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Sample records for hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone

  1. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  2. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    ... Formal name: Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Related tests: Free T4 , Free T3 and Total T3 , Thyroid Panel , Thyroid Antibodies All ... monitoring this treatment with tests for thyroid hormones ( T4 and T3 ) as well as TSH levels. Damage to the ...

  3. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    An improved double antibody radioimmunoassay method is described for the determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in biological and other fluids. Highly purified second antibody is immobilised on to hydrophilic, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles of a suspendable size to form a solid phase second antibody reagent. The immobilised second antibody reagent is used to precipitate the reaction product of the first antibody with labelled and unlabelled thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-anti-TSH-complex) so as to produce a two-phase system which permits rapid and efficient separation of bound TSH in the solid phase from free TSH in the liquid phase. Details of the preparation of this novel second antibody-polyacrylamide reagent and of the assay procedure for human TSH are described. (U.K.)

  4. Rabbits immunized with thyroid-stimulating hormone produce autoantiidiotypic thyroid-stimulating antibodies.

    Beall, G N; Rapoport, B; Chopra, I J; Kruger, S R

    1985-01-01

    We immunized rabbits with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to investigate the hypothesis that such immunization could result in production of thyroid-stimulating autoantiidiotypic antibodies to anti-TSH. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) appeared in the serum of several rabbits after immunization. At 160 d, TSI equivalent to 6-18 microU TSH/1.5 mg IgG was present in two of six human (h)TSH-, two of six hTSH beta chain-, and two of the four surviving bovine (b)TSH-immunized animals. Co...

  5. Thyroid ultrasonography in congenital isolated thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency.

    Wakamoto, H; Miyazaki, M.; Tatsumi, K.; Amino, N

    1995-01-01

    The effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency on thyroid development was examined using ultrasonography in a child with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Ultrasound revealed the thyroid gland was one sixth normal volume, suggesting that TSH plays an important part in thyroid growth, but not a critical role in differentiation.

  6. A Signaling Network of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

    Goel, Renu; Raju, Rajesh; Maharudraiah, Jagadeesha; Sameer Kumar, Ghantasala S.; Ghosh, Krishna; Kumar, Amit; Lakshmi, T. Pragna; Sharma, Jyoti; Sharma, Rakesh; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Pan, Archana; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Christopher, Rita; V. Krishna; Mohan, S. Sujatha

    2011-01-01

    Human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein secreted by the anterior part of the pituitary gland. TSH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis by modulating the release of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. It induces iodine uptake by the thyroid, promotes thyroid epithelial differentiation and growth, and protects thyroid cells from apoptosis. Impairment of TSH signal transduction pathway leads to thyroid disorders...

  7. TNFα mediates the skeletal effects of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Hase, Hidenori; Ando, Takao; Eldeiry, Leslie; Brebene, Alina; Peng, Yuanzhen; Liu, Lanying; Amano, Hitoshi; Davies, Terry F; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Abe, Etsuko

    2006-01-01

    We have shown recently that by acting on the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR), TSH negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation. Both heterozygotic and homozygotic TSHR null mice are osteopenic with evidence of enhanced osteoclast differentiation. Here, we report that the accompanying elevation of TNFα, an osteoclastogenic cytokine, causes the increased osteoclast differentiation. This enhancement in TSHR−/− and TSHR+/− mice is abrogated in compound TSHR−/−/TNFα−/− and TSH...

  8. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  9. Newly reported roles of thyroid-stimulating hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in bone remodelling

    Sendak, Rebecca A.; Sampath, T. Kuber; McPherson, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have both been recently implicated in bone remodelling. Clinical evidence, as well as data from TSH receptor and thyroid hormone receptor knockout mice, suggest that TSH has a direct effect on skeletal homeostasis, although some data are conflicting. Recently, the exogenous administration of TSH has been shown to positively impact bone in oophrectomised rats. These data, along with their potential implications for the tr...

  10. MRI of the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) -secreting pituitary adenoma

    To demonstrate and evaluate the value of MRI findings of the TSH(Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, TSH, Thyrotropin)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 4 patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Evaluation of the anatomical location, signal characteristics, enhancement patterns, size, shape and circunferential changes were made. No characteristic common MR findings in size, shape, signal intensity, and circumferential changes of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma waere observed among 4 cases (size; 5 x 7 mm to 10 x 11 mm, shape; ovoid to round signal intensity; high in 1 case on T1 and T2WI, isosignal intensity in the other 3 cases, circumferential change; stalk deviation in 1 case, no stalk deviation in 3 cases). But, the tumors were centrally located at the anterior pituitary gland and showed relatively homogeneous signal intensity on MR images of all 4 patients. We conclude that centrally-located mass at the anterior pituitary gland with homogeneous signal intensity on MR image may be suggestive of the TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, although the MR findings are not specific for the disease

  11. Establishment of chemiluminescence immunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone

    The chemiluminescence immunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone in human serum was developed. Two monoclonal antibodies of TSH were used in the assay, one of which was labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the other was coated on the microtiter plate. Luminol was used as the substrate of HRP and hydrogen peroxide was introduced into this system. The standard range of the method is 0.1- 100 mIU/L. The assay sensitivity is 0.04 mIU/L. The intra and inter-assay coefficients of variance are 3.98 %-6.48% and 4.61%-13.1%. Analytical recovery is 95.8%- 117.4%. The correlation coefficient between measured and expected values is more than 0.99. The cross reaction rate with LH is less than 1.62%, and that with FSH and HCG is less than 0.05% and 0.02%, respectively. Compared with determine value clinically in chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) kit from Roche company, the correlative equation is y=1.10x-0.207, and correlation coefficient is 0.969. Compared with immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kit, the correlative equation is y=1.00x+0.191, and correlation coefficient is 0.965. This method is rapid and convenient, and it is suitable for clinical and research application. (authors)

  12. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism by measurement of plasma thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations.

    Griffiths, K D; Virdi, N K; Rayner, P. H.; Green, A.

    1985-01-01

    Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism was introduced in the City of Birmingham in 1980 by measuring concentrations of both thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroxine in plasma. Over two years 30 108 babies were tested. Thirty one babies were recalled because of thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations greater than 40 mU/l, of whom 12 were treated with replacement thyroxine. Six babies were found to have low thyroxine concentrations because of reduced thyroxine binding globulin and...

  13. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Measurement of Intracellular, Secreted, and Circulating Hormone in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis.

    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced in the pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormone (TH). The concentration of TH controls developmental changes that take place in a wide variety of organisms. Many use the metaphoric ch...

  14. Measurement of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) In Vitro

    Many of the methods of assay proposed for the quantitative measurement of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (H-TSH) have encountered major difficulties in relation to sensitivity and specificity. The development of radioimmunoassay techniques for the measurement of H-TSH not only resulted in increased sensitivity over the majority of existing techniques, but led to improvements in specificity and practicability. The purpose of this communication is to compare serum TSH values measured by a method of bioassay in vitro with those obtained by a radioimmunoassay developed in this laboratory using reagents provided by the National Pituitary Agency, United States of America. In the bioassay technique goitrous guinea-pig thyroid tissue is incubated in vitro with 131I and H-TSH during which time the tissue takes up 131I and binds it in organic combination. Measurements of the radioactive content of the culture medium are made before and after the addition of KSCN in order to discharge any 131I present in the tissue as iodide, the difference in count-rate being indirectly proportional to the amount of H-TSH present in the incubation fluid. The method can detect as little as 1.0 mU/100 ml serum. The radioimmunoassay technique used was that described by Odell and Garigan in instructions accompanying the reagents. However, modifications to their technique included the use of antiserum at a final dilution of 1/120 000 and the addition of H-TSH at a final concentration of 0.4 ng/ml to mixtures of antiserum and the standard preparation after an incubation period of five days. After a further five days incubation period, the separation of bound and free 131I-H-TSH was carried out by precipitating the bound hormone with NaCl and ethanol. The lower limit of detection in terms of the H-TSH standard A (MRC) is 5 μU/ml serum (0.5 mU/100 ml). Serum was obtained from children aged one month to 16 years, adults aged 18-40 years and 66-85 years, patients subjected to either pituitary stalk section on 90Y implantation during treatment for advanced diabetic retinopathy, and one patient suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis during periods of suppression by T3 and stimulation by TSH, Assessments of thyroid function were made either by the triiodothyronine uptake test using coated charcoal or by the estimation of the protein-bound iodine content of serum. The correlation between the TSH assay results obtained by the two methods are discussed. (author)

  15. Association of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene (TSHR) with Graves' disease

    Brand, Oliver J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Simmonds, Matthew J; Newby, Paul R; McCabe, Christopher J; Bruce, Christopher K; Kysela, Boris; Carr-Smith, Jackie D; Brix, Thomas; Hunt, Penny J; Wiersinga, Wilmar M; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Connell, John; Wass, John A H; Franklyn, Jayne A; Weetman, Anthony P; Heward, Joanne M; Gough, Stephen C L

    2009-01-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is a common autoimmune disease (AID) that shares many of its susceptibility loci with other AIDs. The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) represents the primary autoantigen in GD, in which autoantibodies bind to the receptor and mimic its ligand, thyroid stimulating...... hormone, causing the characteristic clinical phenotype. Although early studies investigating the TSHR and GD proved inconclusive, more recently we provided convincing evidence for association of the TSHR region with disease. In the current study, we investigated a combined panel of 98 SNPs, including 70...

  16. A sensitive immunoradiometric assay for serum thyroid stimulating hormone: a replacement for the thyrotrophin releasing hormone test?

    Seth, J; Kellett, H A; G. Caldwell; Sweeting, V M; Beckett, G J; Gow, S M; Toft, A D

    1984-01-01

    The value as a thyroid function test of a new, rapid, and highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was assessed in 188 consecutive new patients with suspected hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds and on the basis of serum total triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations and the response of TSH to thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) as measured by radioimmunoassay. In all except one patient the basal TSH concentration by immunora...

  17. THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND THYROXINE SCREENING IN THE PRETERM NEWBORN: REFERENCE VALUES

    Franco Bagnoli; Giada Montecchiani; Laura Farmeschi; Sara Nappini; Silvia Badii; Sara Cecchi; Annalisa Mori; Barbara Tomasini

    2013-01-01

    The screening test for Congenital Hypothyroidism, performed in the 2nd - 3rd day of life, highlighted in the premature infant significant lower levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (tT4) than those found in the full term newborn. Studies carried out after birth in the preterm infant, showed a persistence of low levels of thyroid hormones (TH) in the first two weeks of life, with a tendency toward spontaneous resolution at the end of the first month. This hormone deficienc...

  18. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Is Significantly Associated with Bone Health Status in Men

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recent studies revealed a novel association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and bone health status in healthy male populations. The present study aimed to validate this association and provide new information on the relationship between TSH levels and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in men. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 681 men with complete data of calcaneal SOS, body anthropometry, serum TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) l...

  19. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in euthyroid young women

    Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Lee, Hye Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The existence of an association between thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) levels and metabolic derangement in euthyroid subjects is controversial. We examined the association between high normal TSH levels and metabolic syndrome in healthy young women. Methods The study recruited 2,760 young female volunteers (age, 18 to 39 years) with TSH levels in the normal range (0.3 to 4.5 mU/L). We defined metabolic syndrome using the 2007 International Diabetes Federation c...

  20. Preparation of quality control samples in radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    To days, the radioimmunoassay is becomes the best technique to analysis different concentrations of substance, especially in medical and research laboratories. Although the specificity of RIA techniques, the quality controls must takes place to give good results as possible. In this dissertation i prepared quality control samples of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), to use it in RIA techniques and to control the reliability results of those laboratories which used these methods. We used China production kits of RIA method to determine the level of hormone (low-normal-high) concentration. Statistical parameters were used to drown the control chart of the mean to these data.(Author)

  1. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F; van der Spoel, E; Cobbaert, C M; Ballieux, B E; Egri, P; Kvarta-Papp, Z; Gereben, B; Fekete, C; Slagboom, P E; van der Grond, J; Demeneix, B A; Pijl, H; van Heemst, D; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid...... hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of...... nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis...

  2. Paracrine interactions of thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulation hormone in the female reproductive tract have an impact on female fertility

    AnneliStavreus-Evers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disease often causes menstrual disturbances and infertility problems. Thyroid hormone (TH acts through its receptors, transcription factors present in most cell types in the body. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH stimulates TH synthesis in the thyroid gland, but seems to have other functions as well in the female reproductive tract. The receptors of both TH and TSH increase in the receptive endometrium, suggesting that they are important for implantation, possible by influencing inflammatory mediators such as LIF. The roles of these receptors in the ovary need further studies. However, it is likely that the thyroid system is important for both follicular and embryo development. The association between thyroid disease and infertility indicate that TH and TSH affect the endometrium and ovary on the paracrine level.

  3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  4. Development of magnetic solid phase immunoradiometric assay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    Thyroid-stimulating homone (SH), or thyrotropin, is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 28.000 secreted by the pituitary gland. TSH is composed of tow subnits of approximately equalsize, called α and β. Other hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), both secerted by the pituitary, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the placenta, have α subunits virtually identical to that of TSH, but there are important differences in their Β subunits. These differences confer biological specificity on the complete molecules and allow them to be distinguished in immunassays. The TSH magnetic soild phase immunoradiometric technique incorporates two high affinity monoclonal antibodies one of which is labeled with 125I which attached quickly to a unique site on the TSH motecule, while the second monoclonal antibody immobilized onto magnetic cellulose iron oxide particles, linked to other distinct site on the TSH molecule forming a sandwich. In this study the magnetic particles were firstly activated by carbonyl dimedazole then coupled with anti-TSH monoclonal antibodies which then allowedto bind with TSH hormone. The TSH magnetic soild phase immunoradiometric system, will be optimized where the characterization of the system including accuracy, specificity, sensitivity an dcomparative studies by compare the results of the prepared system with that of commericially used system

  5. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24836306

  6. Evaluation and comparison of high-sensitivity immunoradiometric assay kits for thyroid stimulating hormone

    Fundamental and clinical characteristics of 3 kinds of high-sensitivity immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kits for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). i.e., RIA BEADS II (kit A), TSH kit Daiichi II (kit B) and Ab tube TSH 'Eiken' (kit C) and one conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit, i.e., TSH kit Daiichi (kit D), were studied. In the recovery test and the reproducibility test, there was no significant difference between the 4 kits. The sensitivities of kits A, B and C were much higher than that of kit D, and those IRMA kits were sensitive enough to distinguish hyperthyroidism from normal samples. For low concentrations of TSH (< 5 ?U/ml), the data from kits D, B, C and A tended to show higher values in that order. The correlation between the data measured by kits B and D, and the tendency of kit A toward lower values agreed well with other reports. (author)

  7. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Increases HNF-4α Phosphorylation via cAMP/PKA Pathway in the Liver

    Yongfeng Song; Dongmei Zheng; Meng Zhao; Yejun Qin; Tingting Wang; Wanjia Xing; Ling Gao; Jiajun Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha (HNF-4α) is an orphan nuclear receptor with important roles in hepatic metabolism. Protein phosphorylation plays a functional role in its nuclear localization, DNA binding, and transactivation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland, whose direct effect on the metabolic pathway has been observed. Our previous study demonstrated that TSH significantly decreases hepatic nuclear HNF-4α expression. However, whether...

  8. A novel thyroid stimulating hormone β-subunit isoform in human pituitary, peripheral blood leukocytes, and thyroid

    Schaefer, Jeremy S.; Klein, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced by the anterior pituitary and is used to regulate thyroid hormone output, which in turn controls metabolic activity. Currently, the pituitary is believed to be the only source of TSH used by the thyroid. Recent studies in mice from our laboratory have identified a TSH isoform that is expressed in the pituitary, in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), and in the thyroid. To determine whether a human TSH splice variant exists that is analogous to the ...

  9. CONTROL OF PITUITARY THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE SECRETION BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS DURING XENOPUS METAMORPHOSIS

    Robin M Sternberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that the rate of thyroid-stimulating hormone ? (TSH? secretion by pituitaries from climactic Xenopus laevis tadpoles increases over time in culture. This implies that TSH? secretion during the climactic stages of Xenopus metamorphosis is under strict negative regulation by an extra-pituitary hormone. Using ex vivo experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the hypothalamus is a potential source of this negative regulatory signal for TSH? secretion. Pituitaries from X. laevis tadpoles (NF stages 54 66 and post-metamorphic froglets (2 weeks post-NF stage 66 were cultured alone or with attached hypothalamic tissue (i.e., pituitary-hypothalamic complexes for up to 72 hours, and the collected media was analyzed for TSH? via ELISA. Results showed that complexes from pre-NF stage 66 tadpoles secreted significantly and dramatically less TSH? than pre-NF stage 66 pituitaries whereas a difference in TSH? secretion by complexes and pituitaries from NF stage 66 tadpoles and 2 weeks post-metamorphic froglets was not detected. The results of these experiments allow us to conclude that the hypothalamus negatively regulates pituitary TSH? secretion during the thyroid hormone-dependent stages of Xenopus metamorphosis but not afterwards. Ongoing studies are seeking to ascertain the identity of the negative regulatory signal from the hypothalamus.

  10. Relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone and various components of metabolic syndrome

    To determine the relation between thyroid stimulating hormone and various components of metabolic syndrome. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology department, Army Medical College of National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad and Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan; from January to March 2013. Material and Methods: Hundred adult inhabitants (30-60 years) of Rawalpindi participated in this study. Subjects who fulfilled the WHO criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) were included and those who had any thyroid illness, or were using any thyroid medications were excluded from this study. For thyroid function tests (TFT's), serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (TT3), free throxine (FT4) were estimated. Insulin resistance (IR) was measured by Homeostasis Model Assessment for IR (HOMA-IR). Data was analyzed by SPSS-18. Results: Out of 50 subjects of control group, 26 (52%) were male and 24 (48%) were female. Basal metabolic rate (BMI), serum triglyceride (TG), HOMA-IR were higher and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was lower in MetS patients. There was no significant difference in serum TT3 and FT4 between MetS patients and control group, however, mean serum TSH levels were higher in MetS (2.622 + 0.924 vs 5.002 + 1.074 mIU/l, p<0.001). In correlation analysis, serum TSH was positively and significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.344, p=0.014) and HOMA-IR (r=0.419, p<0.002). Conclusion: These results suggest that serum TSH correlates with various components of metabolic syndrome patients. Analysis of serum TSH levels in metabolic syndrome patients may prove beneficial in preventing the various cardiometabolic complications in such patients. (author)

  11. A comparison of immunoenzymometric assays for human thyroid stimulating hormone and human growth hormone with established immunoradiometric assay methodology

    Two-site immunoenzymometric assays (IEMAs) utilizing polyclonal antisera coated microtitre well (solid phase) and horse radish peroxidase labelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) have been developed with a view to supplying a non-radioisotopic immunoassay system for use in a bulk matched reagent scheme. A two state assay format with a spectrophotometric end point readout was chosen. Results for the pituitary hormones human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) and human growth hormone (hGH) are presented. Assay characteristics and performance of these IEMAs compared favourably with existing immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) which use microcrystalline cellulose coupled solid phase antibody and 125I labelled MAb. Intra-assay analytical precision was similar for both hTSH methods but slightly worse for the hGH IEMA. Relative to IRMA, mean IEMA sensitivity was better for the hTSH, but worse for hGH. However, ''working ranges'' with analytical imprecision of less than 10% covered the distribution of standards in all assays. Good agreement was obtained between methods for patient hTSH specimens up to 12.5 mIU/L but a concentration-dependent negative bias developed in the IEMA at higher hTSH levels. A similar bias was observed in the hGH IEMA. The bias was traced to a ''matrix effect'' due to the hTSH-free horse serum used to prepare standards. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  12. Effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) on a growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone-producing pituitary tumor.

    Hirasawa,Ryoto; Hashimoto,Hozo; Makino,Shinya; Suemaru,Shuso; Takao,Toshihiro; Ota, Zensuke; Hoshida,Yoshihiko; Yoshino, Tadashi; Akagi,Tadaatsu

    1991-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary adenoma. She had high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and very high serum growth hormone (GH) levels. Transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, post-operative irradiation, frontal craniotomy for removal of residual tumor and large-dose bromocriptine therapy were carried out consecutively. After therapy, serum GH levels gradually decreased, but not to the normal range, and serum TSH levels remained at inappro...

  13. A sensitive immunoradiometric assay for serum thyroid stimulating hormone: a replacement for the thyrotrophin releasing hormone test?

    Seth, J; Kellett, H A; Caldwell, G; Sweeting, V M; Beckett, G J; Gow, S M; Toft, A D

    1984-11-17

    The value as a thyroid function test of a new, rapid, and highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was assessed in 188 consecutive new patients with suspected hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds and on the basis of serum total triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations and the response of TSH to thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) as measured by radioimmunoassay. In all except one patient the basal TSH concentration by immunoradiometric assay predicted the response of TSH by radioimmunoassay to TRH, an undetectable value being recorded in patients with a subnormal response and a measurable value in those with a normal test result. This clear relation was not observed for basal TSH concentrations as measured by radioimmunoassay. In a series of 39 hospital inpatients with acute or chronic non-thyroidal illness, of whom 11 had low concentrations of total thyroxine or triiodothyronine, or both, basal TSH concentrations were detectable by both radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay in all cases and were associated with normal responses to TRH. The immunoradiometric assay for TSH, which is commercially available, may therefore obviate the need for the more time consuming TRH test and simplify the approach to thyroid function testing in patients with suspected hyperthyroidism. PMID:6437538

  14. Gender and Age Impact on the Association Between Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Serum Lipids.

    Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Tan, Jian; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Guizhi; Wang, Renfei; He, Yajing; Ren, Xiaojun; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Wang, Shen; Li, Xue; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Tianpeng; Liu, Na; Upadhyaya, Arun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hyperlipidemia is still a topic of debate. We aimed to explore the impact of gender and age on the association between serum TSH and lipid profile in a large cohort of Chinese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 13,915 participants (8565 male, 5350 female), who self-reported as healthy without any known previous diseases. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements, thyroid function, and other serum parameters were collected. The associations between TSH and hyperlipidemia of males and females were analyzed separately after dividing TSH and age into subgroups. Odds ratio for hyperlipidemia was calculated by binary logistic regression models.Young males had significantly higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and high serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol than females, yet after menopause, females had higher prevalence than males. TSH was positively associated with hyperlipidemia independent of thyroid hormones. Males showed more reduced risks of hyperlipidemia in low TSH concentrations, while females demonstrated more enhanced risks of hyperlipidemia in high TSH concentrations. For instance, if TSH was lower than 0.3 μIU/mL, the risks of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in males were only 0.198 (P  0.05), respectively. If TSH was higher than 4.0 μIU/mL, women displayed significantly higher risks of developing hypertriglyceridemia than the reference TSH risks (P thyroid hormone independent positive associations between serum TSH and lipids, which were substantially influenced by gender and age. Males demonstrated more protective effects of low TSH against hyperlipidemia, while females showed more detrimental effects of high TSH on hyperlipidemia. PMID:26656346

  15. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Inhibits Adipose Triglyceride Lipase in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through the PKA Pathway

    Jiang, Dongqing; Ma, Shizhan; Jing, Fei; Xu, Chao; Yan, Fang; Wang, Aihong; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) metabolism in adipose tissue. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a rate-limiting enzyme controlling the hydrolysis of TG. Thus far, it is unclear whether TSH has a direct effect on the expression of ATGL. Because TSH function is mediated through the TSH receptor (TSHR), TSHR knockout mice (Tshr-/- mice) (supplemented with thyroxine) were used in this study to determine the effe...

  16. Thyroxine prescription in the community: serum thyroid stimulating hormone level assays as an indicator of undertreatment or overtreatment.

    Parle, J V; Franklyn, J A; Cross, K W; Jones, S. R.; Sheppard, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Examination of thyroxine usage in a study in the United States of America revealed that many patients were prescribed thyroxine for non-thyroid indications, such as obesity and fatigue. Many of those receiving thyroxine had high or low serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels, indicating prescription of incorrect doses or lack of patient compliance with therapy. Long term thyroxine therapy may have effects upon the risk of osteoporosis. The aims of this study were to investigate indications f...

  17. Evidence That the Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) Receptor Transmembrane Domain Influences Kinetics of TSH Binding to the Receptor Ectodomain*

    Chen, Chun-Rong; McLachlan, Sandra M.; Rapoport, Basil

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-induced reduction in ligand binding affinity (negative cooperativity) requires TSH receptor (TSHR) homodimerization, the latter involving primarily the transmembrane domain (TMD) but with the extracellular domain (ECD) also contributing to this association. To test the role of the TMD in negative cooperativity, we studied the TSHR ECD tethered to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that multimerizes despite the absence of the TMD. ...

  18. Effect of axitinib (AG-013736) on fatigue, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and biomarkers. A phase I study in Japanese patients

    Axitinib is an oral, potent, and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3. This phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antitumor activity, and recommended starting dose of axitinib in patients with advanced solid tumors. Twelve patients received single-dose axitinib 5 mg and were monitored for ≥48 h. Continuous 5 mg twice-daily dosing was then initiated. One patient had dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 proteinuria and fatigue). Common treatment-related adverse events were anorexia, fatigue, and diarrhea. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events were fatigue and hypertension. Maximum axitinib plasma concentration occurred 1-4 h after steady-state dosing. Eleven patients experienced thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation; time-course change and fatigue onset appeared to be related in some patients. Significant correlation was observed between thyroid-stimulating hormone change and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC; r=0.80, P=0.005). Axitinib decreased plasma soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (s-VEGFR2), with significant correlation between change in s-VEGFR2 and AUC (r=-0.92, P<0.0001). Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed a substantial decrease in tumor metabolic activity associated with axitinib. Tumor size decreased in nine patients. The time-course of thyroid-stimulating hormone change appeared correlated with fatigue. There were significant correlations between thyroid-stimulating hormone or s-VEGFR2 and axitinib exposure. Axitinib 5 mg twice-daily is the recommended starting dose for Japanese patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT00447005. (author)

  19. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  20. Serum concentration of thyroxin and thyroid stimulating hormone in children suspected of thyroid dysfunction

    This study was planned to investigate serum concentration of free thyroxin (FT/sub 4/) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as thyroid dysfunctions in children attending CENUM, Mayo Hospital Lahore. A total of 227 children (131 female and 96 male) were selected for this study. Their age range was 1 to 12 years (mean 7.6 +- 3.4 years). 45 (19.8%) children had goiter with significantly more frequency in female as compared to male children (28.2% V s 8.3%; p<0.05). More than 70% of the children had F/sub 4/ and TSH within their respective normal ranges (euthyroid). Thyroid dysfunctions were detected in 11.0% children (7.5% hypothyroidism; 3.5% hyperthyroidism). Only the incidence of hyperthyroidism was significantly more in goiterous children. There was no significant difference in the incidence of hyperthyroidism but hypothyroidism was significant (p<0.05) more common in female children. (author)

  1. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone level is influenced by neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy factors.

    Trumpff, Caroline; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Vanderpas, Jean; Tafforeau, Jean; Van Oyen, Herman; De Schepper, Jean

    2015-11-01

    The percentage of newborns with a neonatal whole blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) greater than 5 mIU/L has been used as an indicator of iodine deficiency at the population level. However, TSH levels in newborns may be influenced by many factors other than iodine status. The objective of this study was to identify neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy-related determinants of neonatal TSH levels in a retrospective cohort study. The study sample included 313 Belgian mothers and their 4- to 5-year-old children. The children had a neonatal TSH concentration between 0 and 15 mIU/L at neonatal screening, and blood samples were collected 3 to 5 days after birth. Children with suspected congenital hypothyroidism (neonatal TSH level >15 mIU/L), prematurely born (i.e., screening center via a self-administered questionnaire filled in by the mother together with the child's health booklet. Higher TSH levels were found in spring and winter compared to summer and autumn (P = .011). Higher TSH levels were associated with lifetime smoking behavior (up to child birth) in the mother (P = .005), lower weight gain during pregnancy (P = .014), and longer pregnancies (P = .003). This study showed that several neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy-related determinants are influencing neonatal TSH level. PMID:26428622

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERUM THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE LEVELS AND TUMOUR PATHOLOGY IN PATIENTS WITH THYROID SWELLINGS

    Diptanshu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Thyroid diseases are, arguably, among the commonest endocrine disorders worldwide. The National Goitre Control Programme in India has shown that India has the world’s highest goitre belt in the Himalayan & Sub-Himalayan region with a prevalence of 29%. It seems probable that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH can act as a cancer stimulus. This study was devised to analyse the levels of TSH in patients with thyroid swellings and to determine the correlation between the TSH level and nature of thyroid swelling, if any. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who presented to our OPD with evidence of a thyroid swelling from July 2012 to June 2013 were included in the study. Estimation of T3, T4, and TSH, USG of the thyroid region, FNAC from the swelling and Histopathological examination of surgical specimen (When applicable were done. Data was analysed by commercially available statistical software packages. RESULTS: 45 patients were included in the study. Preoperative TSH values were compared with the final histopathological diagnosis. The mean TSH value was 1.86 ± 0.91mIU/l for benign lesions and 2. 39 ± 0.90 mIU/l for malignant lesions. CONCLUSION: TSH levels in patients with thyroid nodules may be used as diagnostic adjuncts for the identification of high-risk patients, who require further investigation and/or surgical intervention.

  3. In vitro responses of luteinizing rat granulosa cells to human thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Grasso, P; Crisp, T M

    1985-05-01

    The effect of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) on progesterone (P4) secretion during initial luteinization and subsequent prolactin (Prl)-mediated steroidogenesis by cultured rat granulosa cells was studied. Granulosa cells, obtained from pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG)-treated immature female rats, were preincubated for 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h in control medium lacking added hormones or in medium containing 1.0 microgram/ml human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or hTSH, and maintained subsequently for 6 days in medium containing 1.0 microgram/ml bovine (bPrl). Indices of luteotropic stimulation were provided by: 1) elevated P4 concentrations determined by radioimmunoassay of spent media samples; and 2) cytoplasmic lipid accumulation assessed by osmium tetroxide staining following fixation after 7 days of culture. Progesterone levels in media from cultures exposed to hCG for 24 h were twofold higher than control cultures, whereas those in media from cultures preincubated in hTSH for 24 h were fourfold higher than control levels. Cultures preincubated in 1.0 microgram/ml hCG for as little as 1 h and then maintained for 6 days in Prl secreted significantly more P4 than did control cultures also maintained with Prl for 6 days. Cultures preincubated in hTSH required a 24-h exposure before a significant increase in Prl-mediated P4 secretion was observed. Intensity of cytoplasmic osmiophilia correlated directly with P4 concentration. These results suggest that: 1) hTSH has the ability to promote P4 secretion during initial luteinization and to regulate subsequent Prl-mediated steroidogenesis by cultured rat granulosa cells; and 2) the mechanism by which hTSH stimulates Prl-mediated P4 secretion in this model system may differ from that of hCG. PMID:3924135

  4. Do abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone level values result in treatment changes? A study of patients on thyroxine in one general practice.

    De Whalley, P

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Hypothyroidism is a common disorder, easily treated with thyroxine therapy. Thyroid stimulating hormone level assay can detect under- or overtreatment. AIM. A study was carried out in one general practice to discover the number of people on thyroxine therapy, their care, and whether abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone level values resulted in alterations to their thyroxine dose. METHOD. The study was undertaken in a north Suffolk general practice of 7640 patients. A computer sear...

  5. Measurement of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins using a novel thyroid stimulating hormone receptorguanine nucleotide-binding protein, (GNAS) fusion bioassay

    Pierce, M; Sandrock, R; Gillespie, G; Meikle, A W

    2012-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism, defined by overproduction of thyroid hormones, has a 23% prevalence in the population. The most common form of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. A diagnostic biomarker for Graves' disease is the presence of immunoglobulins which bind to, and stimulate, the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We hypothesized that the ectopically expressed TSHR gene in a thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) assay could be engineered to increase the accumulation of the GPCR pathway second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), the molecule measured in the assay as a marker for pathway activation. An ectopically expressing TSHR-mutant guanine nucleotide-binding protein, (GNAS) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell clone was constructed using standard molecular biology techniques. After incubation of the new clone with sera containing various levels of TSI, GPCR pathway activation was then quantified by measuring cAMP accumulation in the clone. The clone, together with a NaCl-free cell assay buffer containing 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG)6000, was tested against 56 Graves' patients, 27 toxic thyroid nodule patients and 119 normal patients. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, when comparing normal with Graves' sera, the assay yielded a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 99% and an efficiency of 98%. Total complex precision (within-run, across runs and across days), presented as a percentage coefficient of variation, was found to be 78, 87 and 76% for low, medium and high TSI responding serum, respectively. We conclude that the performance of the new TSI assay provides sensitive detection of TSI, allowing for accurate, early detection of Graves' disease. PMID:23039881

  6. Measurement of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins using a novel thyroid stimulating hormone receptor-guanine nucleotide-binding protein, (GNAS) fusion bioassay.

    Pierce, M; Sandrock, R; Gillespie, G; Meikle, A W

    2012-11-01

    Hyperthyroidism, defined by overproduction of thyroid hormones, has a 2-3% prevalence in the population. The most common form of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. A diagnostic biomarker for Graves' disease is the presence of immunoglobulins which bind to, and stimulate, the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We hypothesized that the ectopically expressed TSHR gene in a thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) assay could be engineered to increase the accumulation of the GPCR pathway second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), the molecule measured in the assay as a marker for pathway activation. An ectopically expressing TSHR-mutant guanine nucleotide-binding protein, (GNAS) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell clone was constructed using standard molecular biology techniques. After incubation of the new clone with sera containing various levels of TSI, GPCR pathway activation was then quantified by measuring cAMP accumulation in the clone. The clone, together with a NaCl-free cell assay buffer containing 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG)6000, was tested against 56 Graves' patients, 27 toxic thyroid nodule patients and 119 normal patients. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, when comparing normal with Graves' sera, the assay yielded a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 99% and an efficiency of 98%. Total complex precision (within-run, across runs and across days), presented as a percentage coefficient of variation, was found to be 78, 87 and 76% for low, medium and high TSI responding serum, respectively. We conclude that the performance of the new TSI assay provides sensitive detection of TSI, allowing for accurate, early detection of Graves' disease. PMID:23039881

  7. Increased plasma thyroid stimulating hormone in treated congenital hypothyroidism: relation to severity of hypothyroidism, plasma thyroid hormone status, and daily dose of thyroxine.

    Grant, D. B.; Fuggle, P. W.; Smith, I.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations obtained during the first four years of treatment in 418 children with congenital hypothyroidism, identified by neonatal screening, were examined in relation to paired measurements of plasma thyroxine (n = 1945), free thyroxine (n = 836), triiodothyronine (n = 480), and free triiodothyronine (n = 231), and estimated daily dose of thyroxine at the time of blood sampling. Overall, plasma TSH was above 7 mU/l in 1280 out of 2960 samples (43...

  8. Effect of maternal and neonatal factors on cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone

    Sheetal G Lakshminarayana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is most common preventable cause of mental retardation in children. Cord blood Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (CBTSH level is an accepted screening tool for CH. Objectives: To study CBTSH profile in neonates born at tertiary care referral center and to analyze the influence of maternal and neonatal factors on their levels. Design: Cross retrospective sectional study. Methods: Study population included 979 neonates (males = 506 to females = 473. The CBTSH levels were estimated using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on Cobas analyzer. Kit based cut-offs of TSH level were used for analysis. All neonates with abnormal CBSTH levels, were started on levothyroxine supplementation 10 μg/Kg/day and TSH levels were reassessed as per departmental protocol. Results: The mean CBTSH was 7.82 μIU/mL (Range 0.112 to 81.4, SD = 5.48. The mean CBTSH level was significantly higher in first order neonates, neonates delivered by assisted vaginal delivery and normal delivery, delivered at term or preterm, neonates with APGAR score 16.10 and 16.1 μIU/mL was significantly higher in neonates delivered by assisted vaginal delivery and normal delivery, term and preterm neonates, APAGR score of 16.10 and <1.0 led to a recall of 5.41% of neonates which is practicable given the scenario in our Country. The mode of delivery and perinatal stress factors have a significant impact on CBTSH levels and any rise to be seen in the light of these factors. The prevalence rate of CH after recall was ~3 in 1000 live births.

  9. Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels in patients with gout treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Atxotegi, Joana; Urionagüena, Irati; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles

    2015-11-01

    Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the upper normal limit has been reported in a small percentage of patients treated with febuxostat in clinical trials, but a mechanistic explanation is not yet available. In an observational parallel longitudinal cohort study, we evaluated changes in TSH levels in patients with gout at baseline and during urate-lowering treatment with febuxostat. Patients to be started on allopurinol who had a measurement of TSH in the 6-month period prior to baseline evaluation were used for comparison. TSH levels and change in TSH levels at 12-month follow-up were compared between groups. Patients with abnormal TSH levels or previous thyroid disease or on amiodarone were not included for analysis. Eighty-eight patients treated with febuxostat and 87 with allopurinol were available for comparisons. Patients to be treated with febuxostat had higher urate levels and TSH levels, more severe gout, and poorer renal function, but were similar regarding other characteristics. A similar rise in TSH levels was observed in both groups (0.4 and 0.5 µUI/mL for febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively); at 12-mo, 7/88 (7.9 %) of patients on febuxostat and 4/87 (3.4 %) of patients on allopurinol showed TSH levels over 0.5 µUI/mL. Doses prescribed (corrected for estimated glomerular filtration rate in the case if patients on allopurinol) and baseline TSH levels were determinants of TSH levels at 12-month follow-up. No impact on free T4 (fT4) levels was observed. Febuxostat, but also allopurinol, increased TSH levels in a dose-dependent way, thus suggesting rather a class effect than a drug effect, but with no apparent impact on either clinical or fT4 levels. PMID:26342297

  10. Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population

    Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

  11. THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND THYROXINE SCREENING IN THE PRETERM NEWBORN: REFERENCE VALUES

    Franco Bagnoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The screening test for Congenital Hypothyroidism, performed in the 2nd - 3rd day of life, highlighted in the premature infant significant lower levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroxine (tT4 than those found in the full term newborn. Studies carried out after birth in the preterm infant, showed a persistence of low levels of thyroid hormones (TH in the first two weeks of life, with a tendency toward spontaneous resolution at the end of the first month. This hormone deficiency has an incidence which is inversely related to gestational age (GA. However, there are no works which have evaluated the levels of TSH and tT4 in an appropriate large population of extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs in the 2nd - 3rd day of life divided by different GAs. To assess the levels of TSH and tT4 in the 2nd - 3rd day of life, from the lowest GA up to the end, in order to indicate the reference values which can be used to establish whether a replacement therapy with thyroid hormones in the premature infant is useful or not. In the present study we examined a total population of 1,671 adapted for gestational age newborns (AGA of which 1,159 resulted in full term and 512 resulted in preterm. The population was divided into eight groups of GAs (23-25, 26-28, 29-30, 31-32, 33-34, 35-36, 37-38, 39-42 wks and for each age group the median values of TSH and tT4 was determined. The TSH and tT4 were obtained in the 2nd - 3rd day of life at the screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism. Looking at the whole population examined, the preterm infant presents sig- nificant lower levels of TSH (p=0,00036 and tT4 (p<0,00001 compared to the full term newborn in the 2nd - 3rd day of life. TSH and tT4 levels increase gradually with the advancing of GA, reflecting the progressive maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. A linear and significant correlation (p=0,001 was found between the levels of tT4 and GA. Instead, the TSH values which show an upward trend with the advancing of the GA, confirm a trend which is less clear. In preterm newborns, significant increases of tT4 levels are found for minimal increases of GA, suggesting that even in extremely pre- mature infants (23-25 wks there is already an appropriate function of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, which matures rapidly and progressively. It is believed that even if the preterm newborn tT4 levels are lower than those found in a full term neonate, the metabolic needs of an ELGAN are sufficient. Our reference values in various GAs in preterm infants may be used to determine whether premature newborns may or not be required to make a substitution therapy, which in our opinion should be implemented when the tT4 levels are <2 SD for that gestational age.

  12. Melatonin in the thyroid gland: regulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone and role in thyroglobulin gene expression.

    Garcia-Marin, R; Fernandez-Santos, J M; Morillo-Bernal, J; Gordillo-Martinez, F; Vazquez-Roman, V; Utrilla, J C; Carrillo-Vico, A; Guerrero, J M; Martin-Lacave, I

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is an indoleamine with multiple functions in both plant and animal species. In addition to data in literature describing many other important roles for melatonin, such as antioxidant, circadian rhythm controlling, anti-aging, antiproliferative or immunomodulatory activities, our group recently reported that thyroid C-cells synthesize melatonin and suggested a paracrine role for this molecule in the regulation of thyroid activity. To discern the role played by melatonin at thyroid level and its involvement in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, in the present study we have analyzed the effect of thyrotropin in the regulation of the enzymatic machinery for melatonin biosynthesis in C cells as well as the effect of melatonin in the regulation of thyroid hormone biosynthesis in thyrocytes. Our results show that the key enzymes for melatonin biosynthesis (AANAT and ASMT) are regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, exogenous melatonin increases thyroglobulin expression at mRNA and protein levels on cultured thyrocytes and this effect is not strictly mediated by the upregulation of TTF1 or, noteworthy, PAX8 transcription factors. The present data show that thyroid C-cells synthesize melatonin under thyroid-stimulating hormone control and, consistently with previous data, support the hypothesis of a paracrine role for C-cell-synthesised melatonin within the thyroid gland. Additionally, in the present study we show evidence for the involvement of melatonin in thyroid function by directly-regulating thyroglobulin gene expression in follicular cells. PMID:26579570

  13. Expression of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor mRNA in Mouse C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Han, Sun Kyoung; Park, Do Joon; Park, Kyong Soo; Park, Young Joo

    2013-01-01

    Background We analyzed whether thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) is expressed in a skeletal muscle cell line and if TSH has influence on the differentiation of muscle cells or on the determination of muscle fiber types. Methods TSH-R gene expression was detected with nested real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in C2C12, a mouse skeletal muscle cell line. The effect of TSH on myotube differentiation was assessed by microscopic examination of myotube formation and through the...

  14. Macro-TSH Can be a Rare Cause of Elevated Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Concentration: A Case Report

    Peynirci, Hande; Ersoy, Canan; Sahin, Ahmet; Imamoglu, Sazi

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIn this case report, an 18 years old female subject with incidentally detected thyroid stimulating hormon (TSH) elevation due to macro-TSH without clinical findings of thyroid disorder was defined. Initially, the laboratory investigations revealed high TSH [11.45 µIU/mL; normal reference interval (NRI: 0.50-5.50 µIU/mL)] with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method. When L-thyroxine and L-triodothyronine treatments were found to be ineffective for lowering TSH, polyethylen...

  15. Neonatal iodine status survey by thyroid-stimulating hormone screening in Surabaya

    Connie Untario

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background lodine deficiency disorders (IDD are a significant public health problem globally. Iodine deficiency may cause subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early infancy. Neonatal thyroid screening of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH to detected hypothyroidism may olso be used to determine the prevcalence of IDD in a population. Previous studies reported mild IDD status in differen parts of Indonesia Objective To evaluate the iodine status of neonates born in Mitra Keluarga Surabaya Hospital (MKSH by TSH screening over a 6-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study conducted in MKSH from January 2005 to December 2010. Of the 5,619 infants took part in this study. Blood specimens for TSH measurement were collected from subjects 2 to 6 days after birth, and sent to a reference laboraratory for evaluation. Using the neonatal TSH values, the iodine deficiency level of the group was determined according to the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of IDD criteria Results A total of 3,349 newborn babies underwent neonatal TSH screening in MKSH. Subjects’ mean TSH concentration was 5.14 mIU/L. A TSH concentration > 5mIU/L was found in 1270 (37.9% subjects, 166 (27.6% in 2005, 252 (44.0% in 2006, 331 (47.1% in 2007, 356 (57.7% in 2008, 114 (20.7% in 2009 and 51 (16.8% in 2010. On the basis of the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder criteria, this frequency corresponded to a moderate level of IDD. Twenty-two neonates had TSH > 20 mIU/L from which 2 infants were confirmed positive for hypothyroidism. Conclusion A 6-year study of 3,349 newborns screenerd for TSH revealed that 37.9% of subjects had TSH concentration of more than 5mIU/L. this frequency indicates a moderate level of IDD in the study population.

  16. Near-lethal respiratory failure after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone use in a patient with metastatic thyroid carcinoma.

    Goffman, Thomas; Ioffe, Vladimir; Tuttle, Michael; Bowers, John T; Mason, M Elizabeth

    2003-08-01

    A patient with widely metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer who had been heavily pretreated with (131)I was given recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) prior to (131)I treatment. Clinical and physical data from both this case and the literature suggest that the recombinant hormone, not the (131)I, may have caused a significant portion of the tumor swelling, which in turn was the most likely cause of the patient's symptoms. The potential effect of (131)I-induced tumor swelling and direct radiation effect on the lung is also analyzed. We review the potential hazards associated with rhTSH in patients with metastasis and propose means of minimizing this risk. PMID:14558927

  17. Rapid detection of a point mutation in thyroid-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene causing congenital isolated thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency.

    Mori, R; Sawai, T; Kinoshita, E; Baba, T; Matsumoto, T; Yoshimoto, M; Tsuji, Y; Satake, Y; Sawada, K

    1991-12-01

    Previous study showed that congenital isolated TSH deficiency in Japan is resulted exclusively from a G-A transition at nucleotide 145 in exon 2 of the TSH beta-subunit gene. All reported cases were from the inbred in Shikoku Island. We describe here a 10-year-old boy with hereditary TSH deficiency in the same area. The patient was born with a weight of 3,225 g to non-consanguineous parents. Evaluation at age 2 months revealed typical manifestations of cretinism without goiter. Serum T4, T3, and TSH values were 2.53 micrograms/dl, 107 ng/dl, and 0.5 microU/ml, respectively. A TRH stimulation test showed no increment of serum TSH value. Other anterior pituitary hormone levels were all within the normal range. Two oligonucleotide primers T1a and T1b were synthesized according to the sequence data. Amplified 169 bp nucleotides in exon 2 of the TSH beta gene with this primer set were digested with MaeI. Both the phenotypically normal brother and normal controls showed only the 169 bp fragment, whereas the proband showed 140 and 29 bp fragments and both parents showed three fragments; 169, 140, and 29 bp. These results were consistent with the point mutation of TSH beta gene in Japanese patients with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Our PCR method with MaeI digestion contributes to the rapid detection of the homozygous patient and the heterozygous carrier. PMID:1811097

  18. Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta

    Jesús Alvarado-Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identificadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA, PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA, FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA. Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo.

  19. Nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Highlights: ► A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. ► Using nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. ► Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. ► Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab2) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L−1 H2O2 by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2 as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab2. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab2, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab2, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab2, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab2 to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 μIU mL−1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 μIU mL−1 TSH at the 3sB criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

  20. Nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Cui Yuling; Chen Huafeng; Hou Li; Zhang Bing; Liu Bingqian; Chen Guonan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2012-08-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab{sub 2}) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2} as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab{sub 2}. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab{sub 2}, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab{sub 2} to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} TSH at the 3s{sub B} criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

  1. Level of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in Patients with Acute Schizophrenia, Unipolar Depression or Bipolar Disorder

    Wysokiński, Adam; Kłoszewska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate differences in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in patients with acute schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar depression and bipolar mania. Serum level of TSH was measured in 1,685 Caucasian patients (1,064 women, 63.1 %; mean age 46.4). Mean serum TSH concentration was: schizophrenia (n = 769) 1.71 μIU/mL, unipolar depression (n = 651) 1.63 μIU/mL, bipolar disorder (n = 264) 1.86 μIU/mL, bipolar depression (n = 203) 2.00 μIU/mL, bipolar man...

  2. Clonal relationships between thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor-stimulating antibodies illustrate the effect of hypermutation on antibody function

    Padoa, Carolyn J; Larsen, Sanne L; Hampe, Christiane S; Gilbert, Jacqueline A; Dagdan, Elif; Hegedus, Laszlo; Dunn-Walters, Deborah; Banga, J Paul

    2009-01-01

    relationship and derivation from a single precursor B-cell clone. The IGHV-region genes of the two mAbs underwent high degrees of somatic hypermutation by sharing numerous mutations before diverging, while the IGLV genes evolved separately. Interestingly, the mutations were present in both the complementarity......Summary Graves' disease is characterized by production of agonist antibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), but knowledge of the genetic and somatic events leading to their aberrant production is limited. We describe the genetic analysis of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with...... experimentally immunized mice, multiple pathogenic antibodies to TSHR can arise from a single clone by a series of somatic mutations in the V-region genes and may give an insight into how such antibodies develop spontaneously in autoimmune Graves' disease....

  3. Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan

    Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

  4. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Suppression for Protection Against Hypothyroidism Due to Craniospinal Irradiation for Childhood Medulloblastoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    Purpose: Hypothyroidism is one of the earliest endocrine effects of craniospinal irradiation (CSI). The effects of radiation also depend on circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts as an indicator of thyrocyte function and is the most sensitive marker of thyroid damage. Hence, our study was launched in 1998 to evaluate the protective effect of TSH suppression during CSI for medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Patients and Methods: From Jan 1998 to Feb 2001, a total of 37 euthyroid children scheduled for CSI for medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor underwent thyroid ultrasound and free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and TSH evaluation at the beginning and end of CSI. From 14 days before and up to the end of CSI, patients were administered L-thyroxine at suppressive doses; every 3 days, TSH suppression was checked to ensure a value <0.3 μM/ml. During follow-up, blood tests and ultrasound were repeated after 1 year; primary hypothyroidism was considered an increased TSH level greater than normal range. CSI was done using a hyperfractionated accelerated technique with total doses ranging from 20.8-39 Gy; models were used to evaluate doses received by the thyroid bed. Results: Of 37 patients, 25 were alive a median 7 years after CSI. They were well matched for all clinical features, except that eight children underwent adequate TSH suppression during CSI, whereas 17 did not. Hypothyroidism-free survival rates were 70% for the 'adequately TSH-suppressed' group and 20% for the 'inadequately TSH-suppressed' group (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression with L-thyroxine had a protective effect on thyroid function at long-term follow-up. This is the first demonstration that transient endocrine suppression of thyroid activity may protect against radiation-induced functional damage

  5. Comparison of effective I-131 half-life between thyroid hormone withdrawal and recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyroid cancer: a retrospective study

    Preparation for postoperative radioiodine ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is performed by either thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) administration. There is little information on the impact of the method of preparation with respect to whole-body effective I-131 half-life and its potential clinical implications in the Australian setting. A retrospective study was performed on patients admitted for adjuvant radioiodine ablation for non-metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the Royal Adelaide Hospital over a 4½-year period from 2009. Dose rate measurements were analysed for 19 rhTSH and 31 thyroid hormone withdrawal patients. The mean effective I-131 half-lives were 11.51 and 13.29 h for the rhTSH and thyroid hormone withdrawal groups, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.761). This result differs from previously published data where withdrawal periods were typically longer, resulting in slower renal clearance and longer half-lives for withdrawal patients. Our study did not demonstrate a significant difference in whole-body effective half-life of I-131 between the two methods of preparation for radioiodine ablation. This suggests that putative advantages of rhTSH over withdrawal in terms of whole-body radiation dose, duration of hospital admission and quality of life may be sensitive to duration of withdrawal.

  6. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F; van der Spoel, E; Cobbaert, C M; Ballieux, B E; Egri, P; Kvarta-Papp, Z; Gereben, B; Fekete, C; Slagboom, P E; van der Grond, J; Demeneix, B A; Pijl, H; van Heemst, D; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2015-01-01

    hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of...... may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism....

  7. Effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995 on a growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone-producing pituitary tumor.

    Hirasawa,Ryoto

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary adenoma. She had high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels and very high serum growth hormone (GH levels. Transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, post-operative irradiation, frontal craniotomy for removal of residual tumor and large-dose bromocriptine therapy were carried out consecutively. After therapy, serum GH levels gradually decreased, but not to the normal range, and serum TSH levels remained at inappropriately normal levels. Using immunoperoxidase techniques, GH-, TSH- and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-containing cells were demonstrated in the adenoma. A long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995, 600 micrograms/day suppressed the serum GH level to the normal range with a concomitant suppression of TSH. Furthermore, the paradoxical serum GH responses to TRH and LH-RH were slightly improved. No important subjective side-effects were noted. Therefore, SMS 201-995 appeared to be a very effective drug in this patient with a GH- and TSH-producing pituitary tumor.

  8. Recombinant Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone versus Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal for Radioactive Iodine Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer with Nodal Metastatic Disease

    Wolfson, Robert M.; Rachinsky, Irina; Morrison, Deric; Driedger, Al; Spaic, Tamara; Van Uum, Stan H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is approved for preparation of thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine (RAI) in low risk patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We studied the safety and efficacy of rhTSH preparation for RAI treatment of thyroid cancer patients with nodal metastatic disease. Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on 108 patients with histopathologically confirmed nodal metastatic DTC, treated with initial RAI between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007. Within this selected group, 31 and 42 patients were prepared for initial and all subsequent RAI treatments by either thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) or rhTSH protocols and were followed up for at least 3 years. Results. The response to initial treatment, classified as excellent, acceptable, or incomplete, was not different between the rhTSH group (57%, 21%, and 21%, resp.) and the THW group (39%, 13%, and 48%, resp.; P = 0.052). There was no significant difference in the final clinical outcome between the groups. The rhTSH group received significantly fewer additional doses of RAI than the THW group (P = 0.03). Conclusion. In patients with nodal-positive DTC, preparation for RAI with rhTSH is a safe and efficacious alternative to THW protocol.

  9. Detection of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) by radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) were determined in 100 patients using radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of RRA and ELISA were found to be 70.6% and 88.2% respectively (n=51). The specificity of both assays were 100% (n=16). With RRA as the standard test the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 75.8% and 86.8%. In the untreated hyperthyroid the RRA result which expressed as % specific 125I-TSH inhibition was 33.6% (n=51), decline to 26.9% in the treated hyperthyroid (n=33) and 14.1% in the euthyroid (n=16). The mean 0.D492nm of TRAb-ELISA were 0.861 in untreated hyperthyroid, 0.437 in treated hyperthyroid and 0.135 in euthyroid Phi coefficient analysis show that the RRA was 60.4% correlated to hyperthyroidism where as TRAb-ELISA was 80.1%

  10. BRAF-Activated Long Noncoding RNA Modulates Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Proliferation through Regulating Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Zheng, Haitao; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Lixin; Chu, Haidi; Hu, Jinchen; Ning, Jinyao; Li, Baoyuan; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The importance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumorigenesis has recently been demonstrated. However, the role of lncRNAs in development of thyroid cancer remains largely unknown. Materials and Methods Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, expression of three lncRNAs, including BRAF-activated long noncoding RNA (BANCR), papillary thyroid cancer susceptibility candidate 3 (PTCSC3), and noncoding RNA associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and growth arrest (NAMA), was investigated in the current study. Results Of the three lncRNAs (BANCR, PTCSC3, and NAMA), expression of BANCR was significantly up-regulated while PTCSC3 and NAMA were significantly down-regulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) compared to that in normal tissue. BANCR-knockdown in a PTC-derived cell line (IHH-4) resulted in significant suppression of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). BANCR-knockdown also led to inhibition of cell growth and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through down-regulation of cyclin D1. In addition, BANCR was enriched by polycomb enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and silencing BANCR led to decreased chromatin recruitment of EZH2, which resulted significantly reduced expression of TSHR. Conclusion These findings indicate that BANCR may contribute to the tumorigenesis of PTC through regulation of cyclin D1 and TSHR. PMID:26323637

  11. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

  12. The effects of antisense peptide nucleic acid on the expression of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor mRNA

    Objective: To study the effects of antisense peptide nucleic acid (asPNA) on thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) of Fisher rat thyroid cells membrane. Methods: Two kinds of asPNA which could hybridized to the TSHR mRNA named as nuclear localization signal-asPNA1 (NLS-asPNA1) and NLS-asPNA2 were designed, and a control PNA with a scramble sequence named as NLS-scrPNA was synthetized. The cellular uptake of peptide nucleic acids were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy, and the toxic effect of asPNA to Fisher rat thyroid cells was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of NLS-asPNA on the expression of TSHR mRNA was detected by realtime quantitative RT-PCR. Results: Fluorescence microscopy indicated that asPNA were taken up by the cells. The results of MTT assay showed that all the asPNA had no toxic effect on the cells. The results of realtime quantitative RT-PCR showed that NLS-asPNA1 and NLS-asPNA2 could inhibit the expression of TSHR mRNA, the copies of TSHR cDNA decreased gradually along with the prolongation of culture time. But NLS-scrPNA had no significant effect on the expression of TSHR mRNA. Conclusion: NLS-asPNA could be taken up by the cells and down-regulate the expression of TSHR mRNA. (authors)

  13. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    Caroline Trumpff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  14. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age.

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-11-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4-6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration-a surrogate marker for MID-was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10-15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children. PMID:26540070

  15. Is suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with subclinical depression in the Danish General Suburban Population Study?

    Kvetny, Jan; Ellervik, Christina; Bech, Per

    2015-01-01

    phase, including 14,787 individuals, we have focused on suppressed TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and depression. AIMS: To evaluate to what extent suppressed TSH is associated with subclinical depression. METHODS: The total scores of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were used to evaluate...... subclinical depression, both by its total score and by an algorithm of the subthreshold depressed by presence of at least three of the 10 ICD-10 depression symptoms. Serum levels of TSH were used to classify the individuals into suppressed (TSH < 0.4 mIU/l), elevated (TSH ≥ 3.8 mIU/l) and normal reference...... (TSH between 0.4 and 3.7 mIU/l). RESULTS: We identified 285 individuals with suppressed TSH and 1266 individuals with elevated TSH. The MDI total score was 7.55 in suppressed TSH individuals, 6.22 in elevated TSH individuals and 6.52 in normal reference individuals (P = 0.01). When the MDI was used...

  16. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA for thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit of Muscovy duck.

    Hsieh, Y L; Chatterjee, A; Lee, G; Yuh-Lin Yu, J

    2000-12-01

    The cDNA-encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit (TSHbeta) of the Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) was cloned and sequenced to investigate the phylogenic diversity and evolution of TSH molecules. Oligonucleotide primers were designed and used for reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification of a TSHbeta cDNA fragment from the total cellular RNA of pituitary glands. The remaining sequence was completed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The nucleotide sequence of Muscovy duck TSHbeta cDNA includes 66 bp of 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 402 bp of coding region, and 82 bp of 3'-UTR, followed by an 18-bp poly(A)(+) tract. The total number of amino acids deduced from the cDNA of duck TSHbeta is 134, with a signal peptide of 19 amino acids and a mature protein of 115 amino acids. The homologies of the amino acid sequence of Muscovy duck TSHbeta compared with those of chicken, quail, mammals, amphibian (frog), and teleosts are 97, 98, 68-69, 56, and 42-47%, respectively. To test for tissue specificity of the duck TSHbeta cDNA, total cellular RNA samples from brain, liver, pituitary gland, testis, and thyroid gland were analyzed by Northern blotting. A band, approximately 700 bases, was found in the pituitary gland alone. The pituitary tissue fragments were treated for 24 h in serum-free medium containing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), triiodothyronine (T(3)), or thyroxine (T(4)). TRH increased and T(3) and T(4) decreased TSHbeta mRNA levels. This study demonstrated that the amino acid sequence of TSHbeta subunits is highly conserved among birds, exhibiting a high degree of inter-order homology, and that hypothalamic TRH upregulates the TSHbeta mRNA expression in duck. PMID:11121298

  17. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, total and free T4 during the neonatal period: Establishing regional reference intervals

    Sara Sheikhbahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH, the most common etiology of preventable mental retardation in children, is estimated to be more prevalent among Asian population. Aims: Since thyroid function tests (TFTs varied among different ages and geographical regions, in this study, the neonatal thyroid reference intervals in a healthy neonatal population is determined for the first time in Iran. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study performed on 246 healthy term newborns aged between 2 days and 1 month. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from all subjects. The median, 2.5 th , 5 th , 95 th , and 97.5 th percentile of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, as well as the total and free T4 were assessed among different age groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Predictive Analytics Software (PASW Statistics 18 was used for the analysis. Results: Serum TSH, total and free T4 concentration peaked in 5 th to 7 th days of life, continued over 2 weeks, then decreased and started reaching to adult reference range. A significant negative correlation between age and serum concentration of TSH (P = 0.02, total T4 (P = 0.01 and free T4 (P = 0.01 was found. Conclusion: This study yielded fairly different values for TFTs compared compared values found in other countries and also different from values reported for laboratory kits we used. These differences were assumed to be due to variations in ethnicity, age, and laboratory methods used. Due to the lack of international standardization, conducting multicenter studies helps in making a more precise evaluation of thyroid status in neonates.

  18. Reliability of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies level determination in diagnosing and prognosing of immunogenic hyperthyroidism

    Aleksi? Aleksandar Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Graves disease (GD is defined as hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter caused by immunogenic disturbances. Antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors of thyroid gland (TRAb have crucial pathogenetic importance in the development and maintenance of autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to identify sensitivity, specificity, positive an negative predictive value of TRAb level in sera of patients with GD as well as to estimate significance of TRAb level for remission and GD relapses occurrence. Methods. We studied prospectively and partly retrospectively 149 patients, 109 female and 40 male patients, 5-78 years old, in the period 1982-2007. There were 96 patients with GD. The control group consisted of 53 patients, 21 with hyperthyroidism of second etiology and 32 patients on amiodarone therapy, with or without thyroid dysfunction TRAb was measured by radioreceptor assay (TRAK Assay and DYNO Test TRAK Human Brahms Diagnostica GMBH. Results. According to the results the sensitivity (Sn of TRAb test was 80%, specificity (Sp 100%, positive predictive value (PP 100% and negative predictive value (NP 83%. Also, the Sn of hTRAb test was 94%, Sp 100%, PP 100% and NP 94%. Our results show that an increased level of TRAb/hTRAb at the beginning of the disease and the level at the end of medical therapy is associated with an increased number of GD relapses and a shorter remission duration. Conclusion. Detection and measurement of TRAb in serum is a very sensitive method for diagnosing GD and very highly specific in vitro method for differential diagnosis of various forms of hyperthyroidism. Clinical significance of differentiating various forms of hyperthyroidism, using this in vitro assay, lays in adequate therapeutic choice for these entities.

  19. Nanogold-functionalized magnetic beads with redox activity for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Zhang, Bing; Tang, Dianping; Liu, Bingqian; Cui, Yuling; Chen, Huafeng; Chen, Guonan

    2012-01-20

    A new electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive determination of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was designed by using redox-active nanogold-functionalized magnetic beads (GoldMag) as signal tags on the nanogold-graphene interface. To construct such GoldMag nanostructures, polyethyleneimine-functionalized magnetic beads (PEI-MBs) were initially prepared by using a wet chemical method, and the electroactive thionine molecules and gold nanoparticles were then alternately immobilized on the surface of PEI-MBs by using an opposite-charged adsorption technique and an in situ synthesis method, respectively. The synthesized GoldMag nanostructures were utilized as signal tags for the label of horseradish peroxidase-anti-TSH conjugates (HRP-anti-TSH). With a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the conjugated signal tags on the transducer were increased with the increasing TSH concentration in the sample, thus enhancing the signal of the electrochemical immunosensor due to the labeled HRP toward the catalytic reduction of H(2)O(2). Under optimal conditions, the current was proportional to the logarithm of TSH concentration ranging from 0.01 to 20 μIU mL(-1) in pH 6.0 HAc-NaAc containing 6 mM H(2)O(2). The detection limit (LOD) was 0.005 μIU mL(-1) TSH at 3s(B). The immunosensor displayed an acceptable reproducibility, stability and selectivity. In addition, the methodology was evaluated with human serum specimens, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available electrochemiluminescent analyzer. PMID:22152790

  20. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Paz-Filho, G.J.; Mesa-Junior, C.O.; Boguszewski, C.L.; Carvalho, G.A.; Graf, H. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; Olandoski, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Bioestatistica; Woellner, L.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Goedert, C.A. [Centro de Tomografia Computadorizada, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances {sup 131}I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 {+-} 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to {sup 131}I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 {+-} 64.4 mL. {sup 131}I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean {sup 131}I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 {+-} 9.7 to 49.6 {+-} 13.4% (P < 0.001), a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2). Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 {+-} 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase), 1.80 {+-} 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 {+-} 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%), painful thyroiditis (29.4%) and hypothyroidism (52.9%). Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 {+-} 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001) and by 46.0 {+-} 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of {sup 131}I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

  1. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    G.J. Paz-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years, who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P < 0.001, a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2. Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 ± 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase, 1.80 ± 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 ± 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%, painful thyroiditis (29.4% and hypothyroidism (52.9%. Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 ± 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001 and by 46.0 ± 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001. Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects.

  2. Comparative assessment of quality of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and chemiluminescence immunometric assay (CHEIMA) for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    Biological substances like hormones, vitamins and enzymes are found in minute quantities in blood. Their estimation requires very sensitive and specific methods. The most modern method for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone in serum is non-isotopic enzyme enhanced chemiluminescence immunometric method. In our laboratory immunoradiometric assay is in routine for the last many years. Recently interest has grown to establish non-isotopic techniques in laboratories of PAEC. However, the main requirement to adopt the new procedures is to compare their results, cost and other benefits with the existing method. Immunoassay laboratory of MINAR, therefore, conducted a study to compare the two methods. A total of 173 (males: 34 females: 139 age: between 1 and 65 years) cases of clinically confirmed thyroid status were included in the study. Serum samples of these cases were analyzed by two methods and results were compared by plotting precision profiles, correlation plots and calculating sensitivities and specificities of the methods. As the results in all the samples were not normally distributed Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied to compare the analytical results of two methods. The comparison shows that the results obtained in two methods are not completely similar (p=0.0003293), although analysis of samples in groups shows that some similarity exists between the results of hypo and hyperthyroid patients (p<=0.156 and p<=0.6138). This shows that results obtained in these two methods could sometimes disagree in final diagnosis. Although TSH-CHEIMA is analytically more sensitive than TSH-IRMA the clinical sensitivities and specificities of two methods are not significantly different. TSH-CHEIMA test completes in almost 2 hours whereas TSH-IRMA takes about 6 hours to complete. Comparison of costs shows that TSH-CHIEMA is almost 5 times more expensive than TSH-IRMA. We conclude that the two methods could sometimes disagree but the two techniques have almost same clinical efficacy (clinical usefulness). The clinical sensitivities and specificities are similar and TSH-IRMA is in no way inferior to the non-isotopic method. It is, therefore, not reasonable to abandon a good technique only for relatively speedy results. (author)

  3. Acute thyroid hormone administration increases systemic oxygen delivery and consumption immediately following resuscitation from cardiac arrest without changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Zwemer, C F; Whitesall, S E; Nachreiner, R F; Mayor, G H; D'Alecy, L G

    1997-01-01

    This study determined the acute effects of intravenous levothyroxine sodium (LT4) on systemic oxygen delivery and consumption for 6 h following resuscitation from 9 min of normothermic cardiac arrest in dogs. Male mongrel dogs (15-25 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups of seven. The treated group received a pre-cardiac arrest infusion of 15 micrograms/kg per h of LT4 for 1.5 h prior to arrest and for 6 h after, while controls received a comparable volume of 0.9 N saline infusion. Neurologic outcome was recorded at 1, 2 and 6 h following resuscitation. Systemic oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were calculated from directly measured cardiac output, arterial and mixed venous blood gases and contents. Serum levels of circulating canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH), total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), total 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), reverse 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3), and plasma markers of oxidant injury (malonaldehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-OH) and erythrocyte GSH) were measured before administration and after resuscitation. Following resuscitation, treated dogs maintained significantly higher cardiac output when compared with their control counterparts at 4 h (5.5 ml/g per h vs. 2.9 ml/g per h, respectively, P VO2 was significantly higher in treated dogs than control dogs at 1, 4 and 6 h (P < 0.05). Treated dogs had significantly elevated levels of T4, FT4, T3, FT3 and rT3 (P < 0.01), compared with control dogs. No changes in cTSH were detected between groups or over time. Acute administration of LT4 enhances systemic oxygen delivery and apparently, therefore, oxygen consumption following resuscitation. PMID:9044499

  4. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0 ± 10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (−), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (−). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p = 0.001) and alanine transaminase (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) and creatinine (p = 0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + Δ0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -Δ1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change of body mass index was 0.4 (±0.7) kg/m2 in the THW group and was decreased by −0.6 (±0.6) kg/m2 in the rh-TSH group. Consistent with previous studies, the rates of complete ablation between the THW and rh-TSH groups were not significantly different. The clinical parameters, as we mentioned above, were elevated for THW group but were irrelevant for the rh-TSH group. The findings favor HD-RIT after rh-TSH, especially for patients with chronic liver and kidney disease

  5. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Choi, Se Hun; Na, Chang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; KIm, Hee Kwon; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0 ± 10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (−), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (−). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p = 0.001) and alanine transaminase (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) and creatinine (p = 0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + Δ0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -Δ1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change of body mass index was 0.4 (±0.7) kg/m2 in the THW group and was decreased by −0.6 (±0.6) kg/m2 in the rh-TSH group. Consistent with previous studies, the rates of complete ablation between the THW and rh-TSH groups were not significantly different. The clinical parameters, as we mentioned above, were elevated for THW group but were irrelevant for the rh-TSH group. The findings favor HD-RIT after rh-TSH, especially for patients with chronic liver and kidney disease.

  6. Establishment of a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference interval in healthy adults. The importance of environmental factors, including thyroid antibodies

    Jensen, Esther; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Hansen, Pia Skov; Brix, Thomas H; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been shown that thyroid antibodies affect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in men and women and that TSH levels are predictive of future thyroid disease. We investigated the validity of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines regarding the...... TSH reference interval by studying 1512 individuals. Two hundred and fifty had at least one thyroid antibody, 121 were taking medications other than estrogens and occasional analgesics, and 105 reported a family history of thyroid disease. Serum TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab) and...... thyroglobulin antibodies (Tgab) were determined on AutoDELFIA and TSHRab by a radioreceptor assay (RRA) from Brahms Diagnostica. For individuals without thyroid antibodies and other risk factors, no effect of age and gender was seen for serum TSH. Neither medication nor the presence of Tgab alone had any...

  7. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 μg of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 μg of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 μg of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values

  8. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  9. Influence of thyroid-stimulating hormone on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro

    In poorly differentiated thyroid cancer originating from thyroid follicular cells, the ability to concentrate iodine is lost. This makes recurrence undetectable by 131I whole-body scan. In this situation, other radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI), are used to evaluate recurrence or metastasis. Some reports suggest that 18F-FDG uptake is increased by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation. This study aimed to determine the influence of TSH on 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro. The cells were stimulated with 1000 ?U/ml of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) for 1 day, 3 days, and 5 days. Each cell was incubated with 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 18F-FDG or 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 99mTc-MIBI for 1 h at 37degC. The uptake of each radiopharmaceutical in the cells was quantified as a percent of whole radioactivity per total viable cell number. The quantification of glucose transporter 1, 2, 3 and 4 mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TSH stimulation increased 18F-FDG uptake in a time-dependent manner. Following 5 days of rhTSH stimulation, 18F-FDG uptake was approximately 2.2 times that of the control. The increase in 18F-FDG uptake following rhTSH stimulation was correlated to the increase in GLUT4 mRNA level. The GLUT1 mRNA level was unchanged. An increased uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was observed with a pattern similar to that of 18F-FDG. The 99mTc-MIBI uptake was approximately 1.5 times that of the control 5 days later. These results suggest that TSH stimulates 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in poorly differentiated papillary thyroid cancer, and therefore 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) or 99mTc-MIBI scans under TSH stimulation may be more accurate than under suppression. (author)

  10. Strong Neck Accumulation of 131I Is a Predictor of Incomplete Low-Dose Radioiodine Remnant Ablation Using Recombinant Human Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone.

    Enomoto, Keisuke; Sakata, Yoshiharu; Izumi, Kazuyuki; Takenaka, Yukinori; Nagai, Miki; Takeda, Kazuya; Enomoto, Yukie; Uno, Atsuhiko

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that predict incomplete low-dose radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) and to report the adverse events associated with this treatment. Between 2012 and 2014, 43 consecutive patients with thyroid cancer received low-dose RRA with rhTSH after total thyroidectomy. We retrospectively investigated the adverse events during low-dose RRA and during diagnostic whole body scan (DxWBS) using rhTSH, and analyzed the rate of RRA completion and the associations between RRA completion and various clinical/pathological factors. Complete RRA was seen in 33 (76.7%) patients, and incomplete RRA was observed in 10 (23.3%). Patients with incomplete RRA had stronger neck accumulation of 131I than those with complete RRA (P < 0.001). Adverse events at RRA and DxWBS were seen in 12 and 9 patients, respectively. All events at RRA were grade 1, with one exception (grade 2 vertigo after rhTSH administration). The rate of adverse events at DxWBS was significantly higher in patients with adverse events seen at RRA (risk ratio, 3.778, P = 0.008). Strong neck accumulation of 131I is significant independent predictor of incomplete low-dose RRA. The risk of adverse events at DxWBS was higher in patients who experienced adverse events at RRA than in those who did not. PMID:26426611

  11. An electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for thyroid stimulating hormone based on polyamidoamine-norfloxacin functionalized Pd-Au core-shell hexoctahedrons as signal enhancers.

    Liu, Yuting; Zhang, Qiqi; Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a novel polyamidoamine-norfloxacin (PAMAM-NFLX) complex and core-shell Pd-Au hexoctahedrons (Pd@Au HOHs) as enhancers are employed for development of a sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor to detect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Here, norfloxacin (NFLX) is decorated abundantly on the surface of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer via amide linkage to form PAMAM-NFLX complex. Thus, the resultant PAMAM-NFLX can serve as a novel co-reactant to efficiently amplify the ECL signal of peroxydisulfate-oxygen (S2O8(2-)-O2) system. Pd@Au HOHs were used as nano-carriers to assemble detection antibody (Ab2) and the PAMAM-NFLX complex. Besides, it can further enhance the ECL signal by promoting the generation of intermediate free radical HO(•) during the ECL reaction of S2O8(2-)-O2 system. The proposed immunosensor shows high sensitivity and specificity, and responds linearly to the concentration of TSH from 0.05 to 20 μIU mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.02 μIU mL(-1) (S/N=3). Moreover, the immunosensor successfully achieves the detection of TSH in practical human blood serum with desirable results. PMID:25897886

  12. An innovative sample-to-answer polymer lab-on-a-chip with on-chip reservoirs for the POCT of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).

    Jung, Wooseok; Han, Jungyoup; Kai, Junhai; Lim, Ji-Youn; Sul, Donggeun; Ahn, Chong H

    2013-12-01

    A new sample-to-answer polymer lab-on-a-chip, which can perform immunoassay with minimum user intervention through on-chip reservoirs for reagents and single-channel assay system, has been designed, developed and successfully characterized as a point-of-care testing (POCT) cartridge for the detection of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Test results were obtained within 30 minutes after a sample was dropped into the POCT cartridge. The analyzed results of TSH showed a linear range of up to 55 μIU mL(-1) with the limit of detection (LOD) of 1.9 μIU mL(-1) at the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 3. The reagents stored in the on-chip reservoirs maintained more than 97% of their initial volume for 120 days of storage time while the detection antibody retained its activity above 98% for 120 days. The sample-to-answer polymer lab-on-a-chip developed in this work using the mass-producible and low-cost polymer is well suited for the point-of-care testing of rapid in vitro diagnostics (IVD) of TSH. PMID:24121997

  13. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodotyronine and Thyroxine Concentrations and Their Relationship with Metabolic Parameters, Anthropometric Variables and Body Composition in Premenopausal Euthyroid Obese Women

    Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the potential relationships of thyroid hormones, metabolic parameters, and anthropometric variables with body composition in premenopausal women. Material and Method: A total of 84 women with a mean age of 35.12±8.11 years were investigated. Subjects with a history of diabetes, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, chronic liver, and renal disease were excluded from the study. In all subjects, anthropometric parameters were evaluated and body composition was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Fasting serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, triiodothyrionine (T3, thyroxine (T4, fasting blood glucose (FBG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 were measured by enzymatic methods. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was determined by Friedewald formula. Results: Serum TSH, CRP and TC levels in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p<0.05. Serum TSH concentration was positively associated with waist to hip ratio (WHR and fat mass and, negatively associated with fat-free mass (p<0.05. There was also a positive relationship between T3 and TG and between T4 and LDL-C in all participants. In comparison of subjects with different body fat percentage, subjects with higher body fat had also higher amount of TSH concentrations (p=0.015. Discussion: Our results showed a relationship of fat mass and lipid profile with thyroid function in premenopausal women. Further researches are needed to clarify the nature and mechanism of these relationships.

  14. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  15. Effect of metformin on thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid volume in patients with prediabetes: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Karimifar, Mozhgan; Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Amini, Masoud; Mirfendereski, Taghi; Iraj, Bijan; Feizi, Awat; Norozi, Atsa

    2014-01-01

    Background: The people with prediabetes have insulin resistance (IR). IR may affect thyroid function, size and nodules. We investigated the effects of metformin on the thyroid gland in prediabetic people. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind placebo-control clinical trial, 89 people with prediabetes, aged 18-65 years were studied for 3 months. They were divided into two, metformin (n = 43) and placebo (n = 46) treated groups. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured and thyroid nodules and volume was studied by ultrasonography. The data were compared between and within groups, before and after the study. Results: Mean of the baseline characteristics in metformin and placebo-treated groups had no statistically significant difference. At the end of the study, serum TSH was not significantly different between the two groups. However, if the TSH range was divided into two low normal (0.3-2.5 μU/ml) and high-normal (2.6-5.5 μU/ml) ranges, significant decrease was observed in metformin-treated group with a high-normal basal serum TSH (P = 0.01). Thyroid volume did not change in metformin-treated group. However, in placebo-treated group, the thyroid was enlarged (P = 0.03). In 53.9% of participants, thyroid nodule was observed. There was just a decrease in the volume of small solid (not mixed) nodules from median of 0.07 ml to 0.04 ml in metformin-treated group (P = 0.01). Conclusion: In prediabetic people, metformin decreases serum TSH, only, in those people with TSH >2.5 μU/ml and reduces the size of small solid thyroid nodules. It also prevents an increase in the thyroid volume. PMID:25657744

  16. Effect of metformin on thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid volume in patients with prediabetes: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Mozhgan Karimifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The people with prediabetes have insulin resistance (IR. IR may affect thyroid function, size and nodules. We investigated the effects of metformin on the thyroid gland in prediabetic people. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind placebo-control clinical trial, 89 people with prediabetes, aged 18-65 years were studied for 3 months. They were divided into two, metformin (n = 43 and placebo (n = 46 treated groups. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH was measured and thyroid nodules and volume was studied by ultrasonography. The data were compared between and within groups, before and after the study. Results: Mean of the baseline characteristics in metformin and placebo-treated groups had no statistically significant difference. At the end of the study, serum TSH was not significantly different between the two groups. However, if the TSH range was divided into two low normal (0.3-2.5 μU/ml and high-normal (2.6-5.5 μU/ml ranges, significant decrease was observed in metformin-treated group with a high-normal basal serum TSH (P = 0.01. Thyroid volume did not change in metformin-treated group. However, in placebo-treated group, the thyroid was enlarged (P = 0.03. In 53.9% of participants, thyroid nodule was observed. There was just a decrease in the volume of small solid (not mixed nodules from median of 0.07 ml to 0.04 ml in metformin-treated group (P = 0.01. Conclusion: In prediabetic people, metformin decreases serum TSH, only, in those people with TSH >2.5 μU/ml and reduces the size of small solid thyroid nodules. It also prevents an increase in the thyroid volume.

  17. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Highlights: ? A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ? The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ? method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L?1 and became 0.003 mIU L?1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L?1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  18. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone suppressive therapy on bone geometry in the hip area of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Moon, Jae Hoon; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul

    2016-02-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been reported to increase the fracture risk. However, the effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy on bone geometry in the hip area of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TSH suppression on bone geometry in the hip area of pre- and postmenopausal women with DTC. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including 99 women with DTC (25 pre- and 74 postmenopausal) who had received TSH suppressive therapy for at least 3years and 297 control subjects (75 and 222, respectively) matched for sex and age. Bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and hip area and bone geometry at the femoral neck measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were compared between patients and controls. The association between thyroid hormone and bone parameters was investigated. All analyses of bone parameters were adjusted for age, body mass index, and serum calcium levels. In premenopausal subjects, TSH suppressive therapy was not associated with poor bone parameters. In postmenopausal subjects, patients with DTC undergoing TSH suppression showed lower cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area, and section modulus and thinner cortical thickness at the femoral neck than those of control subjects, whereas their femoral neck BMD was comparable with controls. Total hip BMD was lower in postmenopausal patients than in controls. CSMI and section modulus at the femoral neck were independently associated with serum free T4 levels in postmenopausal patients. The difference in femoral neck bone geometry between patients and controls was only apparent in postmenopausal DTC patients with free T4 >1.79ng/dL (23.04pmol/l), and not in those with free T4 levels ≤1.79ng/dL (23.04pmol/l). TSH suppression in postmenopausal DTC patients was associated with decreased bone strength by altering bone geometry rather than BMD in the hip area, especially the femoral neck. This alteration in bone quality was observed only in patients with free T4 levels above the upper normal limit. PMID:26518742

  19. Thyroid stimulating hormone, independent of thyroid hormone, can elevate the serum total cholesterol level in patients with coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional design

    Xu Chao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between TSH and the lipid profile is contradictory because few studies have excluded the potential influence of the thyroid hormones (TH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH levels and the lipid profile independent of TH. Methods 1302 CHD patients diagnosed by coronary angiography were retrospectively studied. The prevalence and distribution of thyroid dysfunction were analyzed first. To assess the impact of TSH on serum lipids, Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed after adjustments for classic factors and TH. To calculate the extent of the effect of TSH on the serum cholesterol level, the partial least squares method and additional statistical methods were used. Results After the exclusions, a total of 568 patients (270 males and 298 females with a mean age of 63.56 ± 11.376 years were selected. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among the patients was 18.66%, and the prevalence of hypothyroidism (15.32% was higher than that of hyperthyroidism (3.34%. Even after adjusting for confounding factors, such as sex, age, smoking status, fasting plasma glucose levels and TH, a significant positive impact of TSH on the serum total cholesterol (TC level was revealed (r = 0.095, p = 0.036. Each 1 mIU/L increase in the TSH level might be linked to a 0.015580712 mmol/L elevation of the serum TC value. Conclusions TSH can increase the TC level in CHD patients independent of TH. The present study suggests a potential physiological role of TSH and the importance of maintaining an appropriate TSH level in CHD patients.

  20. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-directed induction of the CREM gene in the thyroid gland participates in the long-term desensitization of the TSH receptor.

    Lalli, E.; Sassone-Corsi, P

    1995-01-01

    Thyroid gland function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis via the secretion of TSH, according to environmental, developmental, and circadian stimuli. TSH modulates both the secretion of thyroid hormone and gland trophism through interaction with a specific guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor (TSH receptor; TSH-R), which elicits the activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. After TSH stimulation, the levels of TSH-R RNA are known to decrease dramatically ...

  1. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using a capillary blood-sample collected on filter paper. Value of the method for detecting neonatal hypothyroidism

    Hypothyroidism is the thyroid disturbance most commonly encountered in paediatrics. Its average frequency is estimated at around one case per 6000 births. It is an exceptionally serious disease in newborn infants as it is accompanied by imperfect brain development leading to cerebral atrophy, degenerescence of the cortical neurons, defective myelinization and, most often, in children, irreversible psychomotor retardation. It should be possible to avoid this complication provided that a substitutive therapy using thyroid hormone is initiated very rapidly. For this it is necessary that the hypothyroidism be detected during the first few days of life since the chances of the therapy being successful decline very quickly. Save in a few exceptional cases, early detection cannot be based on clinical signs alone. The laboratory can play a decisive part by bringing to light either a defect in the production of thyroid hormone or a high blood level of TSH. The paper presents a description of the micromethod used together with a detailed analysis of certain important technical points, a study of the quality of the results obtained and a general discussion of the strategy for detecting neonatal hypothyroidism. (author)

  2. Antenatal management of recurrent fetal goitrous hyperthyroidism associated with fetal cardiac failure in a pregnant woman with persistent high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody after ablative therapy.

    Matsumoto, Tadashi; Miyakoshi, Kei; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Ikenoue, Satoru; Kasuga, Yoshifumi; Kadohira, Ikuko; Sato, Seiji; Momotani, Naoko; Minegishi, Kazuhiro; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2013-01-01

    High titer of maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) in patients with Graves' disease could cause fetal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Clinical features of fetal hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, goiter, growth restriction, advanced bone maturation, cardiomegaly, and fetal death. The recognition and treatment of fetal hyperthyroidism are believed to be important to optimize growth and intellectual development in affected fetuses. We herein report a case of fetal treatment in two successive siblings showing in utero hyperthyroid status in a woman with a history of ablative treatment for Graves' disease. The fetuses were considered in hyperthyroid status based on high levels of maternal TRAb, a goiter, and persistent tachycardia. In particular, cardiac failure was observed in the second fetus. With intrauterine treatment using potassium iodine and propylthiouracil, fetal cardiac function improved. A high level of TRAb was detected in the both neonates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the changes of fetal cardiac function in response to fetal treatment in two siblings showing in utero hyperthyroid status. This case report illustrates the impact of prenatal medication via the maternal circulation for fetal hyperthyroidism and cardiac failure. PMID:24025611

  3. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 μIU/ml, median: 7.37 μIU/ml, range: 0.074-211 μIU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  4. Inappropriate secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    From a total of 2904 patients with thyroid disorders treated with thyreostatic drugs or with thyroxin we observed a discrepancy between TSH-values and T-4. In primary hyperthyreosis (Graves disease or toxic adenoma) thyreostatic drugs produced long lasting suppression of TSH (under 0.07 mIE/ml), or in high levels of T-4 the level of TSH remained in normal range or the level of TSH was very high in patients with normal level of T-4. The clinical status of the patients was relevant, additional laboratory tests (Free thyroxin, T-3 levels) were necessary. (Original)

  5. Resistance to thyroid hormone due to a novel mutation of thyroid hormone receptor beta gene

    Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Eun Young

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare inherited syndrome characterized by diminished response of the target tissue to thyroid hormone caused, in the majority of cases, by mutation of the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRβ) gene. Despite elevated serum levels of free thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), the paucity of symptoms and signs of thyroid dysfunction suggest RTH. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl with goiter. Her thyroid function tests showed increase...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    ... ability to have children (fertility); thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which helps with thyroid gland function; prolactin, which ... Growth Hormone Deficiency MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Prolactin MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: TSH Test These resources from MedlinePlus offer information about ...

  7. Micro-electrolytic iodination of polypeptide hormones

    This report describes a constant voltage microelectrolytic 125I-labelling procedure and applies it to the iodination of 5-50 μg quantities of polypeptide hormones (synthetic salmon calcitonin, porcine glucagon, dog growth hormone, bovine growth hormone, bovine lutenizing hormone, bovine parathyroid hormone and bovine thyroid stimulating hormone). The electrolytic technique avoids exposure of the hormones to oxidizing agents which damage hormones and alter their biological and immunological activity. The labeled hormones showed no apparent damage by chromatoelectrophoresis or polyacrylamide gel filtration and all of the labelled hormones tested were either biologically or immunologically active. Finally, this simple, mild, and rapid micro-electrolytic iodination technique is highly reproducible, and rapid micro-electrolytic iodination technique is highly reproducible, yields a high degree of iodination and allows for the preparation of either high or low specific activity labeled hormone molecules. (author)

  8. HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer

    Mallick, U. [Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Harmer, C.; Clarke, S.; Moss, L.; Nicol, A.; Clarke, P.; Smellie, J.; McCready, R.; Farnell, K.; Franklyn, J.; John, R.; Nutting, C.; Yap, B.; Lemon, C.; Wadlsey, J.; Gerrard, G.; Roques, T.; Macias, E.; Whitaker, S.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Alvarez, P.; Kadalayil, L.; Hackshaw, A.

    2012-07-01

    Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

  9. Genetic causes of pituitary hormone deficiencies.

    Larson, Austin; Nokoff, Natalie J; Meeks, Naomi J L

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, dozens of genes that cause isolated and combined pituitary hormone deficiencies have been discovered. We will review the clinically relevant genes known to cause isolated and combined pituitary hormone deficiencies in humans. This review will address genetic causes of adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency, thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency, growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and diabetes insipidus. Additionally, we will discuss genetic causes of combined pituitary hormone deficiency, septo-optic dysplasia, holoprosencephaly, and multisystemic syndromes in which hypopituitarism is a significant component. With the widespread clinical availability of next generation sequencing and ongoing identification of new disease causing genes, genetic diagnoses are determined for increasing numbers of patients. With new insights into mechanisms of disease resulting from multiple gene interactions, an increasingly nuanced understanding of the underlying genetic etiology of pituitary hormone deficiencies is possible. PMID:25828521

  10. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  11. Efectos del fotoperodo y la temperatura ambiental en los niveles plasmticos de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH) / Phothoperiod and Environmental Temperature Effects on Plasmatic Levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

    Villagrn, De Rosso; CM, Elizondo; Posadas, Martinez; D, Giunta; EI, Barragn.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en el Alto Valle del R o Negro, Patagonia Argentina, indican que existe una prevalencia de bocio ligeramente superior a la lnea de corte establecida por el Internacional Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders con un grado de nutricin de yodo apropiado; prevalen [...] cia que podra ser atribuida a factores ambientales y/o nutricionales que interfieren con el metabolismo tiroideo. La concentracin de TSH circulante responde a variaciones circadianas y es influenciada por las estaciones y la temperatura ambiental. Las caractersticas geogrficas, el clima semidesrtico o la presencia de sustancias que actan como disruptores endocrinos, son factores que podran relacionarse a modificaciones en la produccin hormonal en zonas urbanas o rurales. Objetivos: a) Evaluar la posible asociacin entre la variacin anual de los valores de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH), el fotoperodo y la temperatura ambiental. b) Estimar si los valores plasmticos de TSH son significativamente diferentes en poblaciones rurales y urbanas de Alto Valle del Ro Negro. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 1393 pacientes sanos residentes en el Alto Valle: 226 masculinos y 1167 femeninos, que acudieron por control clnico en el ao 2010. Se utiliz para el anlisis el software SPSS 17.0. Se encontraron variaciones significativas en el Log-TSH con un pico mximo al comienzo del otoo-invierno y un pico mnimo en primavera-verano. Se obtuvo una diferencia significativa en valores de Log-TSH en rea rural: 0,46 uUI/ml (0,30-0,61) contra 0,28 uUI/ml (0,26-0,30) con p Abstract in english Studies carried out in Alto Valle del Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina, show a prevalence of goiter slightly above the cut-off line established by the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IC-CIDD), with an appropriate iodine nutrition grade; such prevalence could be at [...] tributed to environmental and/ or nutritional factors that interfere with thyroid metabolism. Blood TSH concentration responds to circadian variations and is influenced by seasonality and environmental temperature. The geographic characteristics, semi-desert climate or the presence of endocrine disruptors are factors that could be related to hormonal production modifications in urban or rural areas. Objectives: a) To evaluate the potential association between annual variation in TSH levels, photoperiod and environmental temperature. b) To estimate if plasma TSH values are significantly different in populations from rural and urban areas in Alto Valle del Rio Negro. We retrospectively evaluated 1393 healthy patients living in Alto Valle del Ro Negro: 226 males and 1167 females, who presented for routine clinical check-up during 2010. SPSS 17.0 software was used for the analysis. Significant variations were found in Log-TSH, with a maximal peak at the beginning of the fall-winter and a minimal peak in spring-summer. There is a significant difference in the values of TSH between rural and urban areas, (values of Log-TSH in rural area: 0.46 uUI/ml (0.30-0.61) vs. urban area: 0.28 uUI/ml (0.26-0.30) with p

  12. Hormone Therapy

    ... is linked to a small increased risk of heart attack. This risk may be related to age, existing medical conditions, and when a woman starts taking hormone therapy. Some research suggests that for women who start ...

  13. Hormone Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  14. Thyroid hormone resistance and its management.

    Rivas, Ana Marcella; Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-04-01

    The syndrome of impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, also known as syndrome of thyroid hormone resistance, is an inherited condition that occurs in 1 of 40,000 live births characterized by a reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone due to mutations on the thyroid hormone receptor. Patients can present with symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. They usually have elevated thyroid hormones and a normal or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. Due to their nonspecific symptomatic presentation, these patients can be misdiagnosed if the primary care physician is not familiar with the condition. This can result in frustration for the patient and sometimes unnecessary invasive treatment such as radioactive iodine ablation, as in the case presented herein. PMID:27034574

  15. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    ... Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & Pineal Glands Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other ... hormone secretion. « Previous (Characteristics of Hormones) Next (Pituitary & Pineal Glands) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File Formats ...

  16. Thymic hormones

    Davies, A.J.S.

    1975-02-28

    RResults of experiments by various investigators attempting to demonstrate the existence of thymic hormones are reported. In most cases irradiated, thymectomized mice injected with bone marrow cells were used; some experiments were carried out on various extracts of thymuses. Results of most experiments were negative. In one experiment using mice with thymus transplants, sera were evaluated for their capacity to restore azathioprine sensitivity in relation to the rosette forming capacity to spleen cells of thymectomized mice in vitro. In all instances the thymus-grafted mice had a higher titer of serum factor than did normal mice. (HLW)

  17. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

    Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.; Marcia Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins Pessoa

    2010-01-01

    Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregn...

  18. Hormonal evaluation in erectile dysfunction

    Selahattin Çalışkan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Erectile dysfunction (ED is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between ED and hormonal abnormalities. Material and methods: We evaluated 178 patients between the ages of 25 and 85 years old. Medical histories and details were collected, and the IIEF question test was completed by all patients. After the basic evaluation, serum total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured.Results: The mean age of the patients and IIEF scores were 50.5±12.3 and 12.8±6.13, respectively. The mean testosterone, prolactin, TSH, LH and FSH were 426±152 ng/dL, 15.8±45.6 ng/mL, 1.56±1.2 micro IU/mL, 5.5±4.3 m IU/mL and 7.7±6.9 m IU/mL, respectively. Two patients had abnormal TSH levels, and 27 patients had abnormal LH levels. Abnormal FSH levels were detected in 6 patients. Eight patients had abnormal testosterone levels, and twenty had abnormal prolactin levels.Conclusion: ED is an illness that affects older men, and multiple factors cause this illness. Hormonal abnormalities are one of these factors that can be corrected. When appropriate, hormone levels should be measured and treated in patients who present with ED.

  19. Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age [Corrigendum

    Jolobe OM

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available CorrigendumJolobe OM. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:299–301.On page 299, note that the title was incorrectly listed as "Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". The correct title is "Upper limit of the normal range for thyroid-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". On line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".On page 301, line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".Read the original letter

  20. Hormones and Menopause

    ... Hormones and Menopause Heath and Aging Hormones and Menopause What about hormones? How would I use menopausal ... flashes—a sign that she was starting the menopause transition . Dr. Kent talked about several ways to ...

  1. [Epilepsy and hormones].

    Motta, E

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a review of reports concerned with how for hormones, epileptic seizures and antiepileptic drugs can be influenced by one another. Hormones influence brain excitability but, on the other hand, both epileptic seizures and antiepileptic drugs may alter hormone secretion and metabolism. Effect of hormones on seizures--Experimental studies revealed the properties which inhibit or stimulate convulsive reactivity of different hormones. Progesterone, testosterone, adrenocorticotropin and desoxycorticosterone are responsible for an increase in seizure threshold, while estradiol, cortisol and thyroid hormones cause a reduction. Effect of seizures on hormones--Epileptic seizures, chiefly tonic-clonic, also complex partial and sometimes simple partial seizures, result in "the hormonal storm". Immediately after an epileptic seizure, an increase is found in serum concentrations of prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropin, triidothyronine, thyroxin, thyrotropin, luteotropin, follicular stimulating hormone and growth hormone. These changes may persist for two hours, while prolactin concentration even for 24 hours after a seizure. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on hormones--Antiepileptic drugs may affect hypothalamus-pituitary function directly or indirectly through neurotransmitter system. By induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes, some antiepileptic drugs cause acceleration of hormone metabolism, reducing hormone serum concentrations. Moreover, antiepileptic drugs enhance sex hormone binding globulin SHBG/synthesis, increase binding of these hormones and reduce their active fraction concentration in serum. Recognition of the relationship between epilepsy and hormonal system is necessary to obtain better understanding of this disease. PMID:10768143

  2. Hormone therapy in acne

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  3. VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT

    Pallavi Chaurasia; Bhautik Modi; Sarita Mangukiya; Pranay Jadav; Rita Shah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyroxine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal ...

  4. Obtaining of stimulating hormone of the thyroid (hTSH) of Human Hypophysis

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was extracted from human frozen pituitary glands using a method for the integral extraction of most hormones present in the gland. A specific immunoradiometric method (IRMA) was standardized and used for the analysis of TSH content. The immunology potency of the final TSH preparation was 1365 mUI/mg by IRMA. Characterization by SDS-PAGE demonstrated the multicomponent nature of the hormone

  5. Hormone Health Network

    ... 2 diabetes and their loved... The Hormone Health Network helps you and your health care provider have ... Copyright Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. Terms & Policies Network Partners The Hormone Health Network partners with other ...

  6. Hormones and Obesity

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  7. Hormone therapy in acne

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-l...

  8. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  9. Was sind hormone?

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term hormonal control should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  10. Radioimmunoassay for proparathyroid hormone

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay has been developed to bovine proparathyroid hormone which employs an antiserum produced by immunization of rabbits with a synthetic 18-amino acid peptide fragment of the bovine prohormone. The synthetic prohormone fragment was prepared by solid-phase synthesis and consists of the amino-terminal 12 residues of bovine parathyroid hormone plus the hexapeptide sequence of the bovine prohormone. The antiserum is uniquely specific to detection of the prohormone or synthetic fragments that preserve the peptide linkage between the prohormone region and amino-terminal hormonal sequences. Bovine proparathyroid hormone of natural origin, as well as synthetic fragments incorporating the prohormone hexapeptide sequence and amino-terminal sequences of bovine parathyroid hormone, are bound by the antiserum, but the hexapeptide, intact bovine or human hormone and amino-terminal hormonal fragments alone are not detected. The assay readily measures prohormone in extracts of bovine but not human parathyroids, a finding that may be explained by the fact that human proparathyroid hormone differs from bovine by a substitution of serine for alanine at position number one and leucine for phenylalanine at position number one and leucine for phenylalanine at position seven of the prohormone sequence. Thus, the assay should be particularly useful in studies of the intracellular localization of bovine proparathyroid hormone and the mechanism of intracellular transport and conversion of proparathyroid hormone to parathyroid hormone

  11. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists

    Mezö, Gábor; Manea, Marilena

    2009-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) plays a central role in the vertebrate reproduction by regulating gonadal activity. Based on its binding to pituitary LH-RH receptors, as well as to LH-RH receptors expressed on cancer cells, LH-RH agonists and antagonists have been developed for different therapeutic applications.Objective/method: Here we give an overview of the most relevant LH-RH antagonists and their therapeutic applications. Recently patented compounds as well as drug formula...

  12. Thyroid hormone resistance may course hypotonia in infancy

    Pivkovska, Julijana; Born, Alfred Peter; Nielsen, Claus Thøger

    Allan Herndon Dudley's syndrome (AHDS) is X-linked mental retardation and hypotonia caused by mutations in a thyroid hormone transporter gene - MCT8. The typical thyreoidea AHDS profile is elevated T3, low-normal T4 and normal or elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Neonatal screening with...... TSH often does not identify AHDS in boys and therefore it is of paramount importance to screen boys who present with hypo-tonia and/or mental retardation with thyroidea profile. In the case report a four and a half month-old boy with develop-mental delay and hypotonia is described and diagnosed with...

  13. Changes of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in zebrafish on early life stage exposure to triadimefon.

    Liu, Shaoying; Chang, Juhua; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Guonian

    2011-11-01

    In this study, zebrafish was exposed to triadimefon. Thyroid hormones levels and the expression of related genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta), deiodinases (dio1 and dio2) and the thyroid hormone receptor (thraa and thrb) were evaluated. After triadimefon exposure, increased T4 can be explained by increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta). The conversion of T4 to T3 (deiodinase type I-dio1) was decreased, which reduced the T3 level. Thyroid hormone receptor beta (thrb) mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated, possibly as a response to the decreased T3 levels. The overall results indicated that triadimefon exposure could alter gene expression in the HPT axis and that mechanisms of disruption of thyroid status by triadimefon could occur at several steps in the synthesis, regulation, and action of thyroid hormones. PMID:22004968

  14. Hormones and endometrial carcinogenesis.

    Kamal, Areege; Tempest, Nicola; Parkes, Christina; Alnafakh, Rafah; Makrydima, Sofia; Adishesh, Meera; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2016-02-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the Western World with an alarmingly increasing incidence related to longevity and obesity. Ovarian hormones regulate normal human endometrial cell proliferation, regeneration and function therefore are implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis directly or via influencing other hormones and metabolic pathways. Although the role of unopposed oestrogen in the pathogenesis of EC has received considerable attention, the emerging role of other hormones in this process, such as androgens and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) is less well recognised. This review aims to consolidate the current knowledge of the involvement of the three main endogenous ovarian hormones (oestrogens, progesterone and androgens) as well as the other hormones in endometrial carcinogenesis, to identify important avenues for future research. PMID:26966933

  15. Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process

    Zyablov Е. V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients — at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that hormonal changes in papillary thyroid cancer include the reduction of thyroxine in blood. In case of papillary thyroid cancer the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is increased at various stages of the spread of neoplasia

  16. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Vishal Gupta,

    2011-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth...

  17. Hormonal Aspects of Epilepsy

    Pennell, Page B.

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions which affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy, and are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis. Common symptoms include sexual dysfunction, decreased fertility, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Antiepileptic drugs and hormones have a bidi...

  18. A woman with Pituitary Microadenoma: May Thyroid Hormone Resistance be a Cause? A case report and Review of the Literature

    Ece Harman; Ilgın Yıldırım Şimşir; Murat Tanju Zungur; Ahmet Gökhan Özgen

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is an inherited syndrome characterized by reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone. It is usually first suspected due to findings of high serum free thyroxine (T4) and free triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations and normal or slightly high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Herein, we report a 37-year-old woman presented with anxiety and sleeplessness. She was found to have elevated free T3 and T4 plasma concentrations ...

  19. Regulation of seasonal reproduction by hypothalamic activation of thyroid hormone

    TakashiYoshimura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organisms living outside the tropics measure the changes in the length of the day to adapt to seasonal changes in the environment. Animals that breed during spring and summer are called long-day breeders, while those that breed during fall are called short-day breeders. Although the influence of thyroid hormone in the regulation of seasonal reproduction has been known for several decades, its precise mechanism remained unknown. Recent studies revealed that the activation of thyroid hormone within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH plays a key role in this phenomenon. This localized activation of the thyroid hormone is controlled by thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH secreted from the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland. Although seasonal reproduction is a rate-limiting factor in animal production, genes involved in photoperiodic signal transduction pathway could emerge as potential targets to facilitate domestication.

  20. Lack of Association Between Peripheral Activity of Thyroid Hormones and Elevated TSH Levels in Childhood Obesity

    Lobotková, Denisa; Staníková, Daniela; Staník, Juraj; Cervenová, Ol’ga; Bzdúch, Vladimír; Tichá, L’ubica

    2014-01-01

    Ob­jec­ti­ve: An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is a frequent finding in obese children, but its association with peripheral hormone metabolism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that in obesity, the changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in peripheral tissues might lead to dysregulation in the thyroid axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of TSH with thyroid hormones in a group of obese children as compared to normal-weight controls. Method...

  1. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and levels of thyroid hormones in children.

    Osius, N; Karmaus, W; Kruse, H.; Witten, J

    1999-01-01

    As part of an epidemiologic study on exposure to a toxic waste incineration plant we investigated whether blood concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and cadmium, as well as concentration of mercury in 24-hr urine samples were associated with thyroid hormone status. As an indication of status, we determined levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT(4)), and free triiodothyronine (FT(3)) in children living in households where [less than/equal to] 10 ci...

  2. Thyroid hormones and BMI in obese children: One year follow up results

    Ekinci, Ferhat; Uzuner, Arzu; Demet, Merder Coşkun; Turgut, Bilge; TOSUN, Niyazi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and obesity, lipid levels and weight changes.Patients and Methods: Five to eleven year old normal weight, overweight and obese children underwent measurements of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), lipid profile and autoimmune thyroid antibodies. Children with high TSH were reevaluated one year later without any intervention.Results: Three hundred children (126 obese, 74 o...

  3. Glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones transcriptionally regulate growth hormone gene expression.

    Evans, R M; Birnberg, N C; Rosenfeld, M G

    1982-01-01

    In order to define the molecular mechanisms by which glucocorticoids and thyroid hormone act to regulate growth hormone gene expression, the sites at which they exert their effects on growth hormone biosynthesis were examined in vivo and in a pituitary cell line. Glucocorticoids were shown to rapidly increase accumulation of growth hormone mRNA and nuclear RNA precursors. Glucocorticoids and thyroid hormone were shown to rapidly and independently increase growth hormone gene transcription. Th...

  4. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Juliana Austin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  5. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Austin Juliana

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  6. Hormones and female sexuality

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional-motivational and social factors.

  7. Different short-term effect of protein and carbohydrate intake on TSH, growth hormone (GH), insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon in humans

    Matzen, L E; Andersen, B B; Jensen, B G; Gjessing, H J; Sindrup, S H; Kvetny, J

    1990-01-01

    hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) to protein and carbohydrate was identical, with a reduction in both GH and TSH, and nadir occurring after 45-60 min and 120 min, respectively. During the next 120 min TSH returned to starting level after carbohydrate intake but was still reduced after...

  8. Maternal thyroid hormonal status in preeclampsia

    Kumar Ashok

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The physiological changes in the thyroid gland during pregnancy are well understood but only a few reports provide information about thyroid function in complicated pregnancies. AIMS: The present study evaluates thyroid hormonal levels in cases of preeclampsia in the third trimester of pregnancy. SETTINGS & DESIGN: A case-control study was conducted in the antenatal clinic of a public hospital of Delhi. METHOD & MATERIALS: Thyroid hormones, namely triiodothyronine (Free T3, thyroxine (Free T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were evaluated at the time of diagnosis of preeclampsia in 82 pregnant women and equal number of matched controls. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The demographic data and hormone levels were analyzed using students′ t test, Mann-Whitney test and chi-square test. Pearson two-tailed analysis was used for correlation. RESULTS: Mean TSH levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic group as compared to controls (p<0.001. However, mean values of thyroid hormones were in the normal range. Approximately 40% preeclamptic women had TSH titres > 5mIU/ml in the study group as compared to 12.2% in the controls. Approximately 76.7% of 43 pregnant women with abnormal TSH titres and 40% of 121 pregnant women with normal TSH titres belonged to the study group (p< 0.001. The odd ratio corresponding to TSH titres > 5mIU/ml in preeclamptic women was 4.85 (95% CI 2.19-10.74. CONCLUSIONS: Mean serum TSH levels were significantly increased without concomitant changes in free T3 and T4, in preeclampsia compared to normal pregnancy. Abnormal TSH titres might be associated with a risk for occurrence of preeclampsia.

  9. Growth hormone stimulation test

    The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH. ... killing medicine (antiseptic). The first sample is drawn early in the morning. Medicine is given through the ...

  10. Menopause and Hormones

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  11. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    ... and Menopause Share: Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD Richard Santen, MD What is menopause? Menopause is the time of life when monthly ...

  12. Elevated prealbumin level following high thyroid hormones levels

    Hiroyuki Kinoshita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to report about a patient with high prealbumin level [56.8 mg/dL (reference range 22.0-40.0 mg/dL] following elevation in thyroid hormones levels. Among the thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine (free T4 and total T4 level showed an elevation. Triiodothyronine (free T3 and total T3 level was within normal limits. Since prealbumin mainly transports T4, the elevation of prealbumin level along with T4 level is reaso- nable. When patients have chronic hyperthyroidism without thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb, a diagnosis will be Negative Graves’ disease. However, a part of patients with Negative Graves’ disease may be High prealbumin syndrome.

  13. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Austin Juliana; Marks Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger a...

  14. Body segments and growth hormone.

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  15. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms of enteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones

  16. Effect of radiation on proteo-hormones activity

    Samples of pituitary hormones were irradiated by a 60Co source. A dose rate of 1.0-1.1 Mrad/hour and the doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5 Mrad were used. The hormone preparations in the dry solid state or in solution were sealed into glass ampules. After sterilization they were kept at 40C until the biological activity had been tested. The biological activity of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, subjected to a sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrad of gamma radiation, was found to have decreased when tested 3-5 months after irradiation. TSH remained fully active for up to 1 month after sterilization. The activity of vasopressin dropped off markedly during the 3-4 week period after irradiation. Biological activity of growth hormone tested shortly after irradiation was found to be unaffected. The activities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone were not affected. The experiments can be considered promising since they show that pituitary proteohorm, one preparations in the solid state may be sterilized. The stability on storage needs, however, to be carefully checked individually for every single hormone

  17. Hormonal control of inflammatory responses

    Garcia-Leme, J.; Sandra P. Farsky

    1993-01-01

    Almost any stage of inflammatory and immunological responses is affected by hormone actions. This provides the basis for the suggestion that hormones act as modulators of the host reaction against trauma and infection. Specific hormone receptors are detected in the reactive structures in inflamed areas and binding of hormone molecules to such receptors results in the generation of signals that influence cell functions relevant for the development of inflammatory responses. Diversity of hormon...

  18. Localization and synthesis of the hormone-binding regions of the human thyrotropin receptor.

    Atassi, M Z; Manshouri, T; Sakata, S.

    1991-01-01

    Two regions of human thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor (TSHR) (residues 12-44 and 308-364) were selected on the basis that they exhibit no sequence resemblance to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor. Five synthetic overlapping peptides (12-30, 24-44, 308-328, 324-344, and 339-364) were studied for their ability to bind 125I-labeled human TSH (hTSH), its isolated alpha and beta subunits, bovine TSH, ovine TSH, human luteinizing hormone, and human follicle-...

  19. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair. PMID:20502852

  20. Headache And Hormones

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  1. Antimllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Fleming, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol.......To assess the relationships between serum antimllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  2. Hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2012-01-01

    New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published.......New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published....

  3. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  4. Aging changes in hormone production

    ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ... produce the same amount at a slower rate. AGING CHANGES The hypothalamus is located in the brain. ...

  5. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  6. Growth hormone receptor modulators.

    Birzniece, Vita; Sata, Akira; Ho, Ken K Y

    2009-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates somatic growth, substrate metabolism and body composition. Its actions are elaborated through the GH receptor (GHR). GHR signalling involves the role of at least three major pathways, STATs, MAPK, and PI3-kinase/Akt. GH receptor function can be modulated by changes to the ligand, to the receptor or by factors regulating signal transduction. Insights on the physico-chemical basis of the binding of GH to its receptor and the stoichiometry required for activation of the GH receptor-dimer has led to the development of novel GH agonists and antagonists. Owing to the fact that GH has short half-life, several approaches have been taken to create long-acting GHR agonists. This includes the pegylation, sustained release formulations, and ligand-receptor fusion proteins. Pegylation of a GH analogue (pegvisomant) which binds but not activate signal transduction forms the basis of a new successful approach to the treatment of acromegaly. GH receptors can be regulated at a number of levels, by modifying receptor expression, surface availability and signalling. Insulin, thyroid hormones and sex hormones are among hormones that modulate GHR through some of these mechanisms. Estrogens inhibit GH signalling by stimulating the expression of SOCS proteins which are negative regulators of cytokine receptor signalling. This review of GHR modulators will cover the effects of ligand modification, and of factors regulating receptor expression and signalling. PMID:18622706

  7. Deciding about hormone therapy

    ... in the form of a pill, patch, injection, vaginal cream or tablet, or ring. Taking hormones can have some risks. ... pills. Your risk is lower if you use vaginal creams and tablets and the low-dose estrogen ring. BREAST CANCER ...

  8. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    ... progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone that is no ... Progestin is added to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy to reduce the risk of uterine cancer in ...

  9. Reproductive hormones in the environment

    Low detections of reproductive hormones, at the part per trillion concentrations, are frequently measured in surface and subsurface waters. These exogenous hormones are a concern because they can bind strongly to hormone receptors in animals and induce an endocrine response or disruption. Human heal...

  10. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization, or......, paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells....... Also the target cells of gut hormones occur widespread outside the digestive tract....

  11. [Impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone].

    Kvistad, Silje Agnethe Stokke; Methlie, Paal; Løvås, Kristian; Sagen, Jørn V

    2016-04-01

    BACKGROUND In conditions with impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, reduced effect of thyroid hormone is attributable to various defects. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of these conditions, as well as to provide updated knowledge on impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, also known as thyroid hormone resistance, with mutations in thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ).MATERIAL AND METHOD This article is based on a selection of English-language articles, and Norwegian original and review articles found in PubMed, and the authors' own experiences with this patient group.RESULTS Thyroid hormone resistance has long been a recognised cause of the reduced effect of thyroid hormone. Several other conditions that involve impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone have been described in recent decades, and mutations have been identified in genes that code for thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα), a cell membrane transporter, as well as in the deiodinases that metabolise thyroxine (T4) to the bioactive form triiodothyronine (T3). The conditions vary in terms of their clinical picture and biochemical profile.INTERPRETATION Based on clinical and biochemical findings, thyroid hormone resistance may be erroneously interpreted as hyperthyroidism. In patients with thyroid hormone resistance, the condition may be exacerbated if it is treated as hyperthyroidism. It is therefore essential to recognise the conditions and their differential diagnoses. PMID:27094663

  12. Hormones in pregnancy

    Pratap Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug′s safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus

  13. Hormones in pregnancy

    Pratap Kumar; Navneet Magon

    2012-01-01

    The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated...

  14. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse tr...

  15. Thyroid hormone autoantibodies interference in thyroid hormone assay

    Abstract: Objective: To search the interference in thyroid hormone assays and determination way of thyroid hormone autoantibodies. Methods: The binding reaction, dilution testing, calibration curves and the check analysis were performed. Results: Thyroid hormone autoantibodies were measured and identified. The combination of the autoantibodies with 125I-T3 or 125I-T4 were specificity, the binding rates were 58.77% and 49.05% respectively, 7-12 times higher than control groups, while with 125I-TSH was non-specificity. The radioactive peaks of the autoantibodies and rabbit anti- T3 or T4 antibody appeared at the same position, these antibodies were considered as IgG. Conclusions: The presence of anti-thyroid hormone antibodies is the primal cause of falsely high concentrations of serum thyroid hormones. Determination of thyroid hormone autoantibodies is of importance to diagnosis and treatment thyroid disease

  16. Thyroid hormone auto-antibodies interference in thyroid hormone assay

    Objective: To detect and investigate how thyroid hormone autoantibodies interfere in thyroid hormone assays. Methods: The binding reaction, dilution testing, calibration curves and the check analysis were performed. Results: Thyroid hormone autoantibodies were measured and identified. The combination of the auto-antibodies with 125I-T3 or 125I-T4 were specific, the binding rates were 58.77% and 49.05% respectively, 7-12 times higher than control groups, while with 125I-TSH was non-specific. The radioactive peaks of the autoantibodies and rabbit anti- T3 or T4 antibody appeared at the same position. These antibodies were considered as IgG. Conclusions: The presence of anti-thyroid hormone antibodies is the primal cause of falsely high concentrations of serum thyroid hormones. Determination of thyroid hormone autoantibodies is importance in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease

  17. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone. PMID:8503009

  18. GONADAL HORMONES, WOMEN AND PAIN

    Anna Maria Aloisi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The clear presence of sex differences in chronic pain and the number of studies showing the power of gonadal hormones to modify pain-induced behavioral responses appear to have convinced clinicians and researchers. In the present review, the old and new literature is summarized to put together data on pain and its modulation by gonadal hormones, particularly estrogens. Targets of these hormones are discussed.

  19. Israel EQAS for thyroid related hormones

    An External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free Thyroxine (FT4) radioimmunoassay (RIA) was operated in 36 laboratories. The 17 serum pools distributed covered analyte concentrations from subnormal to elevated values. Five of these were based on ''zero analyte'' pools artificially prepared by treatment with Amberlite. ''Spiked'' sera was used for recovery studies. Eleven pools were analyzed more than once. Abnormal, method dependent results with large interlaboratory variation was observed in the Amberlite treated pools. A ''matrix effect' was suspected and the results excluded from analysis. The All Laboratory Trimmed Mean (ALTM) was stable to within 4% for each analyte and taken as target value. Overall recovery for T3, T4, and TSH was 101, 91, and 89 per cent. Laboratory performance was assessed from the bias of each result and the variability of bias (as CV of bias for each test), over one year. Performance has improved, especially for TSH, where median bias decreased to 1% from 39%. Percentage of laboratories with unacceptable performance fell from 79% to 32%. A trend towards increased use of IRMA for TSH and of F-T4 was observed. However, F-T4 results proved method dependent. TSH IRMA is suggested as the best supplementary test to T4 for thyroid function testing. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Growth hormone and aging

    Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-Borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John

    2000-01-01

    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

  1. A case of thyroid hormone resistance: a rare mutation

    Ana Pires Gonalves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones (RSTH is a rare disease that affects about 3,000 individuals, belonging to about 1,000 families. It results from reduced intracellular action of thyroid hormones (TH genetically determined and manifests as persistent hyperthyroxinemia with non-suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH. We describe a 67-years old, Caucasian woman, with past history of subtotal thyroidectomy due to diffuse goiter, who presents with a recurrence of goiter. Although she is clinically euthyroid, laboratory evaluation shows persistent hyperthyroxinemia with non-suppressed TSH. Response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH test was normal and TSH concentrations were not suppressed during oral administration of suprafisiologic doses of levothyroxine (L-T4. Peripheral blood DNA was extracted from the patient and a mutation was found localized in cluster one, at codon 346 of the ligand binding domain of the THRB gene. The patients son underwent thyroid function testing (TFT and genetic study, both negative, suggesting a sporadic mutation. RSTH should be considered in all hyperthyroxinemic patients who are clinically euthyroid. Mutations interfering with three major steps required for TH action on target tissues have been, so far, identified (TR-?, TR-?, MCT8, SPB2. Each mutation is associated with a distinctive syndrome. Goal of management is to maintain a normal serum TSH level and a eumetabolic state and offer appropriate genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Inappropriate treatment of eumetabolic patients results in hypothyroidism and need for TH replacement.

  2. Growth hormone and diabetic retinopathy

    Singh R

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone has been considered to be the cause of diabetic retinopathy. However the relationship between growth hormone responses and diabetic retinopathy has not been consistent. Moreover, the correlation (if any between the severity of retinopathy and growth hormone changes are also not well defined. In the present study 23 diabetics (16 with retinopathy, 7 without retinopathy and 8 non-diabetic healthy controls were studied. Serum growth hormone was measured in the fasting state and one hour after levodopa administration. The mean growth hormone levels were significantly higher in the diabetics as compared to controls, however there was no correlation between the mean growth hormone levels (either in the fasting state or after levodopa stimulation and presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy although diabetics with retinopathy had significantly greater mean growth hormone response. The mean growth hormone was found to have no correlation with the fasting blood sugar levels. Diabetics with back ground retinopathy had significantly greater mean growth hormone levels than those with proliferative retinal changes

  3. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  4. Influence of perinatal factors on thyroid stimulating hormone level in cord blood

    Amir-mohammad Armanian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion we deduce that the only factor that can affect cord blood TSH was method of delivery. Infant with vaginal delivery has higher TSH level in cord blood. Other factors that were evaluated in this study didn′t have any statistically significant relationship.

  5. Influence of perinatal factors on thyroid stimulating hormone level in cord blood

    Amir-mohammad Armanian; Mahin Hashemipour; Azadeh Esnaashari; Roya Kelishadi; Ziba Farajzadegan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of various perinatal factors on cord blood TSH among newborns in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic cross sectional study which performed in Isfahan Iran. During a period of four months, since February to May 2012 a total number of 440 newborns delivered in Alzahra and Shahid beheshti hospitals were enrolled in the study. For all newborns one mL blood sample from umbilical vein was obta...

  6. Studies on Setting up of Radioimmunoassay System of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

    Various TSH RIA kit components were prepared. Conditions for 125I labelling of h-TSH were optimized by diminishing the amount of chloramine-T, extending reaction time and lowering reaction temperature. Yield, specific activity, and immunological activity could be maintained moderately under such mild reaction conditions. The mixture of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and second antibody worked effectively as a B/F separation agent. Even though the mixture was made with more diluted PEG and second antibody than those of using the sole component separately, the time required for the B/F separation was shorter in case of using the mixture. The sequential saturation technique was efficient than those of applying ordinary equilibrium saturation technique in assay sensitivity and assay precision points of view.

  7. Negative Feedback Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis

    A basic understanding of the endocrinology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of anuran larvae is necessary for predicting the consequences of HPT perturbation by thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) on the whole organism. This project examined negative feedback con...

  8. Recent advances in hormonal contraception

    Li, HWR; Anderson, RA

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews some of the new studies regarding new hormonal contraceptive formulations (e.g., Yaz, Qlaira®, extended-cycle or continuous combined contraceptives, subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive). Recent data on the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and bone health are also reviewed. © 2010 Medicine Reports Ltd.

  9. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    ... growth hormone abuse? People can experience harmful side effects when they abuse GH. Side effects of short-term use include joint and muscle ... to ask your doctor • Do I (or my child) need human growth hormone treatment for medical reasons? • What are ... Should I see an endocrinologist about my condition? ...

  10. [Do hormones determine our fate?].

    Vermeulen, A

    1994-01-01

    The hormonal system is a communication system between cells and organs. Hence it is not surprising that it influences almost all physiological functions and, at least partially, our behaviour and fate. The sexual phenotype is determined by the sex hormones. Normally, the phenotype is in accordance with gonadal and genetic sex, but occasionally, as a consequence of enzymatic defects in the biosynthesis of sex hormones or of androgen resistance, gonadal and genetic sex are in discordance with the phenotype, the latter determining generally the civil sex and the sex of rearing. Whereas the gender role is generally determined by the sex of rearing and the phenotype, itself under hormonal influence, homo- and transsexuality constitute notorious exceptions to this rule. Although several authors consider homo- and transsexuality to be the consequence of an impairment in androgenic impregnation in the perinatal period, there are at present no convincing arguments for an hormonal origin for either homo- or transsexuality, although such a possibility can't be excluded either. Besides their role in psychosexual behaviour, sex hormones play also a role in our life expectancy. Indeed, although maximal life expectancy of man is genetically determined, a major determinant of individual life expectancy is cardiovascular pathology. The latter is partly responsible for the difference in life expectancy between men and women, cardiovascular mortality increasing rapidly at menopause and being halved by oestrogen replacement therapy. Also atherogenesis as such is, to a large extend, under hormonal control. Indeed insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism, which develop as a corollary of the aging process, is an important cause of atherosclerosis as well as of hypertension. Other hormones also play an important role in our behaviour. We can mention here the role of the thyroid hormones in the physical and mental development of children as well as in the regression of the intellectual functions in hypothyroidism; the role of growth (and sex) hormones in the clinical symptomatology of aging; the memory enhancing effects of the antidiuretic hormone; the role of growth factors (as well as of sex hormones) in tumorigenesis; the role of corticoids (and sex hormones) in the modulation of immunological processes etc. In brief, hormones influence all aspects of our life. PMID:8209584

  11. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  12. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    ... Targeted therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy is ... analogs discussed previously. Possible side effects of hormone therapy Although some of these drugs have unique side ...

  13. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones un...... also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research....

  14. Effects of EDTA and Sodium Citrate on hormone measurements by fluorometric (FIA and immunofluorometric (IFMA methods

    Lando Valeria

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurements of hormonal concentrations by immunoassays using fluorescent tracer substance (Eu3+ are susceptible to the action of chemical agents that may cause alterations in its original structure. Our goal was to verify the effect of two types of anticoagulants in the hormone assays performed by fluorometric (FIA or immunofluorometric (IFMA methods. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 30 outpatients and were drawn in EDTA, sodium citrate, and serum separation Vacutainer®Blood Collection Tubes. Samples were analyzed in automatized equipment AutoDelfia™ (Perkin Elmer Brazil, Wallac, Finland for the following hormones: Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle stimulating homone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, growth hormone (GH, Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, insulin, C peptide, total T3, total T4, free T4, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. Statistical analysis was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis method and Dunn's test. Results No significant differences were seen between samples for LH, FSH, PRL and free T4. Results from GH, TSH, insulin, C peptide, SHBG, total T3, total T4, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone were significant different between serum and EDTA-treated samples groups. Differences were also identified between serum and sodium citrate-treated samples in the analysis for TSH, insulin, total T3, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Conclusions We conclude that the hormonal analysis carried through by FIA or IFMA are susceptible to the effects of anticoagulants in the biological material collected that vary depending on the type of assay.

  15. Emergence of an Ancestral Glycoprotein Hormone in the Pituitary of the Sea Lamprey, a Basal Vertebrate.

    Sower, Stacia A; Decatur, Wayne A; Hausken, Krist N; Marquis, Timothy J; Barton, Shannon L; Gargan, James; Freamat, Mihael; Wilmot, Michael; Hollander, Lian; Hall, Jeffrey A; Nozaki, Masumi; Shpilman, Michal; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2015-08-01

    The gnathostome (jawed vertebrates) classical pituitary glycoprotein hormones, FSH, LH, and TSH, consist of a common ?-subunit (GpA1) and unique ?-subunits (Gp?1, -2, and -3), whereas a recently identified pituitary glycoprotein hormone, thyrostimulin, consists of GpA2 and GpB5. This paper reports the identification, expression, and function of an ancestral, nonclassical, pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone (GpH) consisting of the thyrostimulin A2 subunit with the classical ?-subunit in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, a jawless basal vertebrate. Lamprey (l) GpA2, and lGpH? were shown to form a heterodimer by coimmunoprecipitation of lGpA2 with FLAG-tagged lGpH? after the overexpression in transiently transfected COS7 cells using a bipromoter vector. Dual-label fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed the coexpression of individual subunits in the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. GnRH-III (1??) significantly increased the expression of lGpH? and lGpA2 in in vitro pituitary culture. Recombinant lamprey GpH was constructed by tethering the N terminal of lGpA2 to the C terminal of lGpH? with a linker region composed of six histidine residues followed by three glycine-serine repeats. This recombinant lamprey GpH activated the lamprey glycoprotein hormone receptor I as measured by increased cAMP/luciferase activity. These data are the first to demonstrate a functional, unique glycoprotein heterodimer that is not found in any other vertebrate. These data suggest an intermediate stage of the structure-function of the gonadotropin/thyroid-stimulating hormone in a basal vertebrate, leading to the emergence of the highly specialized gonadotropin hormones and thyroid stimulating hormones in gnathostomes. PMID:26066074

  16. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults; Deficiencia progressiva dos hormonios adeno-hipofisarios apos radioterapia em adultos

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: rafaela_loureiro@hotmail.com

    2004-10-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  17. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method

  18. Migraine: is it related to hormonal disturbances or stress?

    Parashar R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rachna Parashar,1 Payal Bhalla,2 Nirendra K Rai,3 Abhijit Pakhare,4 Rashmi Babbar5 1Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 2Department of Physiology, Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 5Department of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India Background: Common neurological syndrome (migraine without aura is more common among women than men. Migraine is among the top 20 causes of disability. Menstruation is known to be a powerful trigger for migraine, and so is stress, but the presentation of headache is similar in both. Also, women are more vulnerable to stress as well as migraine, and this makes a complex relationship of menstruation, stress, and migraine. Objective: This study was done to understand the association of hormonal fluctuation in menstruation and stress with common migraine. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 40 young adult females, of whom 20 participants were cases of migraine without aura (18–35 years old, and the remaining 20 participants were age-matched controls. The study was done in Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. Study participants were selected on the basis of International Headache Society (ICHD-IIA1.1 (2004 classification. Study participants with neurological disorders, chronic diseases, and disease suggestive of any hormonal disturbances were excluded. Clinically diagnosed migraine cases were asked to maintain a headache diary and to fill in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales questionnaire. Biochemical assessment of hormonal status for thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin was also done on the second day of their menstrual cycle. We used the Mann–Whitney U test to compare hormonal levels and the χ2 test to compare anxiety- or depression-related stress among the migraine and nonmigraine groups. Results: Significantly higher values of prolactin were observed in cases (mean ± standard deviation, 152.7 mIU/L±30.5 compared to controls (76.1 mIU/L±8.7, with a P-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant difference observed in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (P=0.081, estrogen (P=0.086, luteinizing hormone (P=0.091, or follicle-stimulating hormone (P=0.478. Also, anxiety with stress or depression with stress was significantly higher among the migraine group than the controls (P=0.002. Odds of any stress in migraine were higher in the migraine group than in the nonmigraine group (odds ratio 12, 95% confidence interval 2.7–53.33. Conclusion: Migraine, particularly without aura, in women is mainly associated with stress-related anxiety or depression, and are more susceptible to stress in the premenstrual period. Keywords: migraine, menstruation, stress

  19. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette; Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  20. Sex hormones and ischemic stroke

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Benn, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke(IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men(n=4......,615) and women(n=4,724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-83 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through potential...

  1. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    Cibele N. Peroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormonereleasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormonereceptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+ littermates and wild-type (+/+ C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.31.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.041.15 ng/ml in controls (p<0.001. In comparison, an intermediate growth hormone release of 34.59.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 16346 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a.

  2. Thyroid Hormone and Vascular Remodeling.

    Ichiki, Toshihiro

    2016-03-01

    Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism affect the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. The accelerated atherosclerosis in the hypothyroid state has been traditionally ascribed to atherogenic lipid profile, diastolic hypertension, and impaired endothelial function. However, recent studies indicate that thyroid hormone has direct anti-atherosclerotic effects, such as production of nitric oxide and suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. These data suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits atherogenesis through direct effects on the vasculature as well as modification of risk factors for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the basic and clinical studies on the role of thyroid hormone in vascular remodeling. The possible application of thyroid hormone mimetics to the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis is also discussed. PMID:26558400

  3. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    ... Oncology Group (ECOG) and the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)—suggest that men with hormone- ... be found on NCI's website. NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS) can also provide information about clinical trials ...

  4. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  5. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on acquired growth hormone resistance in malnourished children using radioisotopic technique

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the influence of nutrition on growth hormone resistance in children who were suffering from prologed protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The plasma levels of glucose and serum levels of insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free teraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were analyzed by radioisotopic techniques in 7 children with marasmus (mean age 5.29 1.01) and 14 children with unexplained short stature (stunted) (mean age 6.21 1.72) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. At the basal condition of laboratory investigations, the GH level was significantly higher in the two malnourished groups compared to control (P< 0.01), whereas, plasma glucose levels and insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two malnourished groups and the control

  6. REM latency, dexamethasone suppression test, and thyroid releasing hormone stimulation test in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Reist, C; Kauffmann, C D; Chicz-Demet, A; Chen, C C; Demet, E M

    1995-05-01

    1. Twenty-one patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were included in a study utilizing baseline rapid eye movement (REM) latency measurements, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and the protirelin (thyroid releasing hormone; TRH) stimulation test. The DST and TRH stimulation test were repeated after double blind treatment with desipramine. 2. A high number of patients (75%) exhibited a REM latency of 60 min or less and blunted thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) response to TRH (61.9%) on baseline tests while only one patient showed cortisol escape from dexamethasone suppression. 3. After four weeks of desipramine treatment, significant improvements were reported in the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression, but not for anxiety symptoms, PTSD symptoms, or self-rated depressive symptoms. 4. Desipramine treatment did not affect hormonal responses to TRH. 5. The findings of shortened REM latency and altered TRH stimulation test suggest PTSD and depression may share some pathophysiological abnormalities. PMID:7624494

  7. Hormonal Modulation of Sensorimotor Integration

    DeLong, Nicholas D.; Nusbaum, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal circuits commonly receive simultaneous inputs from descending, ascending and hormonal systems. Thus far, however, most such inputs have been studied individually to determine their influence on a given circuit. Here, we examine the integrated action of the hormone crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and the gastropyloric receptor (GPR) proprioceptor neuron on the biphasic gastric mill (chewing) rhythm driven by the projection neuron MCN1 (modulatory commissural neuron 1) in the is...

  8. Growth Hormone in Renal Insufficiency

    A Rabbani

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth retardation is one of the known complications of chronic renal failure. Although protein-calorie malnutrition, electrolyte disturbances, acidosis and renal osteodystrophy are important factors in the development a growth failure in children with chronic renal failure, recent investigations in therapy of these children with growth hormone are promising. Growth hormone therapy increases growth velocity and final adult high in patients with chronic renal failure.

  9. History of growth hormone therapy

    Ayyar, Vageesh S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of the pituitary gland for growth was recognized in late 19 th century, Growth hormone (GH) therapy was made available for severely GH-deficient children and adolescents only in late 1950s. Use of GH for other conditions was limited because of the limited supply of human pituitary-derived hormone. With unlimited availability of recombinant human GH (rhGH), the scenario of GH treatment has been changed enormously. Currently there is ever increasing list of indications o...

  10. Growth hormone in male infertility

    Navneet Magon; Suneeta Singh; Ajit Saxena; Rakesh Sahay

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is expressed in a variety of tissues, including the testes, and has autocrine and paracrine functions as well. This, along with other factors, exerts autocrine and paracrine control over spermatogenesis. GH, used as an adjuvant therapy, induces spermatogenesis in non-responder patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, who are not responding to gonadotropin or pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) therapy. GH has an important physiological role to play in spermatogenesis an...

  11. Growth Hormone in Renal Insufficiency

    A Rabbani; A Sotoodeh; F Assadi

    2000-01-01

    Growth retardation is one of the known complications of chronic renal failure. Although protein-calorie malnutrition, electrolyte disturbances, acidosis and renal osteodystrophy are important factors in the development a growth failure in children with chronic renal failure, recent investigations in therapy of these children with growth hormone are promising. Growth hormone therapy increases growth velocity and final adult high in patients with chronic renal failure.

  12. Plant hormone receptors: new perceptions

    Spartz, Angela K.; Gray, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Plant growth and development require the integration of a variety of environmental and endogenous signals that, together with the intrinsic genetic program, determine plant form. Central to this process are several growth regulators known as plant hormones or phytohormones. Despite decades of study, only recently have receptors for several of these hormones been identified, revealing novel mechanisms for perceiving chemical signals and providing plant biologists with a much clearer picture of...

  13. Genetic engineering of peptide hormones

    Rubtsov, P M; Chernov, V. G.; Gorboulev, Valentin G.; Parsadanyan, A. S.; Sverdlova, P. S.; Chupeeva, V. V.; Golova, Yu. B.; Batchikova, N. V.; Zvirblis, G. S.; Skryabin, K G; Bayev, A A

    2010-01-01

    Peptide and polypeptide hormones represent an extensive group of biologically active compounds of important significance for medicine and agriculture. In recent years genetic engineering methods have been used to create strains of microorganisms synthesizing eukaryotic proteins, including hormones and their precursors. The first stage of such developments is the isolation of DNA coding the des~red product. We have accomplished the cloning of the cDNA of a number of polypeptide and peptide hor...

  14. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  15. Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone.

    Davis, Paul J; Goglia, Fernando; Leonard, Jack L

    2016-02-01

    The nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone begin at receptors in the plasma membrane, mitochondria or cytoplasm. These receptors can share structural homologies with nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) that mediate transcriptional actions of T3, or have no homologies with TR, such as the plasma membrane receptor on integrin αvβ3. Nongenomic actions initiated at the plasma membrane by T4 via integrin αvβ3 can induce gene expression that affects angiogenesis and cell proliferation, therefore, both nongenomic and genomic effects can overlap in the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, a truncated TRα isoform mediates T4-dependent regulation of intracellular microfilament organization, contributing to cell and tissue structure. p30 TRα1 is another shortened TR isoform found at the plasma membrane that binds T3 and mediates nongenomic hormonal effects in bone cells. T3 and 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine are important to the complex nongenomic regulation of cellular respiration in mitochondria. Thus, nongenomic actions expand the repertoire of cellular events controlled by thyroid hormone and can modulate TR-dependent nuclear events. Here, we review the experimental approaches required to define nongenomic actions of the hormone, enumerate the known nongenomic effects of the hormone and their molecular basis, and discuss the possible physiological or pathophysiological consequences of these actions. PMID:26668118

  16. Growth Hormone Alters the Glutathione S-Transferase and Mitochondrial Thioredoxin Systems in Long-Living Ames Dwarf Mice

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Rakoczy, Sharlene; Brown-Borg, Holly M.

    2013-01-01

    Ames dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone and live significantly longer than their wild-type (WT) siblings. The lack of GH is associated with stress resistance and increased longevity. However, the mechanism underlying GH’s actions on cellular stress defense have yet to be elucidated. In this study, WT or Ames dwarf mice were treated with saline or GH (WT saline, Dwarf saline, and Dwarf GH) two times daily for 7 days. The body and liver w...

  17. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  18. Selected biochemical actions of ovarian hormones.

    K.S. Korach

    1981-01-01

    This review is concerned with a general discussion of the actions of ovarian hormones, including relaxin, a polypeptide hormone, and estrogens and progestogens, which are two types of steroid hormones. Particular emphasis is placed on describing the sites of action and target organ responses induced by the two steroid hormones. A detailed description of estrogen activity in reproductive tract tissue is given as an example of the intracellular mechanism of action of this steroid hormone.

  19. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    AntonioBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  20. Growth hormone signaling pathways.

    Carter-Su, Christin; Schwartz, Jessica; Argetsinger, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Over 20years ago, our laboratory showed that growth hormone (GH) signals through the GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. We showed that GH binding to its membrane-bound receptor enhances binding of JAK2 to the GHR, activates JAK2, and stimulates tyrosyl phosphorylation of both JAK2 and GHR. The activated JAK2/GHR complex recruits a variety of signaling proteins, thereby initiating multiple signaling pathways and cellular responses. These proteins and pathways include: 1) Stat transcription factors implicated in the expression of multiple genes, including the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 1; 2) Shc adapter proteins that lead to activation of the grb2-SOS-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1,2 pathway; 3) insulin receptor substrate proteins implicated in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Akt pathway; 4) signal regulatory protein α, a transmembrane scaffold protein that recruits proteins including the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2; and 5) SH2B1, a scaffold protein that can activate JAK2 and enhance GH regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Our recent work has focused on the function of SH2B1. We have shown that SH2B1β is recruited to and phosphorylated by JAK2 in response to GH. SH2B1 localizes to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and focal adhesions; it also cycles through the nucleus. SH2B1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton and promotes GH-dependent motility of RAW264.7 macrophages. Mutations in SH2B1 have been found in humans exhibiting severe early-onset childhood obesity and insulin resistance. These mutations impair SH2B1 enhancement of GH-induced macrophage motility. As SH2B1 is expressed ubiquitously and is also recruited to a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, our results raise the possibility that effects of SH2B1 on the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types, including neurons, may play a role in regulating body weight. PMID:26421979

  1. [Development of monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzyme kit for detection of human thyrotropin hormone].

    Sigal, E R; Koriazova, L K; Kovalevskaia, G I; Pozdniakova, T A; Kandyba, E I; Kuznetsov, V A; Vasilov, R G

    1997-04-01

    An enzyme immunoassay kit based on monoclonal antibodies (Mab) has been developed for measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone in human serum and plasma. Laboratory trials demonstrated its high sensitivity (3.1 microIU/ml), specificity, reliability, and accuracy. The analysis is simple and rapid (2.5 h), which is convenient for clinical use. The kit permits differentiation between normal subjects and patients with primary hypo- or hyperthyroidism and helps monitor the treatment efficacy. Comparison with the Amerlite TSH-60 kit, carried out on 357 sera, showed a high correlation coefficient (0.96) between the two kits. PMID:9221072

  2. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Saraiva P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor (ER was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ER tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Er-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

  3. Evaluation Of Hormone Profile And Dexa Values in Premenopausal, Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Esra Esen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 130 women, between 44-55 ages, admitted to outpatient clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of Trakya University Medical Faculty in order to make. comparison of hormone profile and DEXA values of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women . Three groups were allocated according to climacteric symptoms and menopause condition. Premenopausal group consisted of women who had regular menstruation and did not have any climacteric symptoms , perimenopausal group consisted of women who had menstruation disorder and climacteric symptoms within one year and postmenopausal group consisted of women who had last menstruation within more than one year and less than 5 years. Women who had prior osteoporosis diognosis and treatment, hormone replacement therapy, surgical menopause and menopause duration more than 5 years were excluded from the study. Age, body weight ,height, hormone profile including estradiol (E2, progesterone (P, follicule stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, parathyroid hormone (PTH, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and DEXA values representing bone mineral density (BMD of both groups were evaluated. In peri and postmenopausal groups, E2, P, FSH and LH values were significantly lower, while there was no significant difference for PTH and thyroid hormone levels comparing to premenopausal group. For DEXA values, T scores of L2-L4, L2, L3, L4, femur neck, trochanter, Wards and Z scores of femur neck, Wards area were significantly lower in peri and postmenopausal groups. It was demonstrated paralel to literature that BMD decreased in peri and early postmenopausal women associated with hormone profile changes, mainly lower E2.

  4. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  5. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

  6. Physiological Response of Two Age Groups of Omani Male Goats to Short Road Transportation in Relation to Circulating Levels of Gonadotropins, Cortisol, Thyroid Hormones, Sex Steroids and Plasma Chemistry

    M.Al-Maani; J. Plude; O. Mahgoub; I.Y. Mahmoud; I.T. Kadim; A. Al-Kindi; C.S. Bakheit

    2005-01-01

    The effect of short road transportation in two age groups of Omani male goats was evaluated to assess their physiological response to stress in relation to circulating levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), Thyroid Stimulating Hormones (TSH), thyroid hormones (T , T ), gondadotropins 3 4 (FSH, LH) and testosterone (T). In addition, plasma parameters cholesterol, total protein, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate, Mg PO Ca and CO were also analyzed. Thirty...

  7. Stress hormones and physical activity

    Editorial Office

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14 healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolactin, and melatonin may be classified as stress hormones in physical activity of duration 80 to 120 minutes and intensity exceeding 75%-V0₂max. Widespread intra-individual variation in serum cortisol concentrations prevent definite conclusion. The un­expected increase in serum testosterone levels warrants further research.

  8. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Krüger-Kjaer, Susanne; Lidegaard, Ojvind

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and...... Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  9. Radioimmunoassay of bovine growth hormone

    A radioimmunological method for quantitative determination of bovine growth hormone in blood plasma or serum for routine use was worked out. The antibody is also suitable for radioimmunoassay of bovine growth hormone. The chloramin T and lactoperoxidase methods were used. Standard b-STH isolated by one of the authors was labelled with I-125(Na125I, carrier free, Amersham). The I-125-hormone was separated on Sephadex G-50 or G-100 and stored in 0.05M phosphate pH 7.5 with 1% of human serum albumine at 25 deg C. The method was checked on 2500 samples. Rabbit antiserum to b-STH was prepared in sufficient amount to serve also for other laboratories interested in the method. (author)

  10. Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination

    Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

  11. The interaction of growth hormone releasing hormone with other hypothalamic hormones on the release of anterior pituitary hormones.

    Looij, B J; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A C; Mudde, A H; Frölich, M; Piaditis, G P; Hodgkinson, S C; McLean, C; Grossman, A; Coy, D H; Rees, L H

    1986-02-01

    To determine whether the 29 amino-acid fragment of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) can be combined with other hypothalamic releasing hormones in a single test of anterior pituitary reserve, the responses of anterior pituitary hormones to combinations of an i.v. bolus of GHRH(1-29)NH2 or saline with an i.v. bolus of either LH releasing hormone (LHRH) plus TRH, ovine CRH(oCRH) or saline were studied. Each infusion of GHRH(1-29)NH2 resulted in a rapid increment of the plasma GH value. Infusion of GHRH(1-29)NH2 also caused a small and transient rise in plasma PRL, but no change in the integrated PRL response. The combination of GHRH(1-29)NH2 with LHRH plus TRH caused a larger increment of peak and integrated plasma TSH levels than LHRH plus TRH alone. GHRH(1-29)NH2 did not affect the release of other anterior pituitary hormones after infusion with oCRH or LHRH plus TRH. Because of the finding of potentiation of the TSH-releasing activity of LHRH plus TRH by GHRH(1-29)NH2, the study was extended to the investigation of TSH release after infusion of TRH in combination with either GHRH(1-29)NH2 or GHRH(1-40). In this study the combination of TRH with both GHRH preparations also caused a larger increment of the peak and integrated plasma TSH levels than TRH alone. It is concluded that GHRH(1-29)NH2 possesses moderate PRL-releasing activity apart from GH-releasing activity. In addition, GHRH potentiates the TSH-releasing activity of TRH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2871949

  12. Maternal and fetal hormonal profiles of anemic pregnant women of Eastern Sudan

    Anaemia is defined as reduction in circulating hemoglobin mass below the critical level expected for age and sex. Anaemia affects almost two- thirds of pregnant women in developing countries, it is associated with poor maternal and prenatal outcomes. Anaemia during pregnancy through many endocrine alterations-may influence the maternal and fetal environment. To investigate the anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal profiles in paired maternal and cord blood samples and to compare between the two groups, anaemic (n=68) and non-anaemic groups (n=57), in order to study the endocrine effects of anaemia during pregnancy in the mothers and their neonates. This cross sectional study was conducted in Gadarif hospital, Eastern Sudan. Women were classified into two groups based on the WHO classification of anaemia: Group 1(normal control-no anaemia Hb>11.0 g/dl) Group 2 anaemic, (Hb11g/dl). There was no significant difference in the fetal anthropometrics parameters (weight, length and placental weight) between the anaemic (Hb11g/dl). Maternal prolactin was significantly higher in anaemic group when compared with non anaemic group with p-value =.002. Cord serum albumin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anaemic group with p-value=.04. Cord serum ferritin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anemic group with p-value<.001. There was no significant difference was observed in the other maternal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). There was no significant difference was observed in the other fetal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). In this study there were some maternal and fetal endocrine modulations due to anaemia during pregnancy as indicated by the high levels of maternal prolactin in blood of the anemic women group and also the high values of albumun and ferritin in the cord blood of the anemic women group.(Author)

  13. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  14. Antineoplastic action of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists.

    Siejka, Agnieszka; Lawnicka, Hanna; Melen-Mucha, Gabriela; Motylewska, Ewelina; Komorowski, Jan; Stepien, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    Some of the antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) are able to inhibit the growth of various experimental human cancers. The antitumor effects of first antagonists seemed to be dependent mainly on the disruption of pituitary secretion of growth hormone (GH), followed by the reduction in the levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, an important growth factor for cancer cells. It seems obvious, that growth hormone deficiency (GHD) induced by GHRH antagonists with all its complications, could limit the beneficial effects of GHRH antagonists therapy, and decrease patients' quality of life. The discovery of local autocrine/paracrine production of GHRH and other related growth factors in many tumoral tissues, in combination with the wide expression of GHRH receptors on cancer cells, directed the research to the synthesis of more potent GHRH antagonists. These compounds exert strong inhibitory effects directly on tumor growth, with scarce endocrine action. The receptor-mediated mechanisms comprise complex and still not completely understood effects on intracellular signaling pathways that are strictly related to human tumorigenesis. This review summarizes recent patents and latest observations on the antineoplastic role of GHRH antagonists in human tumors with emphasis on potential therapeutic applications in clinical oncology. PMID:21854358

  15. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it...... feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings. (1) The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. (2) The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem...... organization, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. (3) Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others...

  16. Hormone May Be Linked to Teenage Obesity

    ... 159014.html Hormone May Be Linked to Teenage Obesity Researchers suspect low levels of spexin might play ... reduced levels of this hormone in adults with obesity. Overall, our findings suggest spexin may play a ...

  17. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  18. Thyroid hormone action on skin

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    The skin characteristics associated with thyroid hormone are classic. The name “myxedema” refers to the associated skin condition caused by increased glycosaminoglycan deposition in the skin. Generalized myxedema is still the classic cutaneous sign of hypothyroidism. It is caused by deposition of dermal acid mucopolysaccharides, notably hyaluronic acid. Despite its appearance, the skin does not pit with pressure.

  19. Cardiac hypertrophy and thyroid hormone signaling

    Dillmann, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormone exerts a large number of influences on the cardiovascular system. Increased thyroid hormone action increases the force and speed of systolic contraction and the speed of diastolic relaxation and these are largely beneficial effects. Furthermore, thyroid hormone has marked electrophysiological effects increasing heart rate and the propensity for atrial fibrillation and these effects are largely mal-adaptive. In addition, thyroid hormone markedly increases cardiac angiogenesis a...

  20. Cardiac hypertrophy and thyroid hormone signaling

    Dillmann, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormone exerts a large number of influences on the cardiovascular system. Increased thyroid hormone action increases the force and speed of systolic contraction and the speed of diastolic relaxation and these are largely beneficial effects. Furthermore, thyroid hormone has marked electrophysiological effects increasing heart rate and the propensity for atrial fibrillation and these effects are largely mal-adaptive. In addition, thyroid hormone markedly increases cardiac angiogenesis a...

  1. Developing a model of plant hormone interactions

    Wang, Yu Hua; Irving, Helen R.

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth and development is influenced by mutual interactions among plant hormones. The five classical plant hormones are auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. They are small diffusible molecules that easily penetrate between cells. In addition, newer classes of plant hormones have been identified such as brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and various small proteins or peptides. These hormones also play important roles in the regulation of plant growth...

  2. Influence of ovarian hormones on urogenital infection

    Sonnex, C.

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the influence of hormones on infectious diseases and there is now a wealth of data relating to the more specific effect of the sex hormones, oestrogen and progesterone, on urogenital infections. The interaction between these hormones and the immune system is complex and the variation of hormonal effect between species further complicates the true picture as related to humans. Although it is difficult therefore to draw general conclusions regarding predomin...

  3. Endocrine disruptors and thyroid hormone physiology

    Jugan, Mary-Line; Levi, Yves; Blondeau, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Endocrine disruptors are man-made chemicals that can disrupt the synthesis, circulating levels, and peripheral action of hormones. The disruption of sex hormones was subject of intensive research, but thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling are now also recognized as important targets of endocrine disruptors. The neurological development of mammals is largely dependent on normal thyroid hormone homeostasis, and it is likely to be particularly sensitive to disruption of the...

  4. HORMONAL EVALUATION IN FEMALES HAVING MELASMA

    Sharique; Suraj; Sharma

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melasma is a commonly acquired hyperpigmentation which present as irregular, light to dark brown macules on sun exposed skin due to various etiological factors including hormonal imbalance. AIM : To assist the level of various hormones and study the clinical and hormonal correlation in patients of melasma. METHODS : 50 female p...

  5. The hormonal regulation of life processes in insects (2.) The anti-juvenile hormones (1.)

    Those compounds that decrease either the level or activity of natural endogenous juvenile hormones in insects are called anti-juvenile hormones (AJH). The possible effects of anti-juvenile hormones are manifold: they may inhibit special enzymes or the bindings of juvenile hormones to receptors and transport proteins or may cause the destruction of corpora allata, the sources of juvenile hormones. The most obvious possibility to elicit an anti-juvenile hormone effect lies in the inhibition of enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones

  6. Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas

    Julio Brito

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone (GH producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

  7. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. ...

  8. Disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats by microsomal enzyme inducers is not due to enhanced thyroxine glucuronidation☆

    Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    Microsomal enzyme inducers (MEI) that increase UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are thought to increase glucuronidation of thyroxine (T4), thus reducing serum T4, and subsequently increasing thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a6 mediate T4 glucuronidation. Therefore, this experiment determined the involvement of Ugt1a enzymes in increased T4 glucuronidation, decreased serum T4, and increased TSH after MEI treatment. Male Wistar and Ugt1a-deficient Wistar (Gunn) rats were fed...

  9. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists

    Spicer, Darcy V.; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2000-01-01

    The cyclic production of estrogen and progesterone by the premenopausal ovary accounts for the steep rise in breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. These hormones are breast cell mitogens. By reducing exposure to these ovarian hormones, agonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) given to suppress ovarian function may prove useful in cancer prevention. To prevent deleterious effects of hypoestrogenemia, the addition of low-dose hormone replacement to the LHRH agonist appears ...

  10. Contracepo hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepcin hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    Milena Bastos Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepo hormonal o mtodo mais utilizado para preveno de gestaes no planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associao entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientao contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doena cardiovascular, realizamos uma reviso da literatura em relao ao assunto. Esta reviso descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura cientfica acerca da influncia dos contraceptivos hormonais em relao a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertenso arterial sistmica, doenas cada dia mais prevalentes na populao feminina jovem.La contracepcin hormonal es el mtodo ms utilizado para la prevencin de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociacin que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientacin en la contracepcin en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisin de la literatura con relacin a ese asunto. Esa revisin describe los datos ms recientes de la literatura cientfica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relacin a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensin arterial sistmica, enfermedades cada da ms prevalentes en la poblacin femenina joven.Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

  11. Effects of antidepressant treatment on thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation, growth hormone response to L-DOPA, and dexamethasone suppression tests in major depressive patients.

    Esel, Ertugrul; Kartalci, Sukru; Tutus, Ahmet; Turan, Tayfun; Sofuoglu, Seher

    2004-03-01

    Dexamethasone suppression (DST), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and growth hormone (GH) response to L-DOPA tests were evaluated in 19 depressed inpatients before the commencement of the antidepressant treatment and after the clinical response to examine: (i) the functional relationships among the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and dopaminergic system in depression, (ii) any alterations in these hormonal functions with the antidepressant treatment. TSH responses to TRH showed a tendency to increase from pre- to posttreatment period, while TRH-induced PRL and L-DOPA-induced GH responses did not change with treatment in depressed patients who responded to the treatment. Females showed significantly higher TSH and PRL responses to TRH compared to males. No interconnections were found among the responses in DST, TRH stimulation test and L-DOPA-induced GH test in the patients. The results do not support the interrelations between the abnormalities in the HPT and HPA axes and central dopaminergic activity in depression. PMID:14751427

  12. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.

  13. Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females

    The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T4) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), tri iodine thyronine (T3) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

  14. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...... infarction is increased 50 - 100% with use of combined products, with little difference in risk between different progestins. Progestin-only products do not confer any increased risk of venous or arterial thrombosis, except for progestin depot, which may double the risk of venous thrombosis. EXPERT OPINION......: First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome...

  15. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior. PMID:25224609

  16. Hormonal Replacement: advantages and disdvantagens Reposio Hormonal: vantagens e desvantagens

    Eliane Aparecida Campesatto Mella

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of estrogens was considered by many people as a physiological condition and not pathological one probably because the ovarian inadequacy is genetically programmed. However with the increase of the expection of the womens life, the negative impact of the deficiency of estrogens became more significant. Although this deficiency is easy to take care less than, 20% of the women post menopusicas receive estrogens. The therapy of hormonal replacement (THR in the menopause it appeared as the mainly treatment form, to alleviate the symptoms and act as prevention, reducing the emergence of diseases, as the cardiovascular and the osteoporosis, but THR is not totally unproved of risks. The hormonal therapeutical has past the last years for doubts and uncertainties, in consequence of several related publications of its use, this way it becomes important to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this therapy. Analyse througha wide bibliographical revision, the advantages and disadvantages of the TRH replacement in women climatrias, as well as evaluate if the possible risks of this therapy overcomes s the benefits proportionate for the same . It was used as methodology bibliographical researches made in libraries and internet. The texts of books and scientific articles were studied and the contents of them were selected for the elaboration of this work. The THR is recommended to alleviate the vasomotores symptoms , treatment of vaginal atrophy and prevention of osteoporosis. In spite of the acquaintances advantages, approximately 70% of the women interrupt the treatment after the first year. One of the principal causes of the low adherence of THR is the bleed irregular , other reasons includes mastalgia, nausea, chronic headache, profit of weight and hidrica retention, besides the fear of cancer. The decision of a woman to use the TRH is a complex process and it is recommended by the doctor, who is taking care of her by the individual risk of diseases, by the attitudes toward the menopause and THR, values menopausais, symptoms and to the middle to which the woman belongs. A deficincia de estrognio foi considerada por muitos uma condio fisiolgica ,e no patolgica, provavelmente porque a insuficincia ovariana geneticamente programada. Entretanto com o aumento da expectativa de vida das mulheres, o impacto negativo da deficincia de estrognio tornou-se mais significativo. Embora essa deficincia seja tratvel, menos de 20% das mulheres ps menopusicas recebem estrognio. Embora a terapia de reposio hormonal (TRH na menopausa no seja totalmente isenta de riscos,ela tem sido utilizada com o objetivo de aliviar sintomas e de agir preventivamente e assim reduzir o aparecimento de doenas, como as cardiovasculares e a osteoporose. A teraputica hormonal tem passado os ltimos anos por duvidas e incertezas, em conseqncia de diversas publicaes relacionadas a seu uso, desta forma torna-se importante analisar as vantagens e desvantagens dessa terapia: analisar atravs de uma ampla reviso bibliogrfica, as vantagens e desvantagens da terapia de reposio hormonal em mulheres climatrias, bem como avaliar se os possveis riscos dessa terapia superam os benefcios proporcionados pela mesma. Utilizou-se como metodologia a pesquisa bibliogrfica efetuada em bibliotecas e internet e os textos de livros e artigos cientficos foram estudados e os contedos selecionados para a elaborao do trabalho.A terapia de reposio hormonal (TRH recomendada para alivio dos sintomas vasomotores, tratamento da atrofia vaginal e preveno da osteoporose. Apesar das conhecidas vantagens, aproximadamente 70% das mulheres cessam o tratamento aps o primeiro ano. Uma das principais causas da baixa aderncia a TRH o sangramento irregular, outras razes incluem mastalgia, nusea, cefalia, ganho de peso e reteno hdrica, alm do medo de cncer. A deciso de uma mulher em usar terapia de reposio hormonal um processo complexo determinado pela r

  17. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Elvar Theodorsson; Jakob O. Strom; Annette Theodorsson

    2011-01-01

    Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on...

  18. Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity

    D. Van der Does

    2012-01-01

    The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect herbivores and pathogens with a necrotrophic lifestyle. Antagonistic and synergistic interactions between the SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways allow the plant to fine-tune the activation of defense...

  19. Hormones, genes, and?behavior

    Pfaff, Donald W

    1997-01-01

    With assays of hormone-sensitive behaviors, it is possible to demonstrate both direct and indirect actions of genes on mammalian social behaviors. Direct effects of estrogen receptor gene expression and progesterone receptor gene expression figure prominently in well analyzed neuroendocrine mechanisms for sex behavior, operating through a neural circuit that has been delineated. Indirect effects, notably the consequences of sexual differentiation, display complex d...

  20. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, plevels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  1. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    HuguesDardente

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  2. Keeping circadian time with hormones.

    Challet, E

    2015-09-01

    Daily variations of metabolism, physiology and behaviour are controlled by a network of coupled circadian clocks, comprising a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus and a multitude of secondary clocks in the brain and peripheral organs. Light cues synchronize the master clock that conveys temporal cues to other body clocks via neuronal and hormonal signals. Feeding at unusual times can reset the phase of most peripheral clocks. While the neuroendocrine aspect of circadian regulation has been underappreciated, this review aims at showing that the role of hormonal rhythms as internal time-givers is the rule rather than the exception. Adrenal glucocorticoids, pineal melatonin and adipocyte-derived leptin participate in internal synchronization (coupling) within the multi-oscillatory network. Furthermore, pancreatic insulin is involved in food synchronization of peripheral clocks, while stomach ghrelin provides temporal signals modulating behavioural anticipation of mealtime. Circadian desynchronization induced by shift work or chronic jet lag has harmful effects on metabolic regulation, thus favouring diabetes and obesity. Circadian deregulation of hormonal rhythms may participate in internal desynchronization and associated increase in metabolic risks. Conversely, adequate timing of endocrine therapies can promote phase-adjustment of the master clock (e.g. via melatonin agonists) and peripheral clocks (e.g. via glucocorticoid agonists). PMID:26332971

  3. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Michal M. Masternak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  4. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

    Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

  5. Correlation of skin changes with hormonal changes in polycystic ovarian syndrome: A cross-sectional study clinical study

    B Vijaya Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%, followed by hirsutism (62.5%, seborrhea (52.5%, androgenetic alopecia (AGA (30%, acanthosis nigricans (22.5% and acrochordons (10%. Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone.

  6. Correlation of Skin Changes with Hormonal Changes in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study Clinical Study

    Gowri, B Vijaya; Chandravathi, PL; Sindhu, PS; Naidu, K Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%), followed by hirsutism (62.5%), seborrhea (52.5%), androgenetic alopecia (AGA) (30%), acanthosis nigricans (22.5%) and acrochordons (10%). Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone. PMID:26288423

  7. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Juul, Anders; Sneppen, Simone Bjerregaard; Góth, Miklós I; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  8. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ► Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ► Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ► Exposure to PBDEs and alternate FRs was associated with alterations in hormone levels.

  9. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders. PMID:26775014

  10. [Hormonal aspects in the diagnosis of hirsutism].

    Maleev, A; Milkov, V

    1989-01-01

    Hormones of hypophyseal-adrenal axes were determined in 135 girls with hirsutism. On the basis of changes in the hormonal levels it was established that the syndrome of Stein-Leventhal in 62 girls (54% of the patients) was dependent on luteinizing hormone (LH) and was characterized by an increased index of LH/FSH over 3.0 as well as by an increased level of testosterone; hirsutism in 73 girls (67% of the patients) was dependent on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and was characterized by an increased level of ACTH and cortisol secretion; in the remaining patients hirsutism was a combination of both forms of dependence on LH and ACTH and an increase of hormones of both axes was present or was idiopathic with normal hormonal plasma levels, but with increased skin conversion and metabolic testosterone clearance. PMID:2742087

  11. Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet therapy, physical activity, medical and surgical approaches. The specialists and obese patients prefer the first and second approaches. Physical activity helps to control and treat this disorder by influencing on obesity-related hormones. The main obesity-related hormones are ghrelin, agouti, obestatin, leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and resistin. In this review, the effect of physical activity on 10 major obesity-related hormones has been discussed.

  12. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  13. Cracking the Code for Thyroid Hormone Signaling

    Bianco, Antonio C.

    2013-01-01

    Cells are not passive bystanders in the process of hormonal signaling and instead can actively customize hormonal action. While diffusing from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, thyroid hormone is modified via the action of thioredoxin fold–containing selenoenzymes known as deiodinases. Whereas the type II deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active T3, the type III deiodinase (D3) converts it to reverse T3, an inactive metabolite. D3 also inactivates T3...

  14. Ovarian Steroid Hormones and Auditory Function

    Al-Mana, D.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable anecdotal evidence and information from previous studies suggest that auditory function may be influenced by hormones. This thesis reviews in detail the potential role of hormones in modulating the auditory system and in the development of pathological conditions in the auditory system with an emphasis on the effect of the ovarian hormones. Ovarian steroids may influence auditory function directly through their receptors, which have been detected in the auditory system, or indire...

  15. [Parathyroid hormone and Wnt signaling].

    Tamura, Yukinori; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is clinically used as therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in Japan. However, the mechanisms for bone anabolic action of PTH are not fully understood. Recently, numerous studies suggest that PTH enhances bone formation through the suppression of sclerostin, DKK1 and sFRP1, inhibitors of Wnt-?-catenin signal. Moreover, we identified Tmem119 as new osteoblast differentiation factor, which is involved in an increase in?-catenin level by PTH in osteoblasts. Further understanding of Wnt-?-catenin signaling in the bone anabolic action by PTH may lead to the development of novel bone anabolic agent. PMID:23719497

  16. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112. ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  17. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M; Blaakaer, J; Gluud, C; Andersen, J R; Homann, C; Garred, P

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis and...... experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  18. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial in the....... Recently, the first randomized, controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of PTH on fracture healing was published, indicating a possible clinical benefit of PTH treatment in inducing fracture healing. The aim of this article is therefore to review the evidence for the potential of PTH in bone...

  19. Thyroid hormones and thyroxine-binding globulin in relation to liver function and serum testosterone in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) increased with progressing liver dysfunction. Serum concentrations of tetraiodothyronine (T4), TBG and T4/TBG ratio did not correlate significantly with liver function. Serum T3 concentrations....... It is proposed that the association between T3 and TSH on one hand and testosterone concentrations on the other reflects a covariation of these variables with liver function. The TBG level was normal in most patients and was not correlated to testosterone concentrations....

  20. Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

  1. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  2. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2012-02-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  3. VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT

    Pallavi Chaurasia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyroxine (T3. The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4, Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3μIU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 57-59

  4. Thyroid hormone levels in patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis

    This study was conducted with three main objectives, to study thyroid hormones (T 4, T 3) and TSH levels in patients with CRF under haemodialysis and to compare them with normal subjects, to study best means of treatment and to compare these findings with results from other parts of the world. This study was done on 61 patients with renal failure in Khartoum dialysis and kidney transplant centre U of K, 45 males and 16 females with ages ranging from 17-75 years and 42 symptoms-free subjects 14 males and 23 females with age ranging from 16-60 years. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used for the determination of serum T 4, T 3 and TSH. By using t-test found that the mean concentrations of T 4, T 3 of normal subjects were much higher than those of the patients (p0.05). These results also illustrated that 45.9% of patients with renal failure of low T 4, and 91.8%, 90.26 of patients had T 3 and TSH hormone levels in the normal range, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean of thyroid hormones (T 4, T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormones between males and females (p>0.05). The T 3 and T '4 concentrations in patients at all age groups (year) was less than the age groups of the control group, and this decrease was statistically significant (p0.05).(Author)

  5. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael; Pöllänen, Eija; Atkinson, Ross A; Hansen, Mette; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2013-01-01

    muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss......Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and...

  6. Study on changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrome due to the stagnation

    Objective: To study the changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrom due to the stagnation of liver-qi. Methods: Serum thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), free thyroxine (FT4), cortisol levels were measured with immunoradioassay (IMRA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 30 patients with this type of insomnia and 30 controls. Results: The serum TSH levels were significantly lower and serum TRH, GH, cortisol FT4 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: This insomnia syndrome was closely related to the dysfunction of mpothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and adrenal axis. (authors)

  7. On the role of gallbladder emptying and incretin hormones for nutrient-mediated TSH suppression in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Sonne, David P; Lund, Asger; Faber, Jens; Holst, Jens Juul; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    ). We aimed to evaluate the influence of bile acid exposure and incretin hormones on thyroid function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (total T3 and free T4) were measured in plasma from two human studies: i) 75 g-oral glucose tolerance...... isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusions (IIGI) alone or in combination with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and/or GLP2, in ten patients with type 2 diabetes (IIGI-study). In both studies, TSH levels declined (P<0.01) similarly following all meal and...... infusion stimuli. T3 and T4 concentrations did not change in response to any of the applied stimuli. TSH levels declined independently of the degree of gallbladder emptying (meal-study), route of nutrient administration and infusion of gut hormones. In conclusion, intestinal bile flow and i.v. infusions of...

  8. Trans-activation by thyroid hormone receptors: functional parallels with steroid hormone receptors.

    Thompson, C C; Evans, R M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of thyroid hormones are mediated through nuclear receptor proteins that modulate the transcription of specific genes in target cells. We previously isolated cDNAs encoding two different mammalian thyroid hormone receptors, one from human placenta (hTR beta) and the other from rat brain (rTR alpha), and showed that their in vitro translation products bind thyroid hormones with the characteritistic affinities of the native thyroid hormone receptor. We now demonstrate that both of th...

  9. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Fleming, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol.......To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  10. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  11. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts

    Shen Wen-Jun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

  12. Steroid hormone influence on melanomagenesis.

    Mitkov, Mario; Joseph, Richard; Copland, John

    2015-12-01

    Disparities in the prognosis and incidence of melanoma between male and female patients have led clinicians to explore the influence of steroid hormones on the development and progression of this malignancy. A better understanding of the disparities of melanoma behavior between sexes and ages could lead to improved prevention and treatment options. There are multiple themes in the literature that unify the physiologic functions of estrogen and androgen receptors; herein we discuss and map their pathways. Overall, it is important to understand that the differences in melanoma behavior between the sexes are multifactorial and likely involve interactions between the immune system, endocrine system, and environment, namely UV-radiation. Melanoma deserves a spot among hormone-sensitive tumors, and if tamoxifen is re-introduced for future therapy, tissue ratios of estrogen receptors should be obtained beforehand to assess their therapeutic predictive value. Because androgens, estrogens, and their receptors are involved in signaling of commonly mutated melanoma pathways, potential synergistic properties of the recently developed molecular kinase inhibitors that target those pathways may exist. PMID:26415591

  13. A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody

    Hamasaki Hidetaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb negative Graves’s disease (GD is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia forty years ago. She did not show characteristic symptoms for hyperthyroidism, such as swelling of thyroid, exophthalmos, tachycardia and tremor, however, she showed only psychomotor agitation. Serum free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels were elevated and TSH level was suppressed, suggesting the existence of hyperthyroidism. However, both the first generation TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb1 and the thyroid stimulating autoantibody (TSAb were negative. Slightly increased blood flow and swelling was detected by thyroid echography. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse and remarkably elevated uptake of 123I uptake. Finally, we diagnosed her as having GD. She was treated by using methimazole, and hyperthyroidism and her psychiatric symptoms were promptly ameliorated. Discussion We experienced a patient with GD who did not show characteristic symptoms except for psychiatric symptoms, and also showed negativity for both TRAb1 and TSAb. Thyroid autoantibody-negative GD is extremely rare. Thyroid scintigraphy was useful to diagnose such a patient.

  14. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and levels of thyroid hormones in children.

    Osius, N; Karmaus, W; Kruse, H; Witten, J

    1999-10-01

    As part of an epidemiologic study on exposure to a toxic waste incineration plant we investigated whether blood concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and cadmium, as well as concentration of mercury in 24-hr urine samples were associated with thyroid hormone status. As an indication of status, we determined levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT(4)), and free triiodothyronine (FT(3)) in children living in households where [less than/equal to] 10 cigarettes were smoked per day. Eight PCB congeners (PCBs 101, 118, 138, 153, 170, 180, 183, and 187) were measured in whole blood samples. Of these, seven congeners (PCB 101 was not detected in any sample) and the sum of all PCB congeners were analyzed as predictors for thyroid hormone status in separate linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. In addition, the possible effects of cadmium, lead, and mercury on levels of thyroid hormones were examined. Blood concentrations and information on questionnaire data were available for 320 children 7-10 years of age. We found a statistically significant positive association between the mono-ortho congener PCB 118 and TSH as well as statistically significant negative relationships of PCBs 138, 153, 180, 183, and 187 to FT(3). There was no association for the PCB congeners and FT(4). Blood cadmium concentration was associated with increasing TSH and diminishing FT(4). Blood lead and urine concentration of mercury were of no importance to thyroid hormone levels. The results stress the need for future studies on the possible influences of PCB and cadmium exposure on thyroid hormones, particularly in children. These studies should also take neurologic development into account. PMID:10504153

  15. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  16. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  17. Insect Control (II): Hormones and Viruses

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research in the use of hormones and viruses to control insect populations. Although entomologists do not think that pheromones, hormones, and viruses will completely replace more conventional chemical insecticides, they will become increasingly important and will reduce our dependence on traditional insecticides. (JR)

  18. Chronic renal failure and anterior hypophysial hormones.

    Milkov, V; Pironcheva, G; Russev, G

    2001-01-01

    Kidneys are not only organs with an excretory function but they produce their own endocrine factors which are involved in supporting homeostasis in the organism. The kidneys are the organs in which metabolism and biodegradation of many hormones take place. Together with the liver, the kidneys actively take part in the catabolism of hormones. PMID:11318509

  19. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A; Pedersen, L M; Kristensen, L O; Skakkebaek, N E; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  20. Sequential growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly.

    Heffernan, A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the case of a patient with a pituitary tumour presenting initially with growth hormone deficiency and requiring treatment with human growth hormone. Eight years later he represented with acromegaly. This sequence of events has not to my knowledge been reported previously.

  1. Multiple hormonal resistances: Diagnosis, evaluation and therapy.

    Linglart, Agnès; Silve, Caroline; Rothenbuhler, Anya

    2015-05-01

    Molecular alterations of cAMP-mediated signaling affect primarily the signaling of the PTH/PTHrp receptor, and, with different severities the signaling of other hormones, including TSH. The identification of PTH and other hormonal resistances implies to look for the genetic disorder supporting the metabolic disorder. PMID:25913526

  2. Thyroid hormone effects on mitochondrial energetics.

    Harper, Mary-Ellen; Seifert, Erin L

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid hormones are the major endocrine regulators of metabolic rate, and their hypermetabolic effects are widely recognized. The cellular mechanisms underlying these metabolic effects have been the subject of much research. Thyroid hormone status has a profound impact on mitochondria, the organelles responsible for the majority of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, mechanisms are not well understood. We review the effects of thyroid hormones on mitochondrial energetics and principally oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic and nongenomic mechanisms have been studied. Through the former, thyroid hormones stimulate mitochondriogenesis and thereby augment cellular oxidative capacity. Thyroid hormones induce substantial modifications in mitochondrial inner membrane protein and lipid compositions. Results are consistent with the idea that thyroid hormones activate the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation through various mechanisms involving inner membrane proteins and lipids. Increased uncoupling appears to be responsible for some of the hypermetabolic effects of thyroid hormones. ATP synthesis and turnover reactions are also affected. There appear to be complex relationships between mitochondrial proton leak mechanisms, reactive oxygen species production, and thyroid status. As the majority of studies have focused on the effects of thyroid status on rat liver preparations, there is still a need to address fundamental questions regarding thyroid hormone effects in other tissues and species. PMID:18279015

  3. An alternative look at insects hormones

    Sláma, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2015), s. 188-204. ISSN 2325-081X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * ecdysteroidal vitamin D6 * corpus allatum hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://blaypublishers.com/2015/10/31/leb-33-2015/

  4. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  5. Is it Safe to Take Hormones to Treat Menopause Symptoms?

    Is it Safe to Take Hormones to Treat Menopause Symptoms? First, it is good to understand what hormones do. Hormones ... messengers. These messengers let the body know what it needs to do or not do. Visit your ...

  6. Physiology and clinical significance of natriuretic hormones

    Sandeep Chopra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The natriuretic system consists of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP and four other similar peptides including the wrongly named brain natriuretic peptide (BNP. Chemically they are small peptide hormones predominantly secreted by the cardiac myocytes in response to stretching forces. The peptide hormones have multiple renal, hemodynamic, and antiproliferative effects through three different kinds of natriuretic receptors. Clinical interest in these peptide hormones was initially stimulated by the use of these peptides as markers to differentiate cardiac versus noncardiac causes of breathlessness. Subsequently work has been done on using these peptides to prognosticate patients with acute and chronic heart failure and those with acute myocardial infraction. Synthetic forms of both atrial- and brain-natriuretic peptides have been studied and approved for use in acute heart failure with mixed results. This review focuses on the biochemistry and physiology of this fascinating hormone system and the clinical application of these hormones.

  7. Sex hormone exposure during pregnancy and malformations.

    Briggs, M H; Briggs, M

    1979-01-01

    This general review of the effects of exposure to sex hormones during pregnancy and subsequent fetal malformation presents summaries of animal studies, develops the data indicating virilization and feminization in humans, documents chromosome abnormalities, and presents data on the connection of steroid exposure in utero and somatic malformations. Fetal exposure can occur 3 different ways, through hormonal pregnancy test, via obstetrical use of hormones, or because of continued maternal use of oral contraceptives after conception. In the latter case, an ongoing prospective study indicates that accidental ingestion of oral contraceptives after conception is not harmful to the fetus if taken during early pregnancy. Tables present summaries of numerous large surveys and retrospective studies linking particular sex hormones (exogenous) to particular fetal malformations including neural tube defects and other constellations of developmental problems. The question of exogenous hormone effects on the personality of infants who were exposed in utero is addressed. PMID:400321

  8. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Lidegaard, Ojvind

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  9. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Saenger Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  10. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  11. Growth hormone in polymethylmethacrylate cement.

    Downes, S; Wood, D J; Malcolm, A J; Ali, S Y

    1990-03-01

    The in vitro release of human growth hormone (hGH) from polymethylmethacrylate bone cement was measured for up to 40 days using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In rabbits, hGH-loaded bone cement was inserted into one distal femur and plain cement was inserted into the contralateral distal femur as a control. The rabbits were killed at time intervals of one, two, and four months after surgery and the distal femurs embedded whole for histology. Quantitative histomorphometry indicated there was a greater percentage of osteoid present at the hGH-loaded cement surface than at the plain cement surface one month after implantation. The hGH released from bone cement may stimulate osteogenesis and new bone formation, thus improving the strength of the bone-cement interface. PMID:2302894

  12. Thyroid hormones, learning and memory.

    Rivas, M; Naranjo, J R

    2007-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), T3 and T4, have many physiological actions and are essential for normal behavioral, intellectual and neurological development. THs have a broad spectrum of effects on the developing brain and mediate important effects within the CNS throughout life. Insufficient maternal iodine intake during gestation and TH deficiency during human development are associated to pathological alterations such as cretinism and mental retardation. In adulthood, thyroid dysfunction is related to neurological and behavioral abnormalities, including memory impairment. Analysis of different experimental models suggests that most of the effects on cognition as a result of thyroid dysfunction rely on hippocampal modifications. Insufficiency of THs during development thus alters hippocampal synaptic function and impairs behavioral performance of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks that persist in euthyroid adult animals. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge obtained by clinical observations and experimental models that shows the importance of THs in learning and mnemonic processes. PMID:17543038

  13. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. PMID:18385901

  14. Thyroid hormone and reproduction in goldfish

    Hamid R Habibi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As in many vertebrates, fish reproduction is regulated by environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. During reproductive season a significant amount of metabolic energy is diverted to development of ovary and testis through precise regulation of brain-pituitary-peripheral axis by a number of key hormones, including pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroids. Since thyroid hormones are important regulator of metabolism and development in vertebrates, we investigated the possibility that thyroid hormones may mediate a change from gonadotropic to somatotropic state. Multiple experiments were performed across the four reproductive seasons to test the effects of triiodothyronine (T3 on estrogen and androgen receptors in the liver, testis and ovary as well as secretion of gonadal steroids and expression of pituitary glycoprotein hormone subunits (TSH?, LH? & FSH? and aromatase. Previous studies suggested that thyroid hormones influence reproduction in vertebrates, but little information is available on the mechanisms. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that thyroid hormones regulate pituitary hormone and gonadal steroid production in fish. The results demonstrate that thyroid hormone, (T3 regulates estrogen level as well as estrogen receptor subtypes (ER alpha, beta-1 and beta-II in the testis and ovary of goldfish. We also observed that T3 influence pituitary gonadotropin and gonadal aromatase gene expression in goldfish. Collectively, it appears that T3 acts to diminish gonadotropic response by influencing hormone production as well as decreasing sensitivity to estrogen by down-regulating the estrogen receptor subtypes. We propose that thyroid hormones play a role in switching energy expenditure from reproductive to growth in goldfish. Funded by NSERC grants to HRH.

  15. Transport of thyroid hormones is selectively inhibited by 3-iodothyronamine

    Ianculescu, Alexandra G.; Friesema, Edith C.H.; Visser, Theo J; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Scanlan, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormone transporters are responsible for the cellular uptake of thyroid hormones, which is a prerequisite for their subsequent metabolism and action at nuclear thyroid hormone receptors. A recently discovered thyroid hormone derivative, 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), has distinct biological effects that are opposite those of thyroid hormone. Here we investigate the effects of T1AM on thyroid hormone transporters using COS-1 cells transfected with the multispecific organic anion transportin...

  16. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results may suggest window of susceptibility to BPA in later gestation. • BPA potentially has greatest adverse effect on girls with iodine deficient mothers

  17. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    Romano, Megan E., E-mail: megan_romano@brown.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States); Webster, Glenys M. [Child and Family Research Institute, BC Children' s and Women' s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Vuong, Ann M. [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas Zoeller, R. [Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Chen, Aimin [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hoofnagle, Andrew N. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center and Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH (United States); Yolton, Kimberly [Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lanphear, Bruce P. [Child and Family Research Institute, BC Children' s and Women' s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Braun, Joseph M. [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results may suggest window of susceptibility to BPA in later gestation. • BPA potentially has greatest adverse effect on girls with iodine deficient mothers.

  18. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Some cytotoxic analogues also significantly suppressed the growth of mammary and prostate cancers in vivo in animal models. PMID:1310542

  19. Sialadenitis following low dose I-131 diagnostic thyroid scan with Thyrogen (recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone--thyrotropin alfa).

    Gonzalez, Marta E; Muttikkal, Thomas Jose Eluvathingal; Rehm, Patrice K

    2015-06-01

    Salivary dysfunction and sialadenitis are well known complications of radioiodine treatment for thyroid cancer. The parotid gland is more frequently affected and the salivary gland injury is dose related. The symptoms may develop shortly after therapeutic Iodine 131(I-131) administration or months later and progress with time. The development of unilateral parotiditis following a low dose, diagnostic I-131 scan performed following Thyrogen stimulation in a patient without prior history of sialadenitis is rare in our experience, and has not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:26622936

  20. Sialadenitis following low dose I-131 diagnostic thyroid scan with Thyrogen (recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone - thyrotropin alfa)

    Gonzalez, Marta E; Muttikkal, Thomas Jose Eluvathingal; Rehm, Patrice K.

    2015-01-01

    Salivary dysfunction and sialadenitis are well known complications of radioiodine treatment for thyroid cancer. The parotid gland is more frequently affected and the salivary gland injury is dose related. The symptoms may develop shortly after therapeutic Iodine 131(I-131) administration or months later and progress with time. The development of unilateral parotiditis following a low dose, diagnostic I-131 scan performed following Thyrogen stimulation in a patient without prior history of sia...

  1. Sialadenitis following low dose I-131 diagnostic thyroid scan with Thyrogen (recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone - thyrotropin alfa)

    Gonzalez, Marta E; Muttikkal, Thomas Jose Eluvathingal; Rehm, Patrice K

    2015-01-01

    Salivary dysfunction and sialadenitis are well known complications of radioiodine treatment for thyroid cancer. The parotid gland is more frequently affected and the salivary gland injury is dose related. The symptoms may develop shortly after therapeutic Iodine 131(I-131) administration or months later and progress with time. The development of unilateral parotiditis following a low dose, diagnostic I-131 scan performed following Thyrogen stimulation in a patient without prior history of sialadenitis is rare in our experience, and has not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:26622936

  2. Regulation of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Release from the Pituitary by Thyroxine during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis

    Environmentally-relevant chemicals such as perchlorate have the ability to disrupt the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of exposed individuals. Larval anurans are a particularly suitable model species for studying the effects of thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) becaus...

  3. Serum thyroxin (T/sub 4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in cord blood of newborns in Lahore

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was the early detection and treatment of hypothyroidism in neonates. This paper describes the determination of cord blood serum T/sub 4/ and TSH levels, their mean levels reference ranges and interrelationship. Results: Mean (Plus minus SD) T/sub 4) leveling cord blood serum was 115 plus minus 36 nmol/L (range: 15-350 nmol/L) and mean TSH level was found to be 5.6 plus minus 5.1 mlU/L (range: 0.05 - 150). The reference range for T/sub 4/ and TSH was 49-189 nmol/L and 0.4-17.6 mlU/L respectively. A trend in T/sub 4/ and TSH levels distributions towards higher values was noted Serum T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were not correlated significantly. Except at lowest and highest levels no reciprocal relationship between T/sub 4/ and TSH levels was found as is observed in adults. T/sub 4/ and TSH levels no reciprocal relationship between T/sub 4/ and TSH levels was found as is observed in adults. T/sub 4/ and TSH levels in 90% neonates were between 60-173 nmol/L and 1.0-14.2 mlU/L respectively. Conclusion: In most neonates, level of cord serum T/sub 4/ was independent of TSH level. Mean T/sub 4/ and TSH levels and their normal ranges were lower as compared to an iodine-sufficient country like USA. In 11.4% of neonates TSH levels were above 10 mlU/L, corresponding to mild degree of iodine deficiency disorders in Lahore. (author)

  4. Characterization of recombinant human and bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone preparations by mass spectrometry and determination of their endotoxin content

    Schaefer, S.; Hassa, P O; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Piechotta, M.; Reusch, C E; Roschitzki, B; Boretti, F S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The TSH stimulation test to confirm canine hypothyroidism is commonly performed using a recombinant human TSH (rhTSH), as up to date, canine TSH is not yet commercially available. Limiting factors for the use of rhTSH are its high costs and occasional difficulties in product availability. Less expensive bovine TSH preparations (bTSH) purified from bovine pituitary glands are readily commercially available. The aim of this study was to evaluate two different bTSH products as altern...

  5. Characteristics of hormonal profile of children with allergic diseases

    Shumna T.Ye.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to determine features of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases, the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and cortisol were investigated in 110 children in the age from 6 to 17 years. Of them 79 children with allergic diseases (40 children from Zaporozhye and 39 children – from eco¬friendly clean Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area and 31 healthy children (16 children - from Zaporozhye and 15 - with conventionally ecofriendly clean districts of the Zaporozhye area. Levels of hormones (ACTH (pg/ml, TSH (mkIU/ml, cortisol (ng/ml were determined through diagnostic test systems by a standard method in laboratories of the Zaporozhуe state medical university. By research results it is set, that in the conditions of large industrial city Zaporozhуe, forming of allergic pathology in children took place during activating of the hypophysis-adrenal system with the increase of TSH, cortisol, ACTH secretion with a high risk of exhaustion of immunoreactions and persistence of antigens; this was confir¬med by increase of values of their medians in relation to healthy children. In children with allergic diseases, habitants of ecologically favourable Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area, vice versa, lower indexes of medians of ACTH, TSH and cortisol were registered; this testifies to sup¬pression of hypothalamus function and hypophysis system with violation of protective reaction and adaptation mechanisms in response to forming of allergic inflammation. Thus, adjusting of hormonal activity by principle of ne¬gative reverse link in children with allergic diseases was not executed, regardless of place of residence. In addition, indexes of median of ACTH, TSH, cortisol in children with different clinical forms of allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis in comparison to healthy ones, testified that for children with bronchial asthma the highest level of index of medians of ACTH (37,39 (29,1-56,11 pg/ml and cortisol (249,23 (169,57-293,83 ng/ml was registered, for children with a rhin¬allergosis – indexes of medians of cortisol were the lowest (84,69 (84,06-92,81 ng/ml, and indexes of medians of TSH were reliably higher only in comparing groups of children with bronchial asthma (2,73 (1,13-3,18 mkMU/ml with healthy (1,96 (1,59-1,99 mkMU/ml. As a result of the conducted research, it was well-proven that indexes of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases depend not only on their place of residence but also on the clinical forms of allergic pathology; this must be taken into account in individual selection of doses and duration of treatment even by inhalation and by topical glucocorthicosteroid agents.

  6. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men.

    Taylor, Marcus K; Kviatkovsky, Shiloah A; Hernández, Lisa M; Sargent, Paul; Segal, Sabrina; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    We recently characterized the awakening responses and daily profiles of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol in elite military men. Anabolic hormones follow a similar daily pattern and may counteract the catabolic effects of cortisol. This companion report is the first to characterize daily profiles of anabolic hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone in this population. Overall, the men in this study displayed anabolic hormone profiles comparable to that of healthy, athletic populations. Consistent with the cortisol findings in our prior report, summary parameters of magnitude (hormone output) within the first hour after awakening displayed superior stability versus summary parameters of pattern for both DHEA (r range: 0.77-0.82) and testosterone (r range: 0.62-0.69). Summary parameters of evening function were stable for the two hormones (both p<0.001), while the absolute decrease in testosterone across the day was a stable proxy of diurnal function (p<0.001). Removal of noncompliant subjects did not appreciably affect concentration estimates for either hormone at any time point, nor did it alter the repeatability of any summary parameter. The first of its kind, this report enables accurate estimations of anabolic balance and resultant effects upon health and human performance in this highly resilient yet chronically stressed population. PMID:27083310

  7. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  8. [Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system].

    Fraczek, Magdalena Maria; Łacka, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that thyroid hormones affect the cardiovascular system through genomic and nongenomic actions. TRalpha1 is the major thyroid hormone receptor in the heart. T3 suppresses increased mitotic activity of stimulated cardiomyocytes. Hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and the chronotropic and inotropic properties of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism, however, is characterized by opposite changes. In addition, thyroid hormones decrease peripheral vascular resistance, influence the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS), and increase blood volume and erythropoetin secretion with subsequent increased preload and cardiac output. Thyroid hormones play an important role in cardiac electrophysiology and have both pro- and anti-arrhytmic potential. Thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with a less favorable lipid profile. Selective modulation of the TRbeta1 receptor is considered as a potential therapeutic target to treat dyslipidemia without cardiac side effects. Thyroid hormones have a beneficial effect on limiting myocardial ischemic injury, preventing and reversing cardiac remodeling and improving cardiac hemodynamics in endstage heart failure. This is crucial because a low T3 syndrome accompanies both acute and chronic cardiac diseases. PMID:25345279

  9. Radioimmunoassay of pituitary and hypothalamic hormones

    Radioimunoassay (RIA) systems have been developed to quantitate virtually every hormone available in pure form. This exquisitely sensitive technique has revolutionized the fields of endocrine physiology and clinical endocrinology. Bioassay techniques which have been employed for many years are not sufficiently sensitive to measure accurately all the anterior pituitary hormones in plasma; the development of RIAs in biologic fluids and tissues has permitted studies which have greatly expanded our knowledge of the factors involved in an anterior pituitary hormone synthesis, metabolism, and action. A chapter on the general principles of RIAs for anterior pituitary hormones would have the disadvantage of being repetitive, several excellent reviews on this topic being already available in the literature. In view of these points, this chapter, in addition to quoting many papers from the literature describing the technical procedures of pituitary hormone RIAs in several animal species, will focus on some aspects thought to be of peculiar interest. More space will be given to the second part of the chapter, on the RIA detection of hypophysiotropic neurohormones. This is an expanding field on endocrinology, particularly after the recent recognition of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Besides a description of the general problems related to the assay of hypophysiotropic peptides and a critical assessment of available techniques, the significance of determinations of these peptides in brain areas or biologic fluid as an index of neuronal function will be considered

  10. Significance of total and free thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in chronic hepatitis B patients and normal controls

    Hepatitis B destroys the liver cells. Proteins (albumin, pre albumin and thyroid binding globulin) produced by liver cells play an important role in metabolism and transport of thyroid hormones, therefore liver dysfunction is likely to disturb the transport of thyroid hormones resulting in disease. To determine the significance of thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in Chronic Hepatitis B patients. It was a cross sectional study conducted at National Health Research Complex (NHRC) and department of Gastroenterology Sheikh Zayed Medical Complex Lahore. One hundred Chronic Hepatitis B patients diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reaction were matched with 100 healthy persons, served as control, were selected for total and free thyroid hormones using ELISA, while serum proteins were estimated spectrophotometrically. Serum total protein levels were within the normal range in both Chronic Hepatitis B patients and controls with mean value of 6.55 g/dl and 7.2 g/dl respectively, however serum albumin levels were lower in Chronic Hepatitis B patients (mean 2.69 g/dl) as compared to controls (mean 4.1 g/dl). Serum globulin was increased (4.09 g/dl) in patients as compared to controls (mean 3.1 g/dl).Albumin globulin ratio was 1(mean 13.5). Consequently, increased globulin resulted in more binding of T4 (mean 194 nmol/L) in Chronic Hepatitis B patients as compared to controls (mean 123 nmol/L). Conversion of T4 to T3 in Chronic Hepatitis B cases was also disturbed resulting in slight decrease of total T3 (mean 1.77 nmol/L) as compared to controls (mean 2.3 nmol/L). Free T3 (mean 3.56 pmol/L) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (mean 0.68 mIU/ml) also showed slight decrease when compared with controls (mean 4.5 pmol/L, mean 1.52 mIU/ml). FT4 remained within normal range in both the groups. In Chronic Hepatitis B related liver disease and cirrhosis, serum albumin levels go down while globulins go up and these changes alter the binding of thyroid hormones and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone resulting in disturbance in thyroid hormone levels. (author)

  11. The relationship between perchlorate in drinking water and cord blood thyroid hormones: First experience from Iran

    Ashraf Javidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the controversial information regarding the effects of perchlorate on thyroid function of high risk population as neonates, and given the high prevalence rate of thyroid disorders specially congenital hypothyroidism in our region, this study aims to investigate for the first time in Iran, the relationship between drinking groundwater perchlorate and cord blood thyroid hormones level in an industrial region. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, drinking groundwater perchlorate level of rural areas of Zarinshahr, Isfahan was measured. Simultaneously, cord blood level of thyroid hormones of neonates born in the studied region was measured. Thyroid function test of neonates in regions with low and high perchlorate level were compared. Results: In this study, 25 tap water samples were obtained for perchlorate measurement. Level of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, T4 and T3 of 25 neonates were measured. Mean (standard deviation of perchlorate, TSH, T4 and T3 was 3.59 (5.10 μg/l, 7.81 (4.14 mIU/m, 6.06 (0.85 mg/dl, and 63.46 (17.53 mg/dl, respectively. Mean levels of thyroid function tests were not different in low ( 0.05. Conclusions: Perchlorate did not appear to be related to thyroid function of neonates in the studied industrial region. It seems that iodine status of the regions, as well as other environmental contaminants and genetic background, could impact on its relation with thyroid function of neonates.

  12. Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole

    Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18–357 μg/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23–435 μg/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

  13. Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole

    Tietge, Joseph E., E-mail: tietge.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Degitz, Sigmund J., E-mail: degitz.sigmund@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Haselman, Jonathan T., E-mail: haselman.jon@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Butterworth, Brian C., E-mail: butterworth.brian@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Korte, Joseph J., E-mail: korte.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Kosian, Patricia A., E-mail: kosian.pat@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie J., E-mail: lind1020@d.umn.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); and others

    2013-01-15

    Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18-357 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23-435 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

  14. Subacute Microcystin-LR Exposure Alters the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio Rerio

    Zidong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystin-LR (MC-LR has been detected extensively in the aquatic environment and has the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system. However, limited information is available on the effects of subacute MC-LR exposure on fish thyroid hormone (TH metabolism. In the present study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio were exposed to MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 28 days. Whole-body TH content and thyroid follicle histology were used as direct endpoints to assess thyroid disruption. The activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs and the transcription of selected genes associated with TH synthesis were also investigated to study the underlying mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Exposure of zebrafish to MC-LR significantly increased whole-body thyroxine (T4 content but decreased whole-body triiodothyronine (T3 content. We also observed hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid follicle epithelial cells, as well as up-regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid peroxidase (TPO, and transthyretin (TTR genes. The decreases in ID1 and ID2 activities coupled with an increase in ID3 activity were observed in MC-LR treatment groups. These results demonstrate that exposure to MC-LR at environmental concentrations results in the disturbance of TH homeostasis by disrupting the synthesis and conversion of THs.

  15. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe...... suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular...

  16. Impact of Growth Hormone on Cystatin C

    Sze, Lisa; Bernays, René L; Zwimpfer, Cornelia; Wiesli, Peter; Brändle, Michael; Schmid, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC) is an alternative marker to creatinine for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hormones such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids are known to have an impact on CysC. In this study, we examined the effect of growth hormone (GH) on CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS: Creatinine, CysC, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in 24 patients with acromegaly before and following transs...

  17. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  18. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Gutkowska J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

  19. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-11-10

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity. PMID:26504234

  20. The effect of thyroid hormone and bone metablism-associated growth factor on the patients of hyperthyreosis

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of high concentration of thyroid hormone and cell growth factor content on the bone metabolism of hyperthyreosis. Methods: Radiation immunological test and chemiluminescence methods are employed to determinate the content of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), insulin-like growth factor II(IGF-II), calcitonic (CT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) of serum in health adult and parts of hyperthyreosis patients. Results: Hyperthyreosis patients have a higher content of FT4, FT3 and IL-6 than those of health adult (t was 16.69,11.33,7.92, respectively, P<0.01), while the content of TSH, IGF-II, CT, TNF are obvious decreasing (t was 13.08, 8.34, 5.29, 8.75, respectively, P<0.01). Conclusion: In patients with hyperthyreosis, high concentration thyroid hormone cause accentuation of protein metabolism, decrease calcium homeostasis by disorders of phosphorus and calcium metabolism, high concentration thyroid hormone and low level CT resulted in bone loss. Decreased ICF-II may be the main cause of osteoporosis as the result of high concentration thyroid hormone. (authors)

  1. STATUS SOSIAL-EKONOMI DAN KADAR HORMON TIROTROPIN RUMAH-TANGGA PENGGUNA GARAM BERIDOIUM DI PERKOTAAN INDONESIA : ANALISIS DATA RISKESDAS 2007 (SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND THYROTROPIN HORMONE LEVEL OF HOUSEHOLDS USING IODIZED SALT IN INDONESIAN URBAN : ANA

    Djoko Kartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iodized salt is the long term and sustainable strategy to improve iodine intakeof the community.Level of thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin hormone can be used as indicator of iodine intake adequacy. To study the socio-economic status of households using iodized salt and thyrotropin hormone level in urban areas. Riskesdas data 2007 that include 280.000 households was used.Thyrotropin hormone data include 9.457 people aged above 1 years. Variables included classification of village, rapid test on salt, education and occupation of households’ head, household expenditure and level of thyrotropin hormone. Around 80 percentof households where households’ head graduated from college/university used salt containing sufficient iodine. Only 18 percent households with households’ headworks as government workers used salt containing sufficient iodine. Around 70 percent households in 5th quintile of household’s expenditure were using salt with sufficient iodine content. Around 70 percent households in urban areas were using salt withsufficient iodine content.Among children 1-4 years, percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormon level was 3.3 percentand among 60 years of age and above was 15.8 percent. The higher the educational levelthe higher the percentage of households used salt with sufficient iodine. Percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine was higher in urban than in rural areas. The higher the quintiles of household expenditures the higher the percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine. There was a trend that the higher the age the higher the percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormone level. Keywords: householdsalt, education, occupation, urban, rural, expenditure, thyrotropin hormone   ABSTRAK Garam beriodium merupakan strategi jangka panjang dan berkesinambungan untuk memperbaiki asupan iodium masyarakat. Sementara itu, kadar thyroid stimulating hormone (hormon tirotropin dapat digunakan sebagai indikator kecukupan asupan iodium. Meneliti status sosial-ekonomi rumah-tangga yang menggunakan garam beriodium dan kadar hormon tirotropin di perkotaan.  Data yang digunakan untuk artikel ini adalah data Riskesdas 2007 yang mencakup 280.000 rumah-tangga. Data hormon tirotropin mencakup 9.457 individu umur 1 tahun keatas. Variabel yang digunakan untuk makalah ini meliputi klasifikasi desa, tes cepat pada garam, pendidikan dan pekerjaan kepala keluarga (KK, kadar hormon tirotropin. Sekitar 80 persen rumah-tangga,dimana KK tamat perguruan tinggi, menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium. Hanya 18 persen rumah-tangga yang KK-nya bekerja sebagai pegawai negeri menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium. Sekitar 70 persen rumah-tangga pada kuintil 5 pengeluaran rumah-tangga menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium. Sekitar 70 persen rumah-tangga di perkotaan menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium.Pada umur 1-4 tahun, persentase hormon tirotropin kategori rendah adalah 3,3 persen dan pada umur 60 tahun keatas adalah 15,8 persen.  Semakin tinggi tingkat pendidikan kepala rumah-tangga semakin tinggi persentase rumah-tangga yang menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium. Persentase rumah-tangga yang menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium adalah lebih tinggi di perkotaan dibandingkan di perdesaan.Semakin tinggi kuintil pengeluaran rumah-tangga semakin tinggi persentase rumah-tangga yang menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium. Ada kecenderungan semakin tinggi umur semakin tinggi persentase kadar tirotropin kategori rendah. [Penel Gizi Makan 2012, 35(2: 90-98] Kata kunci: garam rumah-tangga, pendidikan, pekerjaan, perkotaan, perdesaan, pengeluaran, hormon tirotropin

  2. Growth hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in liver cirrhosis: unique alteration in anterior pituitary responsiveness to hypothalamic hormones.

    Salerno, F; Cocchi, D; Lampertico, M; Manneschi, M; Monza, G; Müller, E E

    1982-09-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases were evaluated for: 1) the ability of somatostatin to affect the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) induced growth hormone (GH) rise; 2) the competence of luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) to release GH; 3) the non-specific releasing effect of TRH and LH-RH on other anterior pituitary (AP) hormones. In 6 patients, infusion of somatostatin (100 micrograms iv bolus + 375 micrograms i.v. infusion) completely abolished the TRH (400 micrograms i.v.)-induced GH rise; in none of 12 patients, of whom 7 were GH-responders to TRH, did LH-RH (100 micrograms i.v.) cause release of GH; 4) finally, LH-RH (12 patients) did not increase plasma prolactin (PRL) and TRH (7 patients) did not evoke a non-specific release of gonadotropins. It is concluded that: 1) abnormal GH-responsiveness to TRH is the unique alteration in AP responsiveness to hypothalamic hormones present in liver cirrhosis; 2) the mechanism(s) subserving the altered GH response to TRH is different from that underlying the TRH-induced GH rise present in another pathologic state i.e. acromegaly, a condition in which the effect of TRH escapes somatostatin suppression and LH-RH evokes GH and PRL release. PMID:6128295

  3. Osteoporotic fracture and parathyroid hormone

    Nabanita S Datta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption, resulting in bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. Stimulating the function of bone-forming osteoblasts, is the preferred pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. Recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH, PTH(1-34, is an anabolic agent with proven benefits to bone strength and has been characterized as a potential therapy for skeletal repair. In spite of PTH’s clinical use, safety is a major consideration for long-term treatment. Studies have demonstrated that intermittent PTH treatment enhances and accelerates the skeletal repair process via a number of mechanisms. Recent research into the molecular mechanism of PTH action on bone tissue has led to the development of PTH analogs to control osteoporotic fractures. This review summarizes a number of advances made in the field of PTH and bone fracture to combat these injuries in humans and in animal models. The ultimate goal of providing an alternative to PTH, currently the sole anabolic therapy in clinical use, to promote bone formation and improve bone strength in the aging population is yet to be achieved.

  4. Considerations in parathyroid hormone testing.

    Cavalier, Etienne; Plebani, Mario; Delanaye, Pierre; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a major player in phosphocalcic metabolism and its measurement is very important for the correct diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. PTH determination represents the paradigm of quality in laboratory medicine as many variables in the pre-, intra-, and post-analytical phases strongly affect the value of the clinical information. Analytical determination of PTH has been rendered difficult by the presence, in the circulation, of truncated fragments that can cross-react with the antibodies used for its determination. In addition, pre-analytical phase is complicated by the lack of stability of the peptide and the best sample to use for its determination remains controversial, as well as sample handling and storage. PTH secretion is also affected by circadian and seasonal rhythms and by physical exercise. Finally, from the post-analytical perspective, establishment of reliable reference ranges requires further efforts as the selection criteria for reference subjects should take into consideration new variables such as gender, race and vitamin D levels. Finally, clinical guidelines have recently revised and improved the criteria for a correct interpretation of PTH values. PMID:26035114

  5. Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls

    Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T4 and T3. In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T4 and T3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T4 and T3. Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

  6. Neuroendocrine hormone amylin in diabetes

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Pan, Yan-Hong; Huang, Yan-Mei; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine hormone amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide, is co-localized, co-packaged and co-secreted with insulin from adult pancreatic islet β cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Specifically, amylin reduces secretion of nutrient-stimulated glucagon, regulates blood pressure with an effect on renin-angiotensin system, and delays gastric emptying. The physiological actions of human amylin attribute to the conformational α-helix monomers whereas the misfolding instable oligomers may be detrimental to the islet β cells and further transform to β-sheet fibrils as amyloid deposits. No direct evidence proves that the amylin fibrils in amyloid deposits cause diabetes. Here we also have performed a systematic review of human amylin gene changes and reported the S20G mutation is minor in the development of diabetes. In addition to the metabolic effects, human amylin may modulate autoimmunity and innate inflammation through regulatory T cells to impact on both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  7. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    ABSTRACTThe pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  8. Radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in plasma

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed capable of measuring LH-RH in extracted human plasma. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin and most of LH-RH analogues did not appear to affect the assay. Hypothalamic extract and some of the LH-RH analogues produced displacement curves which were parallel to the curve obtained with the synthetic LH-RH. Sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay was about 3 pg per assay tube. The coefficient of variation of intraassays was 6.4%, while that of interassays was 9.6%. Exogenous LH-RH could be quantitatively extracted by acidic ethanol when varying amounts of synthetic LH-RH were added to the plasma. Immunoreactivity of LH-RH was preserved in plasma for 2 hrs in the cold but was gradually reduced thereafter. The plasma levels of LH-RH were 20 pg/ml or less in normal adults and not detectable in children. Aged males over 60 yr and postmenopausal women showed a tendency to have higher levels of plasma LH-RH. The plasma LH-RH level was significantly higher in midcycle than in the follicular or luteal stages. The disappearance rate of LH-RH from the circulation after intravenous injection could be represented as half-times of 4-6 min. Between 0.2-0.4% of the injected dose was excreted into urine within 1 hr. These results indicate that the determination of LH-RH might be a useful tool for elucidating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad interactions. (auth.)

  9. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L; Horvath, E; Billestrup, Nils; Gonzalez-Manchon, C; Vale, W

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH......-transgenic mice, 16 to 24 months of age, develop pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas. These findings provide conclusive evidence that protracted stimulation of secretory activity can cause proliferation, hyperplasia and adenoma of adenohypophysial cells....

  10. Stress increases putative gonadotropin inhibitory hormone and decreases luteinizing hormone in male rats

    Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Geraghty, Anna C; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George E.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The subjective experience of stress leads to reproductive dysfunction in many species, including rodents and humans. Stress effects on reproduction result from multilevel interactions between the hormonal stress response system, i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and the hormonal reproductive system, i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis. A novel negative regulator of the HPG axis known as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was recently discovered in quail,...

  11. Somatotropin adenoma and resistance to thyroid hormone.

    Berker, D; Aydin, Y; Tutuncu, Y A; Isik, S; Delibasi, T; Berker, M; Guler, S; Kamel, N

    2009-03-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare disease characterized by non-suppressed TSH in spite of high free thyroid hormone levels. Up to date, in the literature, there are more than 600 RTH cases, but co-incidental hypophyseal adenoma was reported in only 1 case. In the literature, despite reported cases with thyrotropinoma accompanying RTH, we could not find a case with somatotropinoma accompanying RTH. Here, we report a 34-yr-old male patient, who was admitted to the hospital with complaints of dyspnea, chest pain, and palpitation in 2003. His alpha- subunit value was normal and the alpha-subunit/TSH molar ratio was acromegaly. Immunohistochemistry was showed as strong GH staining with low Ki 67 index while TSH and other anterior hypophyseal hormones stainings were negative. Post-operative thyroid hormones were still high. PMID:19542750

  12. FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    ... youth within this age range. Some of the causes for delayed puberty can include: Dysfunction of the ovaries or testicles Hormone deficiency Turner syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Chronic infections Cancer Eating disorder (anorexia nervosa) ^ Back to top Is there anything ...

  13. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion.

    Steyn, Frederik J; Tolle, Virginie; Chen, Chen; Epelbaum, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the main findings that emerged in the intervening years since the previous volume on hormonal control of growth in the section on the endocrine system of the Handbook of Physiology concerning the intra- and extrahypothalamic neuronal networks connecting growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin hypophysiotropic neurons and the integration between regulators of food intake/metabolism and GH release. Among these findings, the discovery of ghrelin still raises many unanswered questions. One important event was the application of deconvolution analysis to the pulsatile patterns of GH secretion in different mammalian species, including Man, according to gender, hormonal environment and ageing. Concerning this last phenomenon, a great body of evidence now supports the role of an attenuation of the GHRH/GH/Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis in the control of mammalian aging. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:687-735, 2016. PMID:27065166

  14. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C; Moser, K; Reeves, G; Peto, R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective...... studies. Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with <5 years...

  15. Innovations in classical hormonal targets for endometriosis.

    Pluchino, Nicola; Freschi, Letizia; Wenger, Jean-Marie; Streuli, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that affects approximately 10% of women in reproductive age. Several evidences show that endometriosis lesions are associated to hormonal imbalance, including estrogen synthesis, metabolism and responsiveness and progesterone resistance. These hormonal alterations influence the ability of endometrial cells to proliferate, migrate and to infiltrate the mesothelium, causing inflammation, pain and infertility. Hormonal imbalance in endometriosis represents also a target for treatment. We provide an overview on therapeutic strategies based on innovations of classical hormonal mechanisms involved in the development of endometriosis lesions. The development phase of new molecules targeting these pathways is also discussed. Endometriosis is a chronic disease involving young women and additional biological targets of estrogen and progesterone pharmacological manipulation (brain, bone and cardiovascular tissue) need to be carefully considered in order to improve and overcome current limits of long-term medical management of endometriosis. PMID:26645363

  16. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  17. Thyroid Hormone Control of Cardiac Substrate Metabolism

    Hyyti Villet, Outi

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an important role in maintaining a homeostasis in all the cells of our body. It also has significant cardiovascular effects, and abnormalities of its concentration can cause cardiovascular disease and even morbidity. Especially development of heart failure has been connected to low levels of thyroid hormone. A decrease in TH levels or TH-receptor binding adversely effects cardiac function. Although, this occurs in part through alterations in excitation-contraction a...

  18. Positioning the nodule, the hormone dictum

    DING, Yiliang; Oldroyd, Giles ED

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a nitrogen-fixing nodule involves two diverse developmental processes in the legume root: infection thread initiation in epidermal cells and nodule primordia formation in the cortex. Several plant hormones have been reported to positively or negatively regulate nodulation. These hormones function at different stages in the nodulation process and may facilitate the coordinated development of the epidermal and cortical developmental programs that are necessary to allow bacteria...

  19. Reproductive hormone replacement alters sleep in mice

    Paul, Ketema N.; Laposky, Aaron D.; Turek, Fred W.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have reported that reproductive hormones can alter baseline sleep-wake states, however, no studies in mice have examined whether reproductive hormone replacement in adult females and males influences sleep. In this study, we determined whether androgen replacement in males and estrogen replacement in females alter sleep-wake amount and sleep rebound after extended wakefulness. The gonads from adult male and female C57BL/6J mice were removed and animals were implanted with cont...

  20. Mammographic breast density and postmenopausal hormone therapy

    Lundström, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women in the western world. More than one million women are estimated to be diagnosed with the disease every year. The breast is a target organ for sex steroids and hormonal treatments have been found to increase the risk for breast cancer. Still basic knowledge about the effects of hormonal therapy on the normal postmenopausal breast is very poor. Mammographic breast density is a radiological phenomenon; the mammograph...

  1. Thyroid hormone and reproduction in goldfish

    Hamid R. Habibi

    2010-01-01

    As in many vertebrates, fish reproduction is regulated by environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. During reproductive season a significant amount of metabolic energy is diverted to development of ovary and testis through precise regulation of brain-pituitary-peripheral axis by a number of key hormones, including pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroids. Since thyroid hormones are important regulator of metabolism and development in vertebrates, we investigated the possibil...

  2. Sex Steroidal Hormones and Respiratory Control

    Behan, Mary; Wenninger, Julie M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing public awareness that sex hormones can have an impact on a variety of physiological processes. Yet, despite almost a century of research, we still do not have a clear picture as to the effects of sex hormones on the regulation of breathing. Considerable data has accumulated showing that estrogen, progesterone and testosterone can influence respiratory function in animals and humans. Several disorders of breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sudden infant death...

  3. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    Holst, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 levels and responses to meals may be altered in obese subjects. Clinical trial results have shown further that two GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), exenatide and liraglutide, which are approved for ...

  4. Menopausal Hormone Therapy after Breast Cancer

    Colditz, Graham A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of postmenopausal hormone therapy after breast cancer remains controversial. Evidence shows variation by study design, and even among three randomized controlled trials there is substantial heterogeneity of results. Two Swedish trials of comparable size show relative risks of recurrence of 3.3 and 0.82 on comparing women receiving postmenopausal hormone therapy with control women. The extent of use of tamoxifen and concomitant use of progestins in combination with estrogen, although r...

  5. Therapy for Obesity Based on Gastrointestinal Hormones

    Bagger, Jonatan I.; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsboll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are d...

  6. Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients and communicate information regarding the current state of energy balance to the brain. These hormones regulate appetite, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. They can act either via the circulation at target peripheral tissues, by activation of the vagus nerve or by acting on key brain regions implicated in energy homeostasis such as the hypothalamus and brainstem. This review gives an overview of t...

  7. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric indication...

  8. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Saenger Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric indicatio...

  9. Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), various experiments such as 125I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

  10. Thyroid hormone action in the absence of thyroid hormone receptor DNA-binding in vivo

    Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Nikrodhanond, Amisra A.; Liberman, M. Charles; Applebury, Meredithe L.; Liao, Xiao Hui; Robbins, Janet T.; Refetoff, Samuel; Cohen, Ronald N.; Wondisford, Fredric E.

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid hormone action is mediated by thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. DNA-binding is presumed to be essential for all nuclear actions of thyroid hormone. To test this hypothesis in vivo, the DNA-binding domain of TR-β was mutated within its P-box (GS mutant) using gene targeting techniques. This mutation in vitro completely abolishes TR-β DNA-binding, while preserving ligand (T3) and cofactor interactions with the receptor. Homoz...

  11. Intermittent versus continuous administration of growth hormone treatment.

    Hakeem, V; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment given by daily injection was compared with growth hormone given for three weeks of every four. All children had received recombinant human growth hormone for two years before randomisation. Growth velocity decreased in both groups in years one and two of the study but the effect was significantly greater in the group receiving intermittent growth hormone.

  12. Cracking the code for thyroid hormone signaling.

    Bianco, Antonio C

    2013-01-01

    Cells are not passive bystanders in the process of hormonal signaling and instead can actively customize hormonal action. While diffusing from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, thyroid hormone is modified via the action of thioredoxin fold-containing selenoenzymes known as deiodinases. Whereas the type II deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active T3, the type III deiodinase (D3) converts it to reverse T3, an inactive metabolite. D3 also inactivates T3 to T2, terminating thyroid hormone action. Therefore, D2 provides cells with the ability to produce extra amounts of T3 and thus enhances thyroid hormone signaling. In contrast, expression of D3 results in the opposite action. In addition, the D2 protein is unique in that it can be switched off and on via an ubiquitin-regulated mechanism, triggered by catalysis of T4. Induction of D2 enhances local thyroid hormone signaling and energy expenditure during activation of brown adipose tissue by cold exposure or high fat diet. On the other hand, induction of D3 in myocardium and brain during ischemia and hypoxia decreases energy expenditure as part of a homeostatic mechanism to slow down cell metabolism in the face of limited O2 supply. PMID:23874007

  13. Activation of tumor cell proliferation by thyroid hormone in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Lu, C; Zhu, X; Willingham, M C; Cheng, S-Y

    2012-04-19

    Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancy of the endocrine system in humans. To understand the molecular genetic events underlying thyroid carcinogenesis, we have generated a mouse model that spontaneously develops follicular thyroid carcinoma similar to human thyroid cancer (Thrb(PV/PV) mouse). This mutant mouse harbors a dominant-negative mutated thyroid hormone receptor β (denoted PV). The PV mutation was identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone (TH). Thrb(PV/PV) mice exhibit highly elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and increased TH. We have previously shown that thyroid-stimulating hormone is required, but not sufficient to induce metastatic follicular thyroid cancer in Thrb(PV/PV) mice. However, whether the elevated TH also contributes to the thyroid carcinogenesis of Thrb(PV/PV) mice was not elucidated. To understand the role of TH in thyroid carcinogenesis, we blocked the production of TH by treating Thrb(PV/PV) mice with propylthiouracil (Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU mice) and compared the development of thyroid cancer in Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU and untreated Thrb(PV/PV) mice. We found that thyroid tumor growth was reduced by ∼42% in Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU mice as compared with Thrb(PV/PV) mice. Analysis by bromodeoxyuridine-nuclear labeling showed decreased incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine in thyroid tumor cells of Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU mice, indicative of decreased tumor cell proliferation. However, cleaved-caspase 3 staining showed no apparent changes in apoptosis of tumor cells in Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU mice. Molecular studies identified a marked attenuation of the PI3K-AKT-β-catenin signaling pathway that led to decreased protein levels of cyclin D2, thereby decreasing tumor cell proliferation in Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU mice. Furthermore, matrix metalloproteinase-2, a downstream target of β-catenin and a key regulator during tumor invasion and metastasis, was also decreased. Thus, the present study uncovers a critical role of TH in promoting the thyroid carcinogenesis of Thrb(PV/PV) mice via membrane signaling events. Importantly, these findings suggest that anti-thyroid drugs could be considered as possible therapeutic agents of thyroid cancer. PMID:21909131

  14. TIME AND DOSE-DEPENDENT THYROID HORMONE RELEASE FROM XENOPUS THYROID GLAND CULTURES IN RESPONSE TO THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND INHIBITION BY METHIMAZOLE

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis.

  15. The role of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in resting and stress-induced release of corticotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    C.R. Franci; Anselmo-Franci, J.A.; McCann, S M

    1992-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that stimulation of the anteroventral third ventricle region increases atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release, whereas lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle or median eminence block the release of ANP from blood volume expansion, suggesting a critical central nervous system participation in this response. ANP is also produced within neurons that have cell bodies in the rostral hypothalamus and axons that extend to the median eminence and neural lobe. I...

  16. Thyroid hormone in neural rescue.

    D'Alecy, L G

    1997-02-01

    Serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) were followed for 24 h in dogs resuscitated following 9 min of controlled cardiac arrest (CA). Total T4, free T4, total T3, and free T3 decreased, while reverse T3 was elevated in the 24 h following resuscitation. Similar changes occurred with only 30 sec of CA. Levothyroxine sodium (L-T4) post-CA (7.5 micrograms/kg/h = CA + 7.5 or 15 micrograms/kg/h = CA + 15) increased total T4, free T4, and total T3. Free T3 decreased in the CA + 7.5 group but did not fall in CA + 15 group. Neurologic function improved significantly by 6 through 24 h (p VO2) and delivery was assessed in a separate group of seven dogs that received a pre-CA L-T4 infusion of 15 micrograms/kg/h for 1.5 h and L-T4 infusion for 6 h afterward while controls (n = 7) received saline. Systemic VO2, VCO2, and RQ were calculated from blood contents and cardiac output and serum levels of circulating TSH, T4, FT4, T3, FT3, and rT3 were measured before L-T4 and periodically over 6 h. L-T4 maintained significantly higher T4, FT4, T3, FT3, rT3, VO2, and cardiac output compared to controls. No change in canine TSH was detected. Rapid and dramatic decreases in thyroid hormones following resuscitation indicate a significant acute serum hypothyroid state that may benefit from L-T4 treatment. L-T4 enhances systemic oxygen consumption and delivery and these changes may contribute to L-T4's neural protective effect. PMID:9086579

  17. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  18. Thyroid hormone receptor expression in cardiovascular disease and pharmacology

    Shahrara, Shiva

    1999-01-01

    The heart is a major target organ for thyroid hormone actions. Thyroid hormone exerts effects on the myocardium, which are mediated by specific nuclear receptors. The thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. These receptors regulate gene expression by binding to the promotor region of target genes as monomers, homodimers or heterodimers depending on the thyroid hormone response element (TRE) and the presence or absence of th...

  19. Unraveling the paradoxes of plant hormone signaling integration

    Jaillais, Yvon; Chory, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Plant hormones play a major role in plant growth and development. They affect similar processes but, paradoxically, their signaling pathways act nonredundantly. Hormone signals are integrated at the gene-network level rather than by cross-talk during signal transduction. In contrast to hormone-hormone integration, recent data suggest that light and plant hormone pathways share common signaling components, which allows photoreceptors to influence the growth program. We propose a role for the p...

  20. Blunted peripheral tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone in uremic patients.

    Lim, V S; Zavala, D C; Flanigan, M J; Freeman, R M

    1987-03-01

    To understand the biologic significance of the low triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), we examined thyroid hormone profile, basal O2 uptake (VO2), and peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte (PBL) ouabain binding in these patients and in the control subjects before and after L-triiodothyronine (T3) and sodium ipodate treatment. In the controls (N = 8), T3 administration increased serum total T3 from 136 +/- 15 to 232 +/- 11 ng/dl, and reduced total thyroxine (T4) from 8.14 +/- 0.56 to 6.08 +/- 0.43 micrograms/dl, free T4 from 1.59 +/- 0.12 to 1.03 +/- 0.05 ng/dl and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from 1.74 +/- 0.24 to 0.41 +/- 0.09 microU/ml. VO2 increased from 2.66 +/- 0.11 to 3.15 +/- 0.09 ml/kg/min. Ipodate treatment, on the other hand, resulted in a reduction of serum total T3 to 102 +/- 21 ng/dl, an increase in total T4 to 9.59 +/- 0.50 micrograms/dl, free T4 to 1.91 +/- 0.13 ng/dl and TSH to 3.64 +/- 1.14 microU/ml. VO2 decreased to 2.43 +/- 0.06 ml/kg/min. P values ranged from less than 0.05 to less than 0.001. In the CRF patients (N = 14), T3 treatment also resulted in a rise in serum total T3 from 75 +/- 5 to 185 +/- 8 ng/dl. Total T4 declined from 6.68 +/- 0.34 to 5.18 +/- 0.48 micrograms/dl, free T4 from 0.85 +/- 0.1 to 0.67 +/- 0.08 ng/dl and TSH from 3.67 +/- 0.86 to 0.94 +/- 0.3 microU/ml. VO2, however, did not change (from 2.91 +/- 0.12 to 2.99 +/- 0.17 ml/kg/min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3573541

  1. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Peng Xue; Yan Wang; Jie Yang; Yukun Li

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochr...

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Sustained-Release Recombinant Human Growth Hormone in Korean Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Kim, Youngsook; Hong, Jae Won; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Sung-Woon; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jin Hwa; Kim, Byung-Joon; Lee, Eun Jig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The administration of recombinant human growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency has been known to improve metabolic impairment and quality of life. Patients, however, have to tolerate daily injections of growth hormone. The efficacy, safety, and compliance of weekly administered sustained-release recombinant human growth hormone (SR-rhGH, Declage™) supplement in patients with growth hormone deficiency were evaluated. Materials and Methods This trial is 12-week prospect...

  3. Single dose and pulsatile treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficiency.

    Smith, P. J.; Pringle, P J; Brook, C G

    1987-01-01

    The growth and growth hormone profiles in four children receiving three different regimens of treatment with human growth hormone (hGH) were compared. There was no significant difference in the rate of growth between the regimens; the rate of growth fell dramatically after treatment. Pulsatile administration of hGH was no better than conventional treatment.

  4. Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo Hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitarism

    Julio Abucham

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada deficiência, dosagens, vias de administração, efeitos colaterais e monitorização clínico-laboratorial durante os diferentes períodos da vida para cada reposição hormonal: hormônio de crescimento na criança e no adulto, hormônios tiroideanos no hipotiroidismo central, glicocorticóides no hipoadrenalismo central, análogos de vasopressina no diabetes insípidus central, esteróides sexuais no homem e na mulher, da puberdade à senescência e gonadotrofinas no tratamento da infertilidade. As informações aqui contidas resultam de uma revisão crítica da literatura aliada à nossa experiência de mais de duas décadas no diagnóstico e tratamento do paciente hipopituitário na Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo.This article brings an updated review of hypopituitarism with emphasis in hormone replacement therapy. The physiological basis of hormone replacement therapy and practical aspects of treating hypopituitary patients were both taken into account to provide a rational strategy for treatment. The review is organized by individual pituitary hormone deficiency and covers epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of hypopituitarism, as well as the most relevant hormone preparations currently available for treating each hormone deficiency. Practical guidelines to hormone dosing, routes of administration, side effects and clinical and laboratory monitoring during the entire lifespan are given for each individual hormone replacement therapy: growth hormone in GH-deficient children and adults, thyroid hormone in central hypothyroidism, glucocorticoid in central hypoadrenalism, vasopressin analogs in diabetes insipidus, sex hormones in man and women from puberty to senescence, and gonadotropins for treating infertility. In addition to the literature review, we took into account our own experience of more than two decades in investigating, diagnosing, and treating hypopituitary patients at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

  5. Presence of a putative steroidal allosteric site on glycoprotein hormone receptors.

    Rossi, Mario; Dimida, Antonio; Ferrarini, Eleonora; Silvano, Elena; De Marco, Giuseppina; Agretti, Patrizia; Aloisi, Gabriella; Simoncini, Tommaso; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Tonacchera, Massimo; Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto

    2009-11-25

    In a previous work we found that the insecticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), inhibits the accumulation of cAMP as induced by the bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) in cells transfected with the TSH receptor. In this work, we demonstrate that the DDT molecular analogues, diethylstilbestrol and quercetine, are more potent inhibitors of the TSH receptor activity than DDT itself. The notion that all these compounds interfere with nuclear estrogen receptors, as either agonists (DDT and diethylstilbestrol) or antagonists (quercetin), prompted us to test the ability of the steroid hormone 17-beta-estradiol to inhibit the TSH receptor activity. We found that estrogen exposure causes a modest but significant inhibition of the bTSH induced cAMP accumulation both in transfected CHO-TSH receptor and Fischer Rat Thyroid Low Serum 5% (FRTL-5) cells. When applied to CHO cells transfected with the luteinizing hormone receptor, 17-beta-estradiol proved capable of inhibiting the hCG induced cAMP accumulation at a concentration as low as 10nM, though the effect was not greater than 35%. The effect of 17-beta-estradiol was not estrogen receptors mediated, as co-transfection of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta subunits with LH receptor caused cAMP to increase above the level attained by the sole hCG stimulation, and not to decrease it as expected. These data suggest the presence of a steroidal-like allosteric binding site on glycoprotein hormone receptors. PMID:19766106

  6. Hormonal responses during early embryogenesis in maize.

    Chen, Junyi; Lausser, Andreas; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Plant hormones have been shown to regulate key processes during embryogenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanisms that determine the peculiar embryo pattern formation of monocots are largely unknown. Using the auxin and cytokinin response markers DR5 and TCSv2 (two-component system, cytokinin-responsive promoter version #2), as well as the auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1a (PINFORMED1a), we have studied the hormonal response during early embryogenesis (zygote towards transition stage) in the model and crop plant maize. Compared with the hormonal response in Arabidopsis, we found that detectable hormone activities inside the developing maize embryo appeared much later. Our observations indicate further an important role of auxin, PIN1a and cytokinin in endosperm formation shortly after fertilization. Apparent auxin signals within adaxial endosperm cells and cytokinin responses in the basal endosperm transfer layer as well as chalazal endosperm are characteristic for early seed development in maize. Moreover, auxin signalling in endosperm cells is likely to be involved in exogenous embryo patterning as auxin responses in the endosperm located around the embryo proper correlate with adaxial embryo differentiation and outgrowth. Overall, the comparison between Arabidopsis and maize hormone response and flux suggests intriguing mechanisms in monocots that are used to direct their embryo patterning, which is significantly different from that of eudicots. PMID:24646239

  7. Sex Hormone Receptor Repertoire in Breast Cancer

    Higa, Gerald M.; Fell, Ryan G.

    2013-01-01

    Classification of breast cancer as endocrine sensitive, hormone dependent, or estrogen receptor (ER) positive refers singularly to ER?. One of the oldest recognized tumor targets, disruption of ER?-mediated signaling, is believed to be the mechanistic mode of action for all hormonal interventions used in treating this disease. Whereas ER? is widely accepted as the single most important predictive factor (for response to endocrine therapy), the presence of the receptor in tumor cells is also of prognostic value. Even though the clinical relevance of the two other sex hormone receptors, namely, ER? and the androgen receptor remains unclear, two discordant phenomena observed in hormone-dependent breast cancers could be causally related to ER?-mediated effects and androgenic actions. Nonetheless, our understanding of regulatory molecules and resistance mechanisms remains incomplete, further compromising our ability to develop novel therapeutic strategies that could improve disease outcomes. This review focuses on the receptor-mediated actions of the sex hormones in breast cancer. PMID:24324894

  8. Hormonal control of tick development and reproduction.

    Rees, H H

    2004-01-01

    Ecdysteroids (moulting hormones), juvenoids and neuropeptides in ticks are reviewed but, by far, the emphasis is on the former since this class of hormones has been the subject of most investigations. In immature stages of ticks, ecdysteroids have been shown to regulate moulting and to terminate larval diapause. Although there is a paucity of information on the molecular action of ecdysteroids in ticks, their action appears to be via a heterodimeric ecdysone/ultraspiracle receptor, as in insects. The role of ecdysteroids in sperm maturation in adult males is considered. In females, ecdysteroids function in the regulation of salivary glands, of production of sex pheromones and of oogenesis and oviposition. There is evidence for ecdysteroid production in the integument and pathways of hormone inactivation are similar to those in insects. Ecdysteroids also function in embryogenesis. Although evidence for the occurrence and functioning of juvenile hormones in ticks has been contradictory, in recent thorough work it has not been possible to detect known juvenile hormones in ticks, nor to demonstrate effects of extracts on insects. Factors (neuropeptides) from the synganglion affect physiological processes and limited immunocytochemical studies are reviewed. Sigificantly, a G-protein-coupled receptor has been cloned, expressed, and specifically responds to myokinins. PMID:15938509

  9. Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function

    Hüseyin Baki ÇİFTCİ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-α due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

  10. Preventing leaf identity theft with hormones.

    Lumba, Shelley; McCourt, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Genetic analysis of plant development has begun to demonstrate the importance of hormone synthesis and transport in regulating morphogenesis. In the case of leaf development, for example, auxin pooling determines where a primordium will emerge and leads to the activation of transcription factors, which determine leaf identities by modulating abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations. Signal transduction studies suggest that negative regulation of transcription factors through protein turnover is commonly used as a mechanism of hormone action. Together, these findings suggest that auxin might degrade a repressor that allows the activation of genes that modulate ABA/GA ratios in emerging leaves. With our increased understanding of the molecular basis of hormone signaling, it is becoming possible to overlay important regulators onto signaling modules that determine morphological outputs. PMID:16054431

  11. Interlaboratory comparison of radioimmunological parathyroid hormone determination

    An inter-laboratory study of serum immunoreactive PTH (iPTH) determination using standardized sera has been performed in order to check the value of the assays for the diagnosis of hyperparathyroid states. The results demonstrate: (1) that most of the cooperating laboratories (eleven of twelve) were able to discriminate between normal and grossly elevated PTH-values; (2) that direct comparison of values from different laboratories indicates very poor agreement; (3) that PTH values cannot be interpreted without a description of the characteristics of the assay used; (4) that the introduction of standard sera is advantageous and should be undertaken; (5) that determination of iPTH in serum samples is far from being a routine method when compared with radioimmunoassays for hormones like insulin, growth hormone, etc.; the difficulties being due to lack of standradized reagents and peculiarities in the metabolism of the hormone. (orig.)

  12. Teraputica hormonal na coria de Sydenham

    Jos Geraldo Albernaz

    1957-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinco casos de coria de Sydenham foram submetidos teraputica hormonal com Cortisona, Prednisona e Prednisolona; o fenobarbital e a clorpromazina foram utilizados como medicao sintomtica e a Penicilina-Benzatina como profiltica. Depois de analisadas as referncias bibliogrficas, comparados os resultados de ?;rios autores, e ajuizados os resultados obtidos em nossos casos, acreditamos poder concluir que: 1 a teraputica hormonal da coria de Sydenham, com o uso de ACTH, Cortisona, Prednisona ou Pred-nisclona apresenta resultados satisfatrios; 2 a Prednisona e a Prednisolona so os hormnios mais teis no tratamento da coria de Sydenham, sendo possvel que sua associao aos salicilatos permita obter resultados ainda melhores; 3 o tratamento deve prolongar-se at o completo desaparecimento dos sintomas, as doses variando de acrdo com a gravidade e a evoluo da molstia; 4 a teraputica hormonal deve ser usada sem prejuzo de medicao sintomtica (sedativa e profiltica (antibitica.

  13. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation

    Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases. PMID:27051079

  14. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude; Kindblom, Jenny; Törnell, Jan; Billestrup, Nils; Usson, Yves; Morel, Gérard; Lobie, Peter E

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not...... affect the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the...

  15. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  16. Comparison Between the Effects of the Alcholic Extract of Mellissia Officinalis and Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Ali Zarei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Materials and Methods: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Results: The results showed that in experimental groups receiving the plant extract and atorvastatin, the concentration of thyroid hormones increased, whereas the amount of the thyroid-stimulating hormone showed a significant decrease (p<0.05.Conclusion: Mellissia officinalis extract decreases TSH but it increases T3 and T4. Further studies are required for applying this extract to the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

  17. Transdermal hormone therapy and bone health

    Lee P Shulman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lee P ShulmanDivision of Reproductive Genetics, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: The clinical aftermath of the reporting of the initial findings of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI in 2002 was a profound reduction in the use of hormone therapies by menopausal women. This reduction led to a well documented increase in vasomotor symptoms and vaginal atrophy among those women who discontinued their hormone regimens. However, another adverse impact among these women, as well as many other menopausal women, is the well recognized increased likelihood of osteoporosis resulting from the decline in circulating estradiol levels associated with natural and surgical menopause. Although the use of non-hormonal drugs such as bisphosphonates has been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in women with osteoporosis, bisphosphonates have not been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in non-osteoporotic women. Indeed, only oral estrogen (as demonstrated in the WHI studies has been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women. As non-oral hormone therapies have been shown to be as effective in treating vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy and to have a different (and perhaps more beneficial physiological effect than oral regimens, it behooves us to assess the impact of non-oral hormone regimens on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Although there are no clinical trials that primarily assess the impact of non-oral regimens on fracture risk in menopausal women, numerous studies are consistent in demonstrating the positive impact of non-oral regimens in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density among users, even for those women using estrogen doses that are considered to be “too low” to have a beneficial impact on other menopausal symptoms.Keywords: menopause, hormone, estrogen, non-oral, bone, osteoporosis, fracture

  18. Levels of endocrine hormones and lipids in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    Hülya Uzkeser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between endocrine hormones, lipid levels and clinical parameters in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Materials and methods: Fifteen male patients with CTS and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum free T3, free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were analyzed. Symptom severity and hand function were assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire in clinical examination.Results: Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were similar between CTS patients and controls (p> 0.05. Also, there was no statistically significant correlation between laboratory parameters and clinical characteristics in patients with CTS (p> 0.05.Conclusion: The serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels seem within normal range in male CTS patients. Further studies are needed to investigate association endocrine factors, lipid levels such as triglyceride and total cholesterol with CTS in male and female patients.

  19. Thyroid hormones and adult interpersonal violence among women with borderline personality disorder.

    Sinai, Cave; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter; Nilsonne, Åsa; Wilczek, Alexander; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-06-30

    Elevated T3 levels have been reported in men with antisocial behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and expressed adult interpersonal violence in female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Furthermore, expressed adult interpersonal violence in female BPD patients was compared to healthy female controls. A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD and 57 healthy women were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS). Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3), thyroxine (FT4 and T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with immunoassays in patients. Plasma cortisol was also measured. Among females with BPD, expressed interpersonal violence as an adult showed a significant positive correlation with the T3 levels. The mean expression of interpersonal violence as an adult was significantly higher in BPD patients as compared to healthy controls. The multiple regression model indicated that two independent predictors of KIVS expressed interpersonal violence as an adult: T3 and comorbid diagnosis of alcohol abuse. Association between T3 levels and violent/aggressive behavior earlier reported exclusively in male samples may be valid also in females with BPD. PMID:25858801

  20. Effects of electroconvulsive therapy on the thyrotropin-releasing hormone test in patients with depression.

    Esel, Ertugrul; Kilic, Canan; Kula, Mustafa; Basturk, Mustafa; Ozsoy, Saliha; Turan, Tayfun; Keles, Salih; Sofuoglu, Seher

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the acute and lasting effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in patients with depression. The TRH stimulation test was conducted (1) under basal conditions, after a first ECT, and at the end of a therapeutic course of 7 ECTs in 20 inpatients with depression; (2) before the initiation of antidepressant therapy and after the therapeutic response in 16 other inpatients with depression who responded to antidepressant drug treatment; and (3) in 20 healthy control subjects. Baseline TSH levels were lower in patients with depression, especially in those with more severe depression who were considered appropriate for ECT. Before the treatment, TSH response to TRH did not differ between the patients with depression and controls; however, more blunted TSH responses to TRH were observed in these patients compared with the controls. TSH response to TRH changed neither with one ECT nor throughout consecutive ECT sessions in patients with depression. Drug treatment also was found to have no impact on this response. These findings suggest that the therapeutic action of ECT in depression is not directly related to its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, possible delayed effects of ECT on the HPT axis function should not be overlooked. PMID:15591859

  1. Molecular Aspects of Thyroid Hormone Actions

    Cheng, Sheue-yann; Leonard, Jack L.; Davis, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular actions of thyroid hormone may be initiated within the cell nucleus, at the plasma membrane, in cytoplasm, and at the mitochondrion. Thyroid hormone nuclear receptors (TRs) mediate the biological activities of T3 via transcriptional regulation. Two TR genes, α and β, encode four T3-binding receptor isoforms (α1, β1, β2, and β3). The transcriptional activity of TRs is regulated at multiple levels. Besides being regulated by T3, transcriptional activity is regulated by the type of thyr...

  2. Characterization of thyroid hormone uptake in heart

    Putten, Haidy Hendrica Antonia Gerarda Maria van der

    2002-01-01

    Transport of T3 and T4 across the plasma membrane is the first step in the sequence of intracellular thyroid hormone action. It is generally accepted that this is mediated by specific carrier proteins. The knowledge about these proteins in liver is abundant, but information about thyroid hormone uptake into the heart is scarce. The aim of this thesis was to characterize the cell physiological properties of T3 and T4 uptake in heart and to obtain information on the molecular structure(s) of th...

  3. Interactions between hormonal contraception and antiepileptic drugs

    Reimers, Arne; Brodtkorb, Eylert; Sabers, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and hormonal contraceptives may affect each other's metabolism and clinical efficacy. Loss of seizure control and unplanned pregnancy may occur when these compounds are used concomitantly. Although a large number of available preparations yield a plethora of possible drug...... combinations, most of these drug interactions are predictable and, thus, avoidable. Unfortunately, there is a substantial lack of data regarding the newer AEDs. Detailed understanding of these issues is necessary for those who prescribe AEDs and/or hormonal contraception to women with epilepsy, as well as for...

  4. Receptors for prolactin, somatostatin, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in experimental prostate cancer after treatment with analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin.

    Kadar, T; Redding, T W; Ben-David, M; A. V. Schally

    1988-01-01

    Membrane receptors for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), somatostatin, and prolactin (PRL) were investigated in the Dunning R-3327H rat prostate adenocarcinoma specimens after in vivo treatment with microcapsules of the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH and the somatostatin analog RC-160. The LH-RH receptors showed a low-binding affinity (Kd = 54 nM) and high capacity (Bmax = 12.0 pmol/mg). Treatment with the [D-Trp6]LH-RH decreased the binding affinity (Kd = 0.52 microM). Specific somatosta...

  5. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular......-onset GHD might also exist. Two studies showed a normal mortality rate in GHD patients treated with GH compared with the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Although an increased mortality rate in hypopituitary patients is well documented, further research is needed to provide more reliable estimates of the...

  6. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: okbgeni@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  7. Secondary amenorrhea in a woman with spinocerebellar degeneration treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone: a case report and in vitro analysis

    Kanasaki Haruhiko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While thyrotropin-releasing hormone is known to be a prolactin-release stimulating factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate and its derivative, taltirelin hydrate, are used for the treatment of spinocerebellar degeneration, a degenerative disease characterized mainly by motor ataxia. We report the case of a patient being treated with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation for spinocerebellar degeneration who developed amenorrhea after a dose increase. Her hormonal background was analyzed and the effect of prolonged exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone on pituitary prolactin-producing cells was examined in vitro. Case presentation Our patient was a 36-year-old Japanese woman who experienced worsening of gait disturbance at around 23 years of age, and was subsequently diagnosed as having spinocerebellar degeneration. She had been treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate for four years. Taltirelin hydrate was added to the treatment seven months prior to her presentation, followed by an improvement in gait disturbance. Around the same period, she started lactating and subsequently developed amenorrhea three months later. Taltirelin hydrate was discontinued and she was referred to our hospital. She was found to have normal sex hormone levels. A thyrotropin-releasing hormone provocation test showed a normal response of thyroid-stimulating hormone level and an over-response of prolactin at 30 minutes (142.7 ng/mL. Resumption of menstruation was noted three months after dose reduction of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. In our in vitro study, following long-term exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, cells from the rat pituitary prolactin-producing cell line GH3 exhibited an increased basal prolactin promoter activity but showed a marked decrease in responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Conclusions Physicians should be aware of hyperprolactinemia-associated side effects in patients receiving thyrotropin-releasing hormone treatment. Long-term treatment with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation might cause a large amount of prolactin to accumulate in prolactin-producing cells and be released in response to exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation.

  8. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K; van Schie, Annelies; Ghatei, Mohammed A; Holst, Jens Juul; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Diamant, Michaela; Eekhoff, E Marelise W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb...

  9. Insect lipids mobilized by adipokinetic hormones

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Tomčala, Aleš; Bártů, Iva; Socha, Radomír

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2012 - (Langella, J.), s. 99-122 ISBN 978-1-61209-566-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215; GA ČR GAP502/10/1734 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adipokinetic hormones Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  10. Determination of hormone parathyroid by radioimmunoassay

    The labelling of bovine parathyroid hormone and its employment for the determination of seric PTH by radioimmunoanalysis is described. The specific activity of 131I PTH is 200-350mCi/mg and the damage 3-5%. The method used for radioimmunoanalysis was that of C.D. Arnaud and coworkers. (author)

  11. Immunoprecipitation of the parathyroid hormone receptor

    An 125I-labeled synthetic analog of bovine parathyroid hormone, [8-norleucine,18-norleucine,34-tyrosine]PTH-(1-34) amide ([Nle]PTH-(1-34)-NH2), purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), was employed to label the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor in cell lines derived from PTH target tissues: the ROS 17/2.8 rat osteosarcoma of bone and the CV1 and COS monkey kidney lines. After incubation of the radioligand with intact cultured cells, the hormone was covalently attached to receptors by using either a photoaffinity technique or chemical (affinity) crosslinking. In each case, covalent labeling was specific, as evidenced by a reduction of labeling when excess competing nonradioactive ligand was present. After covalent attachment of radioligand, membranes were prepared form the cells and solubilized in the nonionic detergent Nonidet P-40 or octyl glucoside. Analysis of the immunoprecipitate on NaDod-SO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography revealed the presence of a doublet of apparent molecular mass 69-70 kDa. Specifically labeled bands of approximate molecular mass 95 and 28 kDa were also observed. The anti-PTH IgG was affinity purified by passage over a PTH-Sepharose column and used to made an immunoaffinity column. These studies suggest that the use of an anti-PTH antiserum that binds receptor-bound hormone is likely to be a useful step in the further physicochemical characterization and purification of the PTH receptor

  12. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulat...

  13. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M; Skakkebaek, N E

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly of...

  14. Molecular basis of juvenile hormone signaling

    Jindra, Marek; Bellés, X.; Shinoda, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, Oct 09 (2015), s. 39-46. ISSN 2214-5745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-23681S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * JH receptor * Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214574515001297

  15. Enhancement of insecticide efficacy by adipokinetic hormones

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Plavšin, Ivana; Velki, Mirna; Stašková, Tereza

    New York : NovaScience Publishers,Inc, 2015 - (Montgomery, J.), s. 77-91 ISBN 978-1-63483-475-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adipokinetic hormones Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  16. LEARNING HORMONE ACTION MECHANISMS WITH BIOINFORMATICS

    João Carlos Sousa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to manage the constantly growing information in genetics availableon the internet is becoming crucial in biochemical education and medicalpractice. Therefore, developing students skills in working with bioinformaticstools is a challenge to undergraduate courses in the molecular life sciences.The regulation of gene transcription by hormones and vitamins is a complextopic that influences all body systems. We describe a student centered activityused in a multidisciplinary “Functional Organ System“ course on the EndocrineSystem. By receiving, as teams, a nucleotide sequence of a hormone orvitamin-response element, students navigate through internet databases to findthe gene to which it belongs. Subsequently, student’s search how thecorresponding hormone/vitamin influences the expression of that particulargene and how a dysfunctional interaction might cause disease. This activity,proposed for 4 consecutive years to cohorts of 50-60 students/year enrolled inthe 2nd year our undergraduate medical degree, revealed that 90% of thestudents developed a better understanding of the usefulness of bioinformaticsand that 98% intend to use them in the future. Since hormones and vitaminsregulate genes of all body organ systems, this web-based activity successfullyintegrates the whole body physiology of the medical curriculum and can be ofrelevance to other courses on molecular life sciences.

  17. Improved radioimmunoassay for thyroid hormone and reagent

    Improvements in the radioimmunoassay of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine or triiodothyronine, are described. Hydrolyzed cross-linked polyacrylamide particles covalently bonded against the thyroid hormone are employed as solid phase substrates for the thyroid hormone antibodies. The polyacrylamide particles are dyed yellow or blue to facilitate the various manipulative steps during the radioimmunoassay. The particles are characterized by their ability to form stable hydrophilic suspensions. As a result the reaction mixture, during which thyroid hormone is separated from serum proteins and competitive binding in the presence of radioactive tracer with the antibody occurs, requires no agitation to maintain the desired homogeneous condition. This is in contrast to the settling problems experienced with cellulose, dextran and glass particles. In addition, the non-specific binding property of the polyacrylamide particles is so low that the initially separated solid phase particles following incubation can be directly measured for radioactivity levels without any initial washings thus increasing the speed and convenience of the assay procedure. Details of the preparation of the dyed, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles, the coupling of antiserum to these particles and the radioimmunoassay procedure are given. Data obtained from the radioimmunoassays of hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid sera demonstrated the satisfactory performance of the assay. (U.K.)

  18. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid?

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1988-01-01

    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  19. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer - immediate initiation.

    Schostak, M; Miller, K; Schrader, M

    2008-01-01

    Although hormone therapy is widely used in the management of prostate cancer, the optimal timing of its initiation remains a matter of debate. Many studies of the last decades have reported a small but significant survival benefit and a clear delay in the development of clinical symptoms after early initiation of therapy. Patients who have localized or locally advanced prostate cancer and are not suitable for curative options like radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy can best be managed by hormone therapy alone, which has already been recognized as the optimal treatment for metastatic disease. On the other hand, long-term hormone treatment will expose the patient to the risk of substantial adverse effects, including muscle wasting, chronic fatigue and osteoporosis. Prognostic and quality-of-life factors also have an impact on the treatment decision, particularly in patients most likely to profit from an extension of the remaining life span. Based on available evidence, early hormone therapy may be recommended for men with poorly differentiated tumors or advanced disease and for those infrequently seen by their physicians. This management can prevent prostate cancer from migrating to the bones, where treatment becomes extremely difficult and cure or even longterm control of the disease is an exception. PMID:18544985

  20. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper; Ravn, Pernille; Gaist, David

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma in a...

  1. Women with epilepsy and infertility have different reproductive hormone profile than others

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One-third of women with epilepsy (WWE may experience infertility (failure to conceive after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse. We aimed to compare the hormone profile of WWE and infertility (WWE-I with that of WWE who had conceived earlier (WWE-F. Materials and Methods: In the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy, we compared the clinical and hormone profile of 50 WWE-I and 40 age-matched WWE-F. Subjects were examined and blood samples were drawn in follicular phase (1-14 days for 21 WWE-I and 18 WWE-F, in luteal phase (15-30 days for 23 WWE-I and 15 WWE-F and beyond 30 days for 6 WWE-I and WWE-F who had irregular cycles. Results: The two groups were comparable regarding physical, epilepsy syndrome, duration of epilepsy, body mass index, and serum cholesterol levels. Menstrual periods were irregular for 6 WWE-I and 5 WWE-F. The WWE-I group (compared to the WWE-F group had significantly (P < 0.01 higher levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione (2.0 1.7 ug/mL vs. 1.0 0.7 ug/mL and luteinizing hormone-LH (26.4 37.3 mIU/mL vs. 9.9 14.5 mIU/mL and lower levels of progesterone (5.2 9.2 ng/mL vs. 10.4 13.4 ng/mL. There was no significant difference in the levels of FT3, FT4, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, progesterone, testosterone, or androstenedione levels. The WWE-I had 8.5 times higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.2-59.9 of abnormal LH/FSH ratio. WWE who were on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs (compared to WWE who were not on AEDs had higher risk of elevated LH/FSH ratio. Conclusion: The hormone profile of WWE-I is significantly different from that of WWE-F. These variations need to be interpreted with caution as a causal relationship to epilepsy or use of antiepileptic drugs need to be established through further studies.

  2. Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history.

    Flatt, Thomas; Tu, Meng-Ping; Tatar, Marc

    2005-10-01

    Understanding how traits are integrated at the organismal level remains a fundamental problem at the interface of developmental and evolutionary biology. Hormones, regulatory signaling molecules that coordinate multiple developmental and physiological processes, are major determinants underlying phenotypic integration. The probably best example for this is the lipid-like juvenile hormone (JH) in insects. Here we review the manifold effects of JH, the most versatile animal hormone, with an emphasis on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an organism amenable to both genetics and endocrinology. JH affects a remarkable number of processes and traits in Drosophila development and life history, including metamorphosis, behavior, reproduction, diapause, stress resistance and aging. While many molecular details underlying JH signaling remain unknown, we argue that studying "hormonal pleiotropy" offers intriguing insights into phenotypic integration and the mechanisms underlying life history evolution. In particular, we illustrate the role of JH as a key mediator of life history trade-offs. PMID:16163709

  3. Minireview: Cracking the Metabolic Code for Thyroid Hormone Signaling

    Bianco, Antonio C.

    2011-01-01

    Cells are not passive bystanders in the process of hormonal signaling and instead can actively customize hormonal action. Thyroid hormone gains access to the intracellular environment via membrane transporters, and while diffusing from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, thyroid hormone signaling is modified via the action of the deiodinases. Although the type 2 deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone T4 to the biologically active T3, the type 3 deiodinase (D3) converts it to reverse T3, an i...

  4. Thyroid hormone signaling in energy homeostasis and energy metabolism

    McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormone plays a significant role in diverse processes related to growth, development, differentiation, and metabolism. Thyroid hormone signaling modulates energy expenditure through both central and peripheral pathways. At the cellular level, the thyroid hormone exerts its effects after concerted mechanisms facilitate binding to the thyroid hormone receptor. In the hypothalamus, signals from a range of metabolic pathways, including appetite, temperature, afferent stimuli via the a...

  5. Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment

    Visser-van Balen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone treatment. In order to justify this treatment in short but otherwise healthy children, it is to be shown that being short is associated with psychosocial problems and that hormone treatment improves psychos...

  6. The seventieth anniversary of the hormonal treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    Milovanović Lela

    2011-01-01

    Hormonal treatment of prostatic carcinoma was initiated in the first half of twentieth century. Theoretical basis of hormonal treatment was established with the work of Charles Brenton Huggins published in 1941. Initial results were encouraging, but fatal outcome occurred anyway. There are four directions of hormonal treatment of pancreatic cancer: orchiectomy, estrogens, LHRH agonists, or antiandrogens. Refinements of hormonal therapy were constant and resulted in prolonged survival ti...

  7. Hormonal exposures and the risk of uveal melanoma

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Kaerlev, Linda; Cree, Ian; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Afonso, Noemia; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Merletti, Franco; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Stengrevics, Aivars; Sabroe, Svend; Cyr, Diane; Llopis-González, Agustin; Gorini, Giuseppe; Sharkova, Galina; Hardell, Lennart; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries.......Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries....

  8. Structure-activity relationship of crustacean peptide hormones.

    Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    In crustaceans, various physiological events, such as molting, vitellogenesis, and sex differentiation, are regulated by peptide hormones. To understanding the functional sites of these hormones, many structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been published. In this review, the author focuses the SAR of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-family peptides and androgenic gland hormone and describes the detailed results of our and other research groups. The future perspectives will be also discussed. PMID:26624010

  9. Thyroid hormones states and brain development interactions.

    Ahmed, Osama M; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M; Ahmed, R G

    2008-04-01

    The action of thyroid hormones (THs) in the brain is strictly regulated, since these hormones play a crucial role in the development and physiological functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most common endocrine maladies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify in broad terms the interactions between thyroid hormone states or actions and brain development. THs regulate the neuronal cytoarchitecture, neuronal growth and synaptogenesis, and their receptors are widely distributed in the CNS. Any deficiency or increase of them (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) during these periods may result in an irreversible impairment, morphological and cytoarchitecture abnormalities, disorganization, maldevelopment and physical retardation. This includes abnormal neuronal proliferation, migration, decreased dendritic densities and dendritic arborizations. This drastic effect may be responsible for the loss of neurons vital functions and may lead, in turn, to the biochemical dysfunctions. This could explain the physiological and behavioral changes observed in the animals or human during thyroid dysfunction. It can be hypothesized that the sensitive to the thyroid hormones is not only remarked in the neonatal period but also prior to birth, and THs change during the development may lead to the brain damage if not corrected shortly after the birth. Thus, the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abnormalities might be related to the thyroid hormones is plausible. Taken together, the alterations of neurotransmitters and disturbance in the GABA, adenosine and pro/antioxidant systems in CNS due to the thyroid dysfunction may retard the neurogenesis and CNS growth and the reverse is true. In general, THs disorder during early life may lead to distortions rather than synchronized shifts in the relative development of several central transmitter systems that leads to a multitude of irreversible morphological and biochemical abnormalities (pathophysiology). Thus, further studies need to be done to emphasize this concept. PMID:18031969

  10. Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue

    Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated with significant fatigue

  11. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) reduce prostate size in experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Rick Ferenc G.; Schally, Andrew V.; Block, Norman L.; Nadji, Mehrdad; Szepesházi Károly; Zarándi Márta; Vidaurre, Irving; Perez, Roberto; Szalontay Luca; Halmos Gábor (1962-) (gyógyszerész, receptorfarmakológus, experimentális onkológus)

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a hypothalamic polypeptide, acts as a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor in many cancers. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a pathologic proliferation of prostatic glandular and stromal tissues; a variety of growth factors and inflammatory processes are inculpated in its pathogenesis. Previously we showed that potent synthetic antagonists of GHRH strongly inhibit the growth of diverse experimental human tumors including prostate cancer by sup...

  12. Growth hormone treatment in non-growth hormone-deficient children

    Loche, Sandro; Carta, Luisanna; Ibba, Anastasia; Guzzetti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Until 1985 growth hormone (GH) was obtained from pituitary extracts, and was available in limited amounts only to treat severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD). With the availability of unlimited quantities of GH obtained from recombinant DNA technology, researchers started to explore new modalities to treat GHD children, as well as to treat a number of other non-GHD conditions. Although with some differences between different countries, GH treatment is indicated in children with Turner syndro...

  13. Correlations between endogen amylin hormone and some hormonal, biochemical and bone parameters in pullets

    S, Guzel; N, Gunes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the correlations of amylin (a pancreatic polypeptide hormone) with some hormonal, biochemical and bone parameters in pullets. Forty 18-week-old pullets were used. Plasma amylin, CT (calcitonin), 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol ), serum os [...] teocalcin, glucose, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as weight, length and total volume of tibiotarsi were measured. Plasma amylin concentration was negatively correlated with serum cholesterol (p

  14. Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Andriyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.850.50 kg; treatment: 3.820.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.360.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.100.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.171.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.51.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm.Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

  15. Follicle-stimulating hormone is secreted more irregularly than luteinizing hormone in both humans and sheep.

    Pincus, S M; Padmanabhan, V.; Lemon, W; Randolph, J.; Rees Midgley, A

    1998-01-01

    Recently introduced statistical tools capable of discerning differences between the pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and that of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) could be valuable in understanding ovulation and menopause, and ultimately in making diagnostic decisions and treating infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome. We assessed the validity and scope of the hypothesis that FSH is secreted more irregularly than LH in ewes and fertile women. We compared secretory irregulari...

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH)-Functionalized Mini-Dendrimers

    Istvan Toth; Moyle, Peter M.; Mansfeld, Friederike M.; Amirreza Rafiee

    2013-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is the key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is responsible for the development and functioning of the reproductive system. Delivery of a continuous supply of LHRH agonists causes down-regulation of the LHRH receptors, resulting in a marked decrease in androgens in males and estrogens in females. LHRH analogues are widely used in the treatment of various diseases, including prostate and breast cancer, and reproducti...

  17. Radiation and neuroregulatory control of growth hormone secretion

    Cranial irradiation frequently results in growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Patients with radiation-induced GH deficiency usually remain responsive to exogenous growth hormone releasing hormone, implying radiation damages the hypothalamus rather than the pituitary. Little is known about the effect of cranial irradiation on the neuroendocrine control of GH secretion. This study was to determine the effect of cranial irradiation on somatostatin tone. (Author)

  18. Hormone (dis)harmony moulds plant health and disease.

    Grant, Murray R; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2009-05-01

    Diseased plants often display phenotypes consistent with hormone perturbations. We review recent data that have revealed roles in plant-microbe interactions for cellular components and signaling molecules that previously were associated only with hormone signaling. A better understanding of cross-talk between hormonal and defense signaling pathways should reveal new potential targets for microbial effectors that attenuate host resistance mechanisms. PMID:19423816

  19. [Hormonal environment and antiandrogenic treatment in benign prostatic hypertrophy].

    Katayama, T; Umeda, K; Kazama, T

    1986-11-01

    The plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, testosterone and human growth hormone (HGH) response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy and age-matched control patients were not different. Although all 6 drugs used were effective for treating these benign prostatic hypertrophy patients the 3 drugs, chlormadinone acetate, oxendrone and allylestrenol, were especially recommended. PMID:2435122

  20. Research Progress of the Hormone Regulation of Insect Diapause

    HE Zheng?bo?

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects growth and development are controlled by hormone. Diapause is a special development state. In this state, the significant characteristics are metabolism reducing and arrest of development. In the process of diapause development, a variety of hormone tends to create a network by intercoordination. Diapause plays an important regulatory role in diapause development. Insect neuroendocrine hormone is synthesized by neuroendocrine system and acts as upstream factor to affect insect diapause by regulating the synthesis and release of the downstream hormone. The regulation function of diapause hormone?pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide and prothoracicotropic hormone in the different type of diapause, insects has been widely studied. Located at the downstream in the network of neuropeptide hormone, the hormones ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone also play important regulatory roles but less studied so far. In addition, the research of hormone receptors will provide an important basis to explain the interaction between hormones; and by adjusting the hormone levels in diapause insect which will provide a new method in the biological control of harmful insects.?

  1. Structural Basis for Antibody Discrimination between Two Hormones That Recognize the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor

    McKinstry, William J.; Polekhina, Galina; Diefenbach-Jagger, Hannelore; Ho, Patricia W.M.; Sato, Koh; Onuma, Etsuro; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Parker, Michael W.; (SVIMR-A); (Chugai); (Melbourne)

    2009-08-18

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a vital role in the embryonic development of the skeleton and other tissues. When it is produced in excess by cancers it can cause hypercalcemia, and its local production by breast cancer cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis formation in that disease. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the action of PTHrP through its receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, without influencing parathyroid hormone action through the same receptor. Such neutralizing antibodies against PTHrP are therapeutically effective in animal models of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and of bone metastasis formation. We have determined the crystal structure of the complex between PTHrP (residues 1-108) and a neutralizing monoclonal anti-PTHrP antibody that reveals the only point of contact is an {alpha}-helical structure extending from residues 14-29. Another striking feature is that the same residues that interact with the antibody also interact with parathyroid hormone receptor 1, showing that the antibody and the receptor binding site on the hormone closely overlap. The structure explains how the antibody discriminates between the two hormones and provides information that could be used in the development of novel agonists and antagonists of their common receptor.

  2. Serum thyroid hormone reference intervals in the apparently healthy individuals of Zhengzhou area of China.

    Wang, P; Gao, Y J; Cheng, J; Kong, G L; Wang, Y; Wu, X Y; Zhao, Z G; Yuan, H J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish reference intervals for serum thyroid hormones [serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (TT3), thyroxine (TT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4)] in apparently healthy individuals living in Zhengzhou. According to the requirement for laboratory support for the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid diseases in the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) laboratory medicine practice guidelines, a total of 211 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled (94 men, 117 women, 23-77 years old) from Zhengzhou for measurement of serum levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, FT3, and FT4 by using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP analyzer. All markers were analyzed across gender- and age-specific groups by using the t-test and ANOVA. The reference intervals of all markers were determined by P2.5-P97.5. We detected gender-associated statistical significances for TT3, TT4, FT3, and FT4 (t=3.299, 2.141, 5.868, 5.358; P0.05). Correlation analysis showed that all markers were negatively correlated with age (P>0.05). The new reference intervals for TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, and TSH were established: 0.76-1.38 ng/mL, 5.96-11.27 ?g/dL, 3.88-5.59 pM, 11.69-18.84 pM, 0.89-5.93 ?IU/mL, respectively. In conclusion, we added a new database of reference intervals of the serum thyroid hormones for the Chinese adult population. PMID:24782216

  3. Photoperiod-dependent negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones in Fundulus heteroclitus

    In Fundulus heteroclitus, an annual cycle in the response of the thyroid to ovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (oTSH) is characterized by maximal thyroxin (T4) secretion in mid-winter and minimal T4 secretion in summer. Four daily injections of oTSH, given in winter caused serum T4 to plateau at elevated levels for several days, while in summer fish similar treatment resulted in far more fluctuating titers of serum T4; maximum levels were similar in both groups. The difference in sustenance rather than magnitude of Peak T4 led to an examination of the negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones as they might relate to these seasonal changes. Radioiodine uptake by thyroid follicles served as a simple, but effective bioassay for endogenous TSH. Fish collected in summer were more sensitive to negative feedback of T3 than those collected in winter; feedback effects of T4 in the two groups were not significantly different. The effects of specific photoperiods on negative feedback sensitivity to T3 and T4 were also tested. Exposure of winter fish for one month to long days (LD 14:10) enhanced the degree of reduction of iodine uptake caused by T4 in the aquarium water (10 micrograms/100 ml). Negative feedback in short-day (LD 8:16) winter fish was not demonstrated. It is concluded that long days increase and short days diminish the negative feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis to thyroid hormones in F. heteroclitus. Such photoperiodically induced changes may act to aid in the year-round maintenance of T4 levels necessary for seasonal adaptation and survival

  4. Differential Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Rats

    Martin, Lori; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to reduce serum thyroxine (T4) in rats, but the relative effects of individual PCB congeners on thyroid hormones are not known. Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1242 (4, 8, 16, or 32 mg/kg/day), PCB 95 (2,2?,3,5?,6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 99 (2,2?,4,4?,5-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 118 (2,3?,4,4?,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) (2, 4, 8, or 16 mg/kg/day), PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) (2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 ?g/kg/day), TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) (0.14, 0.43, 1.3, or 3.9 ?g/kg/day), or corn oil via oral gavage for 7 days. Rats were necropsied 24 h after the last dose. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated by radioimmunoassay, and induction of hepatic Cyp1a (a TCDD-inducible protein) and Cyp2b (a phenobarbital [PB]-inducible protein) activity was determined by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays, respectively. Significant increases in Cyp1a activity occurred in response to PCBs, except PCB 95 and PCB 99. Aroclor 1254, PCB 99, and PCB 118 significantly induced Cyp2b activity. Serum total T4 and free T4 were dramatically reduced in response to each of the seven treatments in a dose-dependent manner. The marked T4 reductions occurred in response to Aroclor 1254, PCB 99 (a PB-type congener), and PCB 118 (a mixed-type congener). In contrast, reductions in serum triiodothyronine (total and free) were variable and mild, and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was not significantly affected by any of the compounds. These data indicate that the PB and mixed-type PCB congeners are more effective than the TCDD-type PCB congeners at reducing serum T4. PMID:20573785

  5. Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [FISABIO–Universitat de València–Universitat Jaume I Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario [FISABIO–Universitat de València–Universitat Jaume I Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Vioque, Jesús [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); Julvez, Jordi [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2015-04-15

    Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed.

  6. Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

    Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed

  7. The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital; Profil des hormones thyroidiennes chez les femmes enceintes: analyse de 125 cas a l'hopital general de Yaounde

    Dong a ZOK, F. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Yaounde (Cameroon); Mbodj, M. [Hopital General Grand Yoff, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Dakar (Senegal); Mayer, E. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Gyneco-Obstetrique, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2009-10-15

    This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

  8. Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving Anticonvulsive Drugs

    Abolfazl MAHYAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Dalirani R, Hosseini SM, Daneshi Kohan MM. Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving AnticonvulsiveDrugs. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2011;5(4:21-24.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate serum thyroid hormone levels in epileptic children receiving anticonvulsive drugs.Materials & MethodsIn this case- control study, 30 epileptic children who were receiving anticonvulsive drugs (case group were compared with 30 healthy children (control group. This study was carried out in the Qazvin Children's Hospital (Qazvin, Iran from October to December 2007. Both groups were matched for age and sex. Thyroid hormone levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Student's t-tests.ResultsThe mean serum T3 and T4 levels in the case group were 2.36 0.73 nmol/L and 95.96 27.01 nmol/L, respectively, and the corresponding values in the control group were 1.88 0.93 nmol/L and 147.46 35.77 nmol/L, respectively. The mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in the case and control groups were 2.730.73 mIU/mL and 2.49 2.17mIU/mL, respectively.ConclusionThis study revealed that long-term consumption of anticonvulsive drugs resulted in a decline in serum T4 levels and an increase in serum T3 levels, but had no effect on TSH levels.1. Johnston M. Neurodegenerative disorders of childhood;Spingolipidoses. Nelson textbook of pediatrics, 17th edPhiladelphia: Saunders; 2004.P.2031-2.2. Sankar R, Koh S, Wu J, Menkes J. Paroxysmal disorders.In(eds: Menkes JH, Sarnat HB, Maria BL. ChildNeurology; 2006.P.7:877.3. Shiva S, Ashrafi M, Mostafavi F, Abasi F, RahbariA, Shabanian R. Effects of anticonvulsant drugs onthyroid function tests. Iranian Journal of pediatrics2003;13(02:101.4. Kimura M, Yoshino K, Suzuki N, Maeoka Y. Effect ofantiepileptic drugs on thyroid function. Psychiatry andclinical neurosciences. 1995;49(4:227-9.5. Eris Pural J, Delrio-Garma M, Delrio - Castro GagoM. Long Term treatment of children with epilepsy withvalprovats or carbamazepin, may cause subclinicalhypothyroidism. Epilepsia 1999;40(12:1961.6. Isojrvi JIT, Turkka J, Pakarinen AJ, Kotila M,Rtty J, Myllyl VV. Thyroid function in men takingcarbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, or valproate for epilepsy.Epilepsia 2001;42(7:930-4.7. Vainionp LK, Mikkonen K, Rtty J, Knip M,Pakarinen AJ, Myllyl VV, et al. Thyroid function ingirls with epilepsy with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine,or valproate monotherapy and after withdrawal ofmedication. Epilepsia 2004;45(3:197-203.8. Verrotti A, Basciani F, Morresi S, Morgese G, ChiarelliF. Thyroid hormones in epileptic children receivingcarbamazepine and valproic acid. Pediatric neurology2001;25(1:43-6.9. Kantrowitz L, Peterson M, Trepanier L, Melian C,Nichols R. Serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine,free thyroxine, and thyrotropin concentrations in epilepticdogs treated with anticonvulsants. Journal of the AmericanVeterinary Medical Association 1999;214(12:1804.10. Schrder-van der Elst J, Van der Heide D, Van der BentC, Kaptein E, Visser T, DiStefano J. Effects of 5, 5 -diphenylhydantoin on the thyroid status in rats. Europeanjournal of endocrinology 1996;134(2:221.11. Schonberger W, Grimm W, Schonberger G, SinterhaufK, Scheidt E, Ziegler R. [The influence of primidone onthyroid function (authors transl]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr1979;104(25:915-7.12. Tiihonen M, Liewendahl K, Waltimo O, Ojala M,Valimaki M. Thyroid status of patients receiving longtermanticonvulsant therapy assessed by peripheralparameters: a placebo-controlled thyroxine therapy trial.Epilepsia 1995;36(11:1118-25.13. Benedetti MS, Whomsley R, Baltes E, Tonner F. Alterationof thyroid hormone homeostasis by antiepileptic drugsin humans: involvement of glucuronosyltransferaseinduction. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005;61(12:863-72.

  9. The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital

    This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

  10. Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Administration on the Levels of Thyroid Hormones and Testosterone in the γ-Irradiated Rat

    Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) is an adrenal hormone and is the most abundant circulatory steroid hormone in the body. This study intended to determine the role of exogenous DHEAS administration (20 mg/100 g b.wt.) and its possible protective and/or mitigating effect (s) against γ- irradiation (6 Gy) induced disorders in the irradiated rats. Five groups of male Albino rats were used. Samples were collected after one day, one week and two weeks post irradiation and/or DHEAS treatment. The levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone (T) and acid phosphatase (ACP) enzyme activity were measured in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) were estimated in testicular tissue. Obtained results showed that DHEAS administration pre-irradiation improved the disturbances induced by irradiation on the tested parameters: TSH, T3, T4, T and ACP. It also elevated reduced GSH level and decreased lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissue. DHEAS treatment pre-irradiation, rather than post-irradiation, exerts a prophylactic effect, by protecting the cellular vital components from ROS, generated by gamma radiation

  11. A woman with Pituitary Microadenoma: May Thyroid Hormone Resistance be a Cause? A case report and Review of the Literature

    Ece Harman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH is an inherited syndrome characterized by reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone. It is usually first suspected due to findings of high serum free thyroxine (T4 and free triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations and normal or slightly high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations. Herein, we report a 37-year-old woman presented with anxiety and sleeplessness. She was found to have elevated free T3 and T4 plasma concentrations without goiter, unsuppressed TSH and pituitary microadenoma. Thus, we performed tests for differential diagnosis between TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma and RTH. The patients with inappropriate TSH secretion caused by RTH or TSHomas are misdiagnosed and incorrectly treated. Current diagnostic strategies suggest that RTH patients are distinguishable from patients with TSH-secreting pituitary tumors by the use of standard laboratory tests and imaging. Here, we present a woman in whom the standard evaluation for inappropriate TSH secretion was insufficient to distinguish these entities. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 130-4

  12. Relationship between Peptide Hormones with Sex Hormone in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Elham Eftekhari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormones can play a significant role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to compare levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone hormones of MS patients with healthy subjects, and assess the relationship between levels of peptide hormone and sex hormones in MS patients.Methods: 35 MS patients with definite relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS (male = 9, female = 26 and 13 healthy subjects (male = 4, female = 9 were enrolled in the study. Levels of serum ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone hormones were measured in this study. ANOVA and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis (P < 0.05.Results: The female and male participants of the patient group were compared with the healthy group. No significant differences were found in serum of leptin, ghrelin, testosterone, ghrelin/leptin, and testosterone/leptin (P < 0.05. Spearman correlation coefficient showed that leptin had a significant negative correlation with the variability of testosterone (r = -1.00 in the healthy male group. Moreover, leptin had a significant positive correlation with the variability of BMI (r = 0.68 and weight (r = 0.59, at the 0.01 level (2-tailed, in the female patient group. In addition, in the healthy male group, ghrelin had a significant negative correlation with the variability of weight (r = -1.00.Conclusion: According to the results, there was no significant difference between peptide and sex hormones of MS patients and healthy persons. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between peptide and sex hormones of MS patients and healthy persons

  13. Deficincia progressiva dos hormnios adeno-hipofisrios aps radioterapia em adultos Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    Rafaela A. Loureiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A radioterapia um dos fatores desencadeantes do hipopituitarismo, mesmo quando no direcionada diretamente para o eixo hipotlamo-hipofisrio, podendo resultar em reduo de hormnios adeno-hipofisrios, principalmente por leso hipotalmica. A perda da funo da hipfise anterior progressiva e geralmente na seguinte ordem: hormnio do crescimento, gonadotrofinas, adrenocorticotrofina e o hormnio estimulante da tireide. Vrios testes esto disponveis para a confirmao das deficincias, sendo discutidos, neste artigo, os melhores testes para pacientes submetidos irradiao. Enfatizamos que o desenvolvimento do hipopituitarismo aps a radioterapia dose e tempo dependente de irradiao, com algumas diferenas entre os eixos hipofisrios. Portanto, a conscientizao da necessidade de terapia em conjunto de endocrinologistas e oncologistas otimizar o tratamento e a qualidade de vida do paciente.Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients.

  14. Lipid profile and thyroid hormone status in the last trimester of pregnancy in single-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Omidi, Arash; Sajedi, Zhila; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Ansari Nik, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Changes in lipid metabolism have been shown to occur during pregnancy. The thyroid hormones affect lipid metabolism. The present study was carried out to find out whether the last trimester of pregnancy affects thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), lipid, and lipoprotein profile in healthy dromedary camels. Twenty clinical healthy dromedary camels aged between 4-5 years were divided into two equal groups: (1) pregnant camels in their last trimester of pregnancy and (2) non-pregnant age-matched controls. Thyroid function tests were carried out by measuring serum levels of TSH, free thyroxin (fT4), total thyroxin (T4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and total triiodothyronine (T3) by commercially available radio immunoassay kits. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were analyzed using enzymatic/spectrophotometric methods while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and total lipid (TL) were calculated using Friedewald's and Raylander's formula, respectively. Serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones except fT4 did not show any significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. fT4 level was lower in the pregnant camels (P lipid, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and VLDL did not show significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. All of these variables in pregnant camels were higher than non-pregnant. Based on the results of this study, the fetus load may not alter the thyroid status of the camel and the concentrations of thyroid hormones were not correlated with TSH and lipid profile levels in the healthy pregnant camels. PMID:24429808

  15. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn; Hansen, Harald S.; Din, N.

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  16. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsboll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    have led to a greater interest in the physiology of intestinal peptides with potential weight-reducing properties. This review discusses the effects of the incretin-based therapies in obesity, and provides an overview of intestinal peptides with promising effects as potential new treatments for obesity.......It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the...... treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are dying every year from obesity-related diseases. Recently, incretin-based therapy was proposed for the...

  17. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D; Schwarz, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during...... hemodialysis. During the development of the method we found significantly different results of blood ionized calcium and serum PTH concentration when obtained from the arterial blood line on the dialysis unit or from peripheral venous blood. However, when corrected for the calculated recirculation of 3 to 25......, blood PTH/ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared tothe normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal...

  18. Changes in thyroid hormones in surgical trauma.

    Arunabh

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of 20 patients who underwent elective surgery, is presented reporting the effect of surgical trauma on circulating thyroid hormone levels. Although no increase in the serum T4 levels was observed following surgery, serum T3 values were found to decrease and serum rT3 values were found to increase in the post-operative period, representing activation of an alternate pathway in the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. Since trauma induces a hypermetabolic state due to hypersecretion of cortisol, alterations in thyroid hormone levels were concluded to represent an appropriate response in trauma to counter the effects of trauma-induced cortisol hypersecretion.

  19. Endotoxin inhibition of luteinizing hormone in sheep.

    Daniel, J A; Abrams, M S; deSouza, L; Wagner, C G; Whitlock, B K; Sartin, J L

    2003-07-01

    Administration of endotoxin suppresses circulating concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) in a number of species, including rats, sheep, cattle, and non-human primates. Specifically, endotoxin administration decreases circulating concentration of LH and LH pulses frequency in castrated male sheep. Endotoxin could alter circulating concentrations of LH via actions at the hypothalamus through altered GnRH production and/or release, or endotoxin could alter circulating concentrations of LH at the level of the pituitary via inhibition of LH production and release or inhibition of LH in response to GnRH. The site of endotoxin suppression of circulating concentrations of LH as well as possible mediators of endotoxin suppression of circulating concentrations of LH, including cortiocotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin, glucocorticoids, inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, and opioids, are discussed. PMID:12963096

  20. Reproductive Hormones and the Menopause Transition

    Santoro, Nanette; Randolph, John F

    2011-01-01

    The hormonal correlates of reproductive aging and the menopause transition reflect an initial loss of the follicle cohort, while a responsive ovary remains, and an eventual complete loss of follicle response, with persistent hypergonadotropic amenorrhea. The physiology of the process is described, along with key findings of relevant studies, with an emphasis on SWAN, the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. A clinical framework is provided to help clinicians forecast the major milestone...

  1. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease

    Vishal Gupta,; Marilyn Lee

    2012-01-01

    Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height) is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have ...

  2. Negative regulation of growth hormone (GH) signaling

    Rico Bautista, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Growth Hormone (GH) regulates postnatal longitudinal growth. It also has several other functions. It decreases cholesterol and lipoproteins levels, reduces fat tissue and increases lean body mass. GH actions are mediated by the JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway. The manner whereby this pathway is activated has been extensively studied. There are, however, gaps in our knowledge how the pathway is silenced or negatively regulated. Down regulation of GH signaling is related to sever...

  3. Modulation of appetite by gonadal steroid hormones

    Asarian, Lori; Geary, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Several sex differences in eating, their control by gonadal steroid hormones and their peripheral and central mediating mechanisms are reviewed. Adult female rats and mice as well as women eat less during the peri-ovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle (estrus in rats and mice) than other phases, an effect under the control of cyclic changes in estradiol secretion. Women also appear to eat more sweets during the luteal phase of the cycle than other phases, possibly due to simultaneous increases...

  4. Use of parathyroid hormone in hypoparathyroidism

    Cusano, N.E.; Rubin, M.R.; Irani, D.; Sliney, J; Bilezikian, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder characterized by hypocalcemia, deficient PTH, and abnormal bone remodeling. Standard treatment of hypoparathyroidism consists of oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. However, maintaining serum calcium levels can be a challenge. In addition, concerns exist regarding hypercalciuria and ectopic calcifications that can be associated with such treatment. Hypoparathyroidism is the only classic endocrine deficiency disease for which the missing hormone, PTH, i...

  5. Sleep Duration Affects Appetite-Regulating Hormones

    Taheri Shahrad; Lin Ling; Austin Diane; Young Terry; Mignot Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Background Sleep duration may be an important regulator of body weight and metabolism. An association between short habitual sleep time and increased body mass index (BMI) has been reported in large population samples. The potential role of metabolic hormones in this association is unknown. Methods and Findings Study participants were 1,024 volunteers from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, a population-based longitudinal study of sleep disorders. Participants underwent nocturnal polysomnog...

  6. Thyroid Hormone Mediated Modulation of Energy Expenditure

    Janina A. Vaitkus; Farrar, Jared S.; Celi, Francesco S.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) has diverse effects on mitochondria and energy expenditure (EE), generating great interest and research effort into understanding and harnessing these actions for the amelioration and treatment of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. Direct effects on ATP utilization are a result of TH’s actions on metabolic cycles and increased cell membrane ion permeability. However, the majority of TH induced EE is thought to be a result of indirect effects, which, in tur...

  7. Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Homeostasis During Aging

    Bowers, J.; Terrien, J; Clerget-Froidevaux, M. S.; Gothié, J.D.; Rozing, M.P.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; van Heemst, D.; Demeneix, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies in humans and in animal models show negative correlations between thyroid hormone (TH) levels and longevity. TH signaling is implicated in maintaining and integrating metabolic homeostasis at multiple levels, notably centrally in the hypothalamus but also in peripheral tissues. The question is thus raised of how TH signaling is modulated during aging in different tissues. Classically, TH actions on mitochondria and heat production are obvious candidates to link negative effects of TH ...

  8. HORMONES, LIFE-HISTORY, AND PHENOTYPIC VARIATION

    Tony D Williams

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this talk I will argue that life-histories provide a powerful, conceptual framework for integration of endocrinology, evolutionary biology and ecology. This has been a commonly articulated statement (e.g. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. System. 38:793; TREE 22:80 but I will show, in the context of avian reproduction, that true integration of ultimate and proximate approaches has been slow. We have only a very rudimentary understanding of the physiological and hormonal basis of phenotypic variation in reproductive traits that contribute to individual variation in lifetime fitness in birds (e.g. laying date, clutch size, parental effort and of trade-offs that link these traits or that link reproduction to other life stages (e.g. costs of reproduction. I will explore some of the reasons for this including, a an increasingly reductionist and centralist focus which is more and more removed from ecological/evolutionary context and from peripheral physiological mechanisms that actually determine how phenotypes work, b a long-standing male-bias in experimental studies, even though the key reproductive traits which contribute most to variation in fitness are female-specific traits (e.g. egg size or number. Endocrine systems provide strong candidate mechanisms for generation of phenotypic variation in single traits as well as trade-offs between traits due to, a hormonal pleiotropy: single hormones having both positive and negative effects on multiple physiological systems and, b hormonal or physiological conflict between regulatory systems required for different but over-lapping or linked life-history stages. I will illustrate this with examples involving reproductive anemia in egg-producing females, parental care in starlings, migration-reproduction interactions in penguins and albatrosses, and moult-breeding overlap in petrels (Supported by NSERC Discovery Grant.

  9. Thyroid hormone and the developing hypothalamus

    Alkemade, Anneke

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an essential role in normal brain development and function. Both TH excess and insufficiency during development lead to structural brain abnormalities. Proper TH signaling is dependent on active transport of the prohormone thyroxine (T4) across the blood-brain-barrier and into brain cells. In the brain T4 undergoes local deiodination into the more active 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3), which binds to nuclear TH receptors (TRs). TRs are already expressed during the fir...

  10. Thyroid hormone and the developing hypothalamus

    Anneke Alkemade

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an essential role in normal brain development and function. Both TH excess and insufficiency during development lead to structural brain abnormalities. Proper TH signaling is dependent on active transport of the prohormone thyroxine (T4) across the blood-brain-barrier and into brain cells. In the brain T4 undergoes local deiodination into the more active 3,3’,5-triiodothyronine (T3), which binds to nuclear TH receptors (TRs). TRs are already expressed during the fir...

  11. Pituitary carcinoma with different hormone expressions

    Lu, Tao; Wang, Ren-Zhi; Zhao-hui ZHU; Ding-rong ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    Objective To introduce the experience of diagnosing and treating one case of pituitary carcinoma with distinct hormone expressions in primary and metastatic lesions and to improve understanding of this disease.  Methods Retrospective study was performed to analyze the clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, histopathologic findings, and treatment information of the patient. Immunohistochemical staining was done to both primary and metastatic lesions.  Results The patient pre...

  12. Neuroendocrine Disruption: More than Hormones are Upset

    Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L

    2011-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are ...

  13. Effects of carbamazepine on male reproductive hormones

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ashjazadeh, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reproductive endocrine disorders and sexual dysfunction are common among men with epilepsy. We investigated sexual hormone serum levels among men with newly diagnosed epilepsy, before starting any antiepileptic drug (AED), and then after starting carbamazepine (CBZ), to determine the role and effects of epilepsy versus CBZ in creating reproductive endocrine disorders. Methods: In this prospective study, male patients 20 to 40 years of age who due to new-onset seizure(s) were refer...

  14. Hormonal responses in strenuous jumping effort.

    Bosco, C; Tihanyl, J; Rivalta, L; Parlato, G; Tranquilli, C; Pulvirenti, G; Foti, C; Viru, M; Viru, A

    1996-02-01

    In order to test the possibility for rapid responses of blood hormone levels in short-term supramaximal exercises, serum concentrations of corticotropin (ACTH), cortisol (C), total testosterone (tT), free testosterone (fT), growth hormone (GH), thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), prolactin (PRL), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined by RIA procedures in blood samples obtained before and immediately after a 60-s period of consecutive vertical jumps (Bosco test). The study subjects were 16 Italian professional soccer players. Immediately after exercise, significant increases (p TSH (by 20%), fT3 (by 28%), fT4 (by 30%), tT (by 12%), fT (by 13%), and SHBG (by 21%). Significant changes were not detected in the blood levels of GH, IGF-I and PRL. Most pronounced testosterone responses were typical for persons of high jumping performance (the increase of serum tT correlated with average power output, r = 0.61 and jumping height, r = 0.66). The larger the drop in power output during 60-s jumping, the higher was the thyroid response: the difference in jumping height between the first and last 15-s period correlated with increases in TSH (r = 0.52) and in fT4, (r = 0.55). In conclusion, the obtained results indicate that in intense exercise, causing the rapid development of fatigue, rapid increases in serum levels of hormones of the pituitary-adrenocortical, pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid systems occur. PMID:8743723

  15. Vulnerability to cocaine: role of stress hormones

    Jong, Inge Elisabeth Maria de

    2007-01-01

    Not everyone who experiments with cocaine acquires compulsive drug use. The mechanism underlying this individual difference in susceptibility to addiction is poorly understood. Recent studies have identified genes and adverse life events (stress) as risk factors. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the contribution of the adrenal stress hormones glucocorticoids and epinephrine to the psychostimulant effects of cocaine in the inbred DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mouse strains. Behavioural sensi...

  16. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Mortensen, Kristian H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2012-01-01

    The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequen...... estrogen and androgen insufficiency as well as the effects of sex HRT on morbidity and mortality with special emphasis on evidence based research and areas needing further studies....

  17. Incretin hormones as immunomodulators of atherosclerosis

    Alonso, Nuria; Julin, M. Teresa; Puig-Domingo, Manuel; Vives-Pi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis results from endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammatory processes affecting both macro- and microvasculature which are involved in vascular diabetic complications. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally as opposed to intravenously and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). GLP-1 based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) a...

  18. Pathophysiology of hormone-resistant prostate cancer

    BELEV, BORISLAV; ŠIPIĆ, TOMISLAV

    2014-01-01

    Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has been for many years the cornerstone of metastatic prostate carcinoma (PC) treatment. It is very well documented that the majority of cancer cells in prostate gland remain androgen responsive what was the basis for androgen suppression in treatment. Nevertheless, after some time or sometimes initially, PCa cells become resistant to castration serum level of testosteron, because of some genetic and epigenetic changes that make them independent from hormone...

  19. Juvenile hormone esterase: biochemistry and structure

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Normal insect development requires a precisely timed, precipitous drop in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) titer. This drop occurs through a coordinated halt in JH biosynthesis and increase in JH metabolism. In many species, JH esterase (JHE) is critical for metabolism of the resonance-stabilized methyl ester of JH. JHE metabolizes JH with a high kcat/KM ratio that results primarily from an exceptionally low KM. Here we review the biochemistry and structure of authentic and recombinant JHEs fr...

  20. Integration of light and hormone signals

    Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    After germination, seedlings follow one of two developmental programs, photo- and skotomorphogenesis, and the choice is determined by the interplay between environmental signals (light) and endogenous cues (the plant hormones gibberellins among others). In the December issue of Plant Journal we describe a molecular mechanism that allows the integration of light and gibberellin signaling to tightly control the switch between skoto- and photomorphogenesis. On one hand, the stability of HY5, a t...

  1. Sex Hormones and Mood in the Perimenopause

    Schmidt, Peter J; Rubinow, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the relationship between the onset of depression in women and the reproductive events of the menopause transition. Epidemiologic studies have documented that the majority of women do not become depressed during the menopause transition. However, recent longitudinal studies suggest that in some women, the reproductive events related to the menopause transition could play a role in the onset of depression. No abnormality of ovarian hormones has been identified that ...

  2. HORMONAL EVALUATION IN FEMALES HAVING MELASMA

    Sharique

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melasma is a commonly acquired hyperpigmentation which present as irregular, light to dark brown macules on sun exposed skin due to various etiological factors including hormonal imbalance. AIM : To assist the level of various hormones and study the clinical and hormonal correlation in patients of melasma. METHODS : 50 female patients of melasma between age group 18 - 50 with equal number of age matched females with no signs of melasma, hirsutism and any other endocrinal abnormality, were enrolled. They were examined by woods’ lamp to see the type of melasma whether epidermal, dermal or mixed. 10 ml of venous blood sample was drawn after overnight fasting on 3 rd - 5 th day of the menstrual cycle in mid follicular phase for the assessment of LH, FSH, Prolactin, Estradiol and Progesterone by chemiluminescence method. RESULT : Out of 50 patients, 8 patients had deranged level of LH, 7 patients had deranged level of FSH, 14 patients had deranged prolactein, 18 patients had deranged estradiol and 6 patients had deranged level of progesterone. 70% patients were married and belong to age group of 31 - 40 years. 18 % patients has onset of melasma during pregnancy while 52% patients after the delivery. CONCLUSIONS : LH, estradiol and progesterone are found to be contributory factors in development of melasma.

  3. Growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy

    Jesús Devesa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jesús Devesa1,2, Nerea Casteleiro2, Cristina Rodicio2, Natalia López2, Pedro Reimunde1,21Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2Medical Center Proyecto Foltra, 15886 Teo, SpainAbstract: Cerebral palsy (CP is a catastrophic acquired disease, occurring during development of the fetal or infant brain. It mainly affects the motor control centres of the developing brain, but can also affect cognitive functions, and is usually accompanied by a cohort of symptoms including lack of communication, epilepsy, and alterations in behavior. Most children with cerebral palsy exhibit a short stature, progressively declining from birth to puberty. We tested here whether this lack of normal growth might be due to an impaired or deficient growth hormone (GH secretion. Our study sample comprised 46 CP children, of which 28 were male and 18 were female, aged between 3 and 11. Data obtained show that 70% of these children lack normal GH secretion. We conclude that GH replacement therapy should be implemented early for CP children, not only to allow them to achieve a normal height, but also because of the known neurotrophic effects of the hormone, perhaps allowing for the correction of some of the common disabilities experienced by CP children.Keywords: growth hormone, IGF-I, cerebral palsy, short stature

  4. Hormonal regulation of hepatocyte tight junctional permeability

    The authors have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, [14C]sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase the authors have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of [14C]sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors [Sar1,Thr8]angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the [14C]sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile

  5. Incretin hormones as immunomodulators of atherosclerosis

    NuriaAlonso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis results from endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammatory processes affecting both macro-and microvasculature which are involved in vascular diabetic complications. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally as opposed to intravenously and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. GLP-1 based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor (R agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4, an enzyme that degrades endogenous GLP-1 are routinely used to treat patients with T2D. Recent experimental model studies have established that GLP-1R mRNA is widely expressed in several immune cells. Moreover, its activation contributes to the regulation of both thymocyte and peripheral T cells proliferation and is involved in the maintenance of peripheral regulatory T cells. GLP-1 R is also expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The effect of incretin hormones on atherosclerogenesis have recently been studied in animal models of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apo E-/-. These studies have demonstrated that treatment with incretin hormones or related compounds suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis and macrophage infiltration in the arterial wall as well as a marked anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells. This effect may have a major impact on the attenuation of atherosclerosis and may help in the design of new therapies for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Transport of thyroid hormone in brain

    JosefKhrle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating thyroid hormone uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and the blood-CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8 play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed.

  7. Biochemical endpoints of glucocorticoid hormone action

    Young, D.A.; Nicholson, M.L.; Guyette, W.A.; Giddings, S.J.; Mendelsohn, S.L.; Nordeen, S.K.; Lyons, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Both the rapidly evolving metabolic effects of glucocorticoids and the more slowly developing lethal actions appear to be initiated via the synthesis of new mRNAs and proteins. The chronic suppression of cell growth may be the consequence of suppression of overall rates of protein synthesis (and probably RNA and DNA synthesis as well) that in turn may represent the cellular response to the small changes in ratios of adenine nucleotides that result from the suppression of oxidative ATP production. The inhibition of glucose transport may also play a role here to prevent a compensatory increase in glycolytic ATP production. Some other hormone actions, the decrease in the ability of cells to concentrate AIB and the increase in nuclear fragility are unrelated to, and evolve separately from, the hormonal inhibitions on energy production. Cell killing is not the result of suppression of protein synthesis, nor of hormone-induced increases in calcium uptake. While the mechanisms are unknown, the increase in nuclear fragility appears to be the earliest measure of their operation. In tumor cells resistance to lethal actions of glucocorticoids may emerge via the selection of cells with hardier membranes, that are better able to withstand the intracellular destructive events set in motion by high levels of glucocorticoids.

  8. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: radioimmunoassay and extraction from human serum

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LRH) is a decapeptide which releases both LH and FSH in man. Its chemical synthesis allowed sufficient amounts to become available for clinical studies and for the generation of specific antibodies. Radioimmunoassay techniques have advantages over bioassays in relation to sensitivity and specificity. Radioimmunoassays have been applied to quantify exogenously administered LRH but data on the endogenous LRH levels of unextracted serum samples are still conflicting. The low concentrations of various polypeptide hormones make extraction procedures almost essential for their assay, in particular for improvement of specificity and for removal of interfering substances. The present paper concerns the extraction of LRH from biological fluids and the development of radioimmunoassay for testing the extracted samples

  9. The reciprocal regulation of stress hormones and GABAA receptors

    Istvan Mody

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-derived steroid hormones regulate the expression and function of GABAA receptors (GABAARs. Changes in GABAAR subunit expression have been demonstrated under conditions of altered steroid hormone levels, such as stress, as well as following exogenous steroid hormone administration. In addition to the effects of stress-derived steroid hormones on GABAAR subunit expression, stress hormones can also be metabolized to neuroactive derivatives which can alter the function of GABAARs. Neurosteroids allosterically modulate GABAARs at concentrations comparable to those during stress. In addition to the actions of stress-derived steroid hormones on GABAARs, GABAARs reciprocally regulate the production of stress hormones. The stress response is mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the activity of which is governed by corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH neurons. The activity of CRH neurons is largely controlled by robust GABAergic inhibition. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CRH neurons are regulated by neurosteroid-sensitive, GABAAR δ subunit-containing receptors representing a novel feedback mechanism onto the HPA axis. Further, it has been demonstrated that neurosteroidogenesis and neurosteroid actions on GABAAR δ subunit-containing receptors on CRH neurons are necessary to mount the physiological response to stress. Here we review the literature describing the effects of steroid hormones on GABAARs as well as the importance of GABAARs in regulating the production of steroid hormones. This review incorporates what we currently know about changes in GABAARs following stress and the role in HPA axis regulation.

  10. The role of reproductive hormones in postpartum depression.

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Rubinow, David R

    2015-02-01

    Despite decades of research aimed at identifying the causes of postpartum depression (PPD), PPD remains common, and the causes are poorly understood. Many have attributed the onset of PPD to the rapid perinatal change in reproductive hormones. Although a number of human and nonhuman animal studies support the role of reproductive hormones in PPD, several studies have failed to detect an association between hormone concentrations and PPD. The purpose of this review is to examine the hypothesis that fluctuations in reproductive hormone levels during pregnancy and the postpartum period trigger PPD in susceptible women. We discuss and integrate the literature on animal models of PPD and human studies of reproductive hormones and PPD. We also discuss alternative biological models of PPD to demonstrate the potential for multiple PPD phenotypes and to describe the complex interplay of changing reproductive hormones and alterations in thyroid function, immune function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, lactogenic hormones, and genetic expression that may contribute to affective dysfunction. There are 3 primary lines of inquiry that have addressed the role of reproductive hormones in PPD: nonhuman animal studies, correlational studies of postpartum hormone levels and mood symptoms, and hormone manipulation studies. Reproductive hormones influence virtually every biological system implicated in PPD, and a subgroup of women seem to be particularly sensitive to the effects of perinatal changes in hormone levels. We propose that these women constitute a "hormone-sensitive" PPD phenotype, which should be studied independent of other PPD phenotypes to identify underlying pathophysiology and develop novel treatment targets. PMID:25263255

  11. Growth Hormone Responses to Thyroid Hormone in the Neonatal Rat: RESISTANCE AND ANAMNESTIC RESPONSE

    Seo, Hisao; Wunderlich, Caryn; Vassart, Gilbert; Refetoff, Samuel

    1981-01-01

    Differences in the growth hormone (GH) responses to primary and to secondary stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) were studied in rats deprived of thyroid hormone from birth. Neonatal hypothyroidism was induced in pups by feeding pregnant rats an iodine-deficient, propylthiouracil-containing diet. T3 stimulation was carried out in pups by subcutaneous injection of a single dose of 50 μg T3/100 g body wt. Pituitary GH content, rate of GH synthesis in vitro, and GH messenger (m)RNA activity i...

  12. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Comasco, Erika; Frøkjær, Vibe; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-01-01

    The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuat......The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone...... fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. The present review summarizes the findings of thirty-five studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri...... well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal variations on the brain....

  13. The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media.

    Sato, G; Hayashi, I

    1976-12-01

    The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media. (Reemplazo del suero por hormonas en el medio de cultivo de clulas). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 120-121, 1976. The serum used in cell culture media can be replaced by a mixture of hormones and some accesory blood factors. The pituitary cell line GH3 can be grown in a medium in which serum is replaced by triiodothyronine, transferrin, parathormone, tyrotrophin releasing hormone and somatomedins. Hela and BHK cell strains can also be grown in serum free medium supplemented with hormones. Each cell type appears to have different hormonal requirements yet it may found that some hormones are required for most cell types. PMID:1026199

  14. Adiposity and sex hormones in girls.

    Baer, Heather J; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2007-09-01

    Greater body fatness during childhood is associated with reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer, but few studies have addressed the relation of adiposity with sex hormones in girls. We prospectively examined associations between adiposity and circulating levels of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) among 286 girls in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Participants were 8 to 10 years old at baseline and were followed for an average of 7 years. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and at subsequent annual visits, and blood samples were collected every 2 years. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) during follow-up were higher among girls with greater body mass index (BMI) at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 63.0 microg/dL compared with 78.8 microg/dL for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with a 4.3% increase (95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.0%) in DHEAS levels during follow-up (P(trend) = 0.002). Concentrations of SHBG during follow-up were lower among girls with greater BMI at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 94.8 nmol compared with 57.5 nmol for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with an 8.8% decrease (95% confidence interval, 7.0-10.6%) in SHBG levels during follow-up (P(trend) < 0.0001). Estrogen and progesterone concentrations were similar across BMI quartiles. These findings suggest that adiposity may alter DHEAS and SHBG levels in girls. Whether and how these differences affect breast development and carcinogenesis requires further research. PMID:17855709

  15. Chemical proteomics strategies for elucidation of cellular steroid hormone targets

    Golkowski, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the given work was the development and improvement of affinity chromatography-based methodologies as a means to elucidate the cellular target structures of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones. Steroid hormones are among the most important regulators of physiological processes in mammals. Moreover, pharmacological agents based on or derived from steroid hormones are indispensable for the treatment of diseases related inflammation, the immune defense and the deregulation of the...

  16. Hormones and their Interaction with the Pain Experience

    Vincent, Katy; Tracey, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in the prevalence of painful conditions appear after pubertyVariation in symptom severity across the menstrual cycle occurs in a number of clinical pain conditionsSex steroid hormones act at a number of sites in both the peripheral and central nervous systems and in both reproductive and non-reproductive tissuesSex steroid hormones have traditionally been thought to alter transcription; however, there is evidence that there are also non-genomic effectsSex steroid hormones can ...

  17. Hormonal Therapy and Risk of Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    Amadou, Amina; Fabre, Alban; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Hainaut, Pierre; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal therapies, including hormonal contraceptives (HC) and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been shown to influence breast cancer (BC) risk. However, the variations of these effects among populations and ethnic groups are not completely documented, especially among Hispanic women. We evaluated the association between HC and premenopausal BC risk, and between HRT and postmenopausal BC risk in Mexican women. Data from a Mexican multi-center population-based c...

  18. Growth hormone and prolactin stimulation by Madopar in Parkinson's disease

    Martinez-Campos, A.; Giovannini, P.; Parati, E.; Novelli, A.; Caraceni, T; Mller, EE

    1981-01-01

    Madopar, a combination of levodopa with benserazide, induced an inconsistent rise in plasma growth hormone in unmedicated patients with Parkinson's disease and in controls, and a greater growth hormone rise in Parkinsonian subjects on chronic Madopar therapy. In subjects on chronic therapy with levodopa and carbidopa (Sinemet), the growth hormone releasing effect of Madopar was blunted. Madopar increased plasma prolactin (PRL) in controls, unmedicated patients and patients on Madopar therapy ...

  19. Estrous cycle phase and gonadal hormones influence conditioned fear extinction

    Milad, Mohammed R; Igoe, Sarah A.; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Novales, Juan E

    2009-01-01

    Gonadal hormones modulate fear acquisition, but less is known about the influence of gonadal hormones on fear extinction. We assessed sex differences and the influence of gonadal hormone fluctuations and exogenous manipulations of estrogen and progesterone on acquisition, extinction learning and extinction recall in a 3-day auditory fear conditioning and extinction protocol. Experiments were conducted on males and naturally cycling female rats. Regarding female rats, significant differences i...

  20. Growth hormone rescues hippocampal synaptic function after sleep deprivation

    Kim, EunYoung; Grover, Lawrence M; Bertolotti, Don; Green, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is required for, and sleep loss impairs, normal hippocampal synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function and expression, hippocampal NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity, and hippocampal-dependent memory function. Although sleep is essential, the signals linking sleep to hippocampal function are not known. One potential signal is growth hormone. Growth hormone is released during sleep, and its release is suppressed during sleep deprivation. If growth hormone l...