunction (ED is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between ED and hormonal abnormalities. Material and methods: We evaluated 178 patients between the ages of 25 and 85 years old. Medical histories and details were collected, and the IIEF question test was completed by all patients. After the basic evaluation, serum total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured.Results: The mean age of the patients and IIEF scores were 50.5±12.3 and 12.8±6.13, respectively. The mean testosterone, prolactin, TSH, LH and FSH were 426±152 ng/dL, 15.8±45.6 ng/mL, 1.56±1.2 micro IU/mL, 5.5±4.3 m IU/mL and 7.7±6.9 m IU/mL, respectively. Two patients had abnormal TSH levels, and 27 patients had abnormal LH levels. Abnormal FSH levels were detected in 6 patients. Eight patients had abnormal testosterone levels, and twenty had abnormal prolactin levels.Conclusion: ED is an illness that affects older men, and multiple factors cause this illness. Hormonal abnormalities are one of these factors that can be corrected. When appropriate, hormone levels should be measured and treated in patients who present with ED.

  17. Effect of HCV Treatment on Circulating Pituitary Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abdel Baki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyse the relationship between pegylated interferontherapy and levels of pituitary hormones.METHODS: 49 chronic HCV patients were recruited at specializedhepatology clinic in National Hepatology and Tropical MedicineResearch Institute (NHTMRI, Cairo; they were treated withpegylated interferon and ribavirin according to the standard treatmentcriteria and regimen. Pituitary hormones levels were assessed at week0, 24 of treatment.RESULTS: Significant changes in the pituitary hormones levelswere noticed with perceived rise in Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH, Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH, Human growth hormone. (HGH, Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEAS, Prolactin and Cortisol, while significant reduction inthe levels of Testosterone, free Testosterone and sex hormone wereobserved.CONCLUSION: Treatment of HCV with Peg-INF/RBV may beassociated with pituitary hormonal dysfunction which may lead tomany neglected side effects like libido, erectile dysfunction andgalactorrhea.

  18. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & Pineal Glands Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads ... hormone secretion. « Previous (Characteristics of Hormones) Next (Pituitary & Pineal Glands) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | ...

  19. [Sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kuy, A; van den Bemd, A A; Beysens, A J

    1977-03-15

    An overview of the sex hormones is presented. Testosterone is a natural androgen produced in the testes, adrenal glands, and ovaries. It has anabolic as well as androgenic effects. Testosterone is used to treat inoperable breast cancer and osteoporosis, and to stimulate erythropoesis. Androgens are absolutely counterindicated in cases of prostate cancer. Estrone, estradiol, and estriol are natural estrogens produced in the ovaries, placenta, testes, and adrenal glands. These hormones also influence the production of gonadotropins by the pituitary gland. Estrogens are used to treat menopausal disorders, ovarial insufficiency, estrogen-independent breast cancer, prostate cancer, and in some cases pregnancy disorders. Estrogens and progestagens are 2 components used in oral contraceptives. Progesterone, a natural progestagen, is produced by the corpus luteum. It promotes the proliferation phase of the endometrium, fertilization, and nidation, and it works to maintain pregnancy. Progesterone is used to treat spontaneous abortion, corpus luteum insufficiency, and endometrial cancer. PMID:242426

  20. Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolobe OM

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available CorrigendumJolobe OM. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:299–301.On page 299, note that the title was incorrectly listed as "Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". The correct title is "Upper limit of the normal range for thyroid-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". On line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".On page 301, line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".Read the original letter

  1. Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Menopausal Hormone Therapy URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Hormone_Therapy_060315.html Menopausal Hormone Therapy HealthDay ...

  2. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  3. Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different story. Cathy wanted more information. What about hormones? Symptoms such as hot flashes might result from ... forms and doses. How would I use menopausal hormone therapy? Estrogen is a hormone used to relieve ...

  4. Decreased thyroid follicle size in dwarf mice may suggest the role of growth hormone signaling in thyroid growth regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gesing Adam; Bartke Andrzej; Masternak Michal M; Lewi?ski Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewi?ska Ma?gorzata

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Altered somatotrophic signaling is among the most important potential mechanisms of extended longevity. Ames dwarf (df/df) mice are homozygous for mutation at the Prop-1 gene, leading to a lack of growth hormone (GH), prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Mice homozygous for targeted disruption of the growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein gene are known as GH receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice or “Laron dwarf”. Both, df/df and GHRKO mice, are ch...

  5. Hormones talking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Reyes-Olalde, J. Irepan; Ramos-Cruz, Daniela; Lozano-Sotomayor, Paulina; Zúñiga-Mayo, Victor M.; de Folter, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The proper development of fruits is important for the sexual reproduction and propagation of many plant species. The fruit of Arabidopsis derives from the fertilized gynoecium, which initiates at the center of the flower and obtains its final shape, size, and functional tissues through progressive stages of development. Hormones, specially auxins, play important roles in gynoecium and fruit patterning. Cytokinins, which act as counterparts to auxins in other plant tissues, have been studied more in the context of ovule formation and parthenocarpy. We recently studied the role of cytokinins in gynoecium and fruit patterning and found that they have more than one role during gynoecium and fruit patterning. We also compared the cytokinin response localization to the auxin response localization in these organs, and studied the effects of spraying cytokinins in young flowers of an auxin response line. In this addendum, we discuss further the implications of the observed results in the knowledge about the relationship between cytokinins and auxins at the gynoecium. PMID:23072997

  6. Resistance to thyroid hormone – an incidental finding

    OpenAIRE

    Chantler, Donna; Moran, Carla; Schoenmakers, Erik; Cleland, Stephen; Panarelli, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    A 16-year-old female with mild hirsutism was noted to have a small, smooth, non-tender goitre. A resting peripheral tremor, but no other symptoms or signs of thyroid dysfunction were present. Her only medication was the contraceptive pill. There was no family history of thyroid disease. Investigation showed elevated free thyroxine (28 pmol/l) and total triiodothyronine (3.4 nmol/l) with non-suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (1.4 mU/l). Radioiodine uptake scan of the thyroid showed bilate...

  7. Plant-Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Ashton Research Station -- part of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK) -- will close in March 2003, but its online resource Plant-Hormones will continue to provide general information and references on gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, and other hormone groups. Additionally, this Web site provides a link to a listserver for plant hormone scientists, a discussion forum "intended to promote communication between professionals in the plant hormone field." Plant-Hormones also lists job vacancies, meetings announcements, and Web links for botany and molecular biology resources, while offering an online directory of plant hormone researchers searchable by country.

  8. Growth hormone radioimmunoassay (RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth hormone not only stimulates growth, but also influences several other metabolic processes in the body. By its growth-promoting activity, the hormone accelerates the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins by stimulating the uptake of amino acids by the tissues. Using rat diaphragm preparations in vitro, a reduced uptake of several amino acids following Hypophysectomy has been demonstrated. Among other hormones, only pancreatic insulin is a potent stimulator of this process. On the cellular level, growth hormone effects appear to be mediated by cAMP. The hormone affects protein synthesis in rat levator ani and cardiac muscles, but they display a different behavior from the diaphragm. In adipose tissue, growth hormone also has a stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in virto, primarily at the ribosomal level as RNA synthesis is blocked by actinomycin D. Growth hormone effects on protein synthesis in liver were similarly demonstrated and require a lower concentration of hormone than for synthesis by muscle or adipose tissue

  9. Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a variety of positive, negative, and sometimes conflicting reports about menopausal hormone therapy. Some of these ... rest of the Hormone Trial, the E alone group, was also halted because using estrogen alone did ...

  10. Hormone Health Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... new path in life's journey The Hormone Health Network helps you and your health care provider have ... Copyright Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. Terms & Policies Network Partners The Hormone Health Network partners with other ...

  11. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an indication of a more serious problem involving the hypothalamus , the pituitary gland , the ovaries or testicles, or ... releasing hormone (GnRH) to distinguish between disorders involving the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. GnRH is the hormone produced ...

  12. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Print and Share (PDF ... in its reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links ...

  13. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  14. Hormones and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstein, Martin Elliot

    1984-01-01

    Hormonal therapy is the first systemic therapy to have been used successfully in the treatment of cancer. Developments in steroid hormone receptor assays in the last decade have resulted in the first predictable assays for cancer therapy. The role of hormones, in both the development and treatment of breast, prostate and uterine cancer, is reviewed. Because hormonal therapy is generally a less toxic palliative treatment than other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy and radiation), it has been use...

  15. Thyroid antoantibodies and the response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Mojiminiyi, O A; Rege, V; Bolodeoku, J.; WILCOX, A. H.; Barron, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) test and estimation of thyroid autoantibody concentrations in patients with borderline raised thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). METHODS--The records of 34 consecutive patients with persistent borderline increased TSH (4.4-9.9 mU/l) referred to the Medical Investigation Unit were reviewed. The response of patients with thyroid autoantibodies to the TRH test was compared with that of patients with a negative an...

  16. Development of antiserum against bovine-luteinizing hormone for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiserum against bovine luteinzing hormone (bLH) was raised in male rabbits, and tested against cross-reacting contaminants by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. The anti-bLH showed cross-reaction against bovine follicle-stimulating hormone (bFSH), bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (bTSH) and normal calf serpm (NCS) but on cross-reaction with bovine prolactin and bovine growth hormone. The cross reaction of anti-bLH against bFSH and NCS disappeared on absorption with these antigens. A slight cross-section against bTSH was observed after absorption of the antiserum with bTSH. Absorbed antiserum when tested through inhibition binding studies showed negligible cross-reaction due to bFSH and bTSH. The antiserum had a high working titre. (author)

  17. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Beckers, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth...

  18. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium homeostasis is quite a complex process, but it is harmoniously regulated by hormonal and nonhormonal components of the blood and tissues. Recently with the tremendous advances achieved in RIAs and competitive protein binding assays of hormones besides multiple analysis of blood components, the interest in calcium metabolism has greatly expanded resulting in a vast number of publications. Due to the extensive literature material, the author has tried to discuss in general, the main regulatory hormone in man, which is parathyroid hormone (PTH). Emphasis is placed on subjects pertinent mainly to the clinical laboratory cited in recent literature

  19. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same amount at a slower rate. AGING CHANGES The hypothalamus is located in the brain. It produces hormones ... The back (posterior) portion stores hormones produced in the hypothalamus. The front (anterior) portion produces hormones that affect ...

  20. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional-motivational and social factors.

  1. Elevated prealbumin level following high thyroid hormones levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiatsu Yakushiji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to report about a patient with high prealbumin level [56.8 mg/dL (reference range 22.0-40.0 mg/dL] following elevation in thyroid hormones levels. Among the thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine (free T4 and total T4 level showed an elevation. Triiodothyronine (free T3 and total T3 level was within normal limits. Since prealbumin mainly transports T4, the elevation of prealbumin level along with T4 level is reaso- nable. When patients have chronic hyperthyroidism without thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb, a diagnosis will be Negative Graves’ disease. However, a part of patients with Negative Graves’ disease may be High prealbumin syndrome.

  2. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.P., Saraiva; N.B., Figueiredo; C.R., Padovani; M.M., Brentani; C.R., Nogueira.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine t [...] he profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F), free thyroxine (T4F), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibody (TPO), and estradiol (E2). Estrogen receptor ß (ERß) was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P

  3. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms of enteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterand adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones

  4. Effect of radiation on proteo-hormones activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pituitary hormones were irradiated by a 60Co source. A dose rate of 1.0-1.1 Mrad/hour and the doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5 Mrad were used. The hormone preparations in the dry solid state or in solution were sealed into glass ampules. After sterilization they were kept at 40C until the biological activity had been tested. The biological activity of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, subjected to a sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrad of gamma radiation, was found to have decreased when tested 3-5 months after irradiation. TSH remained fully active for up to 1 month after sterilization. The activity of vasopressin dropped off markedly during the 3-4 week period after irradiation. Biological activity of growth hormone tested shortly after irradiation was found to be unaffected. The activities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone were not affected. The experiments can be considered promising since they show that pituitary proteohorm, one preparations in the solid state may be sterilized. The stability on storage needs, however, to be carefully checked individually for every single hormone

  5. e.hormone: Your Gateway to the Environment and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    e.hormone serves as a "a hub of scientific and media information about environmental signaling." Hosted by the Center for Biomedical Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, e.hormone is an excellent resource for keeping up with environmental hormone news and research from estrogen-mimicking compounds to mercury contamination and more. e.hormone offers research summaries, links to related news stories, an events calendar, and even an introductory educational section about environmental hormones and the endocrine system in general. e.hormone has recently subsumed Environmental Estrogens and Other Hormones, its former sister site also from Tulane University.

  6. Effect of salinity level on TSH and thyroid hormones of grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Peyghan; Ala Enayati; Mostafa Sabzevarizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (T3, T4) have marked effect on body metabolism and in controlling osmoregulation activity in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water salinity changes on thyroid hormones level and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of grass carp. For this purpose 120 grass carp were divided randomly in to four groups (10 fish in each group and three replicates per treatment). Three groups were held in three different salinities at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1. T...

  7. Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... study. Nearly 700 women were assigned to receive oral estrogen and progesterone, transdermal hormone patches or placebo ... treatment on learning and memory. Women treated with oral estrogen and progesterone did see some positive mood ...

  8. Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oral estrogen and progesterone, transdermal hormone patches or placebo pills and patches. All of the participants were ... positive mood effects compared to those in the placebo group. This form of therapy was associated with ...

  9. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Menopause Share: Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD Richard Santen, MD What is menopause? Menopause is the time of life when monthly ...

  10. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tumor. ^ Back to top Ask a Laboratory Scientist Form temporarily unavailable Due to a dramatic increase ... Disease Hormone Health Network » See all Article Sources Article Sources « Return to Related Pages NOTE: This article ...

  11. Thyroid hormone deiodination

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The enzymatic deiodination of thyroid hormone is an important process since it concerns- among other things- the regulation of thyromimetic activity at the site of the target organ. To understand the mechanism of this regulation it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the mode of action of the enzyme(s) involved in the metabolism of thyroid hormone. My investigations of the deiodination of iodothyronines at the subcellular level, forming the basis of this thesis, are...

  12. Stress and hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Ranabir, Salam; Reetu, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves’ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many pr...

  13. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  14. Evaluation of thyroid hormones in children receiving carbamazepine or valproate: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafadar, ?hsan; K?l?ç, Betül Ayd?n; Arapoglu, Mujde; Yalç?n, Koray; Dalg?ç, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the alterations in thyroid function during carbamazepine or valproate monotherapy in a prospective study. Forty patients treated with valproate, 33 patients treated with carbamazepine, and 36 control patients, all aged between 2 and 18 years, were enrolled in our study. Serum levels of thyroid hormones were measured before the beginning of the antiepileptic therapy and at 6 and 12 months of treatment. Carbamazepine-treated patients showed mean serum thyroid hormone levels significantly lower than baseline evaluation and the control group. Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels at 6 and 12 months were not significantly different in carbamazepine treated patients. Serum hormone levels did not change during valproate treatment. Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were significantly higher at the 12th month of valproate treatment. Our data suggest that although carbamazepine causes significant alterations in thyroid hormone levels, these changes do not lead to clinical symptoms at the follow-up period of 12 months. PMID:24736121

  15. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  16. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  17. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... Get Tested? To evaluate whether the concentration of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is affecting the amount ...

  18. Thyroid hormone resistance may course hypotonia in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivkovska, Julijana; Born, Alfred Peter

    2014-01-01

    Allan Herndon Dudley's syndrome (AHDS) is X-linked mental retardation and hypotonia caused by mutations in a thyroid hormone transporter gene - MCT8. The typical thyreoidea AHDS profile is elevated T3, low-normal T4 and normal or elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Neonatal screening with TSH often does not identify AHDS in boys and therefore it is of paramount importance to screen boys who present with hypo-tonia and/or mental retardation with thyroidea profile. In the case report a four and a half month-old boy with develop-mental delay and hypotonia is described and diagnosed with AHDS. The finding of the typical thyroidea profile leads to the diagnosis which is confirmed by DNA analysis.

  19. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneo...

  20. Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Menopausal Hormone Therapy URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  1. Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you need to protect your health. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hormone Replacement Therapy Menopause About MedlinePlus Site ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  2. Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & ... Topics Hormone Replacement Therapy Menopause About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to ...

  3. Recombinant hormones in osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-01-01

    For the last 10 years, bone anabolic therapy with the recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) analogue, teriparatide (rhPTH[1 - 34]), or full-length rhPTH(1 - 84) has been an option in the treatment of osteoporosis. Both drugs are given as a daily subcutaneous injection. In the USA, only teriparatide is marketed.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Banziger-tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse tr...

  6. Thyroid hormones as neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dratman, M B; Gordon, J T

    1996-12-01

    During brain development, before the apparatus of neurotransmission has been set into place, many neurotransmitters act as growth regulators. In adult brain, their role in neurotransmission comes to the fore but neuronal plasticity and other growth-related processes are their continuing responsibility. This has been clearly demonstrated for catecholamines. Previous as well as recent evidence now indicates that thyroid hormones may participate in the developing and adult brain through similar mechanisms. Immunohistochemical mapping of brain triiodothyronine (antibody specificity established by numerous appropriate tests) demonstrated that the hormone was concentrated in both noradrenergic centers and noradrenergic projection sites. In the centers (locus coeruleus and lateral tegmental system) triiodothyronine staining, like that of tyrosine hydroxylase, was heavily concentrated in cytosol and cell processes. By contrast, in noradrenergic targets, label was most prominent in cell nuclei. Combined biochemical and morphologic data allows a construct of thyroid hormone circuitry to unfold: The locus coeruleus is conveniently located just beneath the ependyma of the 4th ventricle. Thyroxine, entering the brain via the choroid plexus, is preferentially delivered to subependymal brain structures. High concentrations of locus coeruleus norepinephrine promote active conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine, leading to the preeminence of the locus coeruleus as a site of triiodothyronine concentration. Results of treatment with the locus coeruleus neurotoxin DSP-4 established that axonal transport accounts for delivery of both triiodothyronine and norepinephrine from locus coeruleus to noradrenergic terminal fields. The apparatus for transduction of thyronergic and noradrenergic signals at both membrane and nuclear sites resides in the postsynaptic target cells. Upon internalization of hormone in post-synaptic target cells, genomic effects of triiodothyronine, norepinephrine, and/or their second messengers are possible and expected. The evidence establishes a direct morphologic connection between central thyronergic and noradrenergic systems, supporting earlier proposals that triiodothyronine or its proximate metabolites may serve as cotransmitters with norepinephrine in the adrenergic nervous system. PMID:9001201

  7. Insect adipokinetic hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakkers, A M; Bloemen, R E; De Vlieger, T A; Van der Horst, D J; Van Marrewijk, W J

    1985-01-01

    Peptides with adipokinetic (and usually carbohydrate-mobilizing) potency have been demonstrated in various insects, including Locusta migratoria, Schistocerca gregaria, Manduca sexta, Danaus plexippus and Periplaneta americana. As far as characterized by now the adipokinetic factors are blocked peptides, consisting of eight to ten amino acid residues. In locusts the adipokinetic hormones are synthesized in the glandular lobe of the corpus cardiacum and released into the haemolymph in response to flight stimuli. This release is under direct control of neurons, the cell bodies of which are located in the lateral areas of the protocerebrum, while their axons run via the nervi corporis cardiaci II into the glandular lobe. Hormone release is modulated by axons present in the nervi corporis cardiaci I as well as by the haemolymph trehalose concentration. Trehalose apparently exerts its influence via a neuronal network present in the corpus cardiacum. The fat body is the main target organ of the adipokinetic hormones, which are involved in both mobilization and release of flight substrates from fat body stores, i.e., trehalose from glycogen and diacylglycerol from triacylglycerol. Lipid release is accompanied by haemolymph lipoprotein conversions. PMID:3831971

  8. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other cell types. The extraintestinal cells may synthesize different bioactive fragments of the same prohormone due tocell-specific processing pathways. Moreover, endocrine cells, neurons, cancer cells, and, for instance, spermatozoa release the peptides differentially (autocrine, endocrine, neurocrine, paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells. Also the target cells of gut hormones occur widespread outside the digestive tract.

  9. Israel EQAS for thyroid related hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free Thyroxine (FT4) radioimmunoassay (RIA) was operated in 36 laboratories. The 17 serum pools distributed covered analyte concentrations from subnormal to elevated values. Five of these were based on ''zero analyte'' pools artificially prepared by treatment with Amberlite. ''Spiked'' sera was used for recovery studies. Eleven pools were analyzed more than once. Abnormal, method dependent results with large interlaboratory variation was observed in the Amberlite treated pools. A ''matrix effect' was suspected and the results excluded from analysis. The All Laboratory Trimmed Mean (ALTM) was stable to within 4% for each analyte and taken as target value. Overall recovery for T3, T4, and TSH was 101, 91, and 89 per cent. Laboratory performance was assessed from the bias of each result and the variability of bias (as CV of bias for each test), over one year. Performance has improved, especially for TSH, where median bias decreased to 1% from 39%. Percentage of laboratories with unacceptable performance fell from 79% to 32%. A trend towards increased use of IRMA for TSH and of F-T4 was observed. However, F-T4 results proved method dependent. TSH IRMA is suggested as the best supplementary test to T4 for thyroid function testing. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), ch. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioimmunoassay of PTH and the complications arising from both the relatively low sensitivity of most of the antisera being used and the hormonal heterogeneity are discussed. After labelling of PTH with 125I by the chloramine-T method, the labelled hormone is purified by QUSO granules. The requirements for the assay including a sample protocol for the incubation mixtures are described. The bound and free hormones are separated by adsorption, using talc, charcoal or QUSO pellets

  11. Hormones and Borderline Personality Features

    OpenAIRE

    Evardone, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Morey, Leslie C.

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality is diagnosed in clinical settings three times more often in women than in men, and symptom severity in women appears sensitive to circulating sex steroid levels. In non-human mammals, prenatal hormones contribute to the development of sex-linked behavior and their responsiveness to postnatal hormones. Therefore, this study examined the hypothesis that prenatal hormones may influence the development of borderline personality traits by measuring a marker of perinatal andr...

  12. Thyroid Hormones and Methylmercury Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie P.; O’Mara, Daniel M.; Aschner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for cellular metabolism, growth, and development. In particular, an adequate supply of thyroid hormones is critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Thyroid hormone tissue activation and inactivation in brain, liver, and other tissues is controlled by the deiodinases through the removal of iodine atoms. Selenium, an essential element critical for deiodinase activity, is sensitive to mercury and, therefore, when its availability is reduced, brain development might be ...

  13. Mechanisms of thyroid hormone action

    OpenAIRE

    Brent, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of thyroid hormone action has been substantially altered by recent clinical observations of thyroid signaling defects in syndromes of hormone resistance and in a broad range of conditions, including profound mental retardation, obesity, metabolic disorders, and a number of cancers. The mechanism of thyroid hormone action has been informed by these clinical observations as well as by animal models and has influenced the way we view the role of local ligand avai...

  14. Mammalian sex hormones in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Skoczowski; Anna Janeczko

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17?-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube ...

  15. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Masternak, Michal M.; Andrzej Bartke

    2012-01-01

    Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO) mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. ...

  16. Hormones and cancer in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Tj

    1995-01-01

    Hormones play a major role in the aetiology of several of the commonest cancers worldwide, including cancers of the endometrium, breast and ovary in women and cancer of the prostate in men. It is likely that the main mechanisms by which hormones affect cancer risk are by controlling the rate of cell division, the differentiation of cells and the number of susceptible cells. Hormones have very marked effects on cell division in the endometrium; oestrogens stimulate mitosis whereas progestins o...

  17. Hormonal contraception in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Melanie; Anderson, Richard A

    2005-09-01

    All major advances in the development of hormonal methods of contraception over the past 40 years have been exclusively female orientated with male hormonal contraception forever "just around the corner". Despite this, the last few years have seen a significant increase in the pace of research and increased involvement from the pharmaceutical industry. This is essential if the progress derived from the public sector is to be translated into a real product for widespread use. Current male methods of contraception, condoms and vasectomy, are relied on by 30% of couples throughout the world but there have been no new male contraceptive methods introduced in the last century. There is currently an increasing emphasis on male involvement in family planning, and evidence both that some men would be keen to shoulder this responsibility and that their partners would trust them to do so. There are several potential novel approaches to male contraception, but the hormonal one is the only one at the stage of clinical research. This method is based on the normal regulation of spermatogenesis by the pituitary gonadotrophins: suppression of gonadotrophin secretion results in a reduction in the rate of spermatogenesis, and azoospermia, the absence of sperm from the ejaculate, can be achieved. Current approaches are now getting close to the ideal of inducing azoospermia in all men. This approach also results in suppression of testicular testosterone production, thus androgen 'add-back' is an essential component of a contraceptive regime. Many different steroids and delivery methods -oral, buccal, transdermal, subcutaneous implants- are under exploration at present, each with their own advantages and drawbacks. The use of synthetic androgens is also starting to be explored: these have the potential advantage of offering tissue-specific actions. PMID:16178786

  18. Growth hormone and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John

    2000-01-01

    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

  19. Growth hormone-releasing hormone and growth hormone secretagogue-receptor ligands: focus on reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    MUCCIOLI, Giampiero; Ghigo, Ezio; PAPOTTI, Mauro Giulio; LANFRANCO, Fabio; BROGLIO, Fabio; GIORDANO, ROBERTA; ARVAT, Emanuela; MACCARIO, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin are the most important hypothalamic neurohormones controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion. Several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides also play an important role in the control of GH secretion, mainly acting via modulation of GHRH and somatostatin. In the past two decades, particular attention has been given to a new family of substances showing a strong GH-releasing effect: GH secretagogues (GHSs). GHSs increase GH secretion in a do...

  20. Effects of EDTA and Sodium Citrate on hormone measurements by fluorometric (FIA and immunofluorometric (IFMA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lando Valeria

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurements of hormonal concentrations by immunoassays using fluorescent tracer substance (Eu3+ are susceptible to the action of chemical agents that may cause alterations in its original structure. Our goal was to verify the effect of two types of anticoagulants in the hormone assays performed by fluorometric (FIA or immunofluorometric (IFMA methods. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 30 outpatients and were drawn in EDTA, sodium citrate, and serum separation Vacutainer®Blood Collection Tubes. Samples were analyzed in automatized equipment AutoDelfia™ (Perkin Elmer Brazil, Wallac, Finland for the following hormones: Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle stimulating homone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, growth hormone (GH, Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, insulin, C peptide, total T3, total T4, free T4, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. Statistical analysis was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis method and Dunn's test. Results No significant differences were seen between samples for LH, FSH, PRL and free T4. Results from GH, TSH, insulin, C peptide, SHBG, total T3, total T4, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone were significant different between serum and EDTA-treated samples groups. Differences were also identified between serum and sodium citrate-treated samples in the analysis for TSH, insulin, total T3, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Conclusions We conclude that the hormonal analysis carried through by FIA or IFMA are susceptible to the effects of anticoagulants in the biological material collected that vary depending on the type of assay.

  1. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults; Deficiencia progressiva dos hormonios adeno-hipofisarios apos radioterapia em adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: rafaela_loureiro@hotmail.com

    2004-10-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  2. Body identical hormone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panay, Nick

    2014-05-22

    The adverse outcomes seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) (1) were mainly due to an over-dosage of hormones in a relatively elderly population. However, fundamental differences exist between conjugated equine estrogens and 17 beta estradiol and between medroxyprogesterone acetate and natural progesterone. It is likely that these differences also contributed to the adverse outcomes in WHI, which were contrary to the cardiovascular benefits seen in previous observational trials. Recent studies of cardiovascular risk markers in younger women have been designed using predominantly estradiol and natural progesterone (transdermal and oral) as the primary interventions. This paper reviews the effects that body identical estradiol and progesterone can have, both in the physiological environment and also when replaced as transdermal estradiol and micronised oral progesterone. PMID:24879748

  3. A Small Molecule Inverse Agonist for the Human Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Susanne; Huang, Wenwei; Eliseeva, Elena; Titus, Steve; Thomas, Craig J.; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2010-01-01

    Small molecule inverse agonists for the TSH receptor (TSHR) may be used as probes of the role of basal (or agonist-independent or constitutive) signaling and may have therapeutic potential as orally active drugs to inhibit basal signaling in patients with thyroid cancer and in some patients with hyperthyroidism. We describe the first small-molecule ligand [1;2-(3-((2,6-dimethylphenoxy)methyl)-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one] that exhibits inverse agonist ...

  4. Harmonization protocols for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) immunoassays: different approaches based on the consensus mean value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerico, Aldo; Ripoli, Andrea; Zucchelli, Gian Carlo; Plebani, Mario

    2015-02-01

    The lack of interchangeable laboratory results and consensus in current practices has underpinned greater attention to standardization and harmonization projects. In the area of method standardization and harmonization, there is considerable debate about how best to achieve comparability of measurement for immunoassays, and in particular heterogeneous proteins. The term standardization should be used only when comparable results among measurement procedures are based on calibration traceability to the International System of Units (SI unit) using a reference measurement procedure (RMP). Recently, it has been promoted the harmonization of methods for many immunoassays, and in particular for thyreotropin (TSH), as accepted RMPs are not available. In a recent paper published in this journal, a group of well-recognized authors used a complex statistical approach in order to reduce variability between the results observed with the 14 TSH immunoassay methods tested in their study. Here we provide data demonstrating that data from an external quality assessment (EQA) study allow similar results to those obtained using the reported statistical approach. PMID:25241732

  5. A Study On Thyroxine and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Women During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Habib

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on 50 pregnant women in Allied Hospital, Faisalabad revealed non significant difference in T4 and TSH levels between women of 2nd and 3rd trimester. Similarly, T4 and TSH levels showed no statistical difference between those women used multivitamins and iodine supplements and those did not used. The correlation between T4 and TSH was higher and negative in women having normal body weight to their height and those did not used multivitamins tablets. However, a positive correlation between T4 and TSH was observed in women those used iodine and negative in women those did not used iodine.

  6. A Study On Thyroxine and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Women During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Amna Habib; Bhatti, N.; Gilani, A. H.; Khan, M. A.; Javed, M. T.; Zaidi, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    Study on 50 pregnant women in Allied Hospital, Faisalabad revealed non significant difference in T4 and TSH levels between women of 2nd and 3rd trimester. Similarly, T4 and TSH levels showed no statistical difference between those women used multivitamins and iodine supplements and those did not used. The correlation between T4 and TSH was higher and negative in women having normal body weight to their height and those did not used multivitamins tablets. However, a positive correlation betwee...

  7. Normal values of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxin in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To prepare a chart for normal values of thyroid-stimulatinghormone (TSH and free thyroxin (free T4 and to verify the correlationbetween them, in pregnant women. Methods: A prospective crosssectionalstudy was performed on 850 pregnant women of thePrenatal Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual– Francisco Morato de Oliveira (HSPE – FMO, from August 2003 toAugust 2005. Serum TSH and free T4 levels were determined usingmicroparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA. Maternal age ranged from18 to 47 years, mean of 32.5 ± 6.9 years. Mean gestational age was19.1 ± 8.5 weeks. With linear regression analysis, the 50th and 97.5thpercentiles for TSH and the 2.5th, 50th and 97.5th percentiles for free T4,at weeks 6 to 42 were calculated. The possible correlation betweenthese two indicators was analyzed. Results: Mean TSH and free T4values were 2.14 ± 1.51 ?IU/ml and 0.98 ± 0.30 ng/dl, respectively.The correlation between free T4 and TSH levels was positive andstatistically significant according to the Pearson’s correlation coefficient(r = 0.069, p = 0.044. Conclusion: Identifying the normal TSH andfree T4 limits during pregnancy is the first step to safely determine thereal need for thyroid dysfunction treatment.

  8. A Clinical Review of the Association of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Annerbo; Johan Lökk

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as overt hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning as memory, reaction time, and visuospatial organization. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) or low serum concentrations of TSH concentrations have been associated with dementia in previous epidemiological studies, but the association in the elderly has not been established. There is little or no consensus regarding how thyroid functi...

  9. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone is associated with elevated cortisol in healthy young men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Kimberly N; Corwin Elizabeth J; Ulbrecht Jan; Demers Laurence M; Bennett Jeanette M; Whetzel Courtney A; Klein Laura

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent attention has been given to subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevation of TSH (4.5-10 uIU/L) with T4 and T3 levels still within the normal range. Controversy exists about the proper lower limit of TSH that defines patients in the subclinical hypothyroidism range and about if/when subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated. Additional data are needed to examine the relationship between markers of thyroid function in the subclinical hypothyroidism range, bi...

  10. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone is associated with elevated cortisol in healthy young men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Kimberly N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attention has been given to subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevation of TSH (4.5-10 uIU/L with T4 and T3 levels still within the normal range. Controversy exists about the proper lower limit of TSH that defines patients in the subclinical hypothyroidism range and about if/when subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated. Additional data are needed to examine the relationship between markers of thyroid function in the subclinical hypothyroidism range, biomarkers of health and ultimately health outcomes. Objective We aimed to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels in the 0.5-10 uIU/L range and serum cortisol in a cohort of healthy young men and women without clinical evidence of hypothyroidism. Based on data in frank hypothyroidism, we hypothesized that serum TSH levels would be positively correlated with serum cortisol levels, suggesting derangement of the cortisol axis even in subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in 54 healthy, young (mean 20.98 +/? 0.37 yrs men (19 and women (35. Lab sessions took place at 1300 hrs where blood was drawn via indwelling catheter for later assessment of basal serum TSH, free T3, free T4, and cortisol levels. Results All but 1 participant had free T3 levels within the normal reference intervals; free T4 levels for all participants were within the normal reference intervals. Linear regression modeling revealed that TSH levels in the 0.5-10 uIU/L were significantly and positively correlated with cortisol levels. This positive TSH-cortisol relationship was maintained below the accepted 4.5 uIU/L subclinical hypothyroid cutoff. Separate regression analyses conducted by systematically dropping the TSH cutoff by 0.50 uIU/L revealed that the TSH-cortisol relationship was maintained for TSH levels (uIU/L ?4.0, ?3.5, ?3.0, and ?2.5 but not ?2.0. Linear regression modeling did not reveal a relationship between free T3 or free T4 levels and cortisol levels. Conclusions Results suggest a positive relationship between TSH and cortisol in apparently healthy young individuals. In as much as this relationship may herald a pathologic disorder, these preliminary results suggest that TSH levels > 2.0 uIU/L may be abnormal. Future research should address this hypothesis further, for instance through an intervention study.

  11. Gastroparesis - a novel cause of persistent thyroid stimulating hormone elevation in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Os, Khraisha; Mm, Al-Madani; An, Peiris; Tk, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is easily treated by levothyroxine therapy which has an 80 percent absorption rate, mostly in the jejunum. The replacement dose of daily levothyroxine is usually calculated at 1.6 mcg/kg body weight per day. We report a 77-year-old man who required supraphysiologic thyroxine replacement to treat his hypothyroidism. PMID:25978052

  12. Negative Feedback Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A basic understanding of the endocrinology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of anuran larvae is necessary for predicting the consequences of HPT perturbation by thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) on the whole organism. This project examined negative feedback con...

  13. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on acquired growth hormone resistance in malnourished children using radioisotopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the influence of nutrition on growth hormone resistance in children who were suffering from prologed protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The plasma levels of glucose and serum levels of insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free teraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were analyzed by radioisotopic techniques in 7 children with marasmus (mean age 5.29 1.01) and 14 children with unexplained short stature (stunted) (mean age 6.21 1.72) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. At the basal condition of laboratory investigations, the GH level was significantly higher in the two malnourished groups compared to control (P< 0.01), whereas, plasma glucose levels and insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two malnourished groups and the control

  14. Impact of growth hormone administration on other hormonal axes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, J O; Ovesen, Per Glud

    1999-01-01

    Growth hormone regulates several other hormonal systems and vice versa. The present review focusses on the effect of GH administration in adults on selected hormonal systems. Growth hormone treatment has been linked to development of central hypothyroidism in hypopituitary children. We now know that GH enhances the extra-thyroidal conversion of T(4) to T(3). Lowering of T(4) during GH treatment therefore reflects biochemical unmasking of subclinical central hypothyroidism. In normal adults GH administration does not affect the pituitary-gonadal axis. There is, however, evidence to suggest that GH substitution in hypopituitary adults enhances peripheral actions of sex steroids (males) and stimulates gonadal function (females). Both increased, unchanged and reduced basal and ACTH stimulated glucocorticoid levels have been reported during GH treatment. Several groups have recorded reduced levels of cortisol binding globulin with unchanged free cortisol concentrations. Regular assessment of thyroid and glucocorticoid status during GH substitution in GH-deficient patients is recommended.

  15. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  16. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fact sheet that describes hormone therapy (including antiestrogens, LH-RH agonists, aromatase inhibitors, and SERMs) and its role in preventing and treating breast cancer. Includes information about possible side effects.

  17. PLANT SCIENCE: Nodules and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles E. D. Oldroyd (John Innes Centre; Department of Disease and Stress Biology)

    2007-01-05

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A hormone-signaling pathway is crucial to the ability of certain plants to form nodules when stimulated by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

  18. Steroid hormones and BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

    2013-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application. PMID:23380505

  19. Physiological Response of Two Age Groups of Omani Male Goats to Short Road Transportation in Relation to Circulating Levels of Gonadotropins, Cortisol, Thyroid Hormones, Sex Steroids and Plasma Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maani, M.; Plude, J.; Mahgoub, O.; Mahmoud, I. Y.; Kadim, I. T.; Al-kindi, A.; Bakheit, C. S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of short road transportation in two age groups of Omani male goats was evaluated to assess their physiological response to stress in relation to circulating levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), Thyroid Stimulating Hormones (TSH), thyroid hormones (T , T ), gondadotropins 3 4 (FSH, LH) and testosterone (T). In addition, plasma parameters cholesterol, total protein, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate, Mg PO Ca and CO were also analyzed. Thirty...

  20. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

  1. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons express Fos protein during the proestrous surge of luteinizing hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W. S.; Smith, M. S.; Hoffman, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons to express the oncogene c-fos was examined during the estrous cycle in rats. The immunocytochemical localization of the c-fos-encoded antigen, Fos, was coupled with the immunocytochemical localization of LHRH. LHRH neurons showed no Fos immunoreactivity during diestrus-1, diestrus-2, estrus, or the morning of proestrus. However, Fos was expressed in LHRH neurons from 1600 to 2200 hours during proestrus. The timing of onset of...

  2. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor ß (ERß was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

  3. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AntonioBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  4. Maternal and fetal hormonal profiles of anemic pregnant women of Eastern Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaemia is defined as reduction in circulating hemoglobin mass below the critical level expected for age and sex. Anaemia affects almost two- thirds of pregnant women in developing countries, it is associated with poor maternal and prenatal outcomes. Anaemia during pregnancy through many endocrine alterations-may influence the maternal and fetal environment. To investigate the anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal profiles in paired maternal and cord blood samples and to compare between the two groups, anaemic (n=68) and non-anaemic groups (n=57), in order to study the endocrine effects of anaemia during pregnancy in the mothers and their neonates. This cross sectional study was conducted in Gadarif hospital, Eastern Sudan. Women were classified into two groups based on the WHO classification of anaemia: Group 1(normal control-no anaemia Hb>11.0 g/dl) Group 2 anaemic, (Hb11g/dl). There was no significant difference in the fetal anthropometrics parameters (weight, length and placental weight) between the anaemic (Hb11g/dl). Maternal prolactin was significantly higher in anaemic group when compared with non anaemic group with p-value =.002. Cord serum albumin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anaemic group with p-value=.04. Cord serum ferritin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anemic group with p-value<.001. There was no significant difference was observed in the other maternal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). There was no significant difference was observed in the other fetal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). In this study there were some maternal and fetal endocrine modulations due to anaemia during pregnancy as indicated by the high levels of maternal prolactin in blood of the anemic women group and also the high values of albumun and ferritin in the cord blood of the anemic women group.(Author)

  5. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  6. Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia / Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Brito; Lya, Sáez; Melchor, Lemp; Claudio, Liberman; Harold, Michelsen; A Verónica, Araya.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pit [...] uitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

  7. Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Brito

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone (GH producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

  8. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cibele N., Peroni; Cesar Y., Hayashida; Nancy, Nascimento; Viviane C., Longuini; Rodrigo A., Toledo; Paolo, Bartolini; Cyril Y., Bowers; Sergio P.A., Toledo.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormonereleasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormo [...] ne to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormonereceptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p

  9. Relation Between Thyroid Hormone Concentration and Serum Levels of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 in Patients With Nonthyroidal Illness Including Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdy Abozenah; Sabry Shoeb; Alaa Sabry; Hesham Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. We evaluated relations between interleukins (IL) IL-6 and IL-10 and euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) in patients with nonthyroidal illness (NTI).Materials and Methods. Sixty patients and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited. The patients had either chronic kidney disease (CKD), congestive heart failure (CHF), or acute myocardial infarction (MI), distributed equally in 3 subgroups. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total T4, and T3 were determined.Re...

  10. Hormone Action in the Mammary Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Brisken, C.; O Malley, B.

    2010-01-01

    A woman’s breast cancer risk is affected by her reproductive history. The hormonal milieu also influences the course of the disease. The female reproductive hormones, estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin, have a major impact on breast cancer and control postnatal mammary gland development. Analysis of hormone receptor mutant mouse strains combined with tissue recombination techniques and proteomics revealed that sequential activation of hormone signaling in the mammary epithelium is requi...

  11. Endocrine disruptors and thyroid hormone physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jugan, Mary-line; Levi, Yves; Blondeau, Jean-paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Endocrine disruptors are man-made chemicals that can disrupt the synthesis, circulating levels, and peripheral action of hormones. The disruption of sex hormones was subject of intensive research, but thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling are now also recognized as important targets of endocrine disruptors. The neurological development of mammals is largely dependent on normal thyroid hormone homeostasis, and it is likely to be particularly sensitive to disruption of the...

  12. Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.-M.J., Lengyel.

    1003-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the sto [...] mach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a) discovery of this peptide, b) mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c) regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

  13. The hormonal regulation of life processes in insects (2.) The anti-juvenile hormones (1.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those compounds that decrease either the level or activity of natural endogenous juvenile hormones in insects are called anti-juvenile hormones (AJH). The possible effects of anti-juvenile hormones are manifold: they may inhibit special enzymes or the bindings of juvenile hormones to receptors and transport proteins or may cause the destruction of corpora allata, the sources of juvenile hormones. The most obvious possibility to elicit an anti-juvenile hormone effect lies in the inhibition of enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones

  14. Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T4) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), tri iodine thyronine (T3) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

  15. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  16. Assay for parathyroid hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents methods used to identify and quantify parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in kidney and bone. Experimental details are provided for the preparation of radioiodinated PTH, purification of labeled PTH, and PTH binding assays using renal plasma membranes and cultured cells from embryonic chick bone cells

  17. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  18. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ond?ej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Ture?ková, Veronika; Grúz, Ji?í; Rol?ík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 240, ?. 1 (2014), s. 55-76. ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.376, year: 2013

  19. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

  20. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jose Carlos, Pereira Jr.; Marcia, Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins, Pessoa.

    Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes th [...] e levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

  1. Parathyroid Hormone’s Acute Effect on Vasodilatory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Farahnak, P.; Lind, L.; Mattala, K.; Nilsson, I-l

    2010-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) seems to affect the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate PTH’s acute effect on endothelial vasodilatory function in forearm resistance vessels. Ten healthy subjects underwent forearm venous occlusion plethysmography. We measured forearm blood flow at baseline and at a stable, locally increased PTH level after intra-arterial infusion of metacholine and nitroprusside. The contralateral arm served as a control. Ionized calciu...

  2. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bastos Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem.La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven.Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

  3. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular / Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system / Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena Bastos, Brito; Fernando, Nobre; Carolina Sales, Vieira.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, reali [...] zamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem. Abstract in spanish La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujere [...] s con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven. Abstract in english Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascu [...] lar disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

  4. Hormone action in the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisken, Cathrin; O'Malley, Bert

    2010-12-01

    A woman's breast cancer risk is affected by her reproductive history. The hormonal milieu also influences the course of the disease. The female reproductive hormones, estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin, have a major impact on breast cancer and control postnatal mammary gland development. Analysis of hormone receptor mutant mouse strains combined with tissue recombination techniques and proteomics revealed that sequential activation of hormone signaling in the mammary epithelium is required for progression of morphogenesis. Hormones impinge on a subset of luminal mammary epithelial cells (MECs) that express hormone receptors and act as sensor cells translating and amplifying systemic signals into local stimuli. Proliferation is induced by paracrine mechanisms mediated by distinct factors at different stages. Tissue and stage specificity of hormonal signaling is achieved at the molecular level by different chromatin contexts and differential recruitment of coactivators and corepressors. PMID:20739412

  5. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.

  6. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  7. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior. PMID:25224609

  8. Hormonal Replacement: advantages and disdvantagens Reposição Hormonal: vantagens e desvantagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Aparecida Campesatto Mella

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of estrogens was considered by many people as a physiological condition and not pathological one probably because the ovarian inadequacy is genetically programmed. However with the increase of the expection of the women´s life, the negative impact of the deficiency of estrogens became more significant. Although this deficiency is easy to take care less than, 20% of the women post menopáusicas receive estrogens. The therapy of hormonal replacement (THR in the menopause it appeared as the mainly treatment form, to alleviate the symptoms and act as prevention, reducing the emergence of diseases, as the cardiovascular and the osteoporosis, but THR is not totally unproved of risks. The hormonal therapeutical has past the last years for doubts and uncertainties, in consequence of several related publications of its use, this way it becomes important to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this therapy. Analyse througha wide bibliographical revision, the advantages and disadvantages of the TRH replacement in women climatérias, as well as evaluate if the possible risks of this therapy overcomes s the benefits proportionate for the same . It was used as methodology bibliographical researches made in libraries and internet. The texts of books and scientific articles were studied and the contents of them were selected for the elaboration of this work. The THR is recommended to alleviate the vasomotores symptoms , treatment of vaginal atrophy and prevention of osteoporosis. In spite of the acquaintances advantages, approximately 70% of the women interrupt the treatment after the first year. One of the principal causes of the low adherence of THR is the bleed irregular , other reasons includes mastalgia, nausea, chronic headache, profit of weight and hidrica retention, besides the fear of cancer. The decision of a woman to use the TRH is a complex process and it is recommended by the doctor, who is taking care of her by the individual risk of diseases, by the attitudes toward the menopause and THR, values menopausais, symptoms and to the middle to which the woman belongs. A deficiência de estrogênio foi considerada por muitos uma condição fisiológica ,e não patológica, provavelmente porque a insuficiência ovariana é geneticamente programada. Entretanto com o aumento da expectativa de vida das mulheres, o impacto negativo da deficiência de estrogênio tornou-se mais significativo. Embora essa deficiência seja tratável, menos de 20% das mulheres pós menopáusicas recebem estrogênio. Embora a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH na menopausa não seja totalmente isenta de riscos,ela tem sido utilizada com o objetivo de aliviar sintomas e de agir preventivamente e assim reduzir o aparecimento de doenças, como as cardiovasculares e a osteoporose. A terapêutica hormonal tem passado os últimos anos por duvidas e incertezas, em conseqüência de diversas publicações relacionadas a seu uso, desta forma torna-se importante analisar as vantagens e desvantagens dessa terapia: analisar através de uma ampla revisão bibliográfica, as vantagens e desvantagens da terapia de reposição hormonal em mulheres climatérias, bem como avaliar se os possíveis riscos dessa terapia superam os benefícios proporcionados pela mesma. Utilizou-se como metodologia a pesquisa bibliográfica efetuada em bibliotecas e internet e os textos de livros e artigos científicos foram estudados e os conteúdos selecionados para a elaboração do trabalho.A terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH é recomendada para alivio dos sintomas vasomotores, tratamento da atrofia vaginal e prevenção da osteoporose. Apesar das conhecidas vantagens, aproximadamente 70% das mulheres cessam o tratamento após o primeiro ano. Uma das principais causas da baixa aderência a TRH é o sangramento irregular, outras razões incluem mastalgia, náusea, cefaléia, ganho de peso e retenção hídrica, além do medo de câncer. A decisão de uma mulher em usar terapia de reposição hormonal é um processo complexo determinado pela r

  9. Hormones, genes, and?behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Donald W

    1997-01-01

    With assays of hormone-sensitive behaviors, it is possible to demonstrate both direct and indirect actions of genes on mammalian social behaviors. Direct effects of estrogen receptor gene expression and progesterone receptor gene expression figure prominently in well analyzed neuroendocrine mechanisms for sex behavior, operating through a neural circuit that has been delineated. Indirect effects, notably the consequences of sexual differentiation, display complex d...

  10. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer A.; Burke, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating alter...

  11. Gut hormones in acute diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Besterman, H S; Christofides, N D; Welsby, P.D.; Adrian, T. E.; Sarson, D L; Bloom, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    The gut hormone response to a breakfast meal was studied in 12 subjects hospitalised for an episode of acute diarrhoea (presumed infective) who were otherwise well and in 13 healthy control subjects. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were low but basal insulin concentrations were raised. Basal concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide and both basal and postprandial responses of motilin, enteroglucagon, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were also significantly greater than control...

  12. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112. ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  13. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  14. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ? Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ? Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ? Exposure to PBDEs and alternate FRs was associated with alterations in hormone levels

  15. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ? Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ? Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ? Exposure to PBDEs and alternate FRs was associated with alterations in hormone levels.

  16. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HuguesDardente

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  17. Study on changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrome due to the stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrom due to the stagnation of liver-qi. Methods: Serum thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), free thyroxine (FT4), cortisol levels were measured with immunoradioassay (IMRA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 30 patients with this type of insomnia and 30 controls. Results: The serum TSH levels were significantly lower and serum TRH, GH, cortisol FT4 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: This insomnia syndrome was closely related to the dysfunction of mpothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and adrenal axis. (authors)

  18. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and cerebral or peripheral neurons but others also in other cell types. The extraintestinal cells may release different bioactive fragments of the same prohormone due to cell-specific processing pathways. Moreover, endocrine cells, neurons, cancer cells and, for instance, spermatozoa secrete gut peptides in different ways, so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research. PMID:25786560

  19. Effect of salinity level on TSH and thyroid hormones of grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Peyghan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (T3, T4 have marked effect on body metabolism and in controlling osmoregulation activity in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water salinity changes on thyroid hormones level and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH of grass carp. For this purpose 120 grass carp were divided randomly in to four groups (10 fish in each group and three replicates per treatment. Three groups were held in three different salinities at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1. The fourth group was reared in fresh water and considered as control. After three weeks blood samples were collected from the caudal peduncle vein. Then serum was separated and serum thyroid hormones and TSH were measured by LISA on Microwell plates. Our results indicated that the average of T3 levels in 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 groups were 0.43 ± 0.11, 0.22 ± 0.04 and 0.21 ± 0.04 ?g dL-1, respectively. T3 levels in all experimental groups were significantly lower than those of control group (p 0.05. The level of TSH in salinities of 4 and 8 g L-1 groups was significantly higher than that of control group (p < 0.05. The results showed that increasing water salinity can have significant effect on thyroid activity by decreasing T3 and increasing T4 level in serum of grass carp in experimental condition.

  20. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  1. VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Chaurasia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyroxine (T3. The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4, Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3?IU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 57-59

  2. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2012-02-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  3. Thyroid hormone levels in patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted with three main objectives, to study thyroid hormones (T 4, T 3) and TSH levels in patients with CRF under haemodialysis and to compare them with normal subjects, to study best means of treatment and to compare these findings with results from other parts of the world. This study was done on 61 patients with renal failure in Khartoum dialysis and kidney transplant centre U of K, 45 males and 16 females with ages ranging from 17-75 years and 42 symptoms-free subjects 14 males and 23 females with age ranging from 16-60 years. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used for the determination of serum T 4, T 3 and TSH. By using t-test found that the mean concentrations of T 4, T 3 of normal subjects were much higher than those of the patients (p0.05). These results also illustrated that 45.9% of patients with renal failure of low T 4, and 91.8%, 90.26 of patients had T 3 and TSH hormone levels in the normal range, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean of thyroid hormones (T 4, T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormones between males and females (p>0.05). The T 3 and T '4 concentrations in patients at all age groups (year) was less than the age groups of the control group, and this decrease was statistically significant (p0.05).(Author)

  4. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Bastos Brito; Fernando Nobre; Carolina Sales Vieira

    2011-01-01

    A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em...

  5. Disfunción eréctil de origen hormonal / Hormonal etiology in erectile dysfunction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José María, Martínez Jabaloyas.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El adecuado funcionamiento del mecanismo de la erección depende de la correcta interrelación de factores psicológicos, vasculares, neurológicos y hormonales. Las enfermedades endocrinas afectan a la función sexual y la disfunción sexual puede ser uno de los síntomas de alguna alteración hormonal. La [...] diabetes mellitus es la alteración endocrina que con más frecuencia causa disfunción eréctil debido a las frecuentes complicaciones vasculares y neurológicas que conlleva. Es importante la determinación de glucosa en la evaluación inicial del varón con disfunción eréctil, así como intentar un adecuado control de los niveles de glucemia para evitar el empeoramiento. La disfunción eréctil del diabético es multifactorial, de mayor severidad y responde peor al tratamiento oral. La hiperprolactinemia es causante de alteraciones en la esfera sexual, ya que provoca descenso de la testosterona. En estos casos, la sintomatología sexual se trata corrigiendo los niveles de prolactina. La determinación rutinaria de la prolactina no está clara y parece que debe determinarse cuando las cifras de testosterona están disminuidas. Las alteraciones de la hormona tiroidea (tanto el hiper como el hipotiroidismo) se asocian a disfunción eréctil, que en la mitad de los casos remitirá con la normalización de la hormona tiroidea. No está claro el papel que juegan las hormonas suprarrenales en la función eréctil y su determinación rutinaria no se contempla en la evaluación diagnóstica de la disfunción eréctil. Tampoco se conoce bien el papel del estradiol en la regulación del mecanismo de la erección, aunque se sabe que cifras elevadas de este pueden provocar disfunción eréctil. Dentro de las alteraciones endocrino-metabólicas reseñar las dislipemias, con la hipercolesterolemia como factor de riesgo importante de disfunción eréctil y aunque su corrección puede prevenir el deterioro del sistema vascular, no está claro el papel de las estatinas en la disfunción eréctil. Abstract in english The proper function of erection mechanisms depend on correct interrelationship between psychological, vascular, neurological and hormonal factors. Endocrine diseases affect sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may be one of the symptoms of some hormonal anomalies. Diabetes mellitus is the endocri [...] ne disease most frequently causing erectile dysfunction due to the frequent vascular and neurological complications associated. It is important to determine blood glucose in the initial evaluation of a male with erectile dysfunction, as well as to try an adequate control of blood glucose levels to avoid worsening. Diabetic male erectile dysfunction is multifactorial, more severe and has worse response to oral treatment. Hyperprolactinemia causes disorders of the sexual sphere because it produces a descent of testosterone. In these cases, sexual symptoms are treated by correcting the levels of prolactin. Routine determination of prolactin is not clear and it seems it should be determined when testosterone levels are diminished. Thyroid hormone disorders (both hyper and hypotyroidism) are associated with erectile dysfunction, which will subside in half the patients with thyroid hormone normalization. The role of adrenal hormones in erectile function is not clear and their routine determination is not considered in the diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction. The role of estradiol in the regulation of the erection mechanism is not well known either, although it is known that high levels may cause erectile dysfunction. Among endocrine-metabolic disorders we point out dyslipemias, with hypercholesterolemia as an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction and, though its correction may prevent vascular system deterioration, the role of statins in erectile dysfunction is not clear.

  6. Alterations in TSH and Thyroid Hormones following Mobile Phone Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortavazi, Seyed; Habib, Asadollah; Ganj-Karami, Amir; Samimi-Doost, Razieh; Pour-Abedi, Atefe; Babaie, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Objectives In recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has lead to a public debate about possible detrimental effects on human health. In spite of years of research, there is still a great controversy regarding the possibility of induction of any significant physiological effects in humans by microwave radiations emitted by mobile phones. This study aims to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields induced by the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones on the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones in humans. Methods 77 healthy university students participated in this study. The levels of T3, T4 and TSH were measured by using appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Human, Germany). Results The average levels of T3, T4 and TSH in students who moderately used mobile phones were 1.25±0.27 ng/ml, 7.76±1.73 µg/dl and 4.25±2.12 µu/l respectively. The levels in the students who severely used mobile phones were 1.18±0.30, 7.75±1.14 and 3.75±2.05 respectively. In non-users, the levels were 1.15±0.27, 8.42±2.72 and 2.70±1.75, respectively. The difference among the levels of TSH in these 3 groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion As far as the study is concerned, this is the first human study to assess the associations between mobile phone use and alterations in the levels of TSH and thyroid hormones. Based on the findings, a higher than normal TSH level, low mean T4 and normal T3 concentrations in mobile users were observed. It seems that minor degrees of thyroid dysfunction with a compensatory rise in TSH may occur following excessive use of mobile phones. It may be concluded that possible deleterious effects of mobile microwaves on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis affects the levels of these hormones. PMID:22216380

  7. Free thyroid hormones in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T3 is slightly enhanced. Free T4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T4 substitution free T4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Cell swelling-induced peptide hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbák, Vladimir; Benicky, Julius; Greer, Susan E; Bacova, Zuzana; Najvirtova, Miroslava; Greer, Monte A

    2004-01-01

    Cell volume changes induced in various ways (anisosmotic environment, hormones, oxidative stress, substrate uptake) are an integral part of a signal transduction network regulating cell function. Cell swelling has received increasing attention as a stimulus for a variety of intracellular phenomena. One of the most remarkable effects of cell swelling is its powerful effect in inducing exocytosis of material in intracellular secretory vesicles. Secretion of essentially all so-packaged hormones including those from hypothalamus (thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH; gonadotropin-releasing hormone, GnRH), pituitary (LH, FSH, ACTH, MSH, TSH, prolactin, beta endorphin), pancreas (insulin, somatostatin, glucagon), heart (atrial natriuretic hormone) and kidney (renin) are stimulated in a concentration-related manner by medium hyposmolarity or isosmolar medium containing permeant molecules such as ethanol or urea (reviewed in Ref. 21). Cell swelling-induced exocytosis is not restricted to endocrine cells and hormones; medium hyposmolarity also induces secretion of exocrine pancreatic enzymes and myeloperoxidase from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:18727251

  9. Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet therapy, physical activity, medical and surgical approaches. The specialists and obese patients prefer the first and second approaches. Physical activity helps to control and treat this disorder by influencing on obesity-related hormones. The main obesity-related hormones are ghrelin, agouti, obestatin, leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and resistin. In this review, the effect of physical activity on 10 major obesity-related hormones has been discussed.

  10. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on balance of steroid and thyroid hormones in sexually immature male yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mohammad; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Safahieh, Alireza; Ghatrami, Ebrahim Rajabzade; Zargham, Davood

    2014-04-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disrupting chemical which has been shown to be able to modulate the endocrine system of various organisms by different mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of 4-NP on steroid and thyroid hormone levels in sexually immature male yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus), a protandrous hermaphrodite species. For this, the fish were injected with ascending doses (10, 50, 100, and 200 ?g g(-1) body weight) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) or vehicle during 2 weeks. After 7 and 14 days the fish were anesthetized, blood sample were collected and plasma steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The result showed that 4-NP induced a significant increase in 17?-etradiol levels at dose 10 ?g g(-1) , while the levels of this hormone in the higher doses decreased compared with the control group. However, 4-NP treatment did not have any significant effect on plasma levels of testosterone. In addition, it was observed that 4-NP affect the level of thyroid hormones in fish. Plasma thyroxine levels increased in a dose-dependent manner after 7 and 14 days of the exposure. In contrast, a significant decrease in triiodothyronine levels was observed during the experiment period. Moreover, no significant change was detected for thyroid stimulating hormone levels in 4-NP-treated fish. These results indicated that 4-NP could lead to disturb the balance of steroid and thyroid hormones with potential consequences for sexually immature male yellowfin seabream. PMID:22434574

  11. ROLE OF THYROID HORMONES IN FISHES

    OpenAIRE

    Dolomatov, S. I.; Kubyshkin, ?. V.; Kutia, S. A.; Zukow, Walery

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Literature review is devoted to analysis of role of thyroid hormones in fishes. Structural features of secretory epithelium and neuro-endocrine control of thyroid status in fishes are described. Function of thyroid hormones in development of biorhythms as well as in molecular mechanisms of maintenance of cellular and tissue chronobiological activities in fishes are characterized. Issue about role of thyroid hormones in fish adaptation in response to changes of intensity of abioti...

  12. Anterior pituitary hormone control by interleukin 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Karanth, S.; Mccann, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Several monokines, proteins secreted by monocytes and macrophages, alter release of hormones from the anterior pituitary. We report here the ability of femtomolar concentrations of interleukin 2 (IL-2), a lymphokine released from T lymphocytes, to alter directly pituitary hormone release. The effects of concentrations of IL-2 ranging from 10(-17) to 10(-9) M on anterior pituitary hormone release were evaluated in vitro. Hemipituitaries were preincubated in 1 ml of Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buf...

  13. Hormonal regulation of the primate uterus : effects of hormone treatment and lifestyle intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hulchiy, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    The uterus is a major hormone-responsive reproductive organ in primates. Hormones promote their effect via different pathways. Receptors involved in steroid hormone, thyroid hormone and insulin signaling have been found in the endometrium. Several lines of evidence suggest that endocrine and metabolic disturbances may affect the endometrium adversely, leading to abnormalities and reproductive failure. This has stimulated research on factors and potential mechanisms that are rel...

  14. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in TH activity.

  15. Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for serum luteinizing hormone was established by using the reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide. The measurement range of this method was 1.5 to 200 IU/L, the sensitivity was 0.08 IU/L, the recovery rate was 96.3% to 112.1%, the coefficient correlation of dilution was 0.995, and the intra-and inter-assay coefficient of variability were 4.09%-8.36% and 5.14%-10.23%, respectively.Compared with Beckman CLIA system, the coefficient correlation was 0.975. (authors)

  16. [Parathyroid hormone and Wnt signaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yukinori; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is clinically used as therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in Japan. However, the mechanisms for bone anabolic action of PTH are not fully understood. Recently, numerous studies suggest that PTH enhances bone formation through the suppression of sclerostin, DKK1 and sFRP1, inhibitors of Wnt-?-catenin signal. Moreover, we identified Tmem119 as new osteoblast differentiation factor, which is involved in an increase in?-catenin level by PTH in osteoblasts. Further understanding of Wnt-?-catenin signaling in the bone anabolic action by PTH may lead to the development of novel bone anabolic agent. PMID:23719497

  17. Green Light for Steroid Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Russell (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Department of Molecular Genetics)

    1996-04-19

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, D. Russell describes two papers--one in this week's issue of Science (Li et al., p. 398) and one in the 19 April issue of Cell (M. Szekeres et al.)--which report on two enzymes that synthesize steroid hormones cloned from Arabidopsis. These enzymes, DET2 and CPD, are in the biosynthetic pathway for brassinolides, steroids that seem to participate in the regulation of gene expression by light.

  18. Allosteric activation of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor by selective, nonpeptide agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanofsky, Stephen D; Shen, Emily S; Holden, Frank; Whitehorn, Erik; Aguilar, Barbara; Tate, Emily; Holmes, Christopher P; Scheuerman, Randall; MacLean, Derek; Wu, May M; Frail, Donald E; López, Francisco J; Winneker, Richard; Arey, Brian J; Barrett, Ronald W

    2006-05-12

    The pituitary glycoprotein hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), act through their cognate receptors to initiate a series of coordinated physiological events that results in germ cell maturation. Given the importance of FSH in regulating folliculogenesis and fertility, the development of FSH mimetics has been sought to treat infertility. Currently, purified and recombinant human FSH are the only FSH receptor (FSH-R) agonists available for infertility treatment. By screening unbiased combinatorial chemistry libraries, using a cAMP-responsive luciferase reporter assay, we discovered thiazolidinone agonists (EC50's = 20 microm) of the human FSH-R. Subsequent analog library screening and parallel synthesis optimization resulted in the identification of a potent agonist (EC50 = 2 nm) with full efficacy compared with FSH that was FSH-R-selective and -dependent. The compound mediated progesterone production in Y1 cells transfected with the human FSH-R (EC50 = 980 nm) and estradiol production from primary rat ovarian granulosa cells (EC50 = 10.5 nm). This and related compounds did not compete with FSH for binding to the FSH-R. Use of human FSH/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor chimeras suggested a novel mechanism for receptor activation through a binding site independent of the natural hormone binding site. This study is the first report of a high affinity small molecule agonist that activates a glycoprotein hormone receptor through an allosteric mechanism. The small molecule FSH receptor agonists described here could lead to an oral alternative to the current parenteral FSH treatments used clinically to induce ovarian stimulation for both in vivo and in vitro fertilization therapy. PMID:16540466

  19. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52%imental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  20. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are combined hormonal birth control methods? Birth control pills, the birth control patch, and the vaginal birth control ring are combined hormonal birth control methods. They contain two hormones : estrogen ...

  1. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  2. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased risk of venous thromboembolism as compared with nonusers, and about twice the risk as compared with users of products with norethisterone, levonorgestrel or norgestimate (low-risk products). Transdermal patches and vaginal ring belong to high-risk products. The risk of thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction is increased 50 - 100% with use of combined products, with little difference in risk between different progestins. Progestin-only products do not confer any increased risk of venous or arterial thrombosis, except for progestin depot, which may double the risk of venous thrombosis. EXPERT OPINION: First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, smoking, hypertension or migraine with aura should not use high-risk products, but should primarily consider progestin-only products, and be careful to use low-risk combined products.

  3. Transport of thyroid hormones is selectively inhibited by 3-iodothyronamine

    OpenAIRE

    Ianculescu, Alexandra G.; Friesema, Edith C. H.; Visser, Theo J.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Scanlan, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormone transporters are responsible for the cellular uptake of thyroid hormones, which is a prerequisite for their subsequent metabolism and action at nuclear thyroid hormone receptors. A recently discovered thyroid hormone derivative, 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), has distinct biological effects that are opposite those of thyroid hormone. Here we investigate the effects of T1AM on thyroid hormone transporters using COS-1 cells transfected with the multispecific organic anion transportin...

  4. Method to determine the thyroid hormone content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention deals with a method to determine the thyroid hormone content, e.g. in blood, using radioactively labelled hormone. Before radioactivity measurement, the sample liquid is separated from solid matter by a special sorption agent (e.g. phosphate, silicate). (VJ)

  5. Hormone Resistance at the Clinical Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ze'ev Hochberg (Haifa; Technion-Israel Institute of Technology REV)

    2010-10-12

    This presentation introduces clinical aspects of hormone resistance through a number of case studies that illustrate how molecular defects at various steps in hormone production, signaling, or responsiveness can produce disease in humans. The presentation also shows how careful phenotyping of such patients has triggered decades of translational research.

  6. Growth hormone therapy in hypophosphatemic rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D M; Lee, P D; Morris, A H; Reiter, E O; Gertner, J M; Marcus, R; Quarmby, V E; Rosenfeld, R G

    1991-10-01

    The effects of growth hormone therapy on the biochemical measures of bone metabolism were studied in 11 children aged 3.5 to 17 years who had familial hypophosphatemic rickets; five were male. Subjects were maintained on a regimen of stable doses of conventional therapy (calcitriol and phosphate). Subjects were studied at baseline receiving conventional therapy and during three sequential treatment periods: no therapy (4 weeks), growth hormone only (0.05 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks), and conventional therapy plus growth hormone (2 weeks). The nine youngest subjects were continued on a regimen of triple therapy for an additional 24 weeks. Serum phosphate averaged 0.93 +/- 0.13 mmol/L (mean +/- SD) at entry and decreased when the subjects were not receiving any therapy. During the 4 weeks of growth hormone only treatment, phosphate rose in all 11 subjects (0.70 +/- 0.08 mmol/L to 0.83 +/- 0.08 mmol/L). With triple therapy, phosphate remained higher than with no therapy. Calcitriol, osteocalcin, and parathyroid hormone increased as the subjects received growth hormone alone. Insulinlike growth factor I z scores rose significantly in response to growth hormone therapy alone. All nine subjects receiving 6 months of triple therapy increased their growth rate z scores. Exogenous growth hormone therapy may be useful in familial hypophosphatemic rickets. PMID:1928011

  7. Non-hormonal management of vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassarini, J; Lumsden, M A

    2013-08-01

    Vasomotor symptoms are the most common indication for the prescription of hormone replacement therapy since it is effective in over 80% of cases. In 1995, 37% of American women took hormone replacement therapy, principally for this purpose. However, following the publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative, as many as half of these women in the US and in the UK and New Zealand discontinued hormone therapy. Discontinuation of estrogen is often accompanied by a return of vasomotor symptoms; however, only a small number (18%) of women report restarting hormone therapy. Alternatives are available, but limited knowledge on etiology and mechanisms of hot flushing represents a major obstacle for the development of new, targeted, non-hormonal treatments, and no current alternatives are as effective as estrogen. PMID:23848489

  8. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  9. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  10. Thyroid hormones in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, A M; Mehta, M N; Desai, K B

    1994-01-01

    In a study of 136 differentiated thyroid cancer patients referred for radioiodine therapy since January 1991, it was observed that 80 patients had metastatic disease. Of them, 51 had elevated levels of thyroglobulin (Tg), and of these 51 there were 15 patients who had functioning metastases with evidence of thyroid hormone synthesis by these metastases. All but 1 of these 15 cases with normal hormone levels in the circulation were follicular carcinomas with skeletal metastases. The response of these patients to radioiodine was poor. The group of patients with high Tg levels but low hormone synthesis and low circulating hormones responded better to radioiodine. Patients with low Tg levels and low hormone synthesis showed good response to radioiodine--especially patients with residual thyroid tissue after surgery and those with nodal disease. PMID:8137584

  11. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, F J

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand. PMID:25808924

  12. Significance of total and free thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in chronic hepatitis B patients and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis B destroys the liver cells. Proteins (albumin, pre albumin and thyroid binding globulin) produced by liver cells play an important role in metabolism and transport of thyroid hormones, therefore liver dysfunction is likely to disturb the transport of thyroid hormones resulting in disease. To determine the significance of thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in Chronic Hepatitis B patients. It was a cross sectional study conducted at National Health Research Complex (NHRC) and department of Gastroenterology Sheikh Zayed Medical Complex Lahore. One hundred Chronic Hepatitis B patients diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reaction were matched with 100 healthy persons, served as control, were selected for total and free thyroid hormones using ELISA, while serum proteins were estimated spectrophotometrically. Serum total protein levels were within the normal range in both Chronic Hepatitis B patients and controls with mean value of 6.55 g/dl and 7.2 g/dl respectively, however serum albumin levels were lower in Chronic Hepatitis B patients (mean 2.69 g/dl) as compared to controls (mean 4.1 g/dl). Serum globulin was increased (4.09 g/dl) in patients as compared to controls (mean 3.1 g/dl).Albumin globulin ratio was 1(mean 13.5). Consequently, increased globulin resulted in more binding of T4 (mean 194 nmol/L) in Chronic Hepatitis B patients as compared to controls (mean 123 nmol/L). Conversred to controls (mean 123 nmol/L). Conversion of T4 to T3 in Chronic Hepatitis B cases was also disturbed resulting in slight decrease of total T3 (mean 1.77 nmol/L) as compared to controls (mean 2.3 nmol/L). Free T3 (mean 3.56 pmol/L) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (mean 0.68 mIU/ml) also showed slight decrease when compared with controls (mean 4.5 pmol/L, mean 1.52 mIU/ml). FT4 remained within normal range in both the groups. In Chronic Hepatitis B related liver disease and cirrhosis, serum albumin levels go down while globulins go up and these changes alter the binding of thyroid hormones and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone resulting in disturbance in thyroid hormone levels. (author)

  13. Effects of waterborne cadmium on thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yan-Hua; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Feng; Ni, Zhao-Hui

    2014-04-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal abundant in the environment that can induce endocrine disorder and toxicity in aquatic organisms at low levels. However, its effects on the thyroid system in fish are still unclear. In this study, the thyroid hormone (TH) levels and the expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic- pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (tsh?), solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter) member 5 (slc5a5), thyroglobulin (tg), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (tr?) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (tr?), were determined in whole body of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae after exposure to different levels of Cd(2+) (0, 0.5 and 2.5mg/L) for 4days. And the 96-h lethal concentration of Cd(2+) on rare minnow larvae was determined as 2.59mg/L. The results showed that crh, slc5a5, tg and tsh? mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae, but the gene expression of tr? and tr? was down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Besides, the THs levels decreased in the whole-body of fish, especially the thyroxine (T4) level. The above results indicated that Cd(2+) could alter gene expression in the HPT axis that might subsequently contribute to thyroid disruption. PMID:24521933

  14. Alteration of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae exposed to mercury chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yan-Hua; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Feng; Ni, Zhao-Hui

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes endocrine disorder to human and other organisms. But little is known about the response of the thyroid functions and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to mercury in teleosts and the few studies that are available have not yielded consistent results. In this study, expression profiles of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (tsh?), solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter) member 5 (slc5a5), thyroglobulin (tg), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (tr?) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (tr?) genes were determined in whole-body of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae after exposure to different levels of Hg(2+) (0, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/l) for 4 days, as well as the thyroid hormones (THs) levels. Moreover, the 96-h lethal concentration of Hg(2+) on rare minnow larvae was determined as 0.32 mg/l. The results showed that crh, tg, tr? and tr? mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae, but the gene expression of tsh? and slc5a5 was not significantly changed in our study. Besides, the THs levels increased in the whole-body of fish, especially the thyroxine (T4) level. The above results indicated that Hg(2+) could alter some genes expression in the HPT axis which could be used as the potential biomarkers for evaluating the environmental Hg(2+)-induced stress in fish. PMID:25064382

  15. Characteristics of hormonal profile of children with allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumna T.Ye.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to determine features of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases, the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and cortisol were investigated in 110 children in the age from 6 to 17 years. Of them 79 children with allergic diseases (40 children from Zaporozhye and 39 children – from eco¬friendly clean Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area and 31 healthy children (16 children - from Zaporozhye and 15 - with conventionally ecofriendly clean districts of the Zaporozhye area. Levels of hormones (ACTH (pg/ml, TSH (mkIU/ml, cortisol (ng/ml were determined through diagnostic test systems by a standard method in laboratories of the Zaporozh?e state medical university. By research results it is set, that in the conditions of large industrial city Zaporozh?e, forming of allergic pathology in children took place during activating of the hypophysis-adrenal system with the increase of TSH, cortisol, ACTH secretion with a high risk of exhaustion of immunoreactions and persistence of antigens; this was confir¬med by increase of values of their medians in relation to healthy children. In children with allergic diseases, habitants of ecologically favourable Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area, vice versa, lower indexes of medians of ACTH, TSH and cortisol were registered; this testifies to sup¬pression of hypothalamus function and hypophysis system with violation of protective reaction and adaptation mechanisms in response to forming of allergic inflammation. Thus, adjusting of hormonal activity by principle of ne¬gative reverse link in children with allergic diseases was not executed, regardless of place of residence. In addition, indexes of median of ACTH, TSH, cortisol in children with different clinical forms of allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis in comparison to healthy ones, testified that for children with bronchial asthma the highest level of index of medians of ACTH (37,39 (29,1-56,11 pg/ml and cortisol (249,23 (169,57-293,83 ng/ml was registered, for children with a rhin¬allergosis – indexes of medians of cortisol were the lowest (84,69 (84,06-92,81 ng/ml, and indexes of medians of TSH were reliably higher only in comparing groups of children with bronchial asthma (2,73 (1,13-3,18 mkMU/ml with healthy (1,96 (1,59-1,99 mkMU/ml. As a result of the conducted research, it was well-proven that indexes of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases depend not only on their place of residence but also on the clinical forms of allergic pathology; this must be taken into account in individual selection of doses and duration of treatment even by inhalation and by topical glucocorthicosteroid agents.

  16. The Relationship between Perchlorate in Drinking Water and Cord Blood Thyroid Hormones: First Experience from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Ashraf; Rafiei, Nasim; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hovsepian, Silva; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya; Taghian, Zahra; Mofateh, Samaneh; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the controversial information regarding the effects of perchlorate on thyroid function of high risk population as neonates, and given the high prevalence rate of thyroid disorders specially congenital hypothyroidism in our region, this study aims to investigate for the first time in Iran, the relationship between drinking groundwater perchlorate and cord blood thyroid hormones level in an industrial region. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, drinking groundwater perchlorate level of rural areas of Zarinshahr, Isfahan was measured. Simultaneously, cord blood level of thyroid hormones of neonates born in the studied region was measured. Thyroid function test of neonates in regions with low and high perchlorate level were compared. Results: In this study, 25 tap water samples were obtained for perchlorate measurement. Level of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T4 and T3 of 25 neonates were measured. Mean (standard deviation) of perchlorate, TSH, T4 and T3 was 3.59 (5.10) ?g/l, 7.81 (4.14) mIU/m, 6.06 (0.85) mg/dl, and 63.46 (17.53) mg/dl, respectively. Mean levels of thyroid function tests were not different in low ( 0.05). Conclusions: Perchlorate did not appear to be related to thyroid function of neonates in the studied industrial region. It seems that iodine status of the regions, as well as other environmental contaminants and genetic background, could impact on its relation with thyroid function of neonates. PMID:25789149

  17. Subacute Microcystin-LR Exposure Alters the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio Rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystin-LR (MC-LR has been detected extensively in the aquatic environment and has the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system. However, limited information is available on the effects of subacute MC-LR exposure on fish thyroid hormone (TH metabolism. In the present study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio were exposed to MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 25 ?g/L for 28 days. Whole-body TH content and thyroid follicle histology were used as direct endpoints to assess thyroid disruption. The activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs and the transcription of selected genes associated with TH synthesis were also investigated to study the underlying mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Exposure of zebrafish to MC-LR significantly increased whole-body thyroxine (T4 content but decreased whole-body triiodothyronine (T3 content. We also observed hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid follicle epithelial cells, as well as up-regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid peroxidase (TPO, and transthyretin (TTR genes. The decreases in ID1 and ID2 activities coupled with an increase in ID3 activity were observed in MC-LR treatment groups. These results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR at environmental concentrations results in the disturbance of TH homeostasis by disrupting the synthesis and conversion of THs.

  18. Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietge, Joseph E., E-mail: tietge.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Degitz, Sigmund J., E-mail: degitz.sigmund@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Haselman, Jonathan T., E-mail: haselman.jon@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Butterworth, Brian C., E-mail: butterworth.brian@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Korte, Joseph J., E-mail: korte.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Kosian, Patricia A., E-mail: kosian.pat@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie J., E-mail: lind1020@d.umn.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); and others

    2013-01-15

    Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18-357 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23-435 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

  19. Subacute Microcystin-LR Exposure Alters the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zidong; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng; Hu, Qing; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been detected extensively in the aquatic environment and has the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system. However, limited information is available on the effects of subacute MC-LR exposure on fish thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. In the present study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 25 ?g/L) for 28 days. Whole-body TH content and thyroid follicle histology were used as direct endpoints to assess thyroid disruption. The activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) and the transcription of selected genes associated with TH synthesis were also investigated to study the underlying mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Exposure of zebrafish to MC-LR significantly increased whole-body thyroxine (T4) content but decreased whole-body triiodothyronine (T3) content. We also observed hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid follicle epithelial cells, as well as up-regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and transthyretin (TTR) genes. The decreases in ID1 and ID2 activities coupled with an increase in ID3 activity were observed in MC-LR treatment groups. These results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR at environmental concentrations results in the disturbance of TH homeostasis by disrupting the synthesis and conversion of THs. PMID:25647779

  20. Subacute microcystin-LR exposure alters the metabolism of thyroid hormones in juvenile zebrafish (Danio Rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zidong; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng; Hu, Qing; Wang, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been detected extensively in the aquatic environment and has the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system. However, limited information is available on the effects of subacute MC-LR exposure on fish thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. In the present study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 25 ?g/L) for 28 days. Whole-body TH content and thyroid follicle histology were used as direct endpoints to assess thyroid disruption. The activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) and the transcription of selected genes associated with TH synthesis were also investigated to study the underlying mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Exposure of zebrafish to MC-LR significantly increased whole-body thyroxine (T4) content but decreased whole-body triiodothyronine (T3) content. We also observed hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid follicle epithelial cells, as well as up-regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and transthyretin (TTR) genes. The decreases in ID1 and ID2 activities coupled with an increase in ID3 activity were observed in MC-LR treatment groups. These results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR at environmental concentrations results in the disturbance of TH homeostasis by disrupting the synthesis and conversion of THs. PMID:25647779

  1. Serum dioxin concentrations and thyroid hormone levels in the Seveso Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Jonathan; Warner, Marcella; Gunier, Robert B; Brambilla, Paolo; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant. Although experimental evidence suggests that TCDD alters thyroid hormone levels in rodents, human data are inconsistent. In 1976, a trichlorophenol plant exploded in Seveso, Italy. Women living in highly exposed areas were followed through the Seveso Women's Health Study. TCDD concentrations were measured in 1976 (n = 981) and 1996 (n = 260), and levels of total thyroxine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were measured in 1996 (n = 909) and 2008 (n = 724). We used conditional multiple linear regression and marginal structural models with inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to evaluate associations and causal effects. TCDD concentration in 1976 was inversely associated with total thyroxine level in 1996 but not in 2008. Associations were stronger among women who had been exposed before menarche. Among these women, associations between total thyroxine and concurrent 1996 TCDD were slightly weaker than those with 1976 TCDD. A model including both 1976 and 1996 measurements strengthened the relationship between 1976 TCDD and total thyroxine but drove the association with 1996 TCDD to the null. TCDD exposure was not associated with levels of other thyroid hormones. TCDD exposure, particularly exposure before menarche, may have enduring impacts on women's total thyroxine levels. Initial exposure appears to be more influential than remaining body burden. PMID:25096280

  2. Hormonal status can modify radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie

    1997-03-01

    In preliminary experiments, we have demonstrated that pregnancy increases chromosome radiosensitivity in the mouse at the end of gestation. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was then exposed to ionizing radiations in vitro. By comparison to non pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakages was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes. Immediately after delivery, this increase of radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase of radiosensitivity. Thus, pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy and the risks of radiation exposure of pregnant women have to be considered not only n relation to the child, but also to their own hypersensitivity. (authors)

  3. Growth hormone and early treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained. PMID:25734895

  4. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and ?-32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  5. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD

    2010-01-01

    The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies, although some studies have demonstrated reduced incretin hormone secretion in type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes our knowledge on regulation of incretin hormone secretion and its potential changes in disease states.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of pituitary and hypothalamic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimunoassay (RIA) systems have been developed to quantitate virtually every hormone available in pure form. This exquisitely sensitive technique has revolutionized the fields of endocrine physiology and clinical endocrinology. Bioassay techniques which have been employed for many years are not sufficiently sensitive to measure accurately all the anterior pituitary hormones in plasma; the development of RIAs in biologic fluids and tissues has permitted studies which have greatly expanded our knowledge of the factors involved in an anterior pituitary hormone synthesis, metabolism, and action. A chapter on the general principles of RIAs for anterior pituitary hormones would have the disadvantage of being repetitive, several excellent reviews on this topic being already available in the literature. In view of these points, this chapter, in addition to quoting many papers from the literature describing the technical procedures of pituitary hormone RIAs in several animal species, will focus on some aspects thought to be of peculiar interest. More space will be given to the second part of the chapter, on the RIA detection of hypophysiotropic neurohormones. This is an expanding field on endocrinology, particularly after the recent recognition of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Besides a description of the general problems related to the assay of hypophysiotropic peptides and a critical assessment of available techniques, tical assessment of available techniques, the significance of determinations of these peptides in brain areas or biologic fluid as an index of neuronal function will be considered

  7. Mechanisms of genotoxic effects of hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?eli? Ninoslav J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept that compounds commonly present in biological systems lack genotoxic and mutagenic activities is generally in use, hence a low number of endogenous substances have ever been tested to mutagenicity. Epidemiological and experimental analyses indicated, however, that sexual steroids could contribute to initiation and/or continuation of malign diseases. Detailed studies using methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, cytogenetics and other branches, showed that not only epigenetic mechanisms, such as a stimulation of cell proliferation, but also certain hormones, that can express genotoxic effects, such as covalent DNA modification, then chromosomal lesions and chromosomal aberrations, are in the background of malign transformation under activities of hormones. In the case of oestrogens, it was shown that excessive hormonal stimulation led to a metabolic conversion of these hormones to reactive intermediates with formation of reactive oxygenic derivates, so that cells were virtually under conditions of oxidative stress. Individual and tissue susceptibility to occurrence of deterioration of DNA and other cell components generally results from the differences in efficiency of enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms of resistance against oxidative stress. Besides, steroid thyeroid hormones and catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine and adrenaline can express genotoxic effects in some test-systems. It is interesting that all above mentioned hormones have a phenolic group. Data on possible genotoxic effects of peptide and protein hormones are very scarce, but based on the available literature it is considered that this group of hormones probably lacks mutagenic activities. The possibility that hormones, as endogenous substances, express mutagenic activities results from the fact that DNA is, regardless of chemical and metabolic stability susceptible, to a certain extent, to changeability compatible with the processes of the biological evolution.

  8. Antifertility effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, F; Bélanger, A; Kelly, P A; Séguin, C; Cusan, L; Lefebvre, F A; Reeves, J J; Lemay, A; Faure, N; Gourdeau, Y; Raynaud, J P

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms responsible for the antifertility effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists. Large doses of the LHRH agonist LHRH-EA lead to a marked reduction of testicular and secondary sex organ weight, LH receptor levels, and plasma testosterone concentration. A marked inhibition of basal testicular and testosterone concentrations is obtained after daily administration of the LHRH agonists at doses greater than 10 ng. Treatment with low doses of the LHRH agonist can lead to an increased steroidogenic response to LH. Treatment with low doses of LHRH agonists could stimulate Leydig cell function while high doses are history. A study of the effects of longterm treatment with an LHRH agonsist on spermatogenesis revelaed that testis, prostate, and seminal vesicle weight decreased and plasma LH and FSH levels increased over 12 weeks. Comparison of the effects of increasing doses of LHRH agonist on testicular and ovarian gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenesis in male rats indicates that single or repeated administration of LHRH agonists can lead to loss of testicular LH receptors in the absence of the pituitary gland. The loss of ovarian gonadotropin receptors in female rats is also investigated. Antifertility effects of LHRH ethylamide are accompanied by a marked loss of LH/hCG and FSH receptors in ovarian tissue. The injection of 1,3, or 10 ng LHRH-EA in intact rats has no significant effect on ovarian LH receptor levels. A study of the direct action of LHRH agonists at the ovarian level demonstrates a close relationship between the binding activity of a large series of LHRH agonists and antagonists in the anterior pituitary gland and the ovary. Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis in man by treatment with a potent LHRH agonist is also demonstrated. Intranasal administration of LHRH ethylamide has luteolytic effects in normal women. Daily administration of LHRH-EA inhibited ovulation in all but 2 of 89 treatment cycles in the normal women studied. These studies demonstrate a luteolytic action of LHRH and its agonists in women. LRHR agonists may be used as a new and near-physiological approach to contraception as inhibitors of ovulation or for the induction of menses and as an alternative to the postcoital estrogenic pill. PMID:6275404

  9. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  10. Parathyroid hormone binding to cultured avian osteoclasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases serum calcium concentration via a controversial cellular mechanism. We investigated whether PTH binds avian osteoclasts. Isolated hypocalcaemic hen osteoclasts were incubated with [125I]--bovine PTH (1-84). Specific binding of the hormone to the cells, which reached the equilibrium within 60 min, was observed. Half maximal binding was reached by 10 min. Binding was competitively inhibited by increasing doses of unlabeled PTH, and was about 55% displaced by adding, at the equilibrium, 10(-6) M unlabeled PTH. Autoradiography demonstrated specific label on the osteoclast. The cellular mechanism activated by the hormone remains to be elucidated

  11. Thyroid hormone regulates the obesity gene tub

    OpenAIRE

    Koritschoner, Nicola?s P.; Alvarez-dolado, Manuel; Kurz, Steffen M.; Heikenwa?lder, Mathias F.; Hacker, Christine; Vogel, Frank; Mun?oz, Alberto; Zenke, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone T3/T4 is a major regulator of energy metabolism in vertebrates, and defects in thyroid status are frequently associated with changes in body weight. It is demonstrated here that thyroid hormone regulates in vivo and in vitro the tub gene, which when mutated in tubby mice causes obesity, insulin resistance and sensory deficits. Hypothyroidism in rats altered tub mRNA and protein in discrete brain areas. These changes could be attributed to thyroid hormone deficiency since T3/T4...

  12. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy. This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin. Physical activity should be promoted, and cigarette smoking reduced if possible. Women at risk of cardiovasculardisease will also benefit from hormone replacement therapy. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone therapy will protect against both coronary heart disease and stroke, and there is no increased risk of venous thrombosis or hypertension. A disadvantage of hormone replacement therapy is an increased risk of forming gall-bladder stones and undergoing cholecystectomy. Unopposed estrogen therapy gives a higher incidence of endometrial cancer in women with an intact uterus, but the contribution of progestins for about 10 days every month excludes this risk. Breast cancer in relation to estrogen-progestogen therapy has been given much concern, and the problem is still not fully solved. If there is a risk, it is small, and only after prolonged use of estrogen (15-20 years). The decision whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy should, of course, be taken by the individual woman in question, but her decision should be based on the available scientific information. It is the opinion of the authors that the advantages of hormone replacement therapy far exceed the disadvantages. We suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Sex hormones and chronic headache in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, D A

    2001-11-01

    Women experience changes in headache pattern in relation to changes in their reproductive cycles. Menarche, menses, pregnancy, menopause and the use of exogenous oestrogen-containing medications frequently alter baseline headache patterns. Changing patterns of headache in women may be linked to alterations in levels of sex hormones. Sex hormones directly influence headache by affecting the activity of a variety of neurochemicals important for headache, including serotonin (5HT). Treating headache alterations in women may include therapies that modify sex hormones or neurochemicals. PMID:12219724

  14. [Hormone replacement therapy in the climacteric].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto de Cetina, T E

    1995-01-01

    Menopause is the physiologic state that is a consequence of the cessation of ovarian function. A large number of vasomotor, psychological and gynecological symptoms have been associated with menopause. Hormonal replacement therapy is effective in treating these conditions. The use of estrogens and progestins including dosages, routes of administration and their advantages and disadvantages are reviewed in this article. In addition, hormonal replacement therapy may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and prevent the osteoporosis of climateric women. Hormonal therapy is associated with side effects but they do not contraindicate its use. PMID:7777716

  15. Regulation of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Release from the Pituitary by Thyroxine during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally-relevant chemicals such as perchlorate have the ability to disrupt the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of exposed individuals. Larval anurans are a particularly suitable model species for studying the effects of thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) becaus...

  16. Characterization of recombinant human and bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone preparations by mass spectrometry and determination of their endotoxin content

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, S.; Hassa, P. O.; Sieber-ruckstuhl, N. S.; Piechotta, M.; Reusch, C. E.; Roschitzki, B.; Boretti, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The TSH stimulation test to confirm canine hypothyroidism is commonly performed using a recombinant human TSH (rhTSH), as up to date, canine TSH is not yet commercially available. Limiting factors for the use of rhTSH are its high costs and occasional difficulties in product availability. Less expensive bovine TSH preparations (bTSH) purified from bovine pituitary glands are readily commercially available. The aim of this study was to evaluate two different bTSH products as altern...

  17. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin L. Privalsky; Rosen, Meghan D.

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions tha...

  18. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

  19. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Gutkowska; M., Jankowski; S., Mukaddam-Daher; S.M., McCann.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during [...] parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combined 6 Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (UK): Growth Hormone Deficiency MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: ACTH MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: ... clinical tests and research tests . To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics ...

  1. Sex hormones and the elderly male voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugatschka, Markus; Kiesler, Karl; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schoekler, Bernadette; Schmid, Christoph; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to describe influences of sex hormones on the male voice in an elderly cohort. Sixty-three elderly males were recruited to undergo assessment of voice parameters, stroboscopy, voice-related questionnaires, a blood draw, and an ultrasound examination of the laryngeal skeleton. The group was divided into men with normal hormonal status and men with lowered levels of sex hormones, called hypogonades. Depending on the level of androgens, voice parameters did not differ. In subjects with decreased levels of estrogens, a significant increase in mean fundamental frequency, as well as changes of highest and lowest frequency plus a shift of the frequency range could be detected. We could detect significant changes of voice parameters depending on status of estrogens in elderly males. Androgens appear to have no impact on the elderly male voice. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that correlates sex hormones with voice parameters in elderly men. PMID:19185460

  2. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  3. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric indicatio...

  4. Gut hormone release after intestinal resection.

    OpenAIRE

    Besterman, H S; Adrian, T. E.; Mallinson, C N; Christofides, N D; Sarson, D L; Pera, A.; Lombardo, L; Modigliani, R.; Bloom, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of gut and pancreatic hormones in the adaptive responses to gut resection, plasma concentrations of the circulating hormones were measured, in response to a test breakfast, in patients with either small or large intestinal resection and in healthy control subjects. In 18 patients with partial ileal resection a significant threefold rise was found in basal and postprandial levels of pancreatic polypeptide, a fourfold increase in motilin, and more than a twofold...

  5. Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), various experiments such as 125I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

  6. Hormonal regulation of longevity in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Brown-borg, Holly M.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple biological and environmental factors impact the life span of an organism. The endocrine system is a highly integrated physiological system in mammals that regulates metabolism, growth, reproduction, and response to stress, among other functions. As such, this pervasive entity has a major influence on aging and longevity. The growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin pathways have been at the forefront of hormonal control of aging research in the last few years. Other h...

  7. Thyroid hormones in pregnancy and preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Sardana; Smiti Nanda; Simmi Kharb

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a state of hypothyroxinemia in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia, when biochemically raised TSH occurs. Identification of changes in thyroid hormones in preeclampsia might be of help in preventing the occurrence of preeclampsia.Material and Methods: The present study was carried out in a hundred women with preeclampsia, 100 age- and parity matched normotensive pregnant women and 50 age-matched healthy non-pregnant women. Thyroid hormones [total T3,T4 and TSH], serum alb...

  8. Maternal thyroid hormonal status in preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Ashok; Ghosh B; Murthy N

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The physiological changes in the thyroid gland during pregnancy are well understood but only a few reports provide information about thyroid function in complicated pregnancies. AIMS: The present study evaluates thyroid hormonal levels in cases of preeclampsia in the third trimester of pregnancy. SETTINGS & DESIGN: A case-control study was conducted in the antenatal clinic of a public hospital of Delhi. METHOD & MATERIALS: Thyroid hormones, namely triiodothyronine (F...

  9. Oral manifestations in growth hormone disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Atreja, Gaurav; Atreja, Shikha Handa; Jain, Nitul; Sukhija, Urvashi

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone is of vital importance for normal growth and development. Individuals with growth hormone deficiency develop pituitary dwarfism with disproportionate delayed growth of skull and facial skeleton giving them a small facial appearance for their age. Both hyper and hypopituitarism have a marked effect on development of oro-facial structures including eruption and shedding patterns of teeth, thus giving an opportunity to treating dental professionals to first see the signs and sympt...

  10. Unsulfated cholecystokinin : An overlooked hormone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Agersnap, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosyl O-sulfation is a common posttranslational derivatization of proteins that may also modify regulatory peptides. Among these are members of the cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin family. While sulfation of gastrin peptides is without effect on the bioactivity, O-sulfation is crucial for the cholecystokinetic activity (i.e. gallbladder emptying) of CCK peptides. Accordingly, the purification of CCK as a sulfated peptide was originally monitored by its gallbladder emptying effect. Since then, the dogma has prevailed that CCK peptides are always sulfated. The dogma is correct in a semantic context since the gallbladder expresses only the CCK-A receptor that requires sulfation of the ligand. CCK peptides, however, are also ligands for the CCK-B receptors that do not require ligand sulfation. Consequently, unsulfated CCK peptides may act via CCK-B receptors. Since in vivo occurrence of unsulfated products of proCCK with an intact ?-amidated C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence (-Trp-Met-Asp-PheNH(2)) has been reported, it is likely that unsulfated CCK peptides constitute a separate hormone system that acts via CCK-B receptors. This review discusses the occurrence, molecular forms, and possible physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of unsulfated CCK peptides.

  11. Neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Marcia; Julian, Thomas B

    2008-01-01

    Neo-adjuvant endocrine therapy has opened new alternatives for locally advanced breast cancer. Such therapy, which has permitted us to expand the treatment role of neo-adjuvant therapies, may be of great benefit to patient groups such as the elderly, those not suited for chemotherapy, and those whose response may not be optimal. This therapy also may be able to help us identify agents that could improve outcomes in the adjuvant setting as well as possible biologic predictors for outcome. The latest generation of endocrine therapy for breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, has proved superior to tamoxifen in terms of toxicity and efficacy in the adjuvant setting and is currently being studied in other clinical trials. Current findings indicate that these agents are less toxic and better tolerated than neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and that third-generation anti-hormonal therapy offers improved tumor response compared with tamoxifen, which has resulted in increased breast conserving surgery. Biomarker findings of improved response in tumors that are both estrogen receptor positive and HER-2 positive as well as progesterone receptor positivity only will be important for planning future selective treatment and clinical trials. PMID:18373643

  12. Molecular Models of Plant Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper "Synthesis of Plant Auxin Derivatives and Their Effects on Ceratopteris richardii" by Corey E. Stilts and Roxanne Fisher describing an experiment begun in the organic labs and completed in a biochemistry cell biology lab provides the featured molecules for this month. The molecules in Figure 1 of that paper have been added to the collection. There is nothing particularly surprising about their structures, but students might be interested in seeing whether they can determine any structure/regulating effect relationships as the number of synthesized auxin derivatives grows. Additionally, students with little or no biochemistry background might wish to explore other systems that act as growth regulating hormones in plants, as an introduction to the variety of molecular structures that can display such bioactivity. Such molecules range from the very simple, ethene, to the adenine-derived cytokinins (an example of which, zealtin, is shown here) and the brassinosteroids. Brassinolide, a commonly occurring brassin, is also shown. These latter two structures have also been added to the molecule collection. All of the structures have been optimized at the HF/6-31G(d) level.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [125I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [125I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

  14. Enhancement of cilia regeneration by hormone treatment of Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvas, Z; Arva, G; Csaba, G; Vargha, P

    1988-01-01

    Regeneration of cilia of deciliated Tetrahymena was modified by hormones added to the nutrient medium; it was enhanced by serotonin (an amino-acid type substance), insulin (a polypeptide-type hormone) and prednisolone (a steroid-type hormone). Diiodotyrosine, another amino-acid type hormone, did not influence regeneration. Prednisolone, a hormone morphogenetic in mammals appeared to be the most active in regenerating cilia. PMID:3134790

  15. West syndrome, vigabatrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Y?lmaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Limited data are available on the etiology, clinical approach, treatment and outcome in West syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to document clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment response in children with West syndrome. Methods: Hospital charts of children who were diagnosed with West syndrome between July-2011 and December- 2013 and who had a follow-up at least 12-month, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: 38 patients (14 females, 24 males, mean aged 27.1±7.60 months were included. The mean age of seizure onset, interval to diagnosis, and follow-up period were 6.23±4.27 months, 1.36±1.58 months, and 19.3±5.86 months respectively. Perinatal asphyxia (13, tuberous sclerosis (2, cortical dysplasia (2, encephalitis (1, asphyxia due to aspiration (1, congenital cytomegalovirus infection (1, perinatal infarct (1, nonketotic hyperglycinemia (1 and Prader Willi syndrome (1 were the identified causes. The etiology could not be ascertained in the remaining 15 children. Psychomotor development was mildly retarded in 12, moderately retarded in 13, and severely in 13 patients at onset, and did not change significantly at month 12. The initial therapy was synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone in 11, vigabatrin in 17, levetiracetam in 8 and valproate in 2 patients. At 12th month of therapy, 15 patients were seizure-free, 12 patients showed more than 50% decrease in seizure frequency, and remaining 11 patients showed no significant reduction in seizure frequency. Conclusion: Besides the perinatal asphyxia as most frequent cause, a wide variety of disorders can present as West syndrome. Although, a 12-month-long treatment achieves seizure control in half of the patients, not beneficial effect on psychomotor development was seen. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 86-92

  16. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  17. Comparison Between the Effects of the Alcholic Extract of Mellissia Officinalis and Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Materials and Methods: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Results: The results showed that in experimental groups receiving the plant extract and atorvastatin, the concentration of thyroid hormones increased, whereas the amount of the thyroid-stimulating hormone showed a significant decrease (p<0.05.Conclusion: Mellissia officinalis extract decreases TSH but it increases T3 and T4. Further studies are required for applying this extract to the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

  18. New insights into adipokinetic hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroemen, S F; Van der Horst, D J; Van Marrewijk, W J

    1998-06-25

    Flight activity of insects comprises one of the most intense biochemical processes known in nature, and therefore provides an attractive model system to study the hormonal regulation of metabolism during physical exercise. In long-distance flying insects, such as the migratory locust, both carbohydrate and lipid reserves are utilized as fuels for sustained flight activity. The mobilization of these energy stores in Locusta migratoria is mediated by three structurally related adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), which are all capable of stimulating the release of both carbohydrates and lipids from the fat body. To exert their effects intracellularly, these hormones induce a variety of signal transduction events, involving the activation of AKH receptors, GTP-binding proteins, cyclic AMP, inositol phosphates and Ca2+. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the research into AKH signaling. This not only includes the effects of the three AKHs on each of the signaling molecules, but also crosstalk between signaling cascades and the degradation rates of the hormones in the hemolymph. On the basis of the observed differences between the three AKHs, we have tried to construct a physiological model for their action in locusts, in order to answer a fundamental question in endocrinology: why do several structurally and functionally related peptide hormones co-exist in locusts (and animals in general), when apparently one single hormone would be sufficient to exert the desired effects? We suggest that the success of the migratory locust in performing long-distance flights is in part based on this neuropeptide multiplicity, with AKH-I being the strongest lipid-mobilizing hormone, AKH-II the most powerful carbohydrate mobilizer and AKH-III, a modulatory entity that predominantly serves to provide the animal with energy at rest. PMID:9723879

  19. Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo / Hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitarism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Abucham; Teresa C. Alfinito, Vieira; Erika Ribeiro, Barbosa; Rogério Silicani, Ribeiro; Manoel R. Alves, Martins.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada [...] por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada deficiência, dosagens, vias de administração, efeitos colaterais e monitorização clínico-laboratorial durante os diferentes períodos da vida para cada reposição hormonal: hormônio de crescimento na criança e no adulto, hormônios tiroideanos no hipotiroidismo central, glicocorticóides no hipoadrenalismo central, análogos de vasopressina no diabetes insípidus central, esteróides sexuais no homem e na mulher, da puberdade à senescência e gonadotrofinas no tratamento da infertilidade. As informações aqui contidas resultam de uma revisão crítica da literatura aliada à nossa experiência de mais de duas décadas no diagnóstico e tratamento do paciente hipopituitário na Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Abstract in english This article brings an updated review of hypopituitarism with emphasis in hormone replacement therapy. The physiological basis of hormone replacement therapy and practical aspects of treating hypopituitary patients were both taken into account to provide a rational strategy for treatment. The review [...] is organized by individual pituitary hormone deficiency and covers epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of hypopituitarism, as well as the most relevant hormone preparations currently available for treating each hormone deficiency. Practical guidelines to hormone dosing, routes of administration, side effects and clinical and laboratory monitoring during the entire lifespan are given for each individual hormone replacement therapy: growth hormone in GH-deficient children and adults, thyroid hormone in central hypothyroidism, glucocorticoid in central hypoadrenalism, vasopressin analogs in diabetes insipidus, sex hormones in man and women from puberty to senescence, and gonadotropins for treating infertility. In addition to the literature review, we took into account our own experience of more than two decades in investigating, diagnosing, and treating hypopituitary patients at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

  20. Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Baki Ç?FTC?

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-? due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

  1. Sex hormones and brain dopamine functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Zarate, Ramon; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Espinosa, Pedro; Ramirez, Victor D

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones exert differential effects on a variety of sensitive tissues like the reproductive tract, gonads, liver, bone and adipose tissue, among others. In the brain, sex hormones act as neuroactive steroids regulating the function of neuroendocrine diencephalic structures like the hypothalamus. In addition, steroids can exert physiological effects upon cortical, limbic and midbrain structures, influencing different behaviors such as memory, learning, mood and reward. In the last three decades, the role of sex hormones on monoamine neurotransmitters in extra-hypothalamic areas related to motivated behaviors, learning and locomotion has been the focus of much research. The purpose of this thematic issue is to present the state of art concerning the effects of sex hormones on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic midbrain areas involved in neurobiological and pathological processes, such as addiction to drugs of abuse. We also discuss evidence of how neonatal exposure to sex hormones or endocrine disrupting chemicals can produce long-term changes on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic neurons in the limbic and midbrain areas. PMID:25540983

  2. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss in fast muscle function (power), and accumulation of fat in skeletal muscle. Further HRT raises the protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscle after resistance training, and has an anabolic effect upon connective tissue in both skeletal muscle and tendon, which influences matrix structure and mechanical properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal muscle.

  3. Control of hormone release during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, J L

    1978-08-01

    The hormonal aspects of lactation are discussed with reference to findings from animal studies. Both lactation and the specific stimulus of suckling are physiological phenomena involving hormones from both the anterior and the posterior lobes of the pituitary gland. In women and animals, complex hormonal changes occur during gestation, some contributing to development of mammary tissue enabling it to synthesize milk. Progesterone and estrogens are present in large amounts during pregnancy and reach peak levels near the end of pregnancy. Optimal breast development depends on other hormones also. Prolactin is the most important hormone for the actual initiation of lactation postpartum. It is, however, the fall in estrogen and progesterone levels once the fetus and placenta are delivered which gives the final stimulus to lactation. Suckling stimulates the nerve ends in the nipple area of the breast, causing increased milk production. Suckling and the presence of prolactin probably account for the reduced fertility observed during the lactation period. Emotional problems will interfere with the milk ejection reflex. Additionally, combination estrogen/progestin OCs (oral contraceptives) cause a reduction in the quantity of milk produced. PMID:361330

  4. Levels of endocrine hormones and lipids in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Uzkeser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between endocrine hormones, lipid levels and clinical parameters in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Materials and methods: Fifteen male patients with CTS and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum free T3, free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were analyzed. Symptom severity and hand function were assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire in clinical examination.Results: Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were similar between CTS patients and controls (p> 0.05. Also, there was no statistically significant correlation between laboratory parameters and clinical characteristics in patients with CTS (p> 0.05.Conclusion: The serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels seem within normal range in male CTS patients. Further studies are needed to investigate association endocrine factors, lipid levels such as triglyceride and total cholesterol with CTS in male and female patients.

  5. Thyroid hormones and adult interpersonal violence among women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Cave; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter; Nilsonne, Åsa; Wilczek, Alexander; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-06-30

    Elevated T3 levels have been reported in men with antisocial behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and expressed adult interpersonal violence in female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Furthermore, expressed adult interpersonal violence in female BPD patients was compared to healthy female controls. A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD and 57 healthy women were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS). Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3), thyroxine (FT4 and T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with immunoassays in patients. Plasma cortisol was also measured. Among females with BPD, expressed interpersonal violence as an adult showed a significant positive correlation with the T3 levels. The mean expression of interpersonal violence as an adult was significantly higher in BPD patients as compared to healthy controls. The multiple regression model indicated that two independent predictors of KIVS expressed interpersonal violence as an adult: T3 and comorbid diagnosis of alcohol abuse. Association between T3 levels and violent/aggressive behavior earlier reported exclusively in male samples may be valid also in females with BPD. PMID:25858801

  6. A thyrotropin-secreting macroadenoma with positive growth hormone and prolactin immunostaining: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, F; Bayraktaro?lu, T; Zor, F; G N, B D; Saliho?lu, Y S; Kalayc?, M

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) are rare adenomas presenting with hyperthyroidism due to impaired negative feedback of thyroid hormone on the pituitary and inappropriate TSH secretion. This article presents a case of TSH-secreting macroadenoma without any clinical hyperthyroidism symptoms accompanying immunoreaction with growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. A 36-year-old female patient was admitted with complaints of irregular menses and blurred vision. On physical exam, she had bitemporal hemianopsia defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation showed suprasellar macroadenoma measuring 33 mm × 26 mm × 28 mm was detected on pituitary MRI. She had no hyperthyroidism symptoms clinically. Although free T4 and free T3 levels were elevated, TSH level was inappropriately within the upper limit of normal. Response to T3 suppression and thyrotropin releasing hormone-stimulation test was inadequate. Other pituitary hormones were normal. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy was performed due to parasellar compression findings. Immunohistochemically widespread reaction was observed with TSH, GH and prolactin in the adenoma. The patient underwent a second surgical procedure 2 months later due to macroscopic residual tumor, bitemporal hemianopsia and a suprasellar homogenous uptake with regular borders on indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy. After second surgery; due to ongoing symptoms and residual tumor, she was managed with octreotide and cabergoline treatment. On her follow-up with medical treatment, TSH and free T4 values were within normal limits. Although silent TSHomas are rare, they may arise with compression symptoms as in our case. The differential diagnosis of secondary hyperthyroidism should include TSHomas and thyroid hormone receptor resistance syndrome. PMID:26096253

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of radioimmunological parathyroid hormone determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inter-laboratory study of serum immunoreactive PTH (iPTH) determination using standardized sera has been performed in order to check the value of the assays for the diagnosis of hyperparathyroid states. The results demonstrate: (1) that most of the cooperating laboratories (eleven of twelve) were able to discriminate between normal and grossly elevated PTH-values; (2) that direct comparison of values from different laboratories indicates very poor agreement; (3) that PTH values cannot be interpreted without a description of the characteristics of the assay used; (4) that the introduction of standard sera is advantageous and should be undertaken; (5) that determination of iPTH in serum samples is far from being a routine method when compared with radioimmunoassays for hormones like insulin, growth hormone, etc.; the difficulties being due to lack of standradized reagents and peculiarities in the metabolism of the hormone. (orig.)

  8. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequent osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects of estrogen and androgen insufficiency as well as the effects of sex HRT on morbidity and mortality with special emphasis on evidence based research and areas needing further studies.

  9. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. ? Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. ? Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor ?, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  10. Serum parathyroid hormone: a double antibody radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for parathyroid hormone (PTH) using a double antibody system is described. Because of the immunological heterogeneity of the hormone in human serum, the standard used has been serum from a patient with parathyroid carcinoma. With the use of the synthetic 34 amino acid N-terminal fragment of PTH, the anti-PTH antiserum was determined to react primarily with the N-terminal end of the molecule. PTH was detectable in the sera of 25 percent of normal subjects and elevated in 18 of 19 patients with parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Serum PTH levels were elevated in 3 of 5 patients with parathyroid hyperplasia

  11. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products.Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives.Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile.Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of side effects. To address these knowledge deficits, these aspects should be the focus when distributing information about extended cycle hormonal contraceptive regimens. This may boost the use of a potentially advantageous contraceptive regimen by a population who would derive benefit from its usage.

  12. Clinical Trials in Male Hormonal Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieschlag E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers.

  13. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 levels and responses to meals may be altered in obese subjects. Clinical trial results have shown further that two GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), exenatide and liraglutide, which are approved for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, also produce weight loss in overweight subjects without diabetes. Thus, GLP-1 RAs may provide a new option for pharmacological treatment of obesity.

  14. Hypopituitarism: growth hormone and corticotropin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capatina, Cristina; Wass, John A H

    2015-03-01

    This article presents an overview of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) and corticotropin deficiency (central adrenal failure, CAI). Both conditions can result from various ailments affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (most frequently a tumor in the area or its treatment). Clinical manifestations are subtle in AGHD but potentially life-threatening in CAI. The diagnosis needs dynamic testing in most cases. Treatment of AGHD is recommended in patients with documented severe deficiency, and treatment of CAI is mandatory in all cases. Despite significant progress in replacement hormonal therapy, more physiologic treatments and more reliable indicators of treatment adequacy are still needed. PMID:25732649

  15. Dose effects of recombinant human interleukin-6 on pituitary hormone secretion and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigos, C; Papanicolaou, D A; Defensor, R; Mitsiadis, C S; Kyrou, I; Chrousos, G P

    1997-07-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), the main circulating cytokine, is putatively a major mediator of the effects of the immune system on several endocrine axes and intermediate metabolism. We performed dose-response studies of recombinant human IL-6 on pituitary hormone secretion in 15 healthy male volunteers, using 5 single, escalating subcutaneous doses of IL-6 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0 micrograms/kg body weight), each in 3 volunteers. We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) with indirect calorimetry and plasma anterior pituitary hormones and vasopressin (AVP) at baseline and half-hourly over 4 h after the injection. All doses examined were tolerated well and produced no significant adverse effects. Dose-dependent RMR increases were observed in response to the 3.0- and 10.0-microgram/kg doses of IL-6, beginning at 60 min and slowly peaking between 180 and 240 min. Plasma adrenocorticotropic-hormone concentrations increased dramatically and dose-dependently in all the patients who received the 3.0- and 10.0-microgram/kg doses of IL-6, respectively, peaking to 150 and 255 pg/ml at 60 min, and slowly returning to normal by 4 h. Corresponding plasma cortisol levels peaked dose-dependently between 90 and 150 min, but remained elevated throughout the sampling period. In contrast, the growth hormone (GH) dose-response was bell-shaped, with maximum (approximately 100-fold) stimulation achieved by 3.0 micrograms/kg IL-6. Prolactin (PRL) showed a similar but less pronounced response pattern. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) dose-dependently and progressively decreased over the 240 min, while gonadotropins showed no clear-cut changes. In conclusion, subcutaneous IL-6 administration induced synchronized dose-dependent increases in the RMR and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, suggesting that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone may mediate both of these functions in humans. IL-6 also acutely stimulated GH and PRL secretion and suppressed TSH secretion. The dose of 3.0 micrograms/kg could be used safely in the study of patients with disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit or of thermogenesis. PMID:9258919

  16. Cytochemical Bioassay of Parathyroid Hormone: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ASSAY AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCULATING HORMONAL FORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Goltzman, David; Henderson, Brian; Loveridge, Nigel

    1980-01-01

    A cytochemical bioassay for parathyroid hormone (PTH) was used for the characterization of the biological activity of circulating forms of the hormone. PTH-stimulated glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in distal convoluted tubule cells was quantitated by integrating microdensitometry and the response to native bovine (b)PTH(1-84) was found to be linear between graded doses of hormone from 5 fg/ml to 5 pg/ml. Synthetic bPTH(1-34) and human (h)PTH(1-34) elicited a parallel and equimolar...

  17. Effect of growth hormone administration on circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone in normal healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Per Glud; MØller, J

    1993-01-01

    A new area of growth hormone (GH) therapy in adults is the treatment of infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pharmacological GH administration on the secretion of pituitary and gonadal hormones in normal men. Eight healthy men, 23-32 years of age (mean 28.1 years), with a normal body mass index were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. All participants had a normal semen analysis before entering the study. Each participant was treated with placebo and GH (12/IU/day, Norditropin; Novo Nordisk, Denmark) during two different 14-day periods, separated by a 6 week washout period. Administration of GH for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I; P < 0.01) but no changes occurred in IGF-I values during placebo treatment. The concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone displayed no change during the two periods and did not differ between the GH treatment period and the placebo period. Theconcentration of testosterone was unchanged during the placebo/GH periods and there was no difference between the GH treatment period and the placebo period. We conclude that GH treatment for 14 days in normal healthy men does not affect gonadotrophin or testosterone patterns.

  18. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection...Specifications. The drug is a lyophilized pituitary extract. Each 6-milliliter vial...

  19. Sex and Hormonal influences on Seizures and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Veli?s?kova?, Jana; Desantis, Kara A.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is the third most common chronic neurological disorder. Clinical and experimental evidence supports the role of sex and influence of sex hormones on seizures and epilepsy as well as alterations of the endocrine system and levels of sex hormones by epileptiform activity. Conversely, seizures are sensitive to changes in sex hormone levels, which in turn may affect the seizure-induced neuronal damage. The effects of reproductive hormones on neuronal excitability and seizure-induced dama...

  20. Thyroid Hormone Action During Brain Development: More Questions Than Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Sigrun; Heuer, Heike

    2009-01-01

    Summary Thyroid hormone is essential for proper brain development since it acts on processes such as neuronal migration and differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis. In this review, we summarize the consequences of thyroid hormone deficiency for brain development with special focus on the cerebellum, an important target of thyroid action. In addition, we discuss the role of iodothyronine deiodinases and thyroid hormone transporters in regulating local thyroid hormone concent...

  1. Post-Translational Modifications in Secreted Peptide Hormones in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2010-01-01

    More than a dozen secreted peptides are now recognized as important hormones that coordinate and specify cellular functions in plants. Recent evidence has shown that secreted peptide hormones often undergo post-translational modification and proteolytic processing, which are critical for their function. Such ‘small post-translationally modified peptide hormones’ constitute one of the largest groups of peptide hormones in plants. This short review highlights recent progress in research on ...

  2. A question of rhythm: recent advances in growth hormone research.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, J

    1995-01-01

    Research by Dr. Gloria Shaffer Tannenbaum at the McGill University-Montreal Children's Hospital Research Institute has led to the development of a new test to differentiate children who are deficient in growth hormone from those who are short but growing normally. This clinical application is the fruit of Tannenbaum's discovery that growth hormone secretion occurs in a rhythmic pattern regulated by intricate interactions between two neurohormones: growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and s...

  3. Minireview: Cracking the Metabolic Code for Thyroid Hormone Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Antonio C

    2011-01-01

    Cells are not passive bystanders in the process of hormonal signaling and instead can actively customize hormonal action. Thyroid hormone gains access to the intracellular environment via membrane transporters, and while diffusing from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, thyroid hormone signaling is modified via the action of the deiodinases. Although the type 2 deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone T4 to the biologically active T3, the type 3 deiodinase (D3) converts it to reverse T3, an i...

  4. The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital; Profil des hormones thyroidiennes chez les femmes enceintes: analyse de 125 cas a l'hopital general de Yaounde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong a ZOK, F. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Yaounde (Cameroon); Mbodj, M. [Hopital General Grand Yoff, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Dakar (Senegal); Mayer, E. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Gyneco-Obstetrique, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2009-10-15

    This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

  5. Serum thyroid hormone reference intervals in the apparently healthy individuals of Zhengzhou area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Gao, Y J; Cheng, J; Kong, G L; Wang, Y; Wu, X Y; Zhao, Z G; Yuan, H J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish reference intervals for serum thyroid hormones [serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (TT3), thyroxine (TT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4)] in apparently healthy individuals living in Zhengzhou. According to the requirement for laboratory support for the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid diseases in the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) laboratory medicine practice guidelines, a total of 211 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled (94 men, 117 women, 23-77 years old) from Zhengzhou for measurement of serum levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, FT3, and FT4 by using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP analyzer. All markers were analyzed across gender- and age-specific groups by using the t-test and ANOVA. The reference intervals of all markers were determined by P2.5-P97.5. We detected gender-associated statistical significances for TT3, TT4, FT3, and FT4 (t=3.299, 2.141, 5.868, 5.358; P0.05). Correlation analysis showed that all markers were negatively correlated with age (P>0.05). The new reference intervals for TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, and TSH were established: 0.76-1.38 ng/mL, 5.96-11.27 ?g/dL, 3.88-5.59 pM, 11.69-18.84 pM, 0.89-5.93 ?IU/mL, respectively. In conclusion, we added a new database of reference intervals of the serum thyroid hormones for the Chinese adult population. PMID:24782216

  6. Photoperiod-dependent negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones in Fundulus heteroclitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Fundulus heteroclitus, an annual cycle in the response of the thyroid to ovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (oTSH) is characterized by maximal thyroxin (T4) secretion in mid-winter and minimal T4 secretion in summer. Four daily injections of oTSH, given in winter caused serum T4 to plateau at elevated levels for several days, while in summer fish similar treatment resulted in far more fluctuating titers of serum T4; maximum levels were similar in both groups. The difference in sustenance rather than magnitude of Peak T4 led to an examination of the negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones as they might relate to these seasonal changes. Radioiodine uptake by thyroid follicles served as a simple, but effective bioassay for endogenous TSH. Fish collected in summer were more sensitive to negative feedback of T3 than those collected in winter; feedback effects of T4 in the two groups were not significantly different. The effects of specific photoperiods on negative feedback sensitivity to T3 and T4 were also tested. Exposure of winter fish for one month to long days (LD 14:10) enhanced the degree of reduction of iodine uptake caused by T4 in the aquarium water (10 micrograms/100 ml). Negative feedback in short-day (LD 8:16) winter fish was not demonstrated. It is concluded that long days increase and short days diminish the negative feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis to thyroid hormones in F. heteroclitus. Such photoperiodically induced changes s. Such photoperiodically induced changes may act to aid in the year-round maintenance of T4 levels necessary for seasonal adaptation and survival

  7. Identification and consequences of polymorphisms in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Helena Gásdal; van der Deure, Wendy M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetic factors exert considerable influence on thyroid function variables. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in thyroid hormone pathway genes have been associated with serum thyroid parameters implying small alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, little is known about SNPs in the THRA (17q11.2) and THRB (3p24.2) genes. The aim of this study was to map THRA and THRB for the occurrence and frequencies of SNPs and relate these to thyroid parameters. DESIGN AND METHODS: SNPs were identified by sequencing all THRA and THRB exons and flanking regions in 52 randomly selected subjects. SNPs were genotyped in 1116 healthy Danish twins by TaqMan assays and related to thyroid parameters. One SNP in THRB was additionally genotyped in the elderly population of the Rotterdam Scan Study (n = 940). MAIN OUTCOME: 15 SNPs (7 novel) in THRA and THRB were identified. Two SNPs in the 3' untranslated region of THRA were genotyped: a novel SNP (2390A/G) and 1895C/A (rs12939700). In THRB,a synonymous (735C/T; rs3752874) and an intronic SNP (in9-G/A; rs13063628) were genotyped. No associations between SNPs and thyroid hormone levels (total and free 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine [T3] and thyroxine, reverse T3) were found. THRB-in9-G/A was significantly associated with higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (p(lnTSH) = 0.01) in the Danish twins, but not in subjects of the Rotterdam Scan Study, although it showed a similar trend. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the T3 receptor genes revealed 15 SNPs, including 7 novel. Only THRB-in9-G/A was associated with higher serum TSH in a large population of Danish twins.

  8. Sex Hormone Effects on Body Fluid Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stachenfeld, Nina S.

    2008-01-01

    In young women, estradiol and progesterone primarily control reproduction, but they also affect fluid regulation. Estradiol lowers the operating point for osmoregulation of arginine vasopressin and thirst and increases plasma volume. Although total body water and sodium content are only mildly affected, data presented in this article suggest that reproductive hormones alter homeostatic set points for body fluid and tonicity.

  9. LEARNING HORMONE ACTION MECHANISMS WITH BIOINFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Sousa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to manage the constantly growing information in genetics availableon the internet is becoming crucial in biochemical education and medicalpractice. Therefore, developing students skills in working with bioinformaticstools is a challenge to undergraduate courses in the molecular life sciences.The regulation of gene transcription by hormones and vitamins is a complextopic that influences all body systems. We describe a student centered activityused in a multidisciplinary “Functional Organ System“ course on the EndocrineSystem. By receiving, as teams, a nucleotide sequence of a hormone orvitamin-response element, students navigate through internet databases to findthe gene to which it belongs. Subsequently, student’s search how thecorresponding hormone/vitamin influences the expression of that particulargene and how a dysfunctional interaction might cause disease. This activity,proposed for 4 consecutive years to cohorts of 50-60 students/year enrolled inthe 2nd year our undergraduate medical degree, revealed that 90% of thestudents developed a better understanding of the usefulness of bioinformaticsand that 98% intend to use them in the future. Since hormones and vitaminsregulate genes of all body organ systems, this web-based activity successfullyintegrates the whole body physiology of the medical curriculum and can be ofrelevance to other courses on molecular life sciences.

  10. Personal view: Hormones and depression in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studd, J

    2015-02-01

    Depression is more common in women, occurring at times of hormonal fluctuations as premenstrual depression, postnatal depression and perimenopausal depression. These are all related to changes in hormone levels and constitute the diagnosis of reproductive depression. There is a risk that severe premenstrual depression can be misdiagnosed as bipolar disorder and that women will be started on inappropriate antidepressants or mood-stabilizing therapy. The most effective treatment for severe premenstrual syndrome is by suppression of ovulation and suppression of the cyclical hormonal changes by transdermal estrogens or by GnRH analogs. Postnatal depression is more common in women with a history of premenstrual depression and also responds to transdermal estrogens. Transdermal testosterone gel can be also used in women who suffer loss of energy and loss of libido which may be due to the inappropriate prescription of antidepressants. There is also a role for the Mirena IUS and laparoscopic hysterectomy and oophorectomy in women who are progestogen-intolerant. The hormonal causation of certain common types of depression in women and the successful treatment by estrogens should be understood by psychiatrists and gynecologists. PMID:25040604

  11. Insect lipids mobilized by adipokinetic hormones.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Tom?ala, Aleš; Bárt?, Iva; Socha, Radomír

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2012 - (Langella, J.), s. 99-122 ISBN 978-1-61209-566-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP501/10/1215; GA ?R GAP502/10/1734 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adipokinetic hormones Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

  13. Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration.

  14. The Case for Routine Parathyroid Hormone Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, Stuart M; Moe, Sharon M

    2012-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a uremic toxin with multiple systemic effects including bone disorders (renal osteodystrophy), myopathy, neurologic abnormalities, anemia, pruritus, and cardiomyopathy. Hyperparathyroidism is common in CKD and results in significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Clinical practice guidelines from the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes initiative broadened the optimal PTH range to >2 and

  15. Hormone Metabolism During Potato Tuber Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter potato tubers will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. The length of tuber dormancy is dependent on cultivar and pre- and postharvest environmental conditions. Plant hormones have been shown to be involved in all phases of dormancy prog...

  16. Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abucham Julio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada deficiência, dosagens, vias de administração, efeitos colaterais e monitorização clínico-laboratorial durante os diferentes períodos da vida para cada reposição hormonal: hormônio de crescimento na criança e no adulto, hormônios tiroideanos no hipotiroidismo central, glicocorticóides no hipoadrenalismo central, análogos de vasopressina no diabetes insípidus central, esteróides sexuais no homem e na mulher, da puberdade à senescência e gonadotrofinas no tratamento da infertilidade. As informações aqui contidas resultam de uma revisão crítica da literatura aliada à nossa experiência de mais de duas décadas no diagnóstico e tratamento do paciente hipopituitário na Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

  17. A woman with Pituitary Microadenoma: May Thyroid Hormone Resistance be a Cause? A case report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Harman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH is an inherited syndrome characterized by reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone. It is usually first suspected due to findings of high serum free thyroxine (T4 and free triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations and normal or slightly high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations. Herein, we report a 37-year-old woman presented with anxiety and sleeplessness. She was found to have elevated free T3 and T4 plasma concentrations without goiter, unsuppressed TSH and pituitary microadenoma. Thus, we performed tests for differential diagnosis between TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma and RTH. The patients with inappropriate TSH secretion caused by RTH or TSHomas are misdiagnosed and incorrectly treated. Current diagnostic strategies suggest that RTH patients are distinguishable from patients with TSH-secreting pituitary tumors by the use of standard laboratory tests and imaging. Here, we present a woman in whom the standard evaluation for inappropriate TSH secretion was insufficient to distinguish these entities. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 130-4

  18. Integrated optical microfluidic biosensor using a polycarbazole photodetector for point-of-care detection of hormonal compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos; Dong, Tao; Hanke, Ulrik; Hoivik, Nils

    2013-09-01

    A picogram-sensitive optical microfluidic biosensor using an integrated polycarbazole photodiode is developed. The photodetector is mainly composed of the blend heterojunction of poly [N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) and the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transport layer. Analyte detection is accomplished via a chemiluminescent immunoassay performed in a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-gold-glass hybrid microchip, on which antibodies were immobilized and chemiluminescent horseradish peroxidase-luminol-peroxide reactions were generated. Enhanced sensor response to the chemiluminescent light is achieved by optimizing the thickness of PCDTBT:??PC70BM and PEDOT:PSS. Using the optimized polycarbazole photodiode for detecting the human thyroid-stimulating hormone as the model target, the integrated biosensor demonstrates an excellent linearity in the range of 0.03 to 10??ng/ml with an analytical sensitivity of 68??pg/ml. The sensor response shows high specificity and reproducibility. Hormone detection in clinical samples is further demonstrated and compared with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The integrated device reported here has potential to detect other hormonal compounds or protein targets. Moreover, the presented concept enables the development of miniaturized, low-cost but highly sensitive optical microfluidic biosensors based on integrated polymer photodetectors with high potential for point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24002194

  19. Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.85±0.50 kg; treatment: 3.82±0.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.36±0.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.10±0.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.17±1.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.5±1.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm.Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

  20. Growth hormone treatment in non-growth hormone-deficient children

    OpenAIRE

    Loche, Sandro; Carta, Luisanna; Ibba, Anastasia; Guzzetti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Until 1985 growth hormone (GH) was obtained from pituitary extracts, and was available in limited amounts only to treat severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD). With the availability of unlimited quantities of GH obtained from recombinant DNA technology, researchers started to explore new modalities to treat GHD children, as well as to treat a number of other non-GHD conditions. Although with some differences between different countries, GH treatment is indicated in children with Turner syndro...

  1. Correlations between endogen amylin hormone and some hormonal, biochemical and bone parameters in pullets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Guzel; N, Gunes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the correlations of amylin (a pancreatic polypeptide hormone) with some hormonal, biochemical and bone parameters in pullets. Forty 18-week-old pullets were used. Plasma amylin, CT (calcitonin), 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol ), serum os [...] teocalcin, glucose, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as weight, length and total volume of tibiotarsi were measured. Plasma amylin concentration was negatively correlated with serum cholesterol (p

  2. Thyroid hormone–sympathetic interaction and adaptive thermogenesis are thyroid hormone receptor isoform–specific

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Carvalho, Suzy D.; Schultz, James J.; Chiellini, Grazia; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Bianco, Antonio C.; Brent, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    In newborns and small mammals, cold-induced adaptive (or nonshivering) thermogenesis is produced primarily in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Heat production is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system, but it has an absolute requirement for thyroid hormone. We used the thyroid hormone receptor-?–selective (TR-?–selective) ligand, GC-1, to determine by a pharmacological approach whether adaptive thermogenesis was TR isoform–specific. Hypothyroid mice were treated for 10 days with vary...

  3. Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%),e score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated with significant fatigue

  4. Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, F

    1999-01-01

    Readers of this review may feel that there is much more that we do not know about space endocrinology than what we know. Several reasons for this state of affairs have been given: 1. the complexity of the field of endocrinology with its still increasing number of known hormones, releasing factors and precursors, and of the interactions between them through various feedback mechanisms 2. the difficulty in separating the microgravity effects from the effects of stress from launch, isolation and confinement during flight, reentry, and postflight re-adaptation 3. the experimental limitations during flight, such as limited number of subjects, limited number of samples, impossibility of collecting triple samples for pulsatile hormones like growth hormone 4. the disturbing effects of countermeasures used by astronauts 5. the inadequacy of postflight samples for conclusions about inflight values 6. limitations of conclusions from animal experiments and space simulation studies The endocrinology field is divided in to nine systems or axes, which are successively reviewed: 1. Rapid bone demineralization in the early phase of spaceflight that, when unopposed, leads to catastrophic effects after three months but that slows down later. The endocrine mechanism, apart from the effect of exercise as a countermeasure, is not yet understood. 2. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is involved in stress reactions, which complicate our understanding and makes postflight analysis dubious. 3. In the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, pulsatility poses a problem for obtaining representative values (e.g., for luteinizing hormone). Reproduction of rats in space is possible, but much more needs to be known about this aspect, particularly in women, before the advent of space colonies, but also in males because some evidence for reversible testicular dysfunction in space has been found. 4. The hypothalamic-pituitary-somato-mammotrophic axis involves prolactin and growth hormone. The latter also acts as a stress hormone and its secretion is greatly decreased in spaceflown rats, but not in astronauts, which may be due to differences in the regulation of growth hormone secretion between rats and humans. 5. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis involves the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which are lowered in space, suggesting mild hypothyroidism. 6. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, which regulates water and electrolytes, involves antidiuretic hormone and two natriuretic peptides and shows paradoxical behavior in space. 7. Erythrocyte mass regulation involves erythropoietin, and space anemia is still not explained. 8. The endocrine pancreas involves insulin and glucagon, with loss of insulin sensitivity in space due to lack of exercise, which phenomenon requires more study before the advent of space colonies. 9. The sympathetic system acts through epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine and seems to have an increased activity in space in contrast to what had been widely believed. From the foregoing conclusions, it is clear that much further study is needed in all fields of space endocrinology. On the other hand, future studies will allow us to understand what happens in a given endocrine subsystem in the absence of the "gravity factor", the perturbing factor to which the human race has become adapted through thousands of years of evolution. This should provide us with a fuller understanding of the internal homeostatic mechanisms. An important point is that some endocrine systems seem to undergo changes in space that resemble those observed during senescence, but after spaceflight, recovery always occurs within weeks or months after return. This is particularly true for the systems regulating bone and muscle metabolism and reproduction, exactly as happens with the immune, neurosensory, and cardiovascular systems. Further space research may help us find new insights in the pathophysiology of aging and hopefully define novel prev PMID:10660774

  5. Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos / Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Forga; E., Anda; J. P., Martínez de Esteban.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonal [...] es o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1) Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2) Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3) Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética), síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP). Abstract in english We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and [...] , more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1) It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2) It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3) It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone), ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP).

  6. Dominant-negative mutant thyroid hormone receptors prevent transcription from Xenopus thyroid hormone receptor beta gene promoter in response to thyroid hormone in Xenopus tadpoles in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulisse, S.; Esslemont, G.; Baker, B. S.; Krishna, V.; Chatterjee, K.; Tata, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a dominant-negative approach in vivo to assess the strong, early upregulation of thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR beta) gene in response to thyroid hormone, characteristic of the onset of natural and thyroid hormone-induced amphibian metamorphosis, 3,3',5-Triiodo-thyronine (T3) treatment of organ cultures of premetamorphic Xenopus tadpole tails coinjected in vivo with the wild-type Xenopus TR beta (wt-xTR beta) and three different thyroid responsive element chloramphenicol acetyl...

  7. Twenty-four hour rhythms of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin in rats injected with Freund's adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquifino, A I; Selgas, L; Vara, E; Arce, A; Cardinali, D P

    1999-01-01

    The effect of Freund's adjuvant injection on 24-hour variation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), GH-releasing hormone (GRH) and somatostatin levels was examined in adult rats kept under light between 0800 and 2000 h daily. Groups of rats receiving Freund's complete adjuvant or its vehicle 3 days before sacrifice were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24-hour cycle. In the median eminence, adjuvant vehicle-injected rats exhibited significant 24-hour variations for the four hormones examined, with maxima at noon. These 24-hour rhythms were inhibited or suppressed by Freund's adjuvant injection. In the anterior hypothalamus of adjuvant vehicle-treated rats, CRH content peaked at 1600 h, while two peaks were found for TRH and GRH levels, i.e., at 2400-0400 h and 1600 h. Freund's adjuvant injection suppressed 24-hour rhythm of anterior hypothalamic CRH, TRH and GRH content and uncovered a peak in anterior hypothalamic somatostatin levels at 0400 h. In the medial hypothalamus of adjuvant vehicle-treated rats, significant 24-hour variations were detectable for TRH (peaks at 1600 and 2400 h) and somatostatin (peak at 2400 h) which disappeared after Freund's adjuvant injection. In the posterior hypothalamus of adjuvant vehicle-treated rats, two peaks were apparent for CRH, TRH and somatostatin levels, i.e. at 1600 h and 2400-0400 h, this hormonal profile remaining unmodified after Freund's adjuvant administration. The administration of the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine (5 mg/kg, 5 days) impaired the depressing effect of Freund's adjuvant injection on CRH, TRH and somatostatin content in median eminence, but not that on GRH. In the anterior hypothalamus, cyclosporine generally prevented the effect of immunization on hormone levels an revealed a second maximum in TRH at 0400 h. Cyclosporine also restored 24-hour variations in TRH and somatostatin levels of medial hypothalamus of Freund's adjuvant-injected rats but was unable to modify them in the posterior hypothalamus. The results further support the existence of a significant effect of immune-mediated inflammatory response at an early phase after Freund's adjuvant injection on hypothalamic levels which was partially sensitive to immunosuppression by cyclosporine. PMID:10213846

  8. Perspectives on thyroid hormone action in adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Richa; Fanibunda, Sashaina E; Desouza, Lynette A; Guha, Suman K; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid hormone exhibits profound effects on neural progenitor turnover, survival, maturation, and differentiation during perinatal development. Studies over the past decade have revealed that thyroid hormone continues to retain an important influence on progenitors within the neurogenic niches of the adult mammalian brain. The focus of the current review is to critically examine and summarize the current state of understanding of the role of thyroid hormone in regulating adult neurogenesis within the major neurogenic niches of the subgranular zone in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles. We review in depth the studies that highlight a role for thyroid hormone, in particular the TR?1 receptor isoform, in regulating progenitor survival and commitment to a neuronal fate. We also discuss putative models for the mechanism of action of thyroid hormone/TR?1 on specific stages of subgranular zone and subventricular zone progenitor development, and highlight potential thyroid hormone responsive target genes that may contribute to the neurogenic effects of thyroid hormone. The effects of thyroid hormone on adult neurogenesis are discussed in the context of a potential role of these effects in the cognitive- and mood-related consequences of thyroid hormone dysfunction. Finally, we detail hitherto unexplored aspects of the effects of thyroid hormone on adult neurogenesis that provide impetus for future studies to gain a deeper mechanistic insight into the neurogenic effects of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone regulation of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain exhibits both unique and overlapping effects within distinct neurogenic niches. Thyroid hormone regulates hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) progenitor survival and neuronal cell fate acquisition and influences subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitor cell turnover, cell cycle exit, and neuronal cell fate acquisition. In this review, we summarize, critically discuss and highlight open questions in regard to thyroid hormone regulation of adult neurogenesis. PMID:25772646

  9. Determination of the concentration of thyroid hormone in dialysate and assessment of the loss of thyroid hormone during hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the hormone concentration in a dialysate, the commercially available radioimmunossay test of Dow-Lepetit for determination of free thyroid hormones in serum had to be modified. The results raised the suspicion that additional protein-bound hormone had passed the membrane. This could be demonstrated by the addition of Thiomersal. In 64 patients examined 1 and 5 hrs after the beginning of hemodialysis the mean total hormone concentration in the dialysate was 12.05 pg/ml for thyroxine and 5.47 pg/ml for triiodothyronine. The resulting loss of total hormone in hemodialysis patients, calculated for 1 week, amounted to 2.25 ?g triiodothyronine and 4.87 ?g thyroxine. The comparison with the physiologic renal elimination of thyroid hormone shows that the hormone elimination in hemodialysis patients is negligibly small. The quantitative determination of the protein concentration in the dialysate however, that the loss of protein is without clinical relevance. (orig.)

  10. Alcohol and the hormonal control of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, S H; Subramanian, M G

    1998-01-01

    All mammals produce milk to nourish their young. Milk production (i.e., lactation), which occurs in the mammary glands, is regulated by several hormones, most prominently prolactin and oxytocin. Studies in both humans and laboratory animals have demonstrated that maternal alcohol consumption before and during lactation can interfere with the functions of both of those hormones. Moreover, animal studies found that maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and even earlier in the mother's life can impair mammary gland development. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lactation also can alter the milk's nutrient composition and result in suckling deficits of the offspring. Alcohol (and possibly its breakdown products) can pass from the maternal circulation into the breast milk. The effects of these substances on the infant, however, are still unknown. PMID:15706793

  11. Hormone levels and RAIU of Hashimoto's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of hypothesis-thyroid axis hormone and results of RAIU (radioactive iodine uptake) in sixty-six patients with Hashimoto's disease have been determined. According to the diagnostic criterion of thyroid function, fifty-nine patients except seven doubtful patients are classified as normal (42.37%), subclinical hypothyroidism (38.98%), hypothyroidism (11.86%) and hyperthyroidism (6.78%). Dynamic observation proved that the above four conditions can be turned into each other. The values of hormone levels in subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism could be ordered as follows: TSH, TT4, rT3, TT3; TT3 in prior of TT4 in hyperthyroidism. The results of RAIU could be represented normal, decrease and increase but with high dispersion and no rule can be found

  12. Gut hormones and the control of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Caroline J; Bloom, Stephen R

    2004-08-01

    Obesity is the main cause of premature death in the UK. Worldwide its prevalence is accelerating. It has been hypothesized that a gut nutriment sensor signals to appetite centres in the brain to reduce food intake after meals. Gut hormones have been identified as an important mechanism for this. Ghrelin stimulates, and glucagon like peptide-1, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin and pancreatic polypeptide inhibit, appetite. At physiological postprandial concentrations they can alter food intake markedly in humans and rodents. In addition, in obese humans fasting levels of PYY are suppressed and postprandial release is reduced. Administration of gut hormones might provide a novel and physiological approach in anti-obesity therapy. Here, we summarize some of the recent advances in this field. PMID:15358278

  13. Effects of hypothalamic dopamine on growth hormone-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone secretion and thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced prolactin secretion in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jin; Hashizume, Tsutomu

    2014-11-30

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) on the secretion of growth hormone (GH) in goats. The GH-releasing response to an intravenous (i.v.) injection of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH, 0.25??g/kg body weight (BW)) was examined after treatments to augment central DA using carbidopa (carbi, 1?mg/kg BW) and L-dopa (1?mg/kg BW) in male and female goats under a 16-h photoperiod (16?h light, 8?h dark) condition. GHRH significantly and rapidly stimulated the release of GH after its i.v. administration to goats (P?goats (P?goats in this study to confirm modifications to central DA concentrations. The treatments with carbi and L-dopa significantly reduced TRH-induced PRL release in goats (P?goats. PMID:25442325

  14. Cross-gender hormone therapy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steever, John

    2014-06-01

    Many transgender youth experience significant amounts of emotional distress regarding the incongruence between their internal gender identity and their physical body. Cross-gender hormonal medical treatments, as managed by a multidisciplinary medical/mental health team, assist patients in transitioning to their desired gender by aligning the physical body to match the gender identity. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care and the Endocrine Society's Clinical Practice Guidelines provide a basic road map for practitioners. Expectations of the youth and the concerns of the family must be addressed and the youth psychologically supported during the transition period. Issues around future fertility should be explored as well. The goal of this article is to introduce the general pediatrician to cross-gender hormone treatments, their management, monitoring laboratory tests and clinical effects, and the issues surrounding their use in adolescents. PMID:24972422

  15. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not affect the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the cytoplasm (removal of secretion sequence) or to the nucleus (addition of the nuclear localization sequence of SV40 largeT antigen) resulted in preferential accumulation of hGH in the nucleus. We further investigated the requirement of receptor dimerization for GH nuclear translocation using the non-receptor-dimerizing hGH antagonist, hGH-G120R, conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated efficient internalization of both hGH and hGH-G120R but lack of nuclear translocation of hGH-G120R. Thus, we conclude that activation of JAK2 kinase and the subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation is not required for nuclear translocation of GH but is pivotal for the removal of the hormone from the nucleus, and that GH translocates into the nucleus in a GHR dimerized-dependent fashion.

  16. Growth hormone in the aging male

    OpenAIRE

    Sattler, Fred R.

    2013-01-01

    Secretion of growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 levels decline during advancing years-of-life. These changes (somatopause) are associated with loss of vitality, muscle mass, physical function, together with the occurrence of frailty, central adiposity, cardiovascular complications, and deterioration of mental function. For GH treatment to be considered for anti-aging, improved longevity, organ-specific function, or quality of life should be demonstrable. A limited number of controlled studies sugg...

  17. Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted t...

  18. Hormonal levels affect endometrial cancer drug efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modulating the hormonal environment in which endometrial cancers grow could make tumors significantly more sensitive to a new class of drugs known as PARP inhibitors, a researcher at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center has shown for the first time. The findings could lead to a novel one-two punch therapy to fight endometrial cancers and provide an alternative option for conventional treatments that, particularly in advanced disease, have limited efficacy.

  19. Immunoprecipitation of the parathyroid hormone receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 125I-labeled synthetic analog of bovine parathyroid hormone, [8-norleucine,18-norleucine,34-tyrosine]PTH-(1-34) amide ([Nle]PTH-(1-34)-NH2), purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), was employed to label the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor in cell lines derived from PTH target tissues: the ROS 17/2.8 rat osteosarcoma of bone and the CV1 and COS monkey kidney lines. After incubation of the radioligand with intact cultured cells, the hormone was covalently attached to receptors by using either a photoaffinity technique or chemical (affinity) crosslinking. In each case, covalent labeling was specific, as evidenced by a reduction of labeling when excess competing nonradioactive ligand was present. After covalent attachment of radioligand, membranes were prepared form the cells and solubilized in the nonionic detergent Nonidet P-40 or octyl glucoside. Analysis of the immunoprecipitate on NaDod-SO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography revealed the presence of a doublet of apparent molecular mass 69-70 kDa. Specifically labeled bands of approximate molecular mass 95 and 28 kDa were also observed. The anti-PTH IgG was affinity purified by passage over a PTH-Sepharose column and used to made an immunoaffinity column. These studies suggest that the use of an anti-PTH antiserum that binds receptor-bound hormone is likely to be a useful step in the further physicochemical characterization and purificasicochemical characterization and purification of the PTH receptor

  20. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vishal; Lee, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height) is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have ...

  1. Adrenal gland hormones in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhelismanova, M V; Dikopol'skaya, N B; Sitdikov, F G; Bilalova, G A

    2015-04-01

    It was found that in 8-9-year-old children, the hormonal part of the sympathoadrenal system more rapidly develops in boys, while the transmitter part develops more rapidly in girls. The androgenic and glucocorticoid function of the adrenal cortex matures earlier in girls. To the end of the school year, excretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine decreased, which attests to the development of fatigue. PMID:25894769

  2. Neuroendocrine Disruption: More than Hormones are Upset

    OpenAIRE

    Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L

    2011-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are ...

  3. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.; Ashley Cetola Pettia, Pharm.D.; Albert I. Wertheimer, PhD, MBA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique) when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the l...

  4. Monitoring of concordance in growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, R R; Burke, S A; Sparrow, S E; Hughes, I A; Dunger, D B; Ong, K K; Acerini, C L

    2008-02-01

    Concordance with growth hormone (GH) therapy in 75 children was objectively assessed using data on GP prescriptions over 12 months. 23% missed >2 injections/week. Lower concordance was associated with longer duration on GH therapy (p<0.005), lack of choice of delivery device (p<0.005) and short prescription durations (p<0.005), and predicted lower height velocities (p<0.05). PMID:17768149

  5. Hormonal pregnancy tests and congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, I

    1976-10-23

    Some general practitioners are still using hormonal pregnancy tests despite the warning notice by the Committee on Safety of Medicines. In view of the possible fetal damage, this practice requires further action. 12 different preparations have been used. Only Primodos and Norlestrin are still available. These products are also used for the symptomatic treatment of secondary amenorrhea. The manufacturers' data sheets have been revised but the warning notice should be reinforced. A change in the name of the products is suggested. PMID:974708

  6. Growth hormone and aging: A challenging controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Bartke

    2008-01-01

    Andrzej BartkeGeriatrics Research, Departments of Internal Medicine and Physiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USAAbstract: Although advanced age or symptoms of aging are not among approved indications for growth hormone (GH) therapy, recombinant human GH (rhGH) and various GH-related products are aggressively promoted as anti-aging therapies. Well-controlled studies of the effects of rhGH treatment in endocrinologically normal elderly subjects report so...

  7. Beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists and thyroid hormones.

    OpenAIRE

    Kampmann, J. P.; Svendsen, T. L.; Skovsted, L.; Mølholm Hansen, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The potential influence of the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline on the serum concentration of the thyroid hormones in humans was studied in 11 healthy euthyroid subjects. Five served as a control group without medication while six received 5 mg terbutaline three times daily for 2 weeks. No significant differences were found between the two groups by measuring the serum concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine and resin-triiodothyronine uptake. T...

  8. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

  9. Juvenile hormone esterase: biochemistry and structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Normal insect development requires a precisely timed, precipitous drop in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) titer. This drop occurs through a coordinated halt in JH biosynthesis and increase in JH metabolism. In many species, JH esterase (JHE) is critical for metabolism of the resonance-stabilized methyl ester of JH. JHE metabolizes JH with a high kcat/KM ratio that results primarily from an exceptionally low KM. Here we review the biochemistry and structure of authentic and recombinant JHEs fr...

  10. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mortensen, Gerda Krogh

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies have reported endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals used commonly as additives in cosmetics and skin care products. We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans after topical application. In a two-week single-blinded study, 26 healthy young male volunteers were assigned to daily whole-body topical application of 2 mg/cm2 basic cream formulation each without (week one) and with (week two) the three 2% (w/w) compounds. The concentrations of BP and the main phthalate metabolites monoethyl (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) were measured in serum together with the following reproductive hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), lutenising hormone (LH), testosterone, estradiol, and inhibin B and thyroid hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyroxine (T3), and total thyroxine (T4)). MEP, MBP, and BP peaked in serum a few hours after application, reaching mean +/- SEM levels of 1001 +/- 81 microg/L, 51 +/- 6 microg/ L, and 135 +/- 11 microg/L, respectively. Only MEP was detectable in serum before treatment. Minor differences in inhibin B, LH, estradiol, T4, FT4, and TSH were observed between the two weeks, but these were not related to exposure. We demonstrated for the first time that DEP, DBP, and BP could be systemically absorbed in man after topical application. The systemic absorption of these compounds did not seem to have any short-term influence on the levels of reproductive and thyroid hormones in the examined young men.

  11. Recovery of hormone sensitivity after salvage brachytherapy for hormone refractory localized prostate cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dan, Smith; P. Nick, Plowman.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent work has demonstrated the return of hormone sensitivity after palliative chemotherapy in androgen independent prostate cancer. We wished to establish whether a similar phenomenon existed in patients with no exposure to chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of “hormone resista [...] nt” patients who had received salvage brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer after previous external beam radiotherapy was undertaken. Three patients with subsequent biochemical relapse responded to the rechallenge with hormonal treatment. RESULTS: The series of patients presented here demonstrates this phenomenon occurs after salvage brachytherapy with no exposure to chemotherapy. Recovery of sensitivity is demonstrated both to androgen deprivation and to androgen receptor antagonism. The recovery of hormone sensitivity was surprisingly durable, ranging from eight months to over twenty-one months. CONCLUSIONS: Hormone sensitivity may be recovered after salvage brachytherapy. Potential mechanisms underlying these observations are discussed and the likely central role of the activity of the androgen receptor highlighted. The relevance of these findings to the management of advanced prostate cancer is considered including thoughts on the practice of intermittent anti-androgen therapy.

  12. Recovery of hormone sensitivity after salvage brachytherapy for hormone refractory localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Smith

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent work has demonstrated the return of hormone sensitivity after palliative chemotherapy in androgen independent prostate cancer. We wished to establish whether a similar phenomenon existed in patients with no exposure to chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of “hormone resistant” patients who had received salvage brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer after previous external beam radiotherapy was undertaken. Three patients with subsequent biochemical relapse responded to the rechallenge with hormonal treatment. RESULTS: The series of patients presented here demonstrates this phenomenon occurs after salvage brachytherapy with no exposure to chemotherapy. Recovery of sensitivity is demonstrated both to androgen deprivation and to androgen receptor antagonism. The recovery of hormone sensitivity was surprisingly durable, ranging from eight months to over twenty-one months. CONCLUSIONS: Hormone sensitivity may be recovered after salvage brachytherapy. Potential mechanisms underlying these observations are discussed and the likely central role of the activity of the androgen receptor highlighted. The relevance of these findings to the management of advanced prostate cancer is considered including thoughts on the practice of intermittent anti-androgen therapy.

  13. Transport of thyroid hormone in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JosefKöhrle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating thyroid hormone uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and the blood-CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8 play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed.

  14. Incretin hormones as immunomodulators of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NuriaAlonso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis results from endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammatory processes affecting both macro-and microvasculature which are involved in vascular diabetic complications. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally as opposed to intravenously and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. GLP-1 based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor (R agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4, an enzyme that degrades endogenous GLP-1 are routinely used to treat patients with T2D. Recent experimental model studies have established that GLP-1R mRNA is widely expressed in several immune cells. Moreover, its activation contributes to the regulation of both thymocyte and peripheral T cells proliferation and is involved in the maintenance of peripheral regulatory T cells. GLP-1 R is also expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The effect of incretin hormones on atherosclerogenesis have recently been studied in animal models of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apo E-/-. These studies have demonstrated that treatment with incretin hormones or related compounds suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis and macrophage infiltration in the arterial wall as well as a marked anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells. This effect may have a major impact on the attenuation of atherosclerosis and may help in the design of new therapies for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

  16. Critical evaluation of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels during thyroid hormone suppression therapy versus Tg levels after hormone withdrawal and total body scan: Results in 291 patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were measured during thyroid-hormone suppressive therapy in 291 patients who had been treated for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The findings were compared with those of a subsequent total body scan (TBS) and with Tg levels measured after thyroid-hormone withdrawal. Of the patients with low Tg levels during suppressive therapy, 91.6% were subsequently shown to be free of disease or to have only remnants in the thyroid bed, whereas 8.4% had metastases (false-negative). Of the patients with false-negative findings, 89.3% had nodal metastases; 60.8% of the patients with nodal metastases exhibiting radioiodine uptake and only 23% of those with nonfunctioning nodal metastases had low Tg levels during suppression therapy. After thyroid-hormone withdrawal, all but 1 of the patients with nodal metastases had high Tg levels. All but 2 of the patients with distant metastases had high Tg levels during suppression therapy; 1 of these 2 patients exhibited high Tg levels after T3 withdrawal. No differences between Tg levels in patients with functioning and non-functioning metastases were found. Our study indicates that Tg assays performed during suppressive therapy have a fairly good predictive value and can be used as a general guide in the follow-up of thyroid cancer. However, since most differentiated metastases produce Tg only when stimulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone, measurements of Tg levels after the discontinuation of of Tg levels after the discontinuation of suppressive therapy would also seem to be necessary. (orig.)

  17. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: radioimmunoassay and extraction from human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LRH) is a decapeptide which releases both LH and FSH in man. Its chemical synthesis allowed sufficient amounts to become available for clinical studies and for the generation of specific antibodies. Radioimmunoassay techniques have advantages over bioassays in relation to sensitivity and specificity. Radioimmunoassays have been applied to quantify exogenously administered LRH but data on the endogenous LRH levels of unextracted serum samples are still conflicting. The low concentrations of various polypeptide hormones make extraction procedures almost essential for their assay, in particular for improvement of specificity and for removal of interfering substances. The present paper concerns the extraction of LRH from biological fluids and the development of radioimmunoassay for testing the extracted samples

  18. Terapêutica hormonal na coréia de Sydenham / Hormonal therapy of Sydenham's chorea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Geraldo, Albernaz; Romualdo José do, Carmo.

    1957-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinco casos de coréia de Sydenham foram submetidos à terapêutica hormonal com Cortisona, Prednisona e Prednisolona; o fenobarbital e a clorpromazina foram utilizados como medicação sintomática e a Penicilina-Benzatina como profilática. Depois de analisadas as referências bibliográficas, comparados o [...] s resultados de ?;rios autores, e ajuizados os resultados obtidos em nossos casos, acreditamos poder concluir que: 1) a terapêutica hormonal da coréia de Sydenham, com o uso de ACTH, Cortisona, Prednisona ou Pred-nisclona apresenta resultados satisfatórios; 2) a Prednisona e a Prednisolona são os hormônios mais úteis no tratamento da coréia de Sydenham, sendo possível que sua associação aos salicilatos permita obter resultados ainda melhores; 3) o tratamento deve prolongar-se até o completo desaparecimento dos sintomas, as doses variando de acôrdo com a gravidade e a evolução da moléstia; 4) a terapêutica hormonal deve ser usada sem prejuízo de medicação sintomática (sedativa) e profilática (antibiótica). Abstract in english Five cases of Sydenham's chorea were treated with Cortisone, Prednisone and/or Prednisolone; Phenobarbital and Chlorpromazine were used as symptomatic and Benzathine-Penicillin as prophylatic medications. Reports of other workers were analyzed and their results compared. It is believed that the foll [...] owing conclusions are justified: 1) hormonal therapy of Sydenham's chorea with ACTH, Cortisone, Prednisone or Prednisolone brings satisfactory results; 2) Prednisone and Prednisolone are the most useful hormones for treatment of Sydenham's chorea, their association with salicylates possibly promising even better results; 3) treatment should be continued until symptoms disappear and the dosage should be individualized according to the severity and progression of the disease; 4) hormonal therapy should be done together with symptomatic (sedatives) and prophylatic (antibiotics) medications.

  19. Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Samantha J.; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C.; D'Souza, Damian G.; Darras, Veerle M.; Van Herck, Stijn L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms. PMID:25784853

  20. Growth Hormone and Gender. Studies in Healthy Adults and in Patients with Growth Hormone Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Edén Engström, Britt

    2001-01-01

    The use of a new, more sensitive immunoassay for growth hormone (GH) revealed that the serum levels in men were lower than expected in sera drawn ambulatory in the morning after an overnight fast and that the gender difference was more than 10 times greater than reported. These observations led to a more thorough study on the impact of gender and sex steroids on the levels of GH and other hormones in ambulatory morning samples and over a 24-hour period. Furthermore, the impact of gender was s...

  1. Highly potent antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone free of edematogenic effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Bajusz, S; Kovacs, M.; Gazdag, M; Bokser, L; Karashima, T; Csernus, V J; Janaky, T; Guoth, J; Schally, A. V.

    1988-01-01

    To eliminate the undesirable edematogenic effect of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) antagonists containing basic D amino acids at position 6, exemplified by [Ac-D-Phe(pCl)1,2,D-Trp3,D-Arg6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Phe(pCl) indicates 4-chlorophenylalanine], analogs with D-ureidoalkyl amino acids such as D-citrulline (D-Cit) or D-homocitrulline (D-Hci) at position 6 were synthesized and tested in several systems in vitro and in vivo. HPLC analysis revealed that the overall hydrophobicit...

  2. Effect of hormone replacement on exercise cardiopulmonary reserve and recovery performance in subclinical hypothyroidism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.R.M., Mainenti; P.F.S., Teixeira; F.P., Oliveira; M., Vaisman.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) patients present cardiopulmonary, vascular and muscle dysfunction, but there is no consensus about the benefits of levothyroxine (L-T4) intervention on cardiopulmonary performance during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of L-T4 on [...] cardiopulmonary exercise reserve and recovery in SH patients. Twenty-three SH women, 44 (40-50) years old, were submitted to two ergospirometry tests, with an interval of 6 months of normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (L-T4 replacement group) or simple observation (TSH = 6.90 ?IU/mL; L-T4 = 1.02 ng/dL). Patients with TSH >10 ?IU/mL were excluded from the study to assure that they would receive treatment in this later stage of SH. Twenty 30- to 57-year-old women with no thyroid dysfunction (TSH = 1.38 ?IU/mL; L-T4 = 1.18 ng/dL) were also evaluated. At baseline, lower values of gas exchange ratio reserve (0.24 vs 0.30; P

  3. Thyroid hormonal disturbances related to treatment of hepatitis C with interferon-alpha and ribavirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Lucia Seguro Danilovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize thyroid disturbances induced by interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. INTRODUCTION: Interferon-alpha is used to treat chronic hepatitis C infections. This compound commonly induces both autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroiditis. METHODS: We prospectively selected 26 patients with chronic hepatitis C infections. Clinical examinations, hormonal evaluations, and color-flow Doppler ultrasonography of the thyroid were performed before and during antiviral therapy. RESULTS: Of the patients in our study, 54% had no thyroid disorders associated with the interferon-alpha therapy but showed reduced levels of total T3 along with a decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase. Total T4 levels were also reduced at 3 and 12 months, but free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels remained stable. A total of 19% of the subjects had autoimmune interferon-induced thyroiditis, which is characterized by an emerge of antithyroid antibodies or overt hypothyroidism. Additionally, 16% had non-autoimmune thyroiditis, which presents as destructive thyroiditis or subclinical hypothyroidism, and 11% remained in a state of euthyroidism despite the prior existence of antithyroidal antibodies. Thyrotoxicosis with destructive thyroiditis was diagnosed within three months of therapy, and ultrasonography of these patients revealed thyroid shrinkage and discordant change in the vascular patterns. DISCUSSION: Decreases in the total T3 and total T4 levels may be related to improvements in the hepatocellular lesions or inflammatory changes similar to those associated with nonthyroidal illnesses. The immune mechanisms and direct effects of interferon-alpha can be associated with thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: Interferon-alpha and ribavirin induce autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroiditis and hormonal changes (such as decreased total T3 and total T4 levels, which occur despite stable free T4 and TSH levels. A thyroid hormonal evaluation, including the analysis of the free T4, TSH, and antithyroid antibody levels, should be mandatory before therapy, and an early re-evaluation within three months of treatment is necessary as an appropriate follow-up.

  4. Thyroid hormonal disturbances related to treatment of hepatitis C with interferon-alpha and ribavirin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Debora Lucia Seguro, Danilovic; Maria Cassia, Mendes-Correa; Maria Cristina, Chammas; Heverton, Zambrini; Suemi, Marui.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize thyroid disturbances induced by interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. INTRODUCTION: Interferon-alpha is used to treat chronic hepatitis C infections. This compound commonly induces both autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroiditis. METHO [...] DS: We prospectively selected 26 patients with chronic hepatitis C infections. Clinical examinations, hormonal evaluations, and color-flow Doppler ultrasonography of the thyroid were performed before and during antiviral therapy. RESULTS: Of the patients in our study, 54% had no thyroid disorders associated with the interferon-alpha therapy but showed reduced levels of total T3 along with a decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase. Total T4 levels were also reduced at 3 and 12 months, but free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels remained stable. A total of 19% of the subjects had autoimmune interferon-induced thyroiditis, which is characterized by an emerge of antithyroid antibodies or overt hypothyroidism. Additionally, 16% had non-autoimmune thyroiditis, which presents as destructive thyroiditis or subclinical hypothyroidism, and 11% remained in a state of euthyroidism despite the prior existence of antithyroidal antibodies. Thyrotoxicosis with destructive thyroiditis was diagnosed within three months of therapy, and ultrasonography of these patients revealed thyroid shrinkage and discordant change in the vascular patterns. DISCUSSION: Decreases in the total T3 and total T4 levels may be related to improvements in the hepatocellular lesions or inflammatory changes similar to those associated with nonthyroidal illnesses. The immune mechanisms and direct effects of interferon-alpha can be associated with thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: Interferon-alpha and ribavirin induce autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroiditis and hormonal changes (such as decreased total T3 and total T4 levels), which occur despite stable free T4 and TSH levels. A thyroid hormonal evaluation, including the analysis of the free T4, TSH, and antithyroid antibody levels, should be mandatory before therapy, and an early re-evaluation within three months of treatment is necessary as an appropriate follow-up.

  5. Dental maturity in children of short stature, with or without growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekmanova, L; Carlstedt-Duke, J; Brönnegård, M; Marcus, C; Gröndahl, E; Modéer, T; Dahllöf, G

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study dental maturity in healthy prepubertal children of short stature (height<-2 SD), with or without growth hormone (GH) deficiency, compared to healthy controls. The GH-deficient group (GH level<10.0 microg/l) included 29 children (11 female, 18 male) with a mean age of 10.2+/-2.2 years. The GH non-deficient group consisted of 17 children (5 female, 12 male) with a mean age of 8.5+/-2.1 years. All the children were evaluated for serum concentrations of IGF-1, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triiodthyronin (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and fasting plasma insulin; height and bone age were also recorded. Dental maturity was determined from panoramic radiographs. The mean difference between the dental and chronological ages was -0.67+/-0.89 years in the GH-deficient group compared to 0.23+/-1.07 years in their controls: in the GH non-deficient group the difference was -0.95+/-0.82 years compared to controls 0.16+/-1.06 years in their controls. Compared to chronological age, both bone and dental age were lower in the GH-deficient and GH non-deficient groups. It is concluded that children of short stature, both GH-deficient and GH non-deficient. exhibit a delayed dental age compared to their chronological age- and sex-matched controls. A multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the sitting height and GH level were the only significant factors associated with dental maturity. PMID:9469604

  6. Coupling of antibodies to magnetic particles for radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silanized magnetic particles have been developed by means of a number of different methods for coupling antibodies for use in radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) of thyroid related hormones. Coarse and fine iron oxide particles were prepared by use of chemical precipitation of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride in NaOH or NH4OH under different reaction conditions. Carbodiimide, glutaraldehyde, glutaric anhydride and spacer arms coupling methods were studied for immobilization of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) antibodies on magnetic particles, respectively. The effect of the magnetic particle preparation and the properties of the particles on the couplings was discussed. The influence of coupling conditions, such as reaction time, coupling media and pH, concentration of coupling reagent and coupling ratio of antibody and magnetic particles, on the preparation of magnetic particle antibodies and the assay performance was also investigated. A comparison of five types of magnetic particles from different sources for coupling TSH antibody for TSH IRMA application was made. Silanized magnetic particles and other types of particles showed comparable results. Five TSH antibodies, including two polyclonal and three monoclonal antibodies coupled to silanized magnetic particles respectively, were used in TSH IRMA. It was found that each of them and a commercial monoclonal TSH antibody as label formed good sandwich partners and gave a high signal to low levels of TSH. T3, T4 and TSH antibodies coupled to silanized magnetic particles have been used in total T3, total T4, blood spot total T4 RIA and TSH IRMA. The storage stability and reproducibility were satisfactory. These magnetic antibodies have also been employed for free T3, free T4 RIA and blood spot TSH IRMA, but some of the technical problems remained to be solved. 13 refs, 7 tabs

  7. Interactions of polyhalogeneted aromatic hydrocarbons with thyroid hormone metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Schuur, A. G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possible interactions of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their metabolites with thyroid hormone metabolism. This chapter summarizes firstly the effects of thyroid hormone on the induction of biotransformation enzymes by PHAHs. Secondly, the results on the inhibition of thyroid hormone sulfation by hydroxylated metabolites of PHAH are summarized. Some conclusions and remarks on the overall implications of the results are given at the end of this chapter....

  8. Stability of intact parathyroid hormone in samples from hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalier, Etienne; Delanaye, Pierre; Carlisi, Agne?s; Krzesinski, Jean-marie; Chapelle, Jean-paul

    2007-01-01

    The determination of intact parathyroid hormone levels is used for diagnosis and in the management of renal osteodystrophy. Pre-analytical and analytical conditions are important in the overall confidence of the assay. Unfortunately, there are no clear recommendations for the use of serum samples or samples anticoagulated with ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid (EDTA) for the best preservation of intact parathyroid hormone. In our study, the Roche Elecsys assay was used to measure intact hormone...

  9. Sex Hormones as Potential Modulators of Vascular Function in Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2005-01-01

    The greater incidence of hypertension in men and postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women has suggested gender differences in vascular function. Vascular effects of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, and the male hormone testosterone have been described. Sex steroid receptors have been identified in vascular endothelium and smooth muscle. Interaction of sex hormones with cytosolic/nuclear receptors initiates long-term genomic effects that stimulate endothelial ce...

  10. Hormones and the Resistance of Women to Paracoccidioidomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Jata; Restrepo, Angela; Clemons, Karl V.; Stevens, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most important endemic and systemic mycoses in Latin America, presents several clinical pictures. Epidemiological studies indicate a striking rarity of disease (but not infection) in females, but only during the reproductive years. This suggested a hormonal interaction between female hormones and the etiologic dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Many fungi have been shown to use hormonal (pheromonal) fungal molecules for intercellular co...

  11. Expression of parathyroid hormone related peptide in human pituitary tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, M.; Enomoto, H.; Usa, T.; Villadolid, M. C.; Ohtsuru, A.; Namba, H.; Sekine, I.; Yamashita, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) was studied in 20 patients with pituitary adenomas and one patient with pituitary adenocarcinoma. PTHrP expression was shown in almost all of the pituitary adenomas (95%) and in 100% (n = 7) growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas. A metastatic lesion from a pituitary growth hormone producing adenocarcinoma revealed strongly expressed PTHrP. It was weakly detected in normal pituitary cells in all of the specimens (n = 10). There ...

  12. Evolutionary Sequence Modeling for Discovery of Peptide Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Sonmez, Kemal; Zaveri, Naunihal T.; Kerman, Ilan A.; Burke, Sharon; Neal, Charles R.; Xie, Xinmin; Watson, Stanley J; Toll, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    There are currently a large number of “orphan” G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) whose endogenous ligands (peptide hormones) are unknown. Identification of these peptide hormones is a difficult and important problem. We describe a computational framework that models spatial structure along the genomic sequence simultaneously with the temporal evolutionary path structure across species and show how such models can be used to discover new functional molecules, in particular peptide hormones, ...

  13. The androgen receptor in hormone-refractory prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Hai-Lei; Zhu, Zhi-Qi; Chen, Charlie Degui

    2008-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer is responsive to hormone therapy that interferes with androgen receptor (AR) signalling. However, the effect is short-lived, as nearly all tumours progress to a hormone-refractory (HR) state, a lethal stage of the disease. Intuitively, the AR should not be involved because hormone therapy that blocks or reduces AR activity is not effective in treating HR tumours. However, there is still a consensus that AR plays an essential role in HR prostate cancer (HRPC) because A...

  14. MODIFICATIONS OF THE HORMONAL TABLE IN THE UNDESCENDED TESTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Miclea

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A special role in the descend of the masculine gonad is due to testicular hormones (the inhibition factor of Müller ducts and testosterone. Many authors have been preoccupied of the modifications of the hormonal table and fertility at patients treated formerly of cryptorchidism. This paper work describes the role of the testicular hormones in testicular migration and the modifications which take place in cryptorchidism.

  15. Growth hormone producing prolactinoma in juvenile cystinosis: a simple coincidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Besouw, Martine T. P.; Levtchenko, Elena N.; Willemsen, Michèl A. A. P.; Noordam, Kees

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile cystinosis was diagnosed in a patient who presented with severe headache attacks and photophobia. Treatment with oral cysteamine and topical cysteamine eye drops was started. One-and-a-half years later, he developed unilateral gynecomastia and elevated prolactin and growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroprolactinoma was discovered and successfully treated with the dopamine agonist cabergoline. Increased serum growth hormone levels were attributed to enhanced growth hormone producti...

  16. DETEKSI RESIDU HORMON PERTUMBUHAN PADA DAGING AYAM DI KOTA MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Kesuma Sari; Lucia Muslimin; Fika Fika Yuliza PurbaYuliza Purba; Magfirah Satya Apada

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi residu hormon pertumbuhan terutama 17?? estradiol dan growth hormon pada daging dan hati ayam ayam di Kota Makassar menggunakan metode immunohistokimia. Sampel diambil dari pasar tradisional dan pasar modern. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh hasil bahwa tidak ditemukan residu hormone GH dan estradiol 17 beta pada daging dan hati ayam vaik dari pasar tradisonal maupun dari pasar swalayan. Dari hasil ini dapat diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa daging broiler ya...

  17. Estrous cycle phase and gonadal hormones influence conditioned fear extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Milad, Mohammed R; Igoe, Sarah A; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Novales, Juan E

    2009-01-01

    Gonadal hormones modulate fear acquisition, but less is known about the influence of gonadal hormones on fear extinction. We assessed sex differences and the influence of gonadal hormone fluctuations and exogenous manipulations of estrogen and progesterone on acquisition, extinction learning and extinction recall in a 3-day auditory fear conditioning and extinction protocol. Experiments were conducted on males and naturally cycling female rats. Regarding female rats, significant differences i...

  18. Growth hormone rescues hippocampal synaptic function after sleep deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunyoung; Grover, Lawrence M.; Bertolotti, Don; Green, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is required for, and sleep loss impairs, normal hippocampal synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function and expression, hippocampal NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity, and hippocampal-dependent memory function. Although sleep is essential, the signals linking sleep to hippocampal function are not known. One potential signal is growth hormone. Growth hormone is released during sleep, and its release is suppressed during sleep deprivation. If growth hormone l...

  19. Hormone replacement for osteoporosis in women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudic, Jelena S; Poropat, Goran

    2011-01-01

    Women with primary biliary cirrhosis often suffer from postmenopausal osteoporosis due to their age, or osteoporosis secondary to their liver disease, or treatments provided for their liver disease. Hormone replacement increases bone mineral density and reduces fractures in postmenopausal women. On the other hand, hormone replacement increases the risk of various adverse events. We could not identify any meta-analyses or systematic reviews on hormone replacement in women with primary biliary cirrhosis.

  20. [Present status and future of enzyme immunoassay--hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimura, H

    1995-09-01

    Recently various non-radioisotopic immunoassays have been developed instead of radioisotopic assay and widely used in the laboratory. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is most popular in use including chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). At present few hormones (thyroid related and gonadotropic hormones) are measured by EIA with semi or full automatic analysers and satisfactory specificity and sensitivity were already obtained. However, most hormones are still measured by RIA or IRMA. EIA for these hormones should be developed. Standardization of reference interval and calibrators would also be needed for the compatibility between different assays. PMID:7474388

  1. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amilton Cesar dos, Santos; Diego Carvalho, Viana; Gleidson Benevides de, Oliveira; Luis Miguel, Lobo; Antônio Chaves, Assis-Neto.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. [...] Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  2. Thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction with hormonal contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; LØkkegaard, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have assessed the risk of venous thromboembolism with newer hormonal contraception, few have examined thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction, and results have been conflicting.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls as hormonally active structural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, J.D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)); Waller, C.L. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Among the environmental chemicals that may be able to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals and humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a chemical class of considerable concern. One possible mechanism by which PCBs may interfere with endocrine function is their ability to mimic natural hormones. These actions reflect a close relationship between the physicochemical properties encoded in the PCB molecular structure and the responses they evoke in biological systems. These physiocochemical properties determine the molecular reactivities of PCBs and are responsible for their recognition as biological acceptors and receptors, as well as for triggering molecular mechanisms that lead to tissue response. [open quotes]Coplanarity[close quotes] of PCB phenyl rings and [open quotes]laterality[close quotes] of chlorine atoms are important structural features determining specific binding behavior with proteins and certain toxic responses in biological systems. We compare qualitative structure-activity relationships for PCBs with the limited information on the related non-coplanar chlorinated diphenyl ethers, providing further insights into the nature of the molecular recognition processes and support for the structural relationship of PCBs to thyroid hormones. Steriodlike activity requires conformational restriction and possibility hydroxylation. We offer some simple molecular recognition models to account for the importance of these different structural features in the structure-activity relationships that permit one to express PCB reactivities in terms of dioxin, thyroxine, and estradiol equivalents. The available data support the involvement of PCBs as mimics of thyroid and other steroidal hormones. The potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity associated with human exposure to PCBs is of particular concern. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  4. [Causative hormonal prevention of premature labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Labour is the most important caesura in the life of every human being, as it is the ultimate test of the child's fetal maturity to self dependent life, whose onset is connected with a violent change in the circulatory system and the commencement of breathing. Maturity assessment scale comprises such features as, among others: posture, angle forearm, pulling an elbow to the middle line of the body, distribution of lanugo, plantar creases, breast development. They can be objectified through their technical quantification the same way as we give the appropriate number of grams and centimeters when assessing the weight and length of the newborn. However, two equally mature fetuses call differ in mass by 800g, body length by 6 cm, and gestational age by 6 weeks. Relativity of pregnancy duration clearly demonstrates that only the quantitativization of maturity enabled its prenatal assessment on the basis of the rate of increase of the spatial parameters of the baby developing in the mother's womb. The date of the end of pregnancy is determined depending equally on the child's fetal maturity and the mother's readiness to birth, where the placenta plays an important role, as its existence coincides with the individual duration of every pregnancy. The use of industrially synthesized hormones means that those pharmaceuticals contain the whole mixture of side-products of the synthesis of the hormones. The biologically alien corticoid analogues like dexamethasone and betamethasone must, when exerting prolonged action, cause unwanted side effects. In contrast the ACTH-depot administration leads to desired production and secretion of corticoids through the control of the whole body function of the adrenals. Such naturally stimulated endogenous steroid hormones are free from unwanted side effects of drugs from the group of their synthetic analogues. An enormous body of evidence supports the link between the administration of corticotrophin and fetal body mass, maturity and age of neonates. PMID:15537244

  5. Disturbances in Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Hormones in Rats Exposed to CCL4 and/ or Gamma-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Work aims to detect the disturbances in hormones of pituitary-thyroid axis in male rats exposed to liver injury by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and/ or ?-irradiation, as well as modulating these disturbances by supplementation of hepato-protective agent, silymarin-plus (S+). Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, as a hepatotoxic agent, 1 ml/ Kg body wt two times/ week for 3 weeks alone or combined with 6Gy fractionated doses of whole body ?-irradiation (1Gy two times/ week for 3 weeks) induced hepato-toxicity as manifested biochemically by an elevation of liver marker enzymes; transaminases (ALT and AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Oxidative stress in liver was evidenced by a significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) along with reduction of glutathione (GSH) content. Liver damage induced by CCl4 and/or ?-irradiation was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), while thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) showed a significant increase. In addition, significant increases were recorded in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels whereas; significant decrease was recorded in glucose level in group exposed to CCl4 and ?-irradiation. Oral supplementation of S+ ameliorated the changes induced by exposure to CCl4 and/ or ?-irradiation. In conclusion, the present data demonstrated that exposure to chemical as well as physical environmental biohazards induced liver injury concomitant with a hypothyroid state. This disturbance can be modulated by supplementation of hepato-protective agent.

  6. Polymorphisms in genes involved in sex hormone metabolism, estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy use, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Diergaarde, Brenda; Potter, John D.; Jupe, Eldon R.; Manjeshwar, Sharmila; Shimasaki, Craig D.; Pugh, Thomas W.; Defreese, Daniele C.; Gramling, Bobby A.; Evans, Ilonka; White, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Hormone therapy, estrogen plus progestin (E+P) particularly, is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Functionally relevant polymorphisms in genes involved in sex hormone metabolism may alter exposure to exogenous sex hormones and affect risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated associations of common polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen and/or progesterone metabolism, E+P use, and their interactions with breast cancer risk in a case-control study of postmenopausal ...

  7. A radioimmunoassay for bovine parathyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for bovine parathyroid hormone (b PTH) has been developed. An antibody was raised in a goat against 1-84 b PTH which was directed against the carboxy-terminal part of the molecule (no cross-reactivity with synthetic 1-34 b PTH fragment). 1-84 b PTH was labelled with 125I using the chloramine-T method. The tubes were incubated at 4 deg C for 6 days in an equilibrium system with 25% protein concentration. Separation was performed using plasma-coated charcoal. Jugular venous plasma PTH levels were shown to be increased in hypocalcemic parturient cows

  8. Effect of parathyroid hormone on erythropoiesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meytes, D.; Bogin, E.; Ma, A.; Dukes, P. P.; Massry, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    Inhibitors of erythropoiesis have been found in the blood of uremic patients but their nature has not been identified. These patients have excess blood levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and it is possible that PTH inhibits erythropoiesis. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of intact PTH molecules and some of its fragments on human peripheral blood and mouse bone marrow burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-E), on mouse bone marrow erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-E), and ...

  9. Gut hormones as peripheral anti obesity targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Caroline J; Bloom, Stephen R

    2004-10-01

    Many peptides are synthesised and released from the gastrointestinal tract. Whilst their roles in regulation of gastrointestinal function have been known for some time, it is now evident that they also influence eating behaviour and thus potential anti obesity targets. Peptide YY (PYY) is released post prandially from the gastrointestinal L-cells with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and oxyntomodulin. Following peripheral administration of PYY 3-36, the circulating form of PYY, to mouse, rat or human there is marked inhibition of food intake. PYY 3-36 is thought to mediate its actions through the NPY Y2 GPCR. Obese subjects have lower basal fasting PYY levels and have a smaller post prandial rise. However, obesity does not appear to be associated with resistance to PYY (as it is with leptin) and exogenous infusion of PYY 3-36 results in a reduction in food intake by 30% in an obese group and 31% in a lean group. GLP-1 or oxyntomodulin, products of the prepreglucagon gene, decrease food intake when administered either peripherally or directly into the CNS. In addition, both have been shown to decrease food intake in humans. These effects are thought to be mediated by the GLP-1 receptor. Ghrelin, a huger hormone produced by the stomach, increases in the circulation following a period of fasting. Administration of ghrelin either peripherally or directly into the CNS increases food intake and chronic administration leads to obesity. Further infusion into normal healthy volunteers increases both food intake and appetite. Ghrelin is thought to act through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Obesity is the current major cause of premature death in the UK, killing almost 1000 people a week. Worldwide its prevalence is accelerating. The administration of the naturally occurring gut hormone may offer a long-term therapeutic approach to weight control. Here we consider the therapeutic potential of some gut hormones, and the GPCR's through which they act, in the treatment of obesity. PMID:15544446

  10. Hormonal approach to breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, I H; Russo, J

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer is more frequent in nulliparous women, while its incidence is significantly reduced by full-term pregnancy. The fact that the protection conferred by pregnancy is observed in women from different countries and ethnic groups, regardless of the endogenous incidence of this malignancy, indicates that this protection does not result from extrinsic factors specific to a particular environmental, genetic, or socioeconomic setting, but rather from an intrinsic effect of parity on the biology of the breast. Using an experimental system we have shown that treatment of young virgin rats with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), like full-term pregnancy, efficiently inhibits the initiation and progression of chemically induced mammary carcinomas. Treatment of young virgin rats with hCG induced a profuse lobular development of the mammary gland, reduced the proliferative activity of the mammary epithelium, and induced the synthesis of inhibin, a secreted protein with tumor-suppressor activity. HCG treatment also increased the expression of the programmed cell death (PCD) genes testosterone repressed prostate message 2 (TRPM2), interleukin 1-beta-converting enzyme (ICE), p53, c-myc, and bcl-XS, induced apoptosis, and downregulated cyclins. PCD genes were activated through a p53-dependent process, modulated by c-myc, and with partial dependence on the bcl-2 family-related genes. The possibility that this hormonal treatment activates known or new genes was tested by differential display technique. We have identified a series of new genes, hormone-induced-1 (HI-1) among them. The characterization of their functional role will contribute to clarify the mechanisms through which hCG inhibits the initiation and progression of mammary cancer. Of great significance was the observation that PCD genes remained activated even after lobular formations had regressed due to the cessation of hormone administration. We postulate that this mechanism plays a major role in the long-lasting protection exerted by hCG from chemically induced carcinogenesis, and might be also involved in the lifetime reduction in breast cancer risk induced in women by full-term pregnancy. The implications of these observations are two-fold: on one hand, they indicate that hCG, as pregnancy, may induce early genomic changes that control the progression of the differentiation pathway, and on the other, that these changes are permanently imprinted in the genome, regulating the long-lasting refractoriness to carcinogenesis. The permanence of these changes, in turn, makes them ideal surrogate markers of hCG effect in the evaluation of this hormone as a breast cancer preventive agent. PMID:10762007

  11. Hormones in Poultry Production: Scientific Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Azis Garcia de Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The following article has been retracted due to the investigation of complaints received against it. The Editorial Board found that substantial portions of the text came from other published papers. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter, and the Open Journal of Animal Sciences treats all unethical behavior seriously. This paper published in Vol.4 No.5, 228-236, 2014 has been removed from this site. Title: Hormones in Poultry Production: Scientific Facts Authors: Wagner Azis Garcia de Araújo, Tarcisio Sim?es Pereira Agostinho, Nielton Cezar Ton, Luiz Fernando Teixeira Albino

  12. Die Biochemie der Hormone im weiblichen Organismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber DM

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Fach der Frauenheilkunde unterliegt derzeit insofern einem Wandel, als das Verständnis der biochemischen Vorgänge in unserem Körper einen zentralen Stellenwert einnehmen wird. Das Rationale wird auch sein, daß die Hormone des Eierstocks nicht nur essentiell für die Reproduktion sind, sondern auch in zahlreiche extragenitale Funktionen entscheidend involviert sind. Erst durch das Verstehen und Erkennen der biochemischen Schritte im Zusammenhang mit den Sexualsteroiden wird es möglich sein, zahlreiche Erkrankungen in ihrer Ursache richtig zu erkennen und auch dementsprechend zu therapieren. Der Frauenarzt von morgen wird mit biochemischem Wissen intensiv vertraut sein müssen.

  13. Plasma concentrations of prolactin, growth hormone, and luteinizing hormone in steers administered ergotamine or ergonovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Thompson, F N; Sartin, J L; Leite-Browning, M L

    1997-03-01

    This research investigated whether ergot alkaloids associated with endophyte-infected tall fescue could alter plasma concentrations of pituitary hormones that regulate biological processes related to cattle performance. Seven Angus yearling steers received single i.v. injections of ergotamine tartrate, ergonovine maleate, or saline vehicle in a simple cross-over design. Each steer was given a different compound each week. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 45 min before and 240 min after treatments to assess plasma concentrations of prolactin, growth hormone, and LH. Respiratory rates were measured hourly to ascertain a systemic effect. Ambient temperature averaged 34 degrees C during data collection. Treatment x time was a significant source of variation for respiration rate and plasma concentrations of each hormone evaluated. Respiration rates were higher for ergonovine than for saline (P ergotamine (P ergotamine than for ergonovine and saline by 210 min after treatment. Both alkaloids transiently elevated (P Ergotamine reduced (P ergotamine treatment and after saline treatment. Ergonovine lowered (P ergotamine and did not affect mean LH concentrations. Results indicated that ergot alkaloids implicated as contributing agents to fescue toxicosis can alter plasma concentrations of pituitary hormones important to cattle production. PMID:9078499

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marThese results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  15. Síndrome metabólico en menopausia: implicaciones de la terapia hormonal / Menopause syndrome: implications of hormone therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Katherine, Tabares-Trujillo; Jesús Rafael, Aguilera-Pérez; Beatriz, Velázquez-Valassi; Pablo, Garza-Ríos; Lizbeth Citlalli, Angulo-Torres; Rosalía, García-Ruiz.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La incidencia de enfermedad cardiovascular y síndrome metabólico en mujeres postmenopáusicas es de 35%. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la relación entre los diferentes parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos en pacientes con o sin terapia hormonal de reemplazo con síndrome [...] metabólico. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio en una cohorte retrospectiva, con el análisis de casos de la Coordinación de Peri y Postmenopausia del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes en el periodo comprendido entre 1998 y 2009; se incluyeron aquellas pacientes con diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico. Las variables analizadas fueron: a) indicadores antropométricos; b) indicadores bioquímicos y c) niveles de tensión arterial. Se formaron dos grupos: pacientes con terapia de reemplazo hormonal (Grupo I) y el otro con pacientes sin terapia hormonal (Grupo II). El análisis estadístico se realizó dependiendo de la variable, con prueba de chi cuadrada y t de Student y se calculó OR (IC 95%). Resultados: Se incluyeron 310 casos; el Grupo I se conformó por 121 casos y el Grupo II por 189 casos. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en relación a los índices antropométricos; de los indicadores bioquímicos, se encontraron diferencias en los valores de colesterol (p = 0. 024) y de la tensión arterial, las diferencias se encontraron en la diastólica con (p de 90 mmHg. Conclusiones: Las pacientes con síndrome metabólico sin terapia hormonal tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar TAD > 90 mmHg y una tendencia a mantener rangos más elevados en el perfil de lípidos y mayor riesgo de desarrollar ECV, aunque la investigación sobre los diferentes factores de riesgo, así como las implicaciones de la terapia hormonal, aún son insuficientes para reconocer la dimensión del problema en el climaterio. Abstract in english Introduction: The incidence of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome during the menopause is around 35%. The objective of this study was to establish the relation between anthropometric and biochemical values in those patients with metabolic syndrome with and without hormone replacement ther [...] apy during menopause. Methods: A retrospective cohort study with case analysis of the Coordination of Peri and Postmenopause at the Instituto Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes during the period between 1998 and 2009; the study included those patients with diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The variables analyzed were: a) anthropometric, b) biochemical indicators and c) blood pressure levels, divided in two groups: patients with hormone replacement therapy (Group I) and patients without hormonal therapy (Group II). The statistical analysis were performed depending on the variable, with chi-square, Student t test and OR, CI (95%). Results: 310 cases were included: Group I, 121 cases and Group II 189 cases. There were no statistically significant differences on anthropometric and biochemical indicators, but significant differences in cholesterol (p=0.024) and diastolic blood pressure levels, were found (p 90 mmHg. Conclusions: Patients with metabolic syndrome without hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk for diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and a tendency to maintain higher cholesterol levels and increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, although research on the different risk factors, and the implications of hormone therapy, are still insufficient to recognize the scale of the problem in the climacteric woman.

  16. Assessment of the loss of thyroid hormone during hemodialysis by administration of a hormone tracer in an in vitro experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several investigators have examined thyroid function in hemodialysis patients. Similar results were obtained: reduced total triiodothyronine and subnormal thyroxine values in serum. This raised the question whether a deficiency in hormones during hemodialysis could be responsible for these findings. The present studies were made in an attempt to prove or disprove this assumption by determining hormone loss. The loss of thyroxine during hemodialysis was 1.1 ?g. This order of magnitude excludes a hormone deficit caused by dialysis. The assumption that an increased loss of hormone during hemodialysis is the cause of pathologic changes in the serum as compared with the period before dialysis can be considered as disproved. (orig.)

  17. Juxtapositions between the somatostatinergic and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons in the human hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudan, N; Peroski, M; Grignol, G; Merchenthaler, I; Dudas, B

    2015-06-25

    Somatostatin is a 14-28 amino acid peptide that is located not only in the gastrointestinal system but also in multiple sites of the human brain. The inhibitory effect of somatostatin on the growth hormone (GH) secretion of the pituitary gland is a well-established phenomenon. There is a general consensus that somatostatin is released into the hypophysial portal blood and modulates GH secretion by hormonal action. In the present study, we explored the possibility that in addition to the hormonal route, somatostatin may also influence GH secretion via influencing the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) secretion by direct contacts that may be functional synapses. Since the verification of these putative synapses by electron microscopy is virtually impossible in humans due to the long post mortem time, in order to reveal the putative somatostatinergic-GHRH juxtapositions, light microscopic double-label immunohistochemistry was utilized. By examining the slides with high magnification, we observed that the vast majority of the GHRH perikarya received contacting somatostatinergic axonal varicosities in the arcuate nucleus. In contrast, GHRH axonal varicosities rarely contacted somatostatinergic perikarya. The morphology and the abundance of somatostatin to GHRH juxtapositions indicate that these associations are functional synapses, and they represent, at least partially, the morphological substrate of the somatostatin-influenced GHRH secretion. Thus, in addition to influencing the GH secretion directly via the hypophysial portal system, somatostatin may also modulate GH release from the anterior pituitary by regulating the hypothalamic GHRH secretion via direct contacts. The rare GHRH to somatostatin juxtapositions indicate that the negative feedback effect of GH targets the somatostatinergic system directly and not via the GHRH system. PMID:25839148

  18. Space weightlessness and hormonal changes in human subjects and experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from spaceflight and bed rest studies are briefly described and the difficulties in interpreting these results are discussed. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, and other hormones are addressed.

  19. Parathyroid hormone levels predict posttotal thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivere, Amy E; Brooks, Ashton J; Hayek, Genevieve A; Wang, Heng; Corsetti, Ralph L; Fuhrman, George M

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that parathyroid hormone (PTH) determination would be the most effective strategy to identify posttotal thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism (PTTHP) compared with other clinical and laboratory parameters. We retrospectively reviewed our recent experience with total thyroidectomy. We recorded demographics, malignancy, thyroid weight, parathyroid autotransplantation, hospital stay, use of postoperative calcium and hormonally active vitamin D3 (calcitriol), and postoperative serum calcium and PTH levels. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether supplemental calcitriol was required to maintain eucalcemia and therefore reflecting the diagnosis of PTTHP. From October 2010 to June 2013, a total of 202 total thyroidectomies were performed. Twenty-four patients (12%) developed PTTHP and required calcitriol replacement. Logistic regression analysis revealed that only postoperative calcium levels (P = 0.02) and PTH levels (P < 0.0001) statistically significantly predicted PTTHP. Twenty-two of 29 patients with PTH 13 pg/mL or less had PTTHP. Only two of 173 patients with a PTH level greater than 13 pg/mL were diagnosed with PTTHP. We recommend using PTH levels after total thyroidectomy to determine which patients will have hypoparathyroidism requiring calcitriol therapy. An early determination of PTTHP allows for prompt management that can shorten hospital stay and improve outcomes. PMID:25105405

  20. Degradation of parathyroid hormone in macrophage endosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted as an 84 amino acid protein that is rapidly cleaved between amino acids 34 and 35 by Kupffer cells in liver. The resulting amino terminal peptide (1-34) is active at PTH target organs (kidney and bone). Cathepsin D can process PTH to 1-34 in vitro, and a cathepsin D-like protease, which may rapidly process proteins, is present in endosomes of alveolar macrophages. The authors set out to determine whether PTH is degraded to 1-34 in endosomes, and to elucidate the mechanism of hormone processing in vivo. Intracellular transport of 125I-PTH was assessed by binding to alveolar macrophages at 40C, followed by internalization at 370C. Distribution of PTH among plasma membranes, endosomes and lysosomes was determined by subcellular fractionation. Degradation of the ligand to TCA-soluble fragments in each compartment was assayed at neutral and acid pH. 1-34 in supernatants was separated from undergraded PTH by gel filtration and detected by bioassay on kidney membranes. The authors data suggest that: 1) macrophages rapidly degrade PTH to TCA-soluble fragments. 2) macrophages do not secrete proteases that degrade extracellular PTH. 3) PTH is internalized into endocytic vesicles after 5 mins, but not delivered to lysosomes within 30 mins. 4) A bioactive peptide is released into the extracellular medium after 20 mins. 5) PTH is degraded in endosomes at acid pH by a pepstatin-sensitive protease

  1. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are dying every year from obesity-related diseases. Recently, incretin-based therapy was proposed for the treatment of obesity. Currently two different incretin therapies are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: 1) the GLP-1 receptor agonists which cause significant and sustained weight loss in overweight patients, and 2) dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors being weight neutral. These findings have led to a greater interest in the physiology of intestinal peptides with potential weight-reducing properties. This review discusses the effects of the incretin-based therapies in obesity, and provides an overview of intestinal peptides with promising effects as potential new treatments for obesity.

  2. Granuloma telangiectásico asociado a alteración hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estephannia Mora Solano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Title: Telangiecticum granuloma associated to hormonal alterations.ResumenEl granuloma telangiectásico es una lesión mucocutánea benigna no neoplásica, de origen epitelial, contenido vascular y crecimiento rápido, cuya etiología es atribuible a un trauma menor pero constante. Se asocia a alteraciones hormonales propias del embarazo y la pubertad. En la cavidad oral tiene predilección a nivel de la encía. A continuación se presenta caso clínico de una paciente de 25 años de edad, quien acude a consulta odontológica por presentar una lesión tumoral que se desarrolló mientras estaba en el tercer mes de embarazo, localizada en el sector anteroinferior, dificultando la fonación, masticación y deglución. Se realizó escisión quirúrgica y al efectuar estudio histopatológico se confirmó diagnóstico de granuloma telangiectásico. (DUAZARY 2012 No. 1, 65 - 67AbstractTelangiecticum granuloma is a nonneoplastic benign mucocutaneous lesion of epitelial origin, vascular content and fast growing, etiology is attributable to minor and constant trauma. In the oral cavity it has a predilection to the gum. We present a case of a female 25 years old patient who goes to dental consult for presenting a tumor lesion while she was in the third month of pregnancy, located in the jaw, making difficult the phonation, mastication and swallowing. We proceed to surgical excision and pathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of telangiectaticum granuloma.Key words: Pyogenic granuloma; pregnancy; hyperplasia; hormones. (Mesh Database.

  3. Hormone therapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebelameli P

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Only orchiectomy is still commonly used today either as a single therapy or in combination regimens. Hypophysectomy & adrenalectomy showed such devastating effects on the endocrine equilibrium as to be inconsistent with an acceptable quality of life or even with survival. Chemical adrenalectomy was also tried with drugs (eg. aminoglutethmide, spironolactone leading to consequences superimposable to those of surgical adrenalectomy. Along with orchiectomy, three groups of substances are commonly used today for the hormonal therapy of prostate cancer: estrogens, LHRH agonists & anti androgens. Bilateral orchiectomy removes 90-95% of circulating testosterone. Clinical studies document 60-80% of positive responders to castration, on continued evaluation, relapse occurs usually within 6-24 months in responders, with a death rate of 50% within 6 months. The androgenic activity still remaining after castration may explain the partial & progressively decreasing effectiveness of this & other testosterone reducing therapies. Antiandrogens define substances that act directly at the target site, where interacting with steroid hormone receptors, they impede the binding of androgens. A trend towards the combination of testosterone-reducing & androgen-blocking treatment is developing in modern therapy of prostate cancer. This is due to the complementary characteristics of the two different pharmacological mechanisms that are involved. In this study castration+antiandrogen is compared to castration alone. The results demonstrate a significantly greater percentage of positive objective & subjective responses with antiandrogen than with placebo. In addition survival time was increased in patients treated with castration+antiandrogen than castration+placebo.

  4. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during hemodialysis. During the development of the method we found significantly different results of blood ionized calcium and serum PTH concentration when obtained from the arterial blood line on the dialysis unit or from peripheral venous blood. However, when corrected for the calculated recirculation of 3 to 25%, the result obtained from arterial blood was comparable to the result from venous blood. Furthermore, the results obtained from venous blood were comparable to the results of sequential citrate and calcium clamping performed on a non-dialysis day. From our data of venous blood during hemodialysis, blood PTH/ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure.

  5. Contraception and hormonal management in the perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Margaret E; Faubion, Stephanie S; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Pruthi, Sandhya; Casey, Petra M

    2015-01-01

    This literature review focuses on contraception in perimenopausal women. As women age, their fecundity decreases but does not disappear until menopause. After age 40, 75% of pregnancies are unplanned and may result in profound physical and emotional impact. Clinical evaluation must be relied on to diagnose menopause, since hormonal levels fluctuate widely. Until menopause is confirmed, some potential for pregnancy remains; at age 45, women's sterility rate is 55%. Older gravidas experience higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and death. Many safe and effective contraceptive options are available to perimenopausal women. In addition to preventing an unplanned and higher-risk pregnancy, perimenopausal contraception may improve abnormal uterine bleeding, hot flashes, and menstrual migraines. Long-acting reversible contraceptives, including the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), the etonogestrel subdermal implant (ESI), and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD), provide high efficacy without estrogen. LNG-IUS markedly decreases menorrhagia commonly seen in perimenopause. Both ESI and LNG-IUS provide endometrial protection for women using estrogen for vasomotor symptoms. Women without cardiovascular risk factors can safely use combined hormonal contraception. The CDC's Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use informs choices for women with comorbidities. No medical contraindications exist for levonorgestrel emergency-contraceptive pills, though obesity does decrease efficacy. In contrast, the Cu-IUD provides reliable emergency and ongoing contraception regardless of body mass index (BMI). PMID:24773233

  6. Radiation dosimetry of radioiodinated thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physiologically based compartmental model for T4 and T3 metabolism in man was used to generate time-activity curves for residence of radioiodine in key organs. T4 and T3 labeled with 123I, 124I, 125I, and 131I were studied. Conditions modeled included radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) values of 0%, 1%, 5%, 15% and 25%, and RAIU of 15% combined with various degrees of pharmacologic block of thyroidal RAIU. Using the MIRD S tables, rad doses were generated for each condition. While the shapes of the time-activity curves varied widely with alterations in physical and biological turnover and with changes in steady-state due to iodine administration, it was possible to calculate overall effective half-lives for each organ of interest from the integral of the time-activity curve projected by solution of the model. This overall effective half-life of the hormone for the body's exchangeable hormone compartments correlated well with calculated radiation dose to the thyroid in the unblocked state. With progressive degrees of iodine block, this correlation persisted, though with proportionately reduced thyroid radiation doses. Use and manipulation of a compartmental model, rather than the usual multiexponential model, for radiation dosimetry facilitates conceptualization and the projection of the effects of interventions such as iodide block

  7. Abnormal Serum Thyroid Hormones Concentration with Healthy Functional Gland: A Review on the Metabolic Role of Thyroid Hormones Transporter Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Reza Mansourian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by other non-thyroidal disorders which can play an important roles in metabolic disorders of thyroid hormone due to the alteration which occur on the serum level of thyroid hormone transporter proteins. The majority of serum thyroid hormones of up to 95-99% are bound to the carrier proteins mainly to Thyroxin-Binding Globulins (TBG, some transthyretin already known as pre-albumin and albumin which are all synthesis in the liver and any modification which alter their production may alter the status of thyroid hormones. It seems TBG, transthyretin and albumin carries 75, 20, 5% of thyroid hormones within blood circulation, respectively. The dilemma facing the thyroid hormones following disruption of thyroid hormone transporter protein synthesis originate from this fact that any alteration of these protein contribute to the alteration of total thyroid and free serum thyroid hormones which are in fact the biologically active form of thyroid hormones. The subsequent of latter implication result in miss-understanding and miss-diagnosis of thyroid function tests, with possible wrongly thyroid clinical care, followed by undesired therapy of otherwise healthy thyroid.

  8. Removal of Hormones and Antibiotics by Nanofiltration Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The removal of several hormones and antibiotics by nanofiltration membranes was studied in mixed solutions. The effects of solution chemistry, organic matter and salinity were investigated on the rejection of tetracycline’s and sulfanamides and selected hormones and their adsorption on membranes. ...

  9. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  10. Molecular Basis for Certain Neuroprotective Effects of Thyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PaulDavis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of brain damage that is common to ischemia-reperfusion inury and brain trauma includes disordered neuronal and glial cell energetics, intracellular acidosis, calcium toxicity, extracellular excitotoxic glutamate accumulation and dysfunction of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum. Thyroid hormone isoforms, 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 and L-thyroxine (T4, have nongenomic and genomic actions that are relevant to repair of certain features of the pathophysiology of brain damage. Thyroid hormone can nongenomically repair intracullar H+ accumulation by stimulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger and can support desirably low [Ca2+]i.c. by activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Thyroid hormone nongenomically stimulates astrocyte glutamate uptake, an action that protects both glial cells and neurons. The hormone supports the integrity of the cytoskeleton by its effect on actin. Several proteins linked to thyroid hormone action are also neuroprotective. For example, the hormone stimulates expression of the seladin-1 gene whose gene product is anti-apoptotic and is potentially protection in the setting of neurodegeneration. Transthyretin (TTR is a serum transport protein for T4 that is important to blood-brain barrier transfer of the hormone and TTR has also been found to be neuroprotective in the setting of ischemia. Finally, the interesting thyronamine derivatives of T4 have been shown to protect against ischemic brain damage through their ability to induce hypothermia in the intact organism. Thus, thyroid hromone or hormone derivatives have experimental promise as neuroprotective agents.

  11. Effect of Marshmallow's Root Extract on Thyroid Hormones in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Roshangar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L. is belonging to Malvaceae family. Previous studies have shown that this plant has many physiological effects on hormone systems. The goal of this study was investigating the effect of root extract of this plant on concentrations of thyroid hormones in broilers. 240 broilers were divided into four groups with five replications and twelve members in each replication. A group was control group and other groups were fed by various doses of extract (0.25, 0.5 and 1% for 42 days in drinking water. At last two broilers were selected randomly from each replication, blood samples were taken and concentration of T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured using Eliza method and Monibind Kit. Obtained data were analyzed using SAS program and means were compared using Duncan multiple ranges test. Concentration of T3 hormone was decreased significantly (p<0.05 in third and fourth groups (doses 0.5 and 1% but 0.25% of extract (group 2 increased it none significantly. Concentration of T4 hormone was not affected by treatments. There was significant differences between TSH hormone of third and fourth group with control group (p<0.05, but second group didn’t affect this hormone. On the whole the extract of marshmallows root can affect T3 and TSH hormones dose dependently and is effective in metabolism in this way.

  12. Hormone (Dis)harmony Moulds Plant Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray R. Grant (University of Exeter; School of Biosciences)

    2009-05-08

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Diseased plants often display phenotypes consistent with hormone perturbations. A better understanding of cross-talk between hormonal and defense signaling pathways should reveal new potential targets for microbial effectors that attenuate host resistance mechanisms.

  13. Opiate action on adenohypophyseal hormone secretion during anesthesia and gynecologic surgery in different phases of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassays of cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol (E2) and progesterone were carried out in order to elucidate opiate action an adenohypophyseal hormone secretion during anesthesia in gynecologie surgery. (EG)

  14. Differential effects of triiodothyronine and the thyroid hormone receptor ß-Specific agonist GC-1 on thyroid hormone target genes in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, Jimena; Morte, Beatriz; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Bernal, Juan

    2003-01-01

    The availability of synthetic thyroid hormone receptor agonists provides a valuable tool to analyze whether specific receptor isoforms mediate specific physiological responses to thyroid hormone. GC-1 is a thyroid hormone analog displaying selectivity for thyroid hormone receptor ß. We have analyzed the effect of GC-1 on expression of thyroid hormone target genes in the cerebrum and cerebellum. Congenitally hypothyroid rats were treated with single daily doses of either T3 or GC-1. Both comp...

  15. Principles of measuring free thyroid hormone concentrations in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of this article, an overview of the present status of the 'free hormone concept' has been presented, and the conclusion drawn that - at the present time - the notion that free hormone concentrations in blood govern a hormone's physiological effects may represent an oversimplification. In the second, a brief review of the fundamental principles of some traditional methods of free hormone measurement has been offered, along with those of the newer radioimmunoassays. It is shown that, in particular, the labelled analogue assays do not operate in accordance with the principles claimed by the manufacturers, and cannot in their present form be regarded or described as genuine free hormone assay methods. The assertion underlies the many diagnostic problems and anomalies that have attented their use. (orig.)

  16. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.)

  17. Alimentary triggers of hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Lykholat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC consistently holds the leading positions in the structure of morbidity and mortality of the female population. Food containing veterinary hormones is extremely dangerous to human health: estrogens are female sex hormones. Excessive level of estrogen in the body gives rise to diseases of varying severity: in women (especially of older age it may cause breast cancer. The paper investigates the processes of lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidant protection system in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens. The purpose of the work is to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection status in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens for determining the trigger mechanisms for tumor development. Experiments were conducted on female Wistar rats exposed to exogenous estrogen for 45 days. At the beginning of the experiment, age of experimental animals was 3 months in pubertal period and 6 months as mature ones. The control groups consisted of intact animals of appropriate age. To simulate the influence of exogenous estrogen, rats’ food was treated with the Sinestron drug at the rate of 2 mg per kg. The research materials were serum and liver of rats. Objects of the research were indicators of lipid peroxidation activity (content of TBA-active products and antioxidant protection system (reduced glutathione (RG level, glutathione transferase (GT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GP, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and total antioxidative activity (AOA. Data obtained was treated with standard methods of estimation of variation series. Various degrees of peroxidation intensification depending on the age and organs were determined. Maximum excess of control indexes in the serum was observed and it indicated synthetic estrogen effect of on all major body systems. In prepubertal period females’ liver the reaction of prooxidant system and tension in the antioxidant protection system exceeded the strength of response in the body of mature animals. The organ discreteness of changes in the activity of antioxidant protection enzymes depending on the age of the animals was recorded. Given the involvement of glutathione system in the deactivation of estrogens through their conjugation in reactions catalyzed by glutathione transferase, decreased enzyme activity may lead to accumulation of highly active intermediate metabolites with subsequent damage to intracellular structures. Later on, these phenomena may become a trigger of reduction of the compensatory mechanisms’ potential, which together with the genotoxic effect of exogenous estrogens is an important pathogenetic element in carcinogenesis: they initiate the development of proliferative processes and occurrence of cancer conditions, in particular, hormone dependent breast tumors, in future.

  18. The prolactin and growth hormone families: Pregnancy-specific hormones/cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Michael J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prolactin (PRL and growth hormone (GH gene families represent species-specific expansions of pregnancy-associated hormones/cytokines. In this review we examine the structure, expression patterns, and biological actions of the pregnancy-specific PRL and GH families.

  19. Non-isotopic in-house ELISA as an alternative to RIA/IRMA for measurement of pituitary peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly specific and sensitive non-isotopic in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed for measurement of pituitary peptide hormones as alternatives to radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay(IRMA). Primary polyclonal antibodies were produced by immunization of rabbits against human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) and sandwich ELISAs were established by using these antisera together with commercial monoclonal antibodies and horse radish peroxidase (HRP) labelled anti-murine immunoglobulin G. The ELISAs were validated by recovery and linearity studies which gave percentage recoveries of 90 to 110% (n = 6) and 91 to 120% (n = 6), respectively. The ELISAs were highly precise, with intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5 to 7.9% and inter-assay CVs of 2.7 to 9.1%. Comparison of ELISA-GH with in-house RIA-GH gave r = 0.98 (n = 86) while ELISA-TSH correlated very well with isotopic North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit (NETRIA) IRMA-TSH, r = 0.99, n = 78) and non-isotopic (Abbott enzymeimmunoassay, r = 0.99, n = 86) methods and to the all-laboratory trimmed mean of the IAEA external quality assessment scheme (r = 0.99, n = 30). Our in-house ELISAs are therefore highly sensitive, specific and precise, being comparable to RIA and IRMA. The added advantages of in-house ELISA include stability of the non-isotopic label, low cost and the capability of processing large numbers of sampbility of processing large numbers of samples, the former two features being of considerable importance in developing countries. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. The predictive value of thyroid hormone levels on the neurological outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-dong CHEN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation between thyroid hormone levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke and the severity of disease and short-term prognosis. Methods According to the level of serum total triiodothyronine (TT3, 98 patients who presented first acute ischemic stroke and without history of thyroid abnormality were divided into low TT3 group and normal TT3 group. Thyroid hormone levels and neurological function defect of those patients were tested, and their neural functional recovery after 3 months was evaluated.  Results Low TT3 group had more severe neural function defect compared to normal TT3 group (?2 = 58.134, P = 0.000. There were no significant differences on total thyroxine (TT4; t = 1.636, P = 0.105 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH; t = 1.059, P = 0.292 between 2 groups. There was a significantly negative correlation between TT3 levels and National Insititute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score on admission (r = -0.672, P = 0.000. Patients with low TT3 showed a significantly smaller percentage of neurological function improvement on both NIHSS ( ?2 = 8.993, P = 0.003 and modified Rankin Scale (mRS; ?2 = 6.247, P = 0.012 scores compared to those with normal TT3 at 90 d after onset.  Conclusions Low T3 level is associated with the severity of acute ischemic stroke and neural functional recovery, suggesting serum T3 level may be a predictor of neural function improvement in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.009

  1. A Prospective Investigation of Graves' Disease and Selenium: Thyroid Hormones, Auto-Antibodies and Self-Rated Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Mikulski, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Graves' thyrotoxicosis tachycardia, weight loss and mental symptoms are common. Recovery takes time and varies between patients. Treatment with methimazole reduces thyroid hormone levels. According to previous research, this reduction has been faster if selenium (Se) is added. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether supplementing the pharmacologic treatment with Se could change the immune mechanisms, hormone levels and/or depression and anxiety. Methods: We prospectively investigated 38 patients with initially untreated thyrotoxicosis by measuring the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid receptor antibodies and thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies before medication and at 6, 18 and 36 weeks after commencing treatment with methimazole and levo-thyroxine, with a randomized blinded oral administration of 200 µg Se/day or placebo. The selenoprotein P concentration was determined in plasma at inclusion and after 36 weeks. The patients were also assessed with questionnaires about depression, anxiety and self-rated symptoms before medication was started and after 36 weeks. Results: FT4 decreased more in the Se group at 18 weeks (14 vs. 17 pmol/l compared to the placebo group, p = 0.01) and also at 36 weeks (15 vs. 18 pmol/l, p = 0.01). The TSH increased more in the Se group at 18 weeks (0.05 vs. 0.02 mIU/l, p = 0.04). The depression and anxiety scores were similar in both groups. In the Se group, the depression rates correlated negatively with FT3 and positively with TSH. This was not seen in the placebo group. Conclusions: Se supplementation can enhance biochemical restoration of hyperthyroidism, but whether this could shorten clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis and reduce mental symptoms must be investigated further.© 2015 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone receptors: Effects of thyromimetics on reverse cholesterol transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pedrelli, Camilla Pramfalk, Paolo Parini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT is a complex process which transfers cholesterol from peripheral cells to the liver for subsequent elimination from the body via feces. Thyroid hormones (THs affect growth, development, and metabolism in almost all tissues. THs exert their actions by binding to thyroid hormone receptors (TRs. There are two major subtypes of TRs, TR? and TR?, and several isoforms (e.g. TR?1, TR?2, TR?1, and TR?2. Activation of TR?1 affects heart rate, whereas activation of TR?1 has positive effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Consequently, particular interest has been focused on the development of thyromimetic compounds targeting TR?1, not only because of their ability to lower plasma cholesterol but also due their ability to stimulate RCT, at least in pre-clinical models. In this review we focus on THs, TRs, and on the effects of TR?1-modulating thyromimetics on RCT in various animal models and in humans.

  3. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones; Der Schilddruesenknoten. TSH und periphere Hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, M. [Klinikum Hanau (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  4. In vivo evaluation of 1-benzyl-4-aminoindole-based thyroid hormone receptor ? agonists: importance of liver selectivity in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Naoki; Asano, Yukiyasu; Maeda, Koji; Watanabe, Nobuhide

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the novel thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) selective agonists SKL-12846 and SKL-13784 reduce blood cholesterol levels without affecting thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in cholesterol-fed rats. Our aim in this study was to elucidate what sets apart these SKL-compounds as TR? agonists with no effect on TSH. To this end, we determined SKL-compounds pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in normal rats and compared them to those of GC-1, a liver-selective TR? agonist with concomitant effect on TSH. The present study explains why SKL-12846 and SKL-13784 have beneficial effects on lowering lipids without affecting heart rate and TSH production at the therapeutic dose in cholesterol-fed rats. In addition, we found that SKL-13784 shows no sign of escape phenomenon in fructose-fed rats. These results demonstrate the advantages of extremely high liver specificity to TR? agonists. However, SKL-13784 has been found significantly to reduce endogenous T4 levels at doses lower than its lipid-lowering dose, which may raise concerns over this compound's ability to alter thyroid hormone metabolism in the liver. While the mechanism by which SKL-13784 reduces endogenous T4 levels is still unclear, our results would help design better liver-selective TR? modulators. PMID:24989002

  5. Hormonal control of p53 and chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry, D Joseph; Minter, Lisa M; Becker, Klaus A; Blackburn, Anneke C

    2002-01-01

    Improvements in the detection and treatment of breast cancer have dramatically altered its clinical course and outcome. However, prevention of breast cancer remains an elusive goal. Parity, age of menarche, and age at menopause are major risk factors drawing attention to the important role of the endocrine system in determining the risk of breast cancer, while heritable breast cancer susceptibility syndromes have implicated tumor suppressor genes as important targets. Recent work demonstrating hormonal modulation of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway draws together these established determinants of risk to provide a model of developmental susceptibility to breast cancer. In this model, the mammary epithelium is rendered susceptible due to impaired p53 activity during specific periods of mammary gland development, but specific endocrine stimuli serve to activate p53 function and to mitigate this risk. The results focus attention on p53 as a molecular target for therapies to reduce the risk of breast cancer. PMID:12052250

  6. Autodecomposition of radiolabeled human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human growth hormone (hGH) was radiolabeled with 125I, using a gentle lactoperoxidase technique. The stability and decomposition products of this tracer were studied by frequent periodic analysis by Sephadex G-100 chromatography on a long column. Monomeric 125I-hGH showed an exponential decline, with a half-life of 61 days. The main radioactive degradation product was iodide, which appeared with a fractional appearance rate of 0.01136 per day. Secondary degradation products were a series of radioactive oligomers of hGH, which appeared with an overall fractional rate of 0.00525 per day. The kinetic data obtained should provide guidelines for the shelf-life and repurification schedule of radioiodinated polypeptides

  7. Canine renal receptors for parathyroid hormone. Down-regulation in vivo by exogenous parathyroid hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, C. A.; Nissenson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Chronic elevation of circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) is associated with decreased target cell responsiveness to PTH. To study the subcellular mechanism of this phenomenon we evaluated PTH receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in renal cortical membranes prepared before and after infusion of bovine parathyroid gland extract (PTE) into thyroparathyroidectomized dogs. PTE infusion resulted in a 53% decrease in the number of high-affinity receptors (P less than 0.01) associated with a 66...

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HORMONAL AND NON HORMONAL TREATMENTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was conducted with the objective of comparing safety and efficacy of hormonal treatment and non hormonal alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients suffering from menopausal symptoms were recruited to the study protocol and were divided into 4 groups according to the treatment they received, with 10 patients in each group. Group A received conjugated estrogen and medroxy progesterone acetate, Group B received Tibolone, Group C received Isoflavone and Group D received Vitamin E. Efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by improvement in symptomatic score and safety of the treatment was assessed on the basis of adverse effects reported and relevant laboratory investigations. Results: Most of the symptoms were significantly improved in groups A and B (p< 0.01 while in groups C and D significant improvement was observed in hot flushes, sweating and insomnia (p<0.05. On comparative analysis there was no significant difference in the efficacy between groups A and B and between groups C and D. On the other hand significant difference was observed in the efficacy when groups A and B were compared with groups C and D (p<0.01. Only mild tolerable side effects were reported by the patients in all the groups with slightly higher incidence in groups A and B. Conclusions : Hormonal treatment is very efficacious for the early relief of menopausal symptoms. Isoflavone and vitamin E can be considered as a satisfactory treatment alternative when for any reasons hormonal treatment cannot be used.

  9. Both ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are necessary for hormonal mammary carcinogenesis in ovariectomized ACI rats

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Edward W.; Wong, Po-yin; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar; Guzman, Raphael; Nandi, Satyabrata

    2008-01-01

    August–Copenhagen–Irish (ACI) rats are unique in that the ovary-intact females develop high incidence of mammary cancers induced solely by hormones upon prolonged exposure to high levels of estrogen alone. Studies have also shown that such prolonged exposure to high-dose estrogen results in human-like aneuploid mammary cancers in ovary-intact ACI rats. To determine the role of progesterone in mammary carcinogenesis, six-week-old intact and ovariectomized ACI rats were continuously exposed...

  10. Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyanto; Manalu, W.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does)...

  11. Terapia hormonal na menopausa: quando não usar / Hormone therapy in menopause: when not to use

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Poli Mara, Spritzer; Maria Celeste Osório, Wender.

    1058-10-01

    Full Text Available A menopausa corresponde à cessação permanente da menstruação, conseqüente à perda da função folicular ovariana ou à remoção cirúrgica dos ovários. A idade média para ocorrência da menopausa natural gira em torno de 50 anos. A deficiência estrogênica decorrente da menopausa está associada com sintoma [...] s vasomotores, atrofia urogenital, declínio cognitivo, assim como a um aumento no risco de doenças crônico-degenerativas, aterosclerose e doença cardiovascular, osteoporose e doença de Alzheimer. A estrogenioterapia permanece sendo o tratamento mais efetivo para o manejo dos sintomas vasomotores e atrofia urogenital. Em mulheres com útero presente, a progesterona natural ou os progestogênios devem ser associados ao tratamento com estradiol para antagonizar os efeitos proliferativos deste hormônio sobre o endométrio e anular o risco de hiperplasia/carcinoma endometrial. Por outro lado, em determinadas condições clínicas, a terapia hormonal não é recomendada ou é mesmo contra-indicada. Neste artigo, focalizamos criticamente essas situações clínicas em que não se deve indicar a terapia hormonal na menopausa. Abstract in english Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of menses, as a result of the loss of ovarian follicular function or of surgical removal of ovaries. The mean age for occurrence of natural menopause is around 50 years. Estrogen deficiency has been associated with vasomotor symptoms, urogenital atroph [...] y, and cognitive impairment, as well as increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Estrogen therapy remains the most effective treatment for the management of vasomotor symptoms and urogenital atrophy. Progesterone or progestins should be added to estrogen treatment in women with uterus, in order to antagonize the estrogen-induced endometrial proliferation. In turn, in specific clinical conditions hormone therapy is not recommended. In the present article, the authors critically focus these clinical conditions in which hormone therapy should not be used.

  12. Role of the metabolism of parathyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heterogeneity of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in plasma has prompted investigations of the metabolism of PTH and its relationship to hormone action. The time course of tissue distribution and metabolism of electrolytically iodinated PTH (E-PTH) previously shown to retain biological activity was compared with that of inactive PTH iodinated with Chloramine-T (CT-PTH). Labeled PTH (0.4 ?g) was injected in the saphenous veins of anesthetized rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 min. Tissue extracts from kidney, liver, and serum were chromatographed to separate intact PTH from its metabolites. In the kidney, the initial rate of degradation of E-PTH was greater than that of CT-PTH. The difference in initial rates of metabolism may be due, in part, to receptor-specific hydrolysis on peritubular cell membranes which selectively act on biologically active PTH molecules. PTH-responsive adenyl cyclase activity in isolated kidney cortex plasma membranes was measured and PTH metabolism was monitored simultaneously. When degradation was completely blocked by histone f3 (1 mg/ml), adenyl cyclase activity was significantly increased over control. In addition, when adenyl cyclase activity was negligible, the rate of PTH degradation by the membranes was not significantly diminished. Consistent with the in vivo data was the observation that E-PTH is metabolized by these membranes at a greater rate than CT-PTH. The data demonstrate the existence of a receptor-spemonstrate the existence of a receptor-specific metabolism at sites which are independent of PTH receptor mediated adenyl cyclase activity

  13. Thyroid hormone and the stunned myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitzky, Dimitri; Cooper, David K C

    2014-10-01

    Acute critically ill patients experience a rapid decline in plasma free thyroid hormone levels (free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free levothyroxine (FT4)), with a marked elevation of reverse T3, recognized as the euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) or low-T3 syndrome. The ESS is also often associated with depressed myocardial function, sometimes referred to as the 'stunned myocardium'. Its clinical effects may vary from minimal hemodynamic impairment to cardiogenic shock. Medical management may range from aspirin alone to placement of a left ventricular assist device. With adequate supportive therapy, recovery usually occurs within days or weeks. The effect of T3/T4 therapy has been studied in three conditions in which the ESS and myocardial functional depression have been documented - i) transient regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, ii) transient global myocardial ischemia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass, and iii) transient inadequate global myocardial perfusion in brain-dead potential organ donors. Under all three conditions, myocardial ischemia leads to rapid loss of high-energy phosphates, accumulation of myocardial tissue lactate, and probably loss of homeostasis of cytosolic calcium, which may further increase cell injury. There is an inability to generate ATP through the Krebs cycle, which reduces the high-energy phosphate pool essential for all cell ATPases. Under all three conditions, following administration of T3/T4, the myocardial dysfunction was rapidly reversed. We, therefore, cautiously advocate the use of thyroid hormonal therapy to any patient with the ESS and/or a stunned myocardium. PMID:25128568

  14. Hormones and cardiovascular disease in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Bu B; Flicker, Leon

    2014-05-01

    Older men have lower circulating testosterone (T) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) but higher levels of thyrotrophin (TSH) compared with younger men, and exhibit poorer health. Whether age-associated differences in hormone levels are causally related to cardiovascular disease, or are biomarkers reflecting accumulated ill-health remains under debate. Lower T levels are associated with aortic, peripheral vascular, and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and older men. In some but not all studies, lower levels of T predict increased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Recently, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has also been identified as a predictor for peripheral vascular and ischemic heart disease. Small scale randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of T supplementation suggest a protective effect against myocardial ischemia in men with coronary artery disease. There have been no RCTs with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or mortality. One RCT of T in older men with mobility limitations was stopped due to an excess of cardiovascular adverse events in men receiving T, but other RCTs have not raised similar concerns. Observational studies of testosterone supplementation have reported contrasting results. Levels of IGF-I and its binding proteins 1 and 3 have been variably associated with mortality in some but not all studies, and RCTs of interventions to modulate IGF-I levels are either lacking or lacking in power to examine outcomes of cardiovascular events or mortality. Subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism predict poorer outcomes, and emerging data implicate higher levels of free thyroxine with other outcomes such as dementia and mortality in older men. However, RCTs that manipulate free thyroxine levels within the normal range are lacking and would be challenging to perform. Further research is needed to clarify the role of these hormones as predictors of cardiovascular outcomes in aging men, and to test whether interventions that modulate levels of T, DHT, IGF-I or free thyroxine would reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24529874

  15. The effect of ovarian steroid feedback upon radioimmunoreactive luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing hormone (RH) utilizing rabbit antiserum against synthetic (Glu1)-LH-RH coupled with human serum albumin at the N-terminus, is described. This assay system for LH-RH also cross-reacted with several LH-RH analogues or fragments, but not with pituitary trophic hormones. The assay was performed on the hypothalamic extracts of adult ovariectomized rats and female immature rats which had been treated with estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary gland and serum of the same animals were determined by RIA. The radioimmunoreactive LH-RH content of the stalk median eminence markedly increased seven days after ovariectomy. The serum levels and the pituitary contents of FSH and LH of the same rats were also significantly augmented. In immature rats, the hypothalamic content of LH-RH, as measured by RIA, was significantly increased one hour after the injection of estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary showed a significant rise after 7 hours. (auth.)

  16. INDUCED SPAWNING OF SILVER CARP, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix USING HORMONES/HORMONAL ANALOGUE WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.N. EL-HAWARRY

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was made to investigate the effects of using carp pituitary extract, human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogues (Receptal, with or without dopamine antagonists on the spawning performance parameters of silver carp. Results of the current study indicted successful induction of spawning silver carp using different spawning agents. The breeding response and fecundity were comparable among all treatment groups. Moreover, the current experiment clearly indicated that the use of hCG, or mammalian LNRH together with dopamine antagonists was more effective in induction of ovulation and increasing fecundity and hatching rate compared to the other spawning stimulators used in the current study. The results also demonstrated that using dopamine inhibitors potentiate the effect of the hormones used for spawning induction together with reduction of its dose (i.e. dose of carp pituitary extract, human chorionic gonadotropin. Meanwhile, it is well established that domperidone is preferred than metoclopramide as a dopamine antagonists for spawning induction of fish. In view of these results it is clear that not only carp pituitary extract and human chorionic gonadotropin but also the mammalian LHRH analogue (i.e. Receptal was effective to induce spawning in silver carp. This is important in the view of the fact that mammalian LNRH analogues are available more widely and their price is much more attractive. This would result in cost reduction of induced breeding by using mammalian LNRH analogues in combination with a dopamine antagonist or alone.

  17. On the role of gallbladder emptying and incretin hormones for nutrient-mediated TSH suppression in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Lund, Asger

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are possible candidate agents in newly identified pathways through which energy expenditure may be regulated. Preclinical studies suggest that bile acids activate the enzyme type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, which deiodinates thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active triiodothyronine (T3). We aimed to evaluate the influence of bile acid exposure and incretin hormones on thyroid function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (total T3 and free T4) were measured in plasma from two human studies: i) 75?g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and three isocaloric (500?kcal) and isovolaemic (350?ml) liquid meals with increasing fat content with concomitant ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder emptying in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes and 15 healthy age, gender and BMI-matched controls (meal-study) and ii) 50?g-OGTT and isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusions (IIGI) alone or in combination with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and/or GLP2, in ten patients with type 2 diabetes (IIGI-study). In both studies, TSH levels declined (P<0.01) similarly following all meal and infusion stimuli. T3 and T4 concentrations did not change in response to any of the applied stimuli. TSH levels declined independently of the degree of gallbladder emptying (meal-study), route of nutrient administration and infusion of gut hormones. In conclusion, intestinal bile flow and i.v. infusions of the gut hormones, GIP, GLP1 and/or GLP2, do not seem to affect thyroid function parameters. Thus, the presence of a 'gut-thyroid-pituitary' axis seems questionable.

  18. Thyroid hormone antibodies and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in mongrel dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormally elevated serum T3 concentrations measured by RIA were observed in 19 clinically euthyroid or hypothyroid mongrel dogs. The serum T4 concentrations in these sera were low, normal, or high. Measurement of the intensity of thyroid hormone binding to serum proteins was determined by equilibrium dialysis. A marked decrease in the percent free T3 was observed in these abnormal sera. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pH 7.4, of normal dog serum enriched with tracer 125I-labeled thyroid hormones demonstrated binding of [125I]T4 to transthyretin, thyroid hormone-binding globulin, and albumin and of [125I]T3 primarily to thyroid hormone-binding globulin. In all abnormal sera, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated strikingly higher binding of T3 to immunoglobulin (Ig). Eleven of 16 abnormal sera had minimal to moderate binding of T4 to Ig. The percent free T4 was lower only in dogs whose sera demonstrated markedly increased binding of T4 to Ig. All abnormal sera tested had positive antithyroglobulin antibodies, consistent with the diagnosis of autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis. As in humans, antibodies to thyroid hormones in dogs are more common in the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and should be considered when elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations are observed in the absence of clinical thyrotoxicosis. When an antibody to only one thyroid hormone is present, a marked discrepancy in the serum concentrations o discrepancy in the serum concentrations of T3 and T4 will be observed

  19. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S

    2011-01-01

    No human study has investigated the possible impact of breastfeeding on semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones, but a recent study of another hypothesis indicated an association with oligozoospermia. We investigated the association between breastfeeding, semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 sons were selected according to maternal smoking during pregnancy and followed up with questionnaires, semen analysis and blood sampling in 2005-2006. Complete data were available for 269 men aged 18-21 years. Breastfeeding was not statistically significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility or morphology, oligozoospermia, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the calculated level of free testosterone, free oestradiol, the free testosterone/free oestradiol ratio or the follicle-stimulating hormone/inhibin B ratio. Total testosterone and total oestradiol was 16% (p = 0.01) and 14% (p = 0.06), respectively, lower among men never breastfed in comparison with men breastfed exclusively for 1 month or longer. When taking SHBG into account, neither free testosterone nor free oestradiol was different between the two groups. This study shows no association between breastfeeding and sperm quality or reproductive hormones and a strong association is unlikely. A larger study would be needed to detect more subtle effects.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone. Application to rats and to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general principles of antidiuretic hormone secretion are known from kidney function explorations and the use of biological methods. Radioimmunoassay of the hormone should contribute towards a better understanding of this secretion in the fields of both physiology and pathology. After a review on antidiuretic hormone and the methods used so far for its investigation, part two of this work concentrates on the development of our own radioimmunological system applied to this hormone. The system is specific, though interference in the measurement from metabolite(s) of the hormone cannot be absolutely ruled out; reproducible, as witnessed by the 'inter-test' variation coefficient of 8%; and sensitive, since the hormone is easily measured in the urine, when secretion is slowed down. In spite of its sensitivity however the hormone determination in the plasma is not possible for a small sample volume because of the difficulty of obtaining high-affinity specific antibodies. To our knowledge only one plasma ADH determination is in common use to date. Part three is devoted to the application of this technique in rats and man, and the results obtained

  1. Hatching the cleidoic egg: the role of thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VeerleM.Darras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A major life stage transition in birds and other oviparous sauropsids is the hatching of the cleidoic egg. Not unlike amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in these species can be regarded as a transition from a relatively well-protected “aqueous” environment to a more hazardous and terrestrial life outside the egg, a transition in which thyroid hormones (often in concert with glucocorticoids play an important role. In precocial birds such as the chicken, the perihatch period is characterised by peak values of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are implicated in the control of muscle development, lung maturation and the switch from chorioallantoic to pulmonary respiration, yolk sac retraction, gut development and induction of hepatic genes to accommodate the change in dietary energy source, initiation of thermoregulation, and the final stages of brain maturation as well as early posthatch imprinting behavior. There is evidence that, at least for some of these processes, thyroid hormones may have similar roles in non-avian sauropsids. In altricial birds such as passerines on the other hand, thyroid hormones do not rise significantly until well after hatching and peak values coincide with the development of endothermy. It is not known how hatching-associated processes are regulated by hormones in these animals or how this developmental mode evolved from thyroid hormone-dependent precocial hatching.

  2. Hormonally mediated maternal effects, individual strategy and global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Sandrine; Miles, Donald B; Clobert, Jean

    2012-06-19

    A challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists is predicting organismal responses to the anticipated changes to global ecosystems through climate change. Most evidence suggests that short-term global change may involve increasing occurrences of extreme events, therefore the immediate response of individuals will be determined by physiological capacities and life-history adaptations to cope with extreme environmental conditions. Here, we consider the role of hormones and maternal effects in determining the persistence of species in altered environments. Hormones, specifically steroids, are critical for patterning the behaviour and morphology of parents and their offspring. Hence, steroids have a pervasive influence on multiple aspects of the offspring phenotype over its lifespan. Stress hormones, e.g. glucocorticoids, modulate and perturb phenotypes both early in development and later into adulthood. Females exposed to abiotic stressors during reproduction may alter the phenotypes by manipulation of hormones to the embryos. Thus, hormone-mediated maternal effects, which generate phenotypic plasticity, may be one avenue for coping with global change. Variation in exposure to hormones during development influences both the propensity to disperse, which alters metapopulation dynamics, and population dynamics, by affecting either recruitment to the population or subsequent life-history characteristics of the offspring. We suggest that hormones may be an informative index to the potential for populations to adapt to changing environments. PMID:22566673

  3. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comasco, Erika; FrØkjær, Vibe

    2014-01-01

    The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. The present review summarizes the findings of thirty-five studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women's brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in several cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal variations on the brain.

  4. [Our experience with hormonal therapy in transsexual patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Vladimír; Weiss, Petr; Fifková, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Hormonal therapy in transsexual patients (TS) includes sexagens administration: androgens in female-to-male transsexual patients (FtM) and oestrogens and antiandrogens in male-to-female transsexual patients (MtF). Duration of hormonal therapy should continue at least 1 year before gender reassignment surgery. Hormonal therapy supresses former gender and induces partially new gender changes. Hormonal therapy continues subsequently after surgery during life. Hormonal therapy in MtF TS includes oestrogens and antiandrogens application. In very young persons in both groups blocking gonadoliberin analogues can be used. In FtM TS testosterone oneself is given (orally and/or parenterally). Authors describe their own experiences with hormonal treatment in 282 TS (163 FtM and 119 MtF). During hormonal therapy statistically significant weight increasing was found in both groups. Total cholesterol increased in FtM. In MtF during hormonal therapy average prolactin level increased from 350.1 to 570.5 mU/l without clinical significance. Total average hormonal therapy duration was 6.73 years in FtM and 4.64 years in MtF and so overall therapy safety assessment is not possible. Any endocrinopathy occurence in the beginning of surveillance was found in 35 persons (12.4 %): simple goiter, autoimmune thyreoiditis, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, gynecomastia, DM type 1, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), Klinefelter syndrome and nonfunctional pituitary adenoma. It is appropriate as well as in other rare medicine conditions to manage diagnosing and therapy in centers with experience with these issues. PMID:25873114

  5. Enzyme- and radioimmunoassay techniques for hormone determination in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormone determination in livestock is an important research tool to improve both production and reproduction of domestic animals. For instance, measurement of growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid hormones, insulin, glucocorticoids, androgens, etc. is used to evaluate traits for meat and milk production, whereas measurement of luteinizing hormone, testosterone, progesterone, oestronesulphate, etc. is used to evaluate reproductive capacity. Techniques for measurement of hormones are based mainly on the principle of immunoassay, and a wide variety of labelling substances is used as markers for endpoint determination. Radioactive isotopes are probably the most widely used markers, but other substances such as enzymes, fluorochromes, chemiluminescent precursors, etc. are increasingly gaining acceptance as valuable alternatives. Currently, practical application of hormone measurement in livestock is limited mainly to animal reproduction, and the hormones most frequently measured are progesterone and oestronesulphate. Many attempts have been made to improve the sensitivity, speed and reliability of the assay systems for these hormones. An increasing number of assays is based on the enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) technique, amd many further simplifications of these assays are currently being developed. This is reflected in the rapid increase of 'test-kits' being brought on to the market by pharmaceutical companies, with the ultimate aim of providing the farmer with 'cow-side' tests which can be applied on the farm. Future trends in immunoassay will most likely proceed in two directions, with the development of easy to apply 'dry chemistry systems' on the one hand, and highly sophisticated and easy to automatize biosensor systems for in vivo hormone measurement on the other. (author)

  6. Stress hormones, sleep deprivation and cognition in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; Colizzi, Elena; Fisichella, Alberto; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceresini, Graziano; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ruffini, Livia; Lauretani, Fulvio; Parrino, Liborio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Cognition can be deteriorated in older persons because of several potential mechanisms including the hormonal changes occurring with age. Stress events cause modification in hormonal balance with acute and chronic changes such as increase in cortisol and thyroid hormones, and simultaneous alterations in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and insulin like growth factor-1 levels. The ability to cope with stress and regain previous healthy status, also called resiliency, is particularly impaired in older persons Thus, stressful conditions and hormonal dysregulation might concur to the onset of cognitive impairment in this population. In this review we address the relationship between stress hormones and cognitive function in older persons focusing on the role of one of the main stress factors, such as sleep deprivation (SD). We extracted and cross-checked data from 2000 to 2013 March and selected 112 full-text articles assessed for eligibility. In particular we considered 68 studies regarding the contribution of hormonal pathway to cognition in older adults, and 44 regarding hormones and SD both in rats and humans. We investigated how the activation of a stress-pattern response, like the one evoked from SD, can influence cognitive development and worsen cognitive status in the elderly. We will show the limited number of studies targeting the effects of SD and the consequent changes in stress hormones on cognitive function in this age group. We conclude that the current literature is not strong enough to give definitive answers on the role of stress hormonal pathway to the development of cognitive impairment in older individuals. PMID:23849175

  7. Decreased thyroid follicle size in dwarf mice may suggest the role of growth hormone signaling in thyroid growth regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesing Adam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered somatotrophic signaling is among the most important potential mechanisms of extended longevity. Ames dwarf (df/df mice are homozygous for mutation at the Prop-1 gene, leading to a lack of growth hormone (GH, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH. Mice homozygous for targeted disruption of the growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein gene are known as GH receptor knockout (GHRKO mice or “Laron dwarf”. Both, df/df and GHRKO mice, are characterized by reduced body size, low plasma insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I, remarkably extended longevity, and severe (in df/df mice or mild (in GHRKO mice thyroid hypofunction. Recently, by crossing df/df and GHRKO mice, double-mutant Ames dwarf/GHRKO (df/KO mice were created. Interestingly, these mice are smaller than Ames dwarfs or GHRKOs, and also have reduced insulin and IGF-I levels. The aim of the study was to investigate if and to what extent certain thyroid morphological parameters, such as inner follicular surface area, inner follicular perimeter, as well as the follicular epithelium thickness are changed in the examined dwarf mice. Methods This quantification was performed in thyroids collected from df/df, GHRKO and df/KO female mice, at approximately 5–6?months of age. We used a computerized plotting programme that combines a live microscopic image of the slide with an operator-generated overlay. Results Inner follicular surface area and inner follicular perimeter were decreased in all examined kinds of dwarf mice as compared to normal animals. Furthermore, decreases in these two parameters were more pronounced in df/df and df/KO than in GHRKO mice. Concerning the follicular epithelium thickness, only a tendency towards decrease of this parameter was found in all three kinds of dwarf mice. Conclusions Parameters characterizing thyroid follicle size are decreased in all three examined models of dwarf mice, which may explain decreased thyroid hormone levels in both basal mutants (Ames dwarfs and GHRKOs. df/df mutation seems to predominate over GHRKO genetic intervention concerning their effects on thyroid growth. Beside TSH, also GH signaling seems to constitute a crucial element in the regulation of thyroid growth and, possibly, function.

  8. Effect of growth hormones on callogenesis in Basmati rice

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Nasreen; Mohmand, Akbar S.

    2000-01-01

    Tissue culture of Basmati rice was done to study the effect of growth hormones on the formation of callus. The varieties used were "Basmati 370" Basmati 385"and "Basmati 198". The medium used was Murashige and Skoog (MS-medium). Different plant portions like seeds, roots and shoots were used as explants and were culture on Ms-medium supplemented with different combinations of plant growth hormones. The hormones used were 2,4 Dichlorophexy acetic acid (2,4-D) and kinetin-Basmati-370 was...

  9. Is hormonal treatment still an option in acne today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoli, V; Zauli, S; Virgili, A

    2015-07-01

    Hormonal treatment is indicated in cases of papulopustular, nodular and conglobate acne in females with identified hyperandrogenism, in adult women who have monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are unsuccessful or inappropriate. This review summarizes the latest information on hormonal therapies including: combined oral contraceptives; anti-androgens, such as cyproterone acetate, spironolactone and flutamide; low-dose glucocorticoids and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. It also shares the authors' recommendations for treatment based on the studies discussed here, and personal experience. PMID:25627824

  10. Hormonal protection of spermatogenic stem cells during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis it is examined if by hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis the disadvantageous side-effects of radiation therapy on the gonads can be reduced. Therefore a rat model was investigated, where hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis during irradiation was achieved and stem cell survival was measured. Attention was focussed on the stem cell, because this cell is primarily responsible for the late effects of radiation on fertility. Flow cytometrical and histological techniques were used as parameters for measuring stem cell survival. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were measured to evaluate the hormonal suppression. (Auth.)

  11. Benefits and risks of hormonal contraception for women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: A large proportion of women of reproductive age in Germany use various methods of pregnancy prevention (contraception, among them various hormone-based methods. Hormonal contraceptives may be divided into combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives (pills, skin patches, vaginal rings, progestogen-only contraceptives (pills, injections, implants, hormone spirals and emergency contraceptives. Research questions: The evaluation addressed the question of benefits and risks of hormonal contraceptives, their economic effects as well as their ethical-social and legal implications.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted in April 2006 starting from 2000. The evaluation is primarily based on systematic reviews. Results: In perfect use, all hormonal contraceptives excluding emergency contraceptives proved to be the most effective reversible contraceptive methods (rate of unintended pregnancies 0.05% to 0.3%. However, the typical use of oral contraceptives, injections, skin patches, and vaginal rings, which also considers possible application errors, showed a lower contraceptive efficacy (rate of unintended pregnancies 3% to 8%. It was lower than that of copper spirals. The risk of venous thromboembolism increased three to six times in users of hormonal contraceptives, the risks of stroke and myocardial infarction two to three times. The risk declined after discontinuation of use. The effects were estrogen-dose and progestogen-type dependent. The use of hormonal contraceptives showed a relative risk of ovarian and endometrial carcinomas of approximately 0.5 or 0.7, of breast and cervical cancer of approximately 1.2 or 1.6. The effect remained several years after discontinuation of use. The results concerning hepatocellular carcinoma suggested a carcinogenic effect. In women with acne, an improvement due to use of hormonal contraceptives was proven. Cervical chlamydial infections were more frequent in users of hormonal contraception. Headache appeared mostly only at the beginning of the use of combined oral contraceptives. Progestogen-only contraceptives worsened the results of the glucose tolerance test. A review of low evidence reported further risks of hormonal contraceptives (concerning menstrual problems, ovarian cysts, bone density, thyroid diseases and rheumatoid arthritis as well as further benefits (concerning blood pressure and Crohn’s disease. Hormonal spirals were shown to be more effective than spirals which do not release hormones. In emergency contraception, Levonorgestrel was more effective than the Yuzpe method. Most other proven differences between hormonal contraceptives were related to menstrual problems. After spirals with or without hormone release, the other hormonal contraceptives were shown in typical use to be the second most cost-effective reversible methods of contraception. Discussion: The addressed questions could be answered only on relatively low evidence level, partly only for applications with estrogen doses which are not used in Germany any more. The transferability of the results of the analysed primary health-economics studies on the current situation in Germany is limited (clinical assumptions from out-dated information sources of low evidence levels, cost assumptions from the American health system. Conclusions: In perfect use, hormonal contraceptives have to be classified as the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. For the individual decision concerning the use of hormonal contraception, benefits should be related to the additional risks. Alternative methods such as spirals should be prioritised if perfect use seems to be impossible. In this case, spirals are also preferable from health-economics perspective. No ethical-social or legal conclusions can be derived from the available data.

  12. Growth hormone (GH-releasing hormone and GH secretagogues in normal aging: Fountain of Youth or Pool of Tantalus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, George R MerriamVA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington School of Medicine, Tacoma and Seattle, Washington USAAbstract: Although growth hormone (GH is primarily associated with linear growth in childhood, it continues to have important metabolic functions in adult life. Adult GH deficiency (AGHD is a distinct clinical entity, and GH replacement in AGHD can improve body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, and mood, and may reduce vascular disease risk. While there are some hormone-related side effects, the balance of benefits and risks is generally favorable, and several countries have approved GH for clinical use in AGHD. GH secretion declines progressively and markedly with aging, and many age-related changes resemble those of partial AGHD. This suggests that replacing GH, or stimulating GH with GH-releasing hormone or a GH secretagogue could confer benefits in normal aging similar to those observed in AGHD – in particular, could reduce the loss of muscle mass, strength, and exercise capacity leading to frailty, thereby prolonging the ability to live independently. However, while most GH studies have shown body composition effects similar to those in AGHD, functional changes have been much less inconsistent, and older adults are more sensitive to GH side effects. Preliminary reports of improved cognition are encouraging, but the overall balance of benefits and risks of GH supplementation in normal aging remains uncertain.Keywords: growth hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, growth hormone secretagogues, aging, sarcopenia, frailty

  13. Effect of hormone replacement on exercise cardiopulmonary reserve and recovery performance in subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.M. Mainenti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH patients present cardiopulmonary, vascular and muscle dysfunction, but there is no consensus about the benefits of levothyroxine (L-T4 intervention on cardiopulmonary performance during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of L-T4 on cardiopulmonary exercise reserve and recovery in SH patients. Twenty-three SH women, 44 (40-50 years old, were submitted to two ergospirometry tests, with an interval of 6 months of normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels (L-T4 replacement group or simple observation (TSH = 6.90 ?IU/mL; L-T4 = 1.02 ng/dL. Patients with TSH >10 ?IU/mL were excluded from the study to assure that they would receive treatment in this later stage of SH. Twenty 30- to 57-year-old women with no thyroid dysfunction (TSH = 1.38 ?IU/mL; L-T4 = 1.18 ng/dL were also evaluated. At baseline, lower values of gas exchange ratio reserve (0.24 vs 0.30; P < 0.05 were found for SH patients. The treated group presented greater variation than the untreated group for pulmonary ventilation reserve (20.45 to 21.60 L/min; median variation = 5.2 vs 25.09 to 22.45 L/min; median variation = -4.75, respectively and for gas exchange ratio reserve (0.19 to 0.27; median variation = 0.06 vs 0.28 to 0.18; median variation = -0.08, respectively. There were no relevant differences in cardiopulmonary recovery for either group at baseline or after follow-up. In the sample studied, L-T4 replacement improved exercise cardiopulmonary reserve, but no modification was found in recovery performance after exercise during this period of analysis.

  14. Role of insulin hormone in modulation of inflammatory phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Petta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence demonstrates the involvement of hormones in thedevelopment of inflammatory response. Inflammation evokes markedstructural alterations of microvasculature, besides migration ofleukocytes from microcirculation to the site of lesion. These alterations are caused primarily by release or activation of endogenous mediators, in which hormones play an integral role in this regulatory system. Binding sites for many hormones may be characterized by vascular structures and hematogenous cells involved with the inflammatory response. Quantitative alterations of inflammatory events involving the decrease in microvascular response to inflammatory mediators, deficiency in the leukocyte-endothelium interaction, reduction of cell concentration in the inflammatory exudate, and failure of the phagocyte function of mononuclear cells were observed in insulindeficient states. Therefore, inflammation is not merely a local response, but rather a process controlled by hormones in which insulin plays an essential role in modulation of these phenomena, and assures tissue repair and remodeling within the limits of normality.

  15. Endocrine therapy use among elderly hormone receptor-pos...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Clinical guidelines recommend that women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer receive endocrine therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase...

  16. Neuroprotective actions of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JulieAChowen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The brain incorporates and coordinates information based on the hormonal environment, receiving information from peripheral tissues through the circulation. Although it was initially thought that hormones only acted on the hypothalamus to perform endocrine functions, it is now known that they in fact exert diverse actions on many different brain regions including the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH secretion and food intake to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight by binding to its receptor, GHS-R1a, which is most highly expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. In addition, ghrelin has effects on learning and memory, reward and motivation, anxiety and depression, and could be a potential therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disorders where excitotoxic neuronal cell death and inflammatory processes are involved.

  17. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  18. Skin morphological changes in growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Merete Wolder; Thulesen, J

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the histomorphology of skin and its appendages, especially eccrine sweat glands, in patients with GH disorders, because reduced sweating ability in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased risk of hyperthermia under stressed conditions.

  19. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fissore MariaF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  20. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  1. Effect of Marshmallow's Root Extract on Thyroid Hormones in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Farshid Roshangar; Mehrdad Modaresi; Majid Toghyani

    2014-01-01

    Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) is belonging to Malvaceae family. Previous studies have shown that this plant has many physiological effects on hormone systems. The goal of this study was investigating the effect of root extract of this plant on concentrations of thyroid hormones in broilers. 240 broilers were divided into four groups with five replications and twelve members in each replication. A group was control group and other groups were fed by various doses of extract (0.25, 0.5 a...

  2. Circulating Bovine Lymphocytes Contain Receptors for Parathyroid Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Itsuo; Potts, John T.; Segre, Gino V.

    1983-01-01

    No cell type practicably obtainable in vivo, such as blood cells, is known to contain parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors; this deficiency has hampered investigation of receptor regulation. Second, PTH in vivo is among the potent stimulators of osteoclastic activity, although no direct hormonal effects on these cells have been identified. Several lines of evidence suggest that cells of the immune system may mediate PTH effects on osteoclasts. We, therefore, studied bovine blood cells for the ...

  3. Redefining Hormone Sensitive Disease in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyu Hou; Flaig, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. For decades, the cornerstone of medical treatment for advanced prostate cancer has been hormonal therapy, intended to lower testosterone levels, known as Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT). The development of hormone-resistant prostate cancer (now termed castration-resistant prostate cancer:CRPC) remains the key roadblock in successful long-term management of prostate cancer. New advancements in medical therapy for pros...

  4. Plasma stress hormones in resting rats - Eighty four day study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Vojin; Honeycutt, Clegg

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a repeated mild stress of handling and placing rats temporarily into unfamiliar cages on the blood-plasma concentration of the stress hormones (corticosterone, ACDH, and prolactin) were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to this type of stress once every week during a period of three months. Results showed that repeated mild stress of handling (as well as repeated blood sampling) did not affect the plasma stress-hormone concentrations in these animals.

  5. Membrane filtration in water recycling: removal of natural hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Nghiem, L.D.; Schäfer, Andrea; Waite, T. D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent detections of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in effluent are of great concern by sections of the community associated with the issue of reclaimed water recycling. In vitro and in vivo studies by many researchers have confirmed the impacts of EDCs on trout at the common concentration encountered in sewage effluent. Amongst many types of EDCs the impacts of steroid estrogens such as estrone, estradiol (natural hormones) and ethinylestradiol (a synthetic hormone) are...

  6. The ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome in carcinoid tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Fazel, Poorya; Ganesa, Prasanthi; Mennel, Robert G.; Austin, Ned A.

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic production of adrenocorticotropic hormone by carcinoid tumors is relatively uncommon and may not be recognized by physicians. This report describes a woman who had Cushing syndrome from the ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone by a carcinoid tumor. Her cause of death was a pneumonia that may have been secondary to her untreated hypercortisolism. There are threeinstructive elements of this case: 1) the recognition of Cushing syndrome, 2) the association of Cushing syndrome ...

  7. Some hormonal factors in the etiology of endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation was to study the impact of some hormone-related factors in the etiology of endometrial neoplasms, i.e. hormone replacement therapy, use of oral contraceptives, serum levels of 20 different organochlorine substances, and polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha (ER) gene. We conducted two population-based case-control studies among post-menopausal women. In the first one, 789 women with a reported diagnosis of primary endometrial ...

  8. Analgesic use and sex steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Eliassen, A Heather; Missmer, Stacey A; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Prior epidemiologic studies suggest that regular use of analgesics may decrease risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We explored possible hormone-mediated mechanisms for these associations by examining the relationship between use of aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen and sex steroid hormone concentrations among 740 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. All women reported their analgesic use in 1988 or 1990 and provided a blood samp...

  9. Radioactive polypeptidic hormones: what for, by which way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling processes should prevent any alteration of the molecule, if one wishes to deal with the behavior of the original hormone. For this purpose various labelling techniques have been suggested. Particlar emphasis is given to the tritiation method. The following steps are described: tritiation by catalytic hydrogenolysis of hormones containing tyrosine or histidine residue; tritiation on tyrosine residue from azoic derivatives; tritiation by photolysis of tyrosine iodinated derivatives; tritiation on methionine residue. New prospect for labelling (ioduration, photoaffinity labelling) are considered

  10. Development and hormonal functions of the human placenta.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Evain-Brion; Andr?Š Malassin?Š; Thierry Fournier; Jean Guibourdenche

    2010-01-01

    The human placenta is characterized by the intensity of the trophoblast invasion into the uterus wall and the specificity of its hormonal functions. Placental hormones are required for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, adaptation of the maternal organism to pregnancy and fetal growth. In the early placenta at the maternofetal interface, the human trophoblast differentiates along two pathways: 1/ the villous trophoblast pathway including the cytotrophoblastic cells which differen...

  11. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiva P.P.; Figueiredo N.B.; Padovani C.R.; Brentani M.M.; Nogueira C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyze...

  12. Hormonal Changes Associated With Hypo lipotropic Agent in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the present study to assess the changes of T3, T4, testosterone and corticosterone hormones associated with high fat diet and to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of coenzyme Q10 on these changes. Twenty rats were subjected to high fat diet for 8 weeks prior to the experiment, then CoQ10 was daily injected intraperitoneal y (50 mg/kg b.w.) to 10 hyperlipidaemic rats for 30 days. The hyperlipidaemic group showed significant decrease of T3, T4, and testosterone with significant increase of corticosterone hormones. In addition, the correlations between hormones and the lipo gram in the control group were lost or reversed in the hyperlipidaemic one. Although CoQ10 injection restored T3, T4 and testosterone hormones almost to the control level, the correlations did not match this increase. Corticosterone have showed significant increase in the hyperlipidaemic rats injected with CoQ10 compared to the other two groups most probably due to the stress effect of daily intraperitoneal injection for 30 successive days. From the previous results we may conclude that injection of CoQ10 to hyperlipidaemic rats for 30 days apparently normalize the lipid profile, T3, T4 and testosterone hormones yet the estimated correlations between the hormones and the individual parameters of the lipo gram revealed different relationships between those variables compared to control, this may point to inefficient amelioration of CoQ10 on hormonal chcient amelioration of CoQ10 on hormonal changes in hyperlipidaemic rats or/and the need of using combined agents

  13. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Amdam, Gro V.; Page, Robert E.; FONDRK, M. KIM; Brent, Colin S.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages — leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variat...

  14. Plant Hormones Promote Growth in Lichen-Forming Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin Yu; Wei, Xin Li; Luo, Heng; Kim, Jung A.; Jeon, Hae Sook; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-seoun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of plant hormones on the growth of lichen-forming fungi (LFF) was evaluated. The use of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and indole-3-butyric acid resulted in a 99% and 57% increase in dry weight of the lichen-forming fungus Nephromopsis ornata. The results suggest that some plant hormones can be used as inducers or stimulators of LFF growth for large-scale culture.

  15. Thyroid Hormone-disrupting Effects and the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Kaori; Ose, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    There are continued concerns about endocrine-disrupting chemical effects, and appropriate vertebrate models for assessment of risk are a high priority. Frog tadpoles are very sensitive to environmental substances because of their habitat and the complex processes of metamorphosis regulated by the endocrine system, mainly thyroid hormones. During metamorphosis, marked alteration in hormonal factors occurs, as well as dramatic structural and functional changes in larval tissues. There are a var...

  16. Influence of thyroid hormone status on mevalonate metabolism in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Feingold, K. R.; Wiley, M. H.; Macrae, G.; Siperstein, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    Mevalonate, an essential intermediate in cholesterol synthesis, is metabolized either to cholesterol or, by the shunt pathway, to CO2. Previous investigations have demonstrated that the kidneys are the chief site of circulating mevalonate metabolism and that sex hormones as well as insulin markedly influence circulating mevalonate metabolism. The present study examined in rats the influence of thyroid hormone status on mevalonate metabolism in vivo and in vitro. L-thyroxine administration inc...

  17. Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Staubli, Frank; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Lenz, Camilla; Søndergaard, Leif; Roepstorff, Peter; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.

    2002-01-01

    The insect adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are a large family of peptide hormones that are involved in the mobilization of sugar and lipids from the insect fat body during energy-requiring activities such as flight and locomotion, but that also contribute to hemolymph sugar homeostasis. Here, we have identified the first insect AKH receptors, namely those from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the silkworm Bombyx mori. These results represent a breakthrough for insect molecular endocrinol...

  18. Growth hormone does not stimulate early healing in rat tendons

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Therese; Eliasson, Pernilla; Aspenberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Growth Hormone stimulates bone growth and fracture repair. It acts mainly by increasing the systemic levels of IGF-1. Local treatment with IGF-1 appears to stimulate tendon healing. We therefore hypothesized that systemic treatment with Growth Hormone would also stimulate tendon healing. Rat Achilles tendons were transected and left to heal. 4 groups were studied. Intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (Botox) were used to reduce loading in 2 groups. The animals were randomized to twic...

  19. Hypogonadism in chronic liver disease: impaired release of luteinising hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bannister, P; Handley, T.; Chapman, C.; Losowsky, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol abuse leads to impotence, infertility, and feminisation. Patients with chronic alcoholism may have impaired hypothalamic-pituitary function. The release of luteinising hormone was investigated in men with alcoholic cirrhosis with and without hypogonadism and controls. Blood was sampled every 15 minutes for six or eight hours and luteinising hormone concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay. Data were analysed by iterative computerised analysis and spectral analysis to assess pulsati...

  20. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-11-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes. PMID:25257939

  1. Growth hormone treatment during pregnancy in a growth hormone-deficient woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Starup, J

    1995-01-01

    Information on the course and outcome of pregnancies in growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients is sparse, and GH treatment during pregnancy in such women has not been described previously. We have studied fetal growth and serum levels of GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) during pregnancy, as well as birth weight and hormone levels after delivery in a 25-year-old woman with idiopathic, isolated GH deficiency diagnosed at the age of 7 years. As part of a clinical trial, the patient was treated with 2 IU/M2 GH for a period of 5 years. At this time she became pregnant after donor insemination. The GH treatment was continued until variant GH production from the placenta was evident. Serum levels of GH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured monthly during pregnancy after 3 days off GH therapy. Abdominal ultrasound was performed five times. Hormonal levels were measured immediately after delivery and during the following days. Serum GH and IGF-I levels increased during the secondhalf of pregnancy; serum IGFBP-3 remained constant throughout pregnancy at a normal level. Serum levels of GH fell within 1 h after delivery, and levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 decreased into the range of GH-deficient women 4 days after. The fetal biparietal diameter increased normally, and birthweight was 3.564 kg, length 52 cm. No adverse events were recorded. We conclude that the role of GH replacement during pregnancy of GH-deficient women should be investigated further.

  2. The metabolism of parathyroid hormone in kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the mechanism and localization of parathyroid hormone (PTH), the degradation and the effects of calcium ion to PTH degradation in kidney, bovine PTH (b-PTH 1 - 84) and its synthetic N-terminal peptide (b-PTH 1 - 34) labeled with 125I by Chloramine T methods (125I-b-PTH 1 - 84 and 125I-b-PTH 1 - 34) or labeled with horse radish peroxidase (125I-POX-b-PTH 1 - 84 and 125I-POX-bPTH 1-34) were used to study the disappearance from the blood stream and degradation and retention in the kidney after intravenous injections in male Wistar rats, weighing approximately 350 - 450 g. Degradation of PTH was studied in vitro, using isolated cells and homogenates of the kidney, and the effects of calcium ion to PTH degradation were furthermore studied, using our kidney perfusion system. PTH labeled with 125I and POX was less degraded by the kidney than PTH labeled with 125I alone. PTH 1 - 34 was more delayed in blood stream than PTH 1 - 84. Isolated intact kidney cells degrade PTH less efficiently than homogenates, indicating the prominance of microsomal degradative system in the kidney. The degradation of PTH in kidney was supposed to be controlled by calcium ion in our kidney perfusion system. (author)

  3. Osteocytes, bone remodeling and parathyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita S. Datta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteocytes, the longest living bone cells, have garnered much of the attention in the part they play in skeletal biology to orchestrate bone homeostasis. Although the multifunctional role of osteocytes in bone remodeling has been recognized, knowledge about the activity of important signaling molecules in osteocytes in this process are limited and far from being clearly depicted than osteoblast’s and osteoclast’s involvement. Stimulating the function of bone-forming osteoblasts and controlling osteoclastic activity are the preferred pharmacological intervention for skeletal repair. A large variety of studies have been conducted in osteoblasts and osteoclasts on recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH, an anabolic drug which proved to be effective for bone strength and clinical therapy. Studies in relation to newly functioning signaling molecules in osteocytes and PTH’s mode of action is becoming an intense area of investigation suggesting further the importance of these cells in bone anabolic action. The goal of this review is to discuss briefly the function and physiological roles of osteocytes and highlight a few recent findings on the PTH’s action in osteocyte signaling in health and disease. In this context this review in addition to Pubmed searches also borrows many literatures in bone and related fields from various publications.

  4. Parathyroid hormone: radioimmunoassay and clinical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), which has had widespread clinical use for five years, is described in detail. The iPTH results in large groups of patients are reported, and are discussed in relation to the specificity of the assay and in relation to other assays. The assay has excellent precision and is highly proficient in discrimination of groups of patients. Ninety-three percent of 412 patients with surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism were confidently separated from normal subjects or patients with hypercalcemia owing to other causes, while 86 percent of 160 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism had iPTH values more than 2 S.D. above the normal mean. Results in patients with ectopic hyperparathyroidism were lower than in primary hyperparathyroidism although these groups showed considerable overlap. The antiserum used in this assay for iPTH appears to be specific for the carboxy-terminal region of the secreted or intact form of PTH but recognizes predominantly the secreted form rather than carboxy-terminal fragments believed to be in the circulation. It does not recognize amino terminal fragments. The assay is useful in selective venous catheterization for preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue

  5. Parathyroid hormone: radioimmunoassay and clinical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), which has had widespread clinical use for five years, is described in detail. The iPTH results in large groups of patients are reported, and are discussed in relation to the specificity of the assay and in relation to other assays. The assay has excellent precision and is highly proficient in discrimination of groups of patients. Ninety-three percent of 412 patients with surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism were confidently separated from normal subjects or patients with hypercalcemia owing to other causes, while 86 percent of 160 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism had iPTH values more than 2 S.D. above the normal mean. Results in patients with ectopic hyperparathyroidism were lower than in primary hyperparathyroidism although these groups showed considerable overlap. The antiserum used in this assay for iPTH appears to be specific for the carboxy-terminal region of the secreted or intact form of PTH but recognizes predominantly the secreted form rather than carboxy-terminal fragments believed to be in the circulation. It does not recognize amino terminal fragments. The assay is useful in selective venous catheterization for preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue.

  6. Continued use of hormonal pregnancy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, C

    1978-02-18

    In both 1975 and 1977, the Committee on Safety of Medicines reported an association between hormonal pregnancy tests (HPTs) and subsequent congenital abnormalities and stated that such tests should no longer be used. Despite these findings, the Secretary of State declined to ban the proprietary drug involved (Primodos). Following the 1977 warning, 600 consecutive abortion patients at 6 branches of the British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) were asked whether they had been given HPTs. 12 patients (2%) indicated they had received such tests. Since most women had not consulted a general practitioner before coming to BPAS, this figure is probably an underestimate of actual use. Although a few doctors may have prescribed an HPT in the belief that the pregnancy would be terminated anyway, some HPTs were administered by doctors who subsequently refused to refer the patient for an abortion. If banning Primodos is considered an unacceptable infringement of professional freedom, the Department of Health and Social Security should consider making it a controlled drug, with the requirement that physicians ascertain through an immunological test that the recipient is not pregnant. PMID:624043

  7. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and growth-hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been made of the growth hormone (GH) responses of nine children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to the insulin and arginine tolerance tests. All the patients had received induction treatment with prednisone, vincristine and doxorubicin ('Adriamycin') for 4 weeks followed by 2400 rad of orthovoltage cranial irradiation plus five intrathecal injections of methotrexate. During the study all the children were in complete remission, which had been maintained with 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate for 4 to 26 months. No pulses of steroids were used in remission. Five patients in early remission did not respond to either stimulation test, three having longer remissions showed a late and low response to the insulin test and the one patient with the longest remission (26 months) had a normal GH response. Heights and bone ages were normal. These results, which suggest the possibility of a gradual recovery after the end of CNS treatment including orthovoltage cranial irradiation, are contrasted with those for megavoltage treatment reported by Shalet et al. (Shalet, S.M., Beardwell, C.G., Morris-Jones, P.H., Pearson, D., Archs. Dis. Childh., 1976, vol. 51, 489). (U.K.)

  8. Minireview: Hormones and human sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined. PMID:21693676

  9. Thyroid hormone signaling and homeostasis during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J; Terrien, J; Clerget-Froidevaux, M S; Gothié, J D; Rozing, M P; Westendorp, R G J; van Heemst, D; Demeneix, B A

    2013-08-01

    Studies in humans and in animal models show negative correlations between thyroid hormone (TH) levels and longevity. TH signaling is implicated in maintaining and integrating metabolic homeostasis at multiple levels, notably centrally in the hypothalamus but also in peripheral tissues. The question is thus raised of how TH signaling is modulated during aging in different tissues. Classically, TH actions on mitochondria and heat production are obvious candidates to link negative effects of TH to aging. Mitochondrial effects of excess TH include reactive oxygen species and DNA damage, 2 factors often considered as aging accelerators. Inversely, caloric restriction, which can retard aging from nematodes to primates, causes a rapid reduction of circulating TH, reducing metabolism in birds and mammals. However, many other factors could link TH to aging, and it is these potentially subtler and less explored areas that are highlighted here. For example, effects of TH on membrane composition, inflammatory responses, stem cell renewal and synchronization of physiological responses to light could each contribute to TH regulation of maintenance of homeostasis during aging. We propose the hypothesis that constraints on TH signaling at certain life stages, notably during maturity, are advantageous for optimal aging. PMID:23696256

  10. Structure and expression of the mouse growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, J G; Edens, A; Talamantes, F

    1999-08-01

    The mouse growth hormone receptor/growth hormone-binding protein (GHR/BP) gene produces several distinct mRNA forms through alternative splicing, including mRNAs encoding the membrane-bound growth hormone receptor (GHR) and the soluble growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP). Transcripts are also heterogeneous in their 5' regions due to alternative selection of two major 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) sequences, designated L1 and L2. Here we report the cloning of all mouse GHR/BP coding exons as well as the exon encoding 5'UTR L2, the most widely expressed 5'UTR. The mouse GHR/GHBP gene contains 11 coding exons, 9 of which are homologous in size and sequence to human GHR exons 2-10. The two mouse exons that do not have homologs in the human gene are designated exons 4B and 8A. Exon 4B, located between exons 4 and 5, encodes an 8-amino acid segment of the ligand binding domain that is unique to mouse GHR and GHBP. Analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction indicated that exon 4B is constitutively present in mouse GHR and GHBP mRNA. Exon 8A encodes the GHBP hydrophilic tail and 3'UTR sequence. 5'UTR L2 is encoded by a single exon located at least 27 kb upstream of exon 2 and at least 12 kb upstream of the exon encoding 5'UTR L1. The transcription start sites of UTR L2 were mapped and the 5' flanking region sequenced. The exon and proximal promoter region are GC rich, and share a high level of conservation with the equivalent exons in the sheep, bovine and human GHR genes. A CCAAT motif and several putative Sp1 motifs are present, and there is no TATA box. Homology between the mouse sequence and other species is limited to a region of 450 bp upstream of the exon due to the insertion of a fragment of a LINE-1 element upstream of the mouse L2 exon. Ribonuclease protection assays were used to confirm that 5'UTR L2 is widely expressed in multiple tissues and is the predominant form of transcript except in the liver during pregnancy, in which 5'UTR L1 is the major form. PMID:10425445

  11. Lipoproteína a, aterosclerosis y terapia hormonal de reemplazo Lipoprotein a, atherosclerosis and replacement hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre la lipoproteína plasmática, Lp(a, cuyo papel fisiológico es poco conocido. Se ha descrito una asociación entre las concentraciones aumentadas de Lp(a y el proceso aterosclerótico. Además, su exceso podría inducir una disminución de la actividad fibrinolítica y, por tanto, favorecer la trombosis. También analizamos la terapia hormonal de reemplazo. En relación con los efectos positivos, mejora los síntomas climatéricos y previene la osteoporosis, aunque entre los efectos adversos en las mujeres que la siguen, se ha descrito un ligero aumento del riesgo del tromboembolismo venoso, y más recientemente, en estudios realizados en EE.UU. en los años 2002 y 2004, en el ya conocido estudio (Women´s Health Initiative Study, se reportó mayor incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares para la terapia combinada con estrógenos conjugados equinos y medroxiprogesterona, y de stroke para la terapia estrogénica. Estos estudios pusieron en su lugar los efectos de esta terapia, que no es totalmente inocua. Se precisan estudios más amplios para definir el papel de la terapia hormonal de reemplazo y otras medidas terapéuticas sobre el sistema hemostático, el metabolismo lipídico y la enfermedad cardiovascular.A review of plasmatic lipoprotein, Lp(a, whose physiological role is little known, was made. An association between the augmented concentrations of Lp(a and the atherosclerotic proccess has been described. Besides, its excess may lead to a reduction of the fibrinolytic activity and, therefore, favor thrombosis. The replacement hormone therapy was also analyzed. In relation to its positive effects, it improves the climacteric symptoms and prevents osteoporosis. Among its adverse effects, it has been observed a mild increase of the risk for venous thromboembolism and, more recently, in the aleady known Women's Health Initiative Study, it was reported a higher incidence of cardiovascular events for the combined therapy with equine conjugated estrogens and medroxiprogesterone, and of stroke for the estrogenic therapy. These studies put in their place the effects of this therapy that is not totally innocuous. . Wider studies are necessary to determine the role of replacement hormone therapy and other therapeutic measures on the hemostatic system, lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

  12. Developments in administration of growth hormone treatment: focus on Norditropin® Flexpro®

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Kevin CJ; Amin, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone is used for the treatment of growth failure in children and metabolic dysfunction in adults with growth hormone deficiency. However, conventional growth hormone therapy requires daily subcutaneous injections that may affect treatment adherence, and subsequently efficacy outcomes. To enhance potential treatment adherence, improved ease of use of growth hormone delivery devices and long-acting growth hormone formulations are now being developed. Flexpro®, appro...

  13. Noise Exposure Effect on Testicular Histology, Morphology and on Male Steroidogenic Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Swami, Chandralekha G.; Ramanathan, Jeganathan; Charan Jeganath, C

    2007-01-01

    The noise stress, after it passes through the hearing apparatus, not only affects the auditory apparatus but also other body functions. The alterations in the levels of cortical hormone, adrenocorticosterone, nor-epinephrine hormone (which are primarily considered as stress hormones) on follicular stimulating hormone, testosterone, and lutinizing hormone were reported in relation with stress. Male albino rats weighing 200 to 250 grams were exposed to 100 dB of noise for one ...

  14. A review of luteinizing hormone and its role in ovarian reserve testing

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak Smith; Tiki Osianlis; Beverley Vollenhoven

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ovarian physiology illustrates the synergistic interaction between luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone in the process of folliculogenesis. While follicle stimulating hormone has been well established as a marker of ovarian reserve, the role of luteinizing hormone has remained somewhat controversial and it seems to have become the ?forgotten gonadotropin?. The following review aims to investigate the available evidence surrounding luteinizing hormone as a...

  15. Primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron syndrome) and acquired hypothyroidism: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Corneli Ginevra; Aimaretti Gianluca; Curtò Lorenzo; Santarpia Libero; Cotta Oana R; Trimarchi Francesco; Cannavò Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Primary growth hormone resistance or growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, also known as Laron syndrome, is a hereditary disease caused by deletions or different types of mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene or by post-receptor defects. This disorder is characterized by a clinical appearance of severe growth hormone deficiency with high levels of circulating growth hormone in contrast to low serum insulin-like growth factor 1 values. Case presentation We report...

  16. Growth hormone secretion in Turner's syndrome and influence of oxandrolone and ethinyl oestradiol.

    OpenAIRE

    Massarano, A. A.; Brook, C. G.; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Pringle, P. J.; Teale, J. D.; Stanhope, R.; Preece, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated 24 hour growth hormone secretion by intermittent 20 minute blood sampling in 34 prepubertal patients with Turner's syndrome, aged 4.3-12.4 years. Growth hormone profiles were analysed by the PULSAR programme and results expressed as the sum of growth hormone pulse amplitudes. Six patients had abnormal growth hormone pulse frequencies. In the remaining 28, growth hormone pulse amplitudes declined significantly with increasing age, but there was no correlation between growth hor...

  17. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These yle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  18. Circulating parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in rats after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Fung, Paul; Popova, Irina A.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone and calcithonin, two major calcium-regulating hormones, were measured in the plasma of five experimental groups of rats to evaluate postflight calcium homeostasis after the 14-day Cosmos 2044 flight. Parathyroid hormone values were slightly higher in the flight animals (F) than in the appropriate cage and diet controls (S) (44 +/- 21 vs 21 +/- 4 pg/ml, P less than 0.05), but they were the same as in the vivarium controls (V), which had different housing and feeding schedules. The difference in F and V (22 +/- 11 vs 49 +/- 16 pg/ml, P less than 0.05) was most likely due to failure of circulating calcitonin in F to show the normal age-dependent increase which was demonstrated in age-matched controls in a separate experiment. Basal values for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin were unchanged after 2 wk of hindlimb suspension, a flight simulation model, in age-matched and younger rats. From a time course experiment serum calcium was higher and parathyroid hormone lower after 4 wk than in ambulatory controls. Postflight circulating levels of parathyroid hormone appear to reflect disturbances in calcium homeostasis from impaired renal function of undetermined cause, whereas levels of calcitonin reflect depression of a normal growth process.

  19. Biodistribution of some labeled hormones in Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodistribution of some hormones labeled with I-125, such as estradiol. progesterone, testosterone, T3 and T4 and insulin hormones, were described for Japanese quail. In this study, the Japanese quail were divided into three groups, first group consisted of 100 birds and divided again into two subgroups each one consisted of 50 mature females. Each 10 females from subgroup one (12 months old) were injected intravenously with labeled sex hormones (E2 and progesterone), T3, T4 and insulin, while subgroup two which consisted of 50 females (2 months old) were injected as subgroup one. The second group consisted of 80 male quails and divided into two subgroups, each subgroup consisted of 40 mature males (12 months old) and subgroup two consisted of 40 males (2 months old). Each 10 male quails from the subgroup two were injected intravenously with testosterone, T3, T4 and insulin hormones, respectively. The third group, which consisted of 30 immature quails (2 weeks old), was injected intravenously with insulin, T3 and T4. After one hour following injection, the quails were slaughtered and the blood samples and different organs were collected and counted to evaluate and detect the target organs of the injected-labeled hormones under investigation. The main organs target for the injected hormones were as follow: ovary for progesterone, ovary and liver for estradiol, testis and liver for T4 and T3 and small intestine for insulintine for insulin

  20. Identification of an estrogenic hormone receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in both behavior and gene expression occur in Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, and to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compound. However, only one steroid hormone receptor has been identified. Of the 284 known nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) in C. elegans, we selected nhr-14, nhr-69, and nhr-121 for analysis as potential estrogenic hormone receptors, because they share sequence similarity with the human estrogen receptor. First, the genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the affinity of each protein for estrogen was determined using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. All three NHRs bound estrogen in a dose-dependent fashion. To evaluate the specificity of the binding, we performed a solution competition assay using an SPR biosensor. According to our results, only NHR-14 was able to interact with estrogen. Therefore, we next examined whether nhr-14 regulates estrogen signaling in vivo. To investigate whether these interactions actually control the response of C. elegans to hormones, we investigated the expression of vitellogenin, an estrogen responsive gene, in an nhr-14 mutant. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that vitellogenin expression was significantly reduced in the mutant. This suggests that NHR-14 is a C. elegans estrogenic hormone receptor and that it controls gene expression in response to estrogen