WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

2

TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... dry skin, constipation, cold intolerance, and fatigue. Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in ... well as the production of autoantibodies . With Hashimoto thyroiditis, the thyroid produces low levels of thyroid hormone. ...

3

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Measurement of Intracellular, Secreted, and Circulating Hormone in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis .  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced in the pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormone (TH). The concentration of TH controls developmental changes that take place in a wide variety of organisms. Many use the metaphoric ch...

4

Measurement of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) In Vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the methods of assay proposed for the quantitative measurement of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (H-TSH) have encountered major difficulties in relation to sensitivity and specificity. The development of radioimmunoassay techniques for the measurement of H-TSH not only resulted in increased sensitivity over the majority of existing techniques, but led to improvements in specificity and practicability. The purpose of this communication is to compare serum TSH values measured by a method of bioassay in vitro with those obtained by a radioimmunoassay developed in this laboratory using reagents provided by the National Pituitary Agency, United States of America. In the bioassay technique goitrous guinea-pig thyroid tissue is incubated in vitro with 131I and H-TSH during which time the tissue takes up 131I and binds it in organic combination. Measurements of the radioactive content of the culture medium are made before and after the addition of KSCN in order to discharge any 131I present in the tissue as iodide, the difference in count-rate being indirectly proportional to the amount of H-TSH present in the incubation fluid. The method can detect as little as 1.0 mU/100 ml serum. The radioimmunoassay technique used was that described by Odell and Garigan in instructions accompanying the reagents. However, modifications to their technique included the use of antiserum at a final dilution of 1/120 000 and the addition of H-TSH at a final concentration of 0.4 ng/ml to mixtures of antiserum and the standard preparation after an incubation period of five days. After a further five days incubation period, the separation of bound and free 131I-H-TSH was carried out by precipitating the bound hormone with NaCl and ethanol. The lower limit of detection in terms of the H-TSH standard A (MRC) is 5 ?U/ml serum (0.5 mU/100 ml). Serum was obtained from children aged one month to 16 years, adults aged 18-40 years and 66-85 years, patients subjected to either pituitary stalk section on 90Y implantation during treatment for advanced diabetic retinopathy, and one patient suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis during periods of suppression by T3 and stimulation by TSH, Assessments of thyroid function were made either by the triiodothyronine uptake test using coated charcoal or by the estimation of the protein-bound iodine content of serum. The correlation between the TSH assay results obtained by the two methods are discussed. (author)

5

The Association of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels with Cognitive Function and Depressed Mood  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To evaluate the association of thyroid stimulating hormone levels with cognitive function and depressed mood in a community-based sample. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Clinic visit in 1999-2003 Participants Community-dwelling men (N=447) and women (N=663) aged 42-99 years Measurement Cognitive function was assessed with the Buschke-Fuld Selective Reminding Test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, Trails B, and category fluency. Depressed mood was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A fasting blood sample was obtained for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement. Results Mean age was 73.6±10.0 in men and 74.3±10.4 in women. Mean TSH was 1.9 ?IU/ml in both sexes; 9.0% of men and 24% of women reported thyroid medication use. Mean BDI scores were 4.6±4.1 in men and 5.2±4.3 in women; 9% of men and 11% of women used antidepressants. Before and after adjustment for covariates or exclusion of participants taking thyroid hormones, no associations were observed between TSH and cognitive function (ps>0.10). TSH was inversely associated with BDI (p=0.03) in men, but not women. Conclusions Thyroid stimulating hormone level was unrelated to cognitive function in men and women, and was inversely associated with depressed mood in men only, possibly reflecting the greater use of both thyroid medications and antidepressants by women. PMID:19300866

Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Schultz, Stephen T.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

6

Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period ...

Vandevijvere, S.; Coucke, W.; Vanderpas, J.; Trumpff, C.; Fauvart, M.; Meulemans, A.; Marie, S.; Vincent, Mf; Schoos, Roland; Boemer, Franc?ois; Vanwynsberghe, T.; Philips, E.; Eyskens, F.; Wuyts, B.; Selimaj, V.

2012-01-01

7

Thyroid-stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies as a predictor of thyrosuppressive drug therapy outcome in Graves’ disease patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Graves’ disease is autoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by pathological stimulation of thyroid-stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies. The decision on changing the therapy can be made on time by determining the prognostic factors of thyrosuppressive drug therapy outcome. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of thyroid-stimulation hormone-receptor antibodies level on the prediction of therapy outcome. Material and Methods. The study was prospective and involved 106 drug-treated patients with newly diagnosed Graves’ disease. Thyroid- stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies level was measured at the beginning of therapy, during therapy and 12 months after it had been introduced. Results. No statistically significant difference in the level of thyroid-stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies was found at the beginning of disease and 12 months after the introduction of thyrosuppressive drug therapy among the patients who had been in remission and those who had not. Regardless of the outcome, thyroid-stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies level significantly decreased in all patients 12 months after the therapy had been introduced. Conclusion. The level of thyroid-stimulation hormone - receptor antibodies at the beginning of disease and 12 months after the introduction of therapy cannot predict the outcome of thyrosuppressive drug therapy.

Aleksi? Aleksandar Z.

2014-01-01

8

Preparation of quality control samples in radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To days, the radioimmunoassay is becomes the best technique to analysis different concentrations of substance, especially in medical and research laboratories. Although the specificity of RIA techniques, the quality controls must takes place to give good results as possible. In this dissertation i prepared quality control samples of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), to use it in RIA techniques and to control the reliability results of those laboratories which used these methods. We used China production kits of RIA method to determine the level of hormone (low-normal-high) concentration. Statistical parameters were used to drown the control chart of the mean to these data.(Author)

9

Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone in 2008: focus on thyroid cancer management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ann Gramza1, Kathryn G Schuff21Division of Medical Oncology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR USAAbstract: Radioiodine (RAI ablation following thyroidectomy is standard of care treatment for patients with intermediate or high risk differentiated thyroid cancer. Traditionally, this has been achieved by forgoing thyroid hormone replacement postoperatively, allowing endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels to rise. This rise in TSH provides the stimulus for RAI uptake by the thyroid remnant, but is associated with clinical hypothyroidism and its associated morbidities. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, thyrotropin alfa [Thyrogen®], Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA was developed to provide TSH stimulation without withdrawal of thyroid hormone and clinical hypothyroidism. Phase III studies reported equivalent detection of recurrent or residual disease when rhTSH was used compared with thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW. These trials led to its approval as an adjunctive diagnostic tool for serum thyroglobulin (Tg testing with or without RAI imaging in the surveillance of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Recently, rhTSH was given an indication for adjunctive preparation for thyroid remnant ablation after phase III studies demonstrated comparable outcomes for rhTSH preparation when compared with THW. Importantly, rhTSH stimulation has been found to be safe, well tolerated, and to result in improved quality of life. Here, we review the efficacy and tolerability studies leading to the approval for the use of rhTSH in well-differentiated thyroid cancer management.Keywords: recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid cancer, radioiodine, ablation, Thyrogen®, thyrotropin alfa

Ann Gramza

2009-01-01

10

Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

Kunii Yasuto

2011-09-01

11

Evaluation and comparison of high-sensitivity immunoradiometric assay kits for thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fundamental and clinical characteristics of 3 kinds of high-sensitivity immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kits for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). i.e., RIA BEADS II (kit A), TSH kit Daiichi II (kit B) and Ab tube TSH 'Eiken' (kit C) and one conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit, i.e., TSH kit Daiichi (kit D), were studied. In the recovery test and the reproducibility test, there was no significant difference between the 4 kits. The sensitivities of kits A, B and C were much higher than that of kit D, and those IRMA kits were sensitive enough to distinguish hyperthyroidism from normal samples. For low concentrations of TSH (< 5 ?U/ml), the data from kits D, B, C and A tended to show higher values in that order. The correlation between the data measured by kits B and D, and the tendency of kit A toward lower values agreed well with other reports. (author)

12

Development and Optimization of Sepharose Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay for Estimation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present study was oriented to develop, optimize and validate solid phase radioimmunoassay, through many studies on Sepharose, for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone in humane serum. Preparation of polyclonal antibodies was carried out in host rabbit animals against TSH antigen followed by partial purification of 1gG. Linkage of antibody 1gG to activated Sepharose CL-4B was carried out after activation of Sepharose with 1,1- carbonyldiimidazole. Labeling of TSH was carried out using chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent and the labeled tracer was purified through PD-10 column. Extensive studies were carried out to obtain the optimum conditions of using solid phase Sepharose to reach higher separation efficiency. The results of validation tests reveal that the local solid phase system is precise and accurate for evaluation of thyroid disorders

13

Simple, rapid, and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone immunoassay using europium(III) nanoparticle label  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is widely used as a marker of thyroid function. A rapid TSH assay enables diagnosis during the first visit at the doctor's office aiding to faster and cost-effective medical treatment. To accomplish such an assay method europium(III) chelate nanoparticles were coated with anti-TSH monoclonal antibody. Captured anti-TSH monoclonal antibody was immobilized onto single wells by streptavidin-biotin chemistry and the assay was carried out in dry chemistry format using 5 {mu}l of sample in a 30 {mu}l assay volume in the commercial AiO immunoassay system. The developed TSH nanoparticle assay was performed in a kinetic mode using a 10-min incubation time. The analytical sensitivity of the developed assay was 0.0012 mIU l{sup -1} corresponding to the fourth generation TSH assay and less than 0.02 mIU l{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators. The dynamic range of the assay was more than three orders of magnitude and no high-dose hook effect was observed at 100 mIU l{sup -1} of TSH. Correlation with an automated commercial assay was good (y = 0.96 {+-} 0.02, intercept = 0.12 {+-} 0.09, S{sub yverticalbarx} = 0.49, R = 0.988). Intra- and inter-assay variations were 4-14 and 6-17%, respectively. The developed quantitative one-step all-in-one dry reagent time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay has great potential for rapid analysis of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in a point-of-care environment when antibody-coated high specific activity Eu(III) nanoparticles were used as labels.

Pelkkikangas, Anne-Maria; Jaakohuhta, Sinikka; Loevgren, Timo; Haermae, Harri

2004-07-26

14

A comparison of immunoenzymometric assays for human thyroid stimulating hormone and human growth hormone with established immunoradiometric assay methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two-site immunoenzymometric assays (IEMAs) utilizing polyclonal antisera coated microtitre well (solid phase) and horse radish peroxidase labelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) have been developed with a view to supplying a non-radioisotopic immunoassay system for use in a bulk matched reagent scheme. A two state assay format with a spectrophotometric end point readout was chosen. Results for the pituitary hormones human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) and human growth hormone (hGH) are presented. Assay characteristics and performance of these IEMAs compared favourably with existing immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) which use microcrystalline cellulose coupled solid phase antibody and 125I labelled MAb. Intra-assay analytical precision was similar for both hTSH methods but slightly worse for the hGH IEMA. Relative to IRMA, mean IEMA sensitivity was better for the hTSH, but worse for hGH. However, ''working ranges'' with analytical imprecision of less than 10% covered the distribution of standards in all assays. Good agreement was obtained between methods for patient hTSH specimens up to 12.5 mIU/L but a concentration-dependent negative bias developed in the IEMA at higher hTSH levels. A similar bias was observed in the hGH IEMA. The bias was traced to a ''matrix effect'' due to the hTSH-free horse serum used to prepare standards. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

15

Sensitive and specific immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A liquid phase ''two-site'' immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) specific for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) is described. The assay is based on the simultaneous addition of affinity purified sheep anti hTSH IgG-125I and rabbit anti hTSH antiserum to standards and unknowns followed by 4h incubation at room temperature. The separation of free labelled sheep IgG-125I from that bound to hTSH is achieved by the addition of sheep anti-rabbit IgG Fc fragment antiserum. The radiolabelled sheep anti-hTSH IgG-125I was pretreated with solid phase urinary postmenopausal gonadotropins to remove cross reaction with FSH and LH. The assay is specific for hTSH and no cross reaction with the other anterior pituitary glycoproteins or protein hormones has been found. In addition it is characterized by a wide operating range, rapid equilibration of reactants and high sensitivity. The precision of dose estimates was less than 10% between 0.25-2.5 microU/ml and less than 2.5% over the range 2.5-60 microU/ml

16

Effect of axitinib (AG-013736) on fatigue, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and biomarkers. A phase I study in Japanese patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Axitinib is an oral, potent, and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3. This phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antitumor activity, and recommended starting dose of axitinib in patients with advanced solid tumors. Twelve patients received single-dose axitinib 5 mg and were monitored for ?48 h. Continuous 5 mg twice-daily dosing was then initiated. One patient had dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 proteinuria and fatigue). Common treatment-related adverse events were anorexia, fatigue, and diarrhea. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events were fatigue and hypertension. Maximum axitinib plasma concentration occurred 1-4 h after steady-state dosing. Eleven patients experienced thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation; time-course change and fatigue onset appeared to be related in some patients. Significant correlation was observed between thyroid-stimulating hormone change and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC; r=0.80, P=0.005). Axitinib decreased plasma soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (s-VEGFR2), with significant correlation between change in s-VEGFR2 and AUC (r=-0.92, P<0.0001). Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed a substantial decrease in tumor metabolic activity associated with axitinib. Tumor size decreased in nine patients. The time-course of thyroid-stimulating hormone change appeared correlated with fatigue. There were significant correlations between thyroid-stimulating hormone or s-VEGFR2 and axitinib exposure. Axitinib 5 mg twice-daily is the recommended starting dose for Japanese patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT00447005. (author)

17

Thyroid stimulating hormone and leptin levels and severe growth retardation among beta- thalassaemic patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: It has been proposed that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) influences leptin secretion from adipocytes. We evaluated the association between TSH and leptin levels in thalassaemic patients with growth retardation. Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 30 major thalassaemic patients and 24 normal subjects (range: 12 - 20 y). Both Leptin and TSH were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The anthropomorphic data were collected based on standard methods. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze data. Results: Patients had severe growth retardation. Mean concentration of leptin in thalassaemic mean value of serum TSH concentration of lepton in thalassaemic patients was significantly lower than normal subjects (2.26 +- 2,61 vs 13.14 +- 15.95 ng/ml). The mean value os serum TSH concentration in beta- thalassaemic patients was higher than normal subjects. But the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.146). There was no marked relationship between TSH and leptin concentration in thalassaemic patients (r= -0.022, P =0.909) and in control group (r =0.289, P=0.214). Conclusion: In beta - thalassaemic patients and normal group leptin secretion is a not affected by TSH concentration. (author)

18

A patient with low free T4 and low thyroid-stimulating hormone without hypopituitarism.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 39-year-old entertainer was referred in November 2000 for suspected secondary hypothroidism found during a routine insurance check. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was 0.30 mIU/L (NR 0.47-4.68 mIU/L) and total T4 was 21.6 nmol/l (NR 57.9-154.4 nmol/l). She had enjoyed good past health and gave birth to a baby girl at 32 weeks gestation in July 2000. She was clinically euthyroid and there was no goiter. Menses was regular with oral contraception. Thyroid function was rechecked with free T4 7.9 pmol/1 (NR 10.2-19.6 pmol/1) and TSH 5.44 mIU/l (NR 0.3-4 mIU/l). Further inquiry revealed that she had been taking a weight reducing drug since December 1999 for fear of potential weight gain during pregnancy. This was identified to be Tri-iodothyroacetic acid (Triac). Serial thyroid function tests showed gradual recovery of thyroid function after Triac was stopped. PMID:15587780

Chan, W B; Chow, C C; Cockram, C S

2004-10-01

19

Autonomous adenomas caused by somatic mutations of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

In adults, autonomous adenomas of the thyroid causing hyperthyroidism are relatively common and are most often due to somatic mutations that increase the constitutive activity of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). By contrast, autonomous adenomas in hyperthyroid children are exceptional and reports of their clinical and molecular characteristics are few. We reviewed papers describing 16 autonomous adenomas due to a somatic mutation activating the TSHR and diagnosed in patients younger than 18 years, to which we added two of our own unpublished observations in a 4- and 8-year-old with the same TSHR mutation (c.CAG>CAC; p.Asp633His). This revealed that (a) autonomous adenomas occur more often in the right lobe (11 of 14 with available information) and the associated hyperthyroidism tends to be more severe, possibly reflecting the richer vascular supply of the right thyroid lobe, and (b) mutations found in benign adenomas in children have been associated with cancer in adults, suggesting that malignancy requires a second 'hit' at a later age. PMID:24480816

Grob, Francisca; Deladoëy, Johnny; Legault, Laurent; Spigelblatt, Linda; Fournier, Anne; Vassart, Gilbert; Van Vliet, Guy

2014-01-01

20

Relationship of serum thyroid stimulating hormone with body mass index in healthy adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To investigate any possible relationship between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with body mass index (BMI) in healthy adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 417 subjects aged 18-60 years who volunteered to get screened for thyroid illness with serum TSH have been enrolled from November 2012 to July 2013. Patients were divided into four groups based on BMI value: Underweight (BMI <18 kg/m2), normal (BMI: 18-22.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI: 23-24.9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ?25 kg/m2). Result: In our study we found a significant variation (P < 0.001) in TSH with increasing BMI. As the BMI increased, mean TSH in the BMI range also increased. The individuals with higher BMI had higher TSH and this trend continued from underweight to Obese. The mean TSH of underweight group was 1.6036 mIU/L, normal weight group 2.1727 mIU/L, overweight group 2.2870 mIU/L and obese group 2.6416 mIU/L. Conclusion: In this study we found a significant relationship between serum TSH and BMI and mean TSH increased as BMI increased. Further large scale data from the population is required to confirm our findings. PMID:24251146

Solanki, Amrita; Bansal, Shaifali; Jindal, Sushil; Saxena, Vivek; Shukla, Uma Shankar

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The Glu727 Allele of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene is Associated with Osteoporosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Published data indicate that thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) activities are associated with osteoporosis in some patients. Aim: This study aimed to elucidate whether a given polymorphism of the TSHR gene is associated with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty subjects with osteoporosis were recruited in this study. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was performed with quantitative ultrasound system. The TSHR gene polymorphism was examined by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The results showed a nucleotide substitution in the first position of codon 36 of the TSHR gene. The nucleotide substitution was from G to C, leading to a 36D ? 36H change (D36H) in the predicted amino acid sequence of the receptor. The change did not show significance between healthy subjects and patients with osteoporosis (P > 0.05). On the other hand, we identified another single nucleotide polymorphism that is a C-to-G substitution at codon 727 (GAC to GAG); its frequency was significantly higher in patients with osteoporosis than that in healthy subjects. Using logistic regression analysis, significant correlation was revealed between the genotype D727E and the serum levels of TSH, or the quantitative ultrasound value of the calcaneal bone. Conclusions: The present study suggests that the genotype D727E of the TSHR, but not the genotype D36H, may be a genetic risk factor for osteoporosis. PMID:22866266

Liu, Ren-De; Chen, Rui-Xiong; Li, Wen-Rui; Huang, Yu-Liang; Li, Wen-Hu; Cai, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Heng

2012-01-01

22

Inherent Suppression of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Newly Diagnosed Dyslipidemic Patients - Indication for Use of Thyromimetics?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Dyslipidemia triggers a sequel of metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via vicious cycle. Dyslipidemia is characterised by elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) which in turn can progress to atherosclerosis a forerunner for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Dyslipidemia is seen even in subclinical hypothyroid patients. Objectives: The aim of the study was to look for thyroid & glycemic abnormalities in dyslipidemic patients and compare it with euthyroid, normolipidemic group. Materials and Methods: Thirty primarily dyslipidemic patients and 30 euthyroid normolipidemic subjects aged 25-55 years were tested for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile, thyroid hormones - T3, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The values were compared with those of age matched euthyroid normolipidemic control group. Results: The dyslipidemic pool showed small but significant decrease in the TSH levels with comparable T3, T4 levels as compared to euthyroid group. The group also had significantly higher FPG, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels as compared to the euthyroid normolipidemic group. The plasma fructosamine levels were similar in both the groups. The observed results reflected a picture of subclinical hyperthyroidism in dyslipidemic patients. Conclusion: The observations of the present study preclude a need to assess the thyroid status in patients of primary dyslipidemia as both conditions per se have an increased risk of cardio vascular diseases. A subclinical hyperthyroid state may essentially be helpful in maintaining the lipid metabolism. The prevailing mild hyperthyroid status also makes it important to reconsider the accuracy of long term glycemic indicators like fructosamine and possibly glycated haemoglobin in these patients. Upon establishment of their efficacy and safety, thyromimetics may have a role in the treatment of dyslipidemia. PMID:25386428

Udupa, Sridevi V.; D'Souza, Vivian; Udupa, Vinit A.

2014-01-01

23

Effects of cinobufacini injection on contents of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and adrenaline in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of cinobufacini injection on serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and adrenaline (ADR in rats, and to speculate the property (cold or heat of the drug.Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group, cinobufacini injection group, cold syndrome group and heat syndrome group. The rats in the four groups were administered with normal saline, cinobufacini injection, and compound of traditional Chinese drugs with heat or cold property. The weights, and the serum TSH and ADR levels of the rats were measured before and after the interventions.Results: The weights of the rats in heat syndrome group markedly decreased after 14-day administration when compared with the normal control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences among the normal control group, heat syndrome group and the cinobufacini injection group. Although no statistical difference was noted, the serum TSH levels of the cold syndrome group and cinobufacini injection group were slightly lower than that in the normal control group after 14-day administration, and the heat syndrome group showed a slightly higher serum TSH level. After administration, the serum ADR levels of the cold syndrome group and cinobufacini injection group were significantly lower than that in the normal control group (P<0.05, and the serum ADR level in the heat syndrom group was higher than that in the normal control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Cinobufacini injection seemed to be able to suppress the thyrotrophin-releasing hormone-TSH-thyroxine system and sympathetic nervous system, matching up with the characteristics of the Chinese herbs of cold property. And the study provided initial experiment evidence for the conclusion that the property of cinobufacini might be cold.

Shuang-shuang WANG

2009-03-01

24

Thyroid-stimulating hormone maintains bone mass and strength by suppressing osteoclast differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that pituitary hormone might be associated with bone metabolism. To investigate the role of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in bone metabolism, we designed the present study as follows. After weaning, TSH receptor (TSHR) null mice (Tshr(-/-)) were randomly divided into a thyroxine treatment group (n=10) or non-treatment group (n=10); the treatment group received a dose of desiccated thyroid extract at 100 ppm daily for 5 weeks. Age-matched wild-type (Tshr(+/+), n=10) and heterozygote mice (Tshr(+/-), n=10) served as controls. After 5 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the femurs were collected for histomorphometrical and biomechanical analyses. In addition, the effect of TSH on osteoclastogenesis was examined in the RAW264.7 osteoclast cell line. We found that compared with Tshr(+/+) mice, Tshr(-/-) and Tshr(+/-) mice had lower bone strength. The histomorphometric results showed that trabecular bone volume, osteoid surface, osteoid thickness and osteoblast surface were significantly decreased, whereas the osteoclast surface was significantly increased in both Tshr(-/-) and Tshr(+/-) mice compared with Tshr(+/+) mice. Bone resorption and formation in Tshr(-/-) mice were further enhanced by thyroxine replacement. bTSH inhibited osteoclast differentiation in vitro, as demonstrated by reduced development of TRAP-positive cells and down-regulation of differentiation markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, matrix metallo-proteinase-9 and cathepsin K in RAW264.7 cells. Our results confirm that TSH increased bone volume and improved bone microarchitecture and strength at least partly by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. PMID:24629929

Zhang, Wenwen; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Yuantao; Wang, Jie; Gao, Ling; Yu, Chunxiao; Yan, Huili; Zhao, Jiajun; Xu, Jin

2014-04-11

25

Metformin and low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Small cross-sectional studies have suggested that metformin, a first-line oral hypoglycemic agent, may lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Our objective was to determine whether the use of metformin monotherapy, when compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy, is associated with an increased risk of low TSH levels (metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy between Jan. 1, 1988, and Dec. 31, 2012. We assembled 2 subcohorts of patients with treated hypothyroidism or euthyroidism, and followed them until Mar. 31, 2013. We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association of low TSH levels with metformin monotherapy, compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy, in each subcohort. Results: A total of 5689 patients with treated hypothyroidism and 59 937 euthyroid patients were included in the subcohorts. Among patients with treated hypothyroidism, 495 events of low TSH levels were observed during follow-up (incidence rate 119.7/1000 person-years). In the euthyroid group, 322 events of low TSH levels were observed (incidence rate 4.5/1000 person-years). Compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy, metformin monotherapy was associated with a 55% increased risk of low TSH levels in patients with treated hypothyroidism (incidence rate 79.5/1000 person-years v. 125.2/1000 person-years, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–2.20), with the highest risk in the 90–180 days after initiation (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.00–5.29). No association was observed in euthyroid patients (adjusted HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.69–1.36). Interpretation: In this longitudinal population-based study, metformin use was associated with an increased incidence of low TSH levels in patients with treated hypothyroidism, but not in euthyroid patients. The clinical consequences of this need further investigation. PMID:25246411

Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Yin, Hui; Yu, Oriana Hoi Yun; Azoulay, Laurent

2014-01-01

26

Plasma Retinol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Zinc as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Conflicting results on the association between serum retinol level and bone mineral density (BMD have been published. Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and have direct effect on bone formation and resorption. Bone has one of the highest concentrations of zinc of all tissues, and has been shown to release zinc during deficiency for soft tissue metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between plasma levels of retinol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH & zinc and BMD of Egyptian adolescents and adults. Method: The study was a part of a cross sectional national survey conducted by National Nutrition Institute. The sample was a multistage stratified random. Target individuals were classified into two age groups (10- 18 and 28- 59 years. Bone mineral density and plasma levels of retinol, TSH and zinc were determined. Results: Low and high plasma retinol levels were more prevalent among osteoporotic adolescent and adult males respectively than in normal subjects.. The reverse was observed in adult females. Bone mineral density correlated negatively with plasma retinol level in adult males and females and positively in adolescent males, while among females the association was significant (P = 0.030 and stronger. The highest deficiency of TSH was found among adult and adolescent osteoporotic males, followed by osteopenic adult males and adolescent females. Highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001 existed between osteoporotic and normal adult males concerning TSH deficiency. The prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 5.7% to 9.5% for all target individuals. Plasma Zn levels were correlated negatively with bone mineral density in adult males and females. Conclusion: The results of this study reflects the controversy on the association of plasma retinol and BMD. However, the predominant finding revealed that both low and high plasna retinol levels compromise bone health. Bone status and thyroid function support the adverse effect of hyperthyroidism upon either bone osteoporosis or osteopenia and subsequently upon fracture risk. Plasma zinc deficiency correlated negatively with BMD in adult osteoporotic men.

Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny*, Effat A. A., Afifi**, Wafaa M. A. Saleh**, Asmaa, M

2006-12-01

27

Effects of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level on clinical pregnancy rate via In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) procedure  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism may adversely affect In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) outcomes. However the cutoff of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for diagnosis and treatment is controversal. The aim of this study was to find the association of clinical pregnancy rate with regard to TSH levels in women undergoing IVF. Methods: A historical cohort study of 816 infertile patients who underwent IVF in 2011 and 2012 was conducted. The study subjects were categorized in two groups according to their baseline TSH level; one with 0.5 ?TSHIVF outcomes. It seems that lowering the upper limit of normal TSH should be still considered as a scientific debate.

Aghahosseini, Marziyeh; Asgharifard, Homa; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Tehrani Banihashemi, Arash

2014-01-01

28

Neonatal iodine status survey by thyroid-stimulating hormone screening in Surabaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background lodine deficiency disorders (IDD are a significant public health problem globally. Iodine deficiency may cause subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early infancy. Neonatal thyroid screening of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH to detected hypothyroidism may olso be used to determine the prevcalence of IDD in a population. Previous studies reported mild IDD status in differen parts of Indonesia Objective To evaluate the iodine status of neonates born in Mitra Keluarga Surabaya Hospital (MKSH by TSH screening over a 6-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study conducted in MKSH from January 2005 to December 2010. Of the 5,619 infants took part in this study. Blood specimens for TSH measurement were collected from subjects 2 to 6 days after birth, and sent to a reference laboraratory for evaluation. Using the neonatal TSH values, the iodine deficiency level of the group was determined according to the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of IDD criteria Results A total of 3,349 newborn babies underwent neonatal TSH screening in MKSH. Subjects’ mean TSH concentration was 5.14 mIU/L. A TSH concentration > 5mIU/L was found in 1270 (37.9% subjects, 166 (27.6% in 2005, 252 (44.0% in 2006, 331 (47.1% in 2007, 356 (57.7% in 2008, 114 (20.7% in 2009 and 51 (16.8% in 2010. On the basis of the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder criteria, this frequency corresponded to a moderate level of IDD. Twenty-two neonates had TSH > 20 mIU/L from which 2 infants were confirmed positive for hypothyroidism. Conclusion A 6-year study of 3,349 newborns screenerd for TSH revealed that 37.9% of subjects had TSH concentration of more than 5mIU/L. this frequency indicates a moderate level of IDD in the study population.

Connie Untario

2012-09-01

29

Assignment of the gene for the ? subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone to the short arm of human chromosome 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chromosomal locations of the genes for the ? subunit of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and the glycoprotein hormone ? subunit have been determined by restriction enzyme analysis of DNA extracted from rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) ?-subunit cDNA and a cloned 0.9-kilobase (kb) fragment of the human TSH ?-subunit gene were used as hybridization probes in the analysis of Southern blots of DNA extracted from rodent-human hybrid clones. Analysis of the segregation of 5- and 10-kb EcoRI fragments hybridizing to CG ?-subunit cDNA confirmed the previous assignment of this gene to chromosome 6. Analysis of the patterns of segregation of a 2.3-kb EcoRI fragment containing human TSH ?-subunit sequences permitted the assignment of the TSH ?-subunit gene to human chromosome 1. The subregional assignment of TSH ? subunit to chromosome 1p22 was made possible by the additional analysis of a set of hybrids containing partially overlapping segments of this chromosome. Human TSH ? subunit is not syntenic with genes encoding the ? subunits of CG, luteinizing hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone and is assigned to a conserved linkage group that also contains the structural genes for the ? subunit of nerve growth factor (NGFB) and the proto-oncogene N-ras (NRAS)

30

Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH), Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH), Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH) y Prolactina (PRL) en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identi [...] ficadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA), PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA), FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA) y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA). Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo. Abstract in english The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect [...] sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA), PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA), FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA) and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA). These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.

Jesús, Alvarado-Flores; María Del Rosario, Montoya-Garcia; Javier, Ventura Juárez; Roberto, Rico-Martínez.

1049-10-01

31

Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identificadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA, PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA, FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA. Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo.

Jesús Alvarado-Flores

2009-12-01

32

Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH), Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH), Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH) y Prolactina (PRL) en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identi [...] ficadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA), PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA), FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA) y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA). Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo. Abstract in english The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect [...] sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA), PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA), FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA) and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA). These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.

Jesús, Alvarado-Flores; María Del Rosario, Montoya-Garcia; Javier, Ventura Juárez; Roberto, Rico-Martínez.

33

Nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab{sub 2}) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2} as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab{sub 2}. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab{sub 2}, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab{sub 2} to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} TSH at the 3s{sub B} criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

Cui Yuling; Chen Huafeng; Hou Li; Zhang Bing; Liu Bingqian; Chen Guonan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

2012-08-13

34

Effect of photoperiod on the thyroid-stimulating hormone neuroendocrine system in the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have characterised a retrograde mechanism whereby the pineal hormone melatonin acts in the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland to control thyroid hormone action in the hypothalamus, leading to changes in seasonal reproductive function. This involves the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from PT that activates type II deiodinase (DIO2) gene expression in hypothalamic ependymal cells, locally generating biologically active T3, and thus triggering a neuroendocrine cascade. In the present study, we investigated whether a similar regulatory mechanism operates in the European hamster. This species utilises both melatonin signalling and a circannual timer to time the seasonal reproductive cycle. We found that expression of betaTSH RNA in the PT was markedly increased under long compared to short photoperiod, whereas TSH receptor expression was localised in the ependymal cells lining the third ventricle, and in the PT, where its expression varied with time and photoperiod. In the ependymal cells at the base of the third ventricle, DIO2 and type III deiodinase (DIO3) expression was reciprocally regulated, with DIO2 activated under long and repressed under short photoperiod, and the reverse case for DIO3. These data are consistent with recent observations in sheep, and suggest that the PT TSH third ventricle-ependymal cell relay plays a conserved role in initiating the photoperiodic response in both long- and short-day breeding mammals. PMID:19912472

Hanon, E A; Routledge, K; Dardente, H; Masson-Pévet, M; Morgan, P J; Hazlerigg, D G

2010-01-01

35

Effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995 on a growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone-producing pituitary tumor.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 46-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary adenoma. She had high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels and very high serum growth hormone (GH levels. Transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, post-operative irradiation, frontal craniotomy for removal of residual tumor and large-dose bromocriptine therapy were carried out consecutively. After therapy, serum GH levels gradually decreased, but not to the normal range, and serum TSH levels remained at inappropriately normal levels. Using immunoperoxidase techniques, GH-, TSH- and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-containing cells were demonstrated in the adenoma. A long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995, 600 micrograms/day suppressed the serum GH level to the normal range with a concomitant suppression of TSH. Furthermore, the paradoxical serum GH responses to TRH and LH-RH were slightly improved. No important subjective side-effects were noted. Therefore, SMS 201-995 appeared to be a very effective drug in this patient with a GH- and TSH-producing pituitary tumor.

Hirasawa,Ryoto

1991-04-01

36

Purification of bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone by a monoclonal antibody  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monoclonal antibody directed against bovine TSH was obtained by hybridoma technology. This antibody was specific for TSH and did not react with bovine LH and FSH. Affinity chromatography of crude TSH was performed on anti-TSH Sepharose. Bovine TSH was purified in a single step to near homogeneity by this technique, as shown by cation exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified TSH. The biological activity of the hormone was not affected during the purification, as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation of the TSH-dependent FRTL5 cell line. The results indicate that affinity purification of TSH by means of a monoclonal antibody is a simple one-step procedure for the production of biologically active, highly purified TSH

37

Functional Expression of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor on Nano-Sized Bacterial Magnetic Particles in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The measurement of autoantibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR is important for the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease such as Graves’ disease (GD. Although TSHR from porcine thyroid membrane is commonly used for the measurement of TSHR autoantibodies (TRAb, recombinant human TSHR (hTSHR remains ideal in terms of stable supply and species identity. Here we set out to express recombinant hTSHR on the lipid-bilayer surface of magnetic nanoparticles from a magnetotactic bacterium, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Using a tetracycline-inducible expression system, we successfully overexpressed functional hTSHR on bacterial magnetic particles (BacMPs in AMB-1 via an anchor protein specific for BacMPs. The overexpressed hTSHR was membrane integrated and possessed both ligand and autoantibody binding activity. Our data suggest that hTSHR-displayed BacMPs have potential as novel tools for ligand-receptor interaction analysis or for TRAb immunoassay in GD patients.

Yasuhiro Sugamata

2013-07-01

38

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Sevent [...] een patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P

G.J., Paz-Filho; C.O., Mesa-Junior; M., Olandoski; L.C., Woellner; C.A., Goedert; C.L., Boguszewski; G.A., Carvalho; H., Graf.

1661-16-01

39

The Role of Maternal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Blocking Antibodies in the Etiology of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Isfahan, Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Considering the role of maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor blocking antibody (TRAb) in the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), this study aimed to determine TRAb among patients with CH in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this case–control study, patients with CH and their mothers were compared with a group of healthy neonates and their mothers. Venous blood samples were obtained for measurement of TRAb using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method among mothers and their neonates. TSH of mothers was also determined. Results: The case group consisted of 65 patients with CH and their mothers; controls were 148 healthy neonates and their mothers. The prevalence of positive TRAb in patients with CH and their mothers was higher than in the control group (81.5% vs. 1.3% in mothers and 80% vs. 0% in neonates, respectively, P0.05). Conclusion: It seems that autoimmunity has an important role in the etiology of CH. Further studies are necessary to determine other autoantibodies in CH patients. PMID:22347610

Hashemipour, Mahin; Abari, Shima Salehi; Mostofizadeh, Neda; Haghjooy-Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Esmail, Nafiseh; Hovsepian, Silva; Masoud, Amini; Kelishadi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Mirouliaei, Mehrdad

2012-01-01

40

Clinical experience with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH): whole-body scanning with iodine-131.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole-body scanning (WBS) with iodine-131 (I-131) is currently used together with serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the diagnostic follow-up of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. One of the main disadvantages of I-131 WBS is its requirement of repeated weeks-long withdrawal of thyroid hormone suppression therapy (THST) to raise endogenous thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production. This results in hypothyroidism and associated abnormalities, discomfort and morbidity. Recently, however, a series of multicentre clinical studies established the efficacy, safety, non-antigenicity, and quality of life benefits of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen, thyrotropin alfa, Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA) in promoting radioiodine uptake and permitting sensitive I-131 WBS in patients on THST after initial therapy of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Thus in everyday practice, rhTSH administration may in many cases supersede THST withdrawal as a preparative method for I-131 imaging. With the use of rhTSH, as whenever I-131 WBS is performed, useful and accurate imaging requires meticulous attention to good scanning practices. These include use of appropriate equipment, proper timing, sufficient scanning time, vigilance against artifacts and iodine contamination, and consideration of additional imaging in the case of ambiguous 48-hour scans. Whole-body retention of I-131 is approximately 50% greater during hypothyroidism after THST withdrawal than during euthyroidism on THST and rhTSH. Therefore, it is important to use an adequate diagnostic activity of > or =4 mCi (148 MBq) to compensate for the faster radioiodine clearance in the euthyroid state permitted by rhTSH administration. Ongoing dosimetric research eventually may provide more specific guidance regarding radioiodine activities for diagnostic, and, particularly, therapeutic purposes, with the use of rhTSH. PMID:10727001

Reiners, C; Luster, M; Lassmann, M

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA for thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit of Muscovy duck.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cDNA-encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit (TSHbeta) of the Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) was cloned and sequenced to investigate the phylogenic diversity and evolution of TSH molecules. Oligonucleotide primers were designed and used for reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification of a TSHbeta cDNA fragment from the total cellular RNA of pituitary glands. The remaining sequence was completed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The nucleotide sequence of Muscovy duck TSHbeta cDNA includes 66 bp of 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 402 bp of coding region, and 82 bp of 3'-UTR, followed by an 18-bp poly(A)(+) tract. The total number of amino acids deduced from the cDNA of duck TSHbeta is 134, with a signal peptide of 19 amino acids and a mature protein of 115 amino acids. The homologies of the amino acid sequence of Muscovy duck TSHbeta compared with those of chicken, quail, mammals, amphibian (frog), and teleosts are 97, 98, 68-69, 56, and 42-47%, respectively. To test for tissue specificity of the duck TSHbeta cDNA, total cellular RNA samples from brain, liver, pituitary gland, testis, and thyroid gland were analyzed by Northern blotting. A band, approximately 700 bases, was found in the pituitary gland alone. The pituitary tissue fragments were treated for 24 h in serum-free medium containing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), triiodothyronine (T(3)), or thyroxine (T(4)). TRH increased and T(3) and T(4) decreased TSHbeta mRNA levels. This study demonstrated that the amino acid sequence of TSHbeta subunits is highly conserved among birds, exhibiting a high degree of inter-order homology, and that hypothalamic TRH upregulates the TSHbeta mRNA expression in duck. PMID:11121298

Hsieh, Y L; Chatterjee, A; Lee, G; Yuh-Lin Yu, J

2000-12-01

42

Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and developmental regulation of a novel receptor from Drosophila melanogaster structurally related to members of the thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor family from mammals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using oligonucleotide probes derived from consensus sequences for glycoprotein hormone receptors, we have cloned an 831-amino acid residue-long receptor from Drosophila melanogaster that shows a striking structural homology with members of the glycoprotein hormone (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG)) receptor family from mammals. This homology includes a very large, extracellular N terminus (20% sequence identity with rat TSH, 19% with rat FSH, and 20% with the rat LH/CG receptor) and a seven-transmembrane region (53% sequence identity with rat TSH, 50% with rat FSH, and 52% with the rat LH/CG receptor). The Drosophila receptor gene is >7.5 kilobase pairs long and contains 17 exons and 16 introns. Seven intron positions coincide with introns in the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes and have the same intron phasing. This indicates that the Drosophila receptor is evolutionarily related to the mammalian receptors. The Drosophila receptor gene is located at position 90C on the right arm of the third chromosome. The receptor is strongly expressed starting 8-16 h after oviposition, and the expression stays high until after pupation. Adult male flies express high levels of receptor mRNA, but female flies express about 6 times less. The expression pattern in embryos and larvae suggests that the receptor is involved in insect development. This is the first report on the molecular cloning of a glycoprotein hormone receptor family member from insects.

Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P

1997-01-01

43

Comparison of radioiodine biokinetics following the administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and after thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iodine kinetics were studied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer while euthyroid under exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and while hypothyroid to detect differences in radioiodine uptake, distribution and elimination. Nine patients with total or near-total thyroidectomy on thyroid hormone suppressive therapy received two or three daily doses of 0.9 mg recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) followed by administration of a diagnostic activity of 2 mCi (74 MBq) iodine-131. After the biokinetics assessments had been performed, patients stopped taking thyroid hormones to become hypothyroid. A second 2 mCi (74 MBq) diagnostic activity of {sup 131}I was administered, followed by a second set of biokinetics assessments. One week later the patients underwent remnant ablation with a therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I. A comparison of the {sup 131}I kinetics in the patients while euthyroid and while hypothyroid showed major differences in the doses to the remnant as well as in residence times and radiation exposure to the blood. In the first diagnostic assessment the remnant dose was higher in eight of the nine patients and clearance of the activity from the blood was faster in all of them. The data from this study suggest that radioiodine administration is potent and safe when administered to euthyroid patients following rhTSH administration. Enhanced residence time in the remnant and decreased radiation exposure to the blood were noted when patients were euthyroid compared to when they were rendered hypothyroid. However, all patients received diagnostic activities in the same order: first while euthyroid, followed by hypothyroidism. It is quite possible that ''stunning'' from the radioiodine administered in the initial uptake study inhibited the subsequent uptake of radioiodine by the remnant lesions in the second uptake study. (orig.)

Luster, Markus; Lassmann, Michael; Haenscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sherman, Steven I. [Section of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Skarulis, Monica C. [Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Reynolds, James R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren Grant Magnusen Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

2003-10-01

44

Comparison of radioiodine biokinetics following the administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and after thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine kinetics were studied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer while euthyroid under exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and while hypothyroid to detect differences in radioiodine uptake, distribution and elimination. Nine patients with total or near-total thyroidectomy on thyroid hormone suppressive therapy received two or three daily doses of 0.9 mg recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) followed by administration of a diagnostic activity of 2 mCi (74 MBq) iodine-131. After the biokinetics assessments had been performed, patients stopped taking thyroid hormones to become hypothyroid. A second 2 mCi (74 MBq) diagnostic activity of 131I was administered, followed by a second set of biokinetics assessments. One week later the patients underwent remnant ablation with a therapeutic activity of 131I. A comparison of the 131I kinetics in the patients while euthyroid and while hypothyroid showed major differences in the doses to the remnant as well as in residence times and radiation exposure to the blood. In the first diagnostic assessment the remnant dose was higher in eight of the nine patients and clearance of the activity from the blood was faster in all of them. The data from this study suggest that radioiodine administration is potent and safe when administered to euthyroid patients following rhTSH administration. Enhanced residence time in the remnant and decreased radiation exposure to the blood were noted when patients were euthyroid compared to when they were rendered hypothyroid. However, all patients received diagnostic activities in the same order: first while euthyroid, followed by hypothyroidism. It is quite possible that ''stunning'' from the radioiodine administered in the initial uptake study inhibited the subsequent uptake of radioiodine by the remnant lesions in the second uptake study. (orig.)

45

A clinical review of the association of thyroid stimulating hormone and cognitive impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as overt hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning as memory, reaction time, and visuospatial organization. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) or low serum concentrations of TSH concentrations have been associated with dementia in previous epidemiological studies, but the association in the elderly has not been established. There is little or no consensus regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly. In this focused review, we have performed an examination between eleven studies from the last five years examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance in elderly people, a group who is overrepresented among individuals with minor abnormalities in serum TSH and thyroid hormone concentration. Six of the studies showed a consistent finding of an association between SH with cognitive impairment or dementia. In general, taking into account the largest and most powerfully designed studies, there is a strong body of evidence supporting the association between SH and cognitive impairment. The scarce number of publications on these topics indicates the need of more research especially regarding longitudinal and interventional studies thus hopefully enabling confirmation or rejection of causality between TSH abnormalities and dementia. PMID:24171118

Annerbo, Sylvia; Lökk, Johan

2013-01-01

46

Reliability of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies level determination in diagnosing and prognosing of immunogenic hyperthyroidism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Graves disease (GD is defined as hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter caused by immunogenic disturbances. Antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors of thyroid gland (TRAb have crucial pathogenetic importance in the development and maintenance of autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to identify sensitivity, specificity, positive an negative predictive value of TRAb level in sera of patients with GD as well as to estimate significance of TRAb level for remission and GD relapses occurrence. Methods. We studied prospectively and partly retrospectively 149 patients, 109 female and 40 male patients, 5-78 years old, in the period 1982-2007. There were 96 patients with GD. The control group consisted of 53 patients, 21 with hyperthyroidism of second etiology and 32 patients on amiodarone therapy, with or without thyroid dysfunction TRAb was measured by radioreceptor assay (TRAK Assay and DYNO Test TRAK Human Brahms Diagnostica GMBH. Results. According to the results the sensitivity (Sn of TRAb test was 80%, specificity (Sp 100%, positive predictive value (PP 100% and negative predictive value (NP 83%. Also, the Sn of hTRAb test was 94%, Sp 100%, PP 100% and NP 94%. Our results show that an increased level of TRAb/hTRAb at the beginning of the disease and the level at the end of medical therapy is associated with an increased number of GD relapses and a shorter remission duration. Conclusion. Detection and measurement of TRAb in serum is a very sensitive method for diagnosing GD and very highly specific in vitro method for differential diagnosis of various forms of hyperthyroidism. Clinical significance of differentiating various forms of hyperthyroidism, using this in vitro assay, lays in adequate therapeutic choice for these entities.

Aleksi? Aleksandar Z.

2009-01-01

47

Comparative assessment of quality of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and chemiluminescence immunometric assay (CHEIMA) for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological substances like hormones, vitamins and enzymes are found in minute quantities in blood. Their estimation requires very sensitive and specific methods. The most modern method for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone in serum is non-isotopic enzyme enhanced chemiluminescence immunometric method. In our laboratory immunoradiometric assay is in routine for the last many years. Recently interest has grown to establish non-isotopic techniques in laboratories of PAEC. However, the main requirement to adopt the new procedures is to compare their results, cost and other benefits with the existing method. Immunoassay laboratory of MINAR, therefore, conducted a study to compare the two methods. A total of 173 (males: 34 females: 139 age: between 1 and 65 years) cases of clinically confirmed thyroid status were included in the study. Serum samples of these cases were analyzed by two methods and results were compared by plotting precision profiles, correlation plots and calculating sensitivities and specificities of the methods. As the results in all the samples were not normally distributed Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied to compare the analytical results of two methods. The comparison shows that the results obtained in two methods are not completely similar (p=0.0003293), although analysis of samples in groups shows that some similarity exists between the results of hypo and hyperthyroid patients (p<=0.156 and p<=0.6138). This shows that results obtained in these two methods could sometimes disagree in final diagnosis. Although TSH-CHEIMA is analytically more sensitive than TSH-IRMA the clinical sensitivities and specificities of two methods are not significantly different. TSH-CHEIMA test completes in almost 2 hours whereas TSH-IRMA takes about 6 hours to complete. Comparison of costs shows that TSH-CHIEMA is almost 5 times more expensive than TSH-IRMA. We conclude that the two methods could sometimes disagree but the two techniques have almost same clinical efficacy (clinical usefulness). The clinical sensitivities and specificities are similar and TSH-IRMA is in no way inferior to the non-isotopic method. It is, therefore, not reasonable to abandon a good technique only for relatively speedy results. (author)

48

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances {sup 131}I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 {+-} 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to {sup 131}I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 {+-} 64.4 mL. {sup 131}I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean {sup 131}I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 {+-} 9.7 to 49.6 {+-} 13.4% (P < 0.001), a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2). Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 {+-} 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase), 1.80 {+-} 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 {+-} 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%), painful thyroiditis (29.4%) and hypothyroidism (52.9%). Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 {+-} 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001) and by 46.0 {+-} 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of {sup 131}I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

Paz-Filho, G.J.; Mesa-Junior, C.O.; Boguszewski, C.L.; Carvalho, G.A.; Graf, H. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; Olandoski, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Bioestatistica; Woellner, L.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Goedert, C.A. [Centro de Tomografia Computadorizada, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2007-12-15

49

Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years, who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P < 0.001, a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2. Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 ± 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase, 1.80 ± 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 ± 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%, painful thyroiditis (29.4% and hypothyroidism (52.9%. Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 ± 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001 and by 46.0 ± 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001. Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects.

G.J. Paz-Filho

2007-12-01

50

Microarray Analysis of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1, and Insulin-Induced Gene Expression in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine which genes are regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH), insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the rat thyroid, we used the microarray technology and observed the changes in gene expression. The expressions of genes for bone morphogenetic protein 6, the glucagon receptor, and cyclin D1 were increased by both TSH and IGF-1; for cytochrome P450, 2c37, the expression was decreased by both. Genes for cholecystokinin, glucuronidase, beta, demethyl-Q 7...

Lee, You Jin; Park, Do Joon; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Bo Youn

2007-01-01

51

Assignment of the gene for the. beta. subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone to the short arm of human chromosome 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chromosomal locations of the genes for the ..beta.. subunit of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and the glycoprotein hormone ..cap alpha.. subunit have been determined by restriction enzyme analysis of DNA extracted from rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA and a cloned 0.9-kilobase (kb) fragment of the human TSH ..beta..-subunit gene were used as hybridization probes in the analysis of Southern blots of DNA extracted from rodent-human hybrid clones. Analysis of the segregation of 5- and 10-kb EcoRI fragments hybridizing to CG ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA confirmed the previous assignment of this gene to chromosome 6. Analysis of the patterns of segregation of a 2.3-kb EcoRI fragment containing human TSH ..beta..-subunit sequences permitted the assignment of the TSH ..beta..-subunit gene to human chromosome 1. The subregional assignment of TSH ..beta.. subunit to chromosome 1p22 was made possible by the additional analysis of a set of hybrids containing partially overlapping segments of this chromosome. Human TSH ..beta.. subunit is not syntenic with genes encoding the ..beta.. subunits of CG, luteinizing hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone and is assigned to a conserved linkage group that also contains the structural genes for the ..beta.. subunit of nerve growth factor (NGFB) and the proto-oncogene N-ras (NRAS).

Dracopoli, N.C.; Rettig, W.J.; Whitfield, G.K.; Darlington, G.J.; Spengler, B.A.; Biedler, J.L.; Old, L.J.; Kourides, I.A.

1986-03-01

52

Assays for thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies employing different ligands and ligand partners may have similar sensitivity and specificity but are not interchangeable  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The best biochemical marker of Graves' disease (GD) is the presence in serum of autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR-Ab). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of two sensitive hTSHR-Ab assays with a specific focus on the clinical importance of differences in results. Both assays are competitive in nature but employ quite different types of ligands. In the "M22-pTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with a labeled monoclonal antibody (M22*) against the thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor for binding to porcine TSH receptors. In the "bTSH-rhTSHR" assay, hTSHR-Ab competes with labeled bovine TSH for binding to recombinant human TSH receptors.

Handberg, Aase

2010-01-01

53

Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody Are Independently Associated with Lesions in Spinal Cord in Central Nervous System Demyelinating Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Transverse myelitis (TM) is associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Early recognition of useful parameters may be helpful to distinguish their difference. This retrospective study analyzed thyroid parameters from 243 serum samples (relapse?=?128; remission?=?115) of 178 patients with demyelinating diseases (NMO, n?=?25; TM, n?=?48; MS, n?=?105). The relationship between thyroid and clinical parameters was analyzed. Patients with NMO and TM had a higher frequency of abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Ab), and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) than MS patients (pmyelitis (pmyelitis occurrence in 96 patients at the active stage. In 52 MS patients experiencing their first attack, MS patients with myelitis were associated with TSH abnormalities (OR?=?42.778; pmyelitis also had greater TSH abnormality than in MS patients without myelitis. Abnormal TSH and TG-Ab were independently associated with myelitis occurrence in central nervous system demyelinating disorders. PMID:25093326

Long, Youming; Zheng, Yangbo; Chen, Mengyu; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Cong; Shan, Fulan; Yang, Ning; Fan, Yongxiang

2014-01-01

54

Neuromedin U partly mimics thyroid-stimulating hormone and triggers Wnt/?-catenin signalling in the photoperiodic response of F344 rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In seasonal animals, photoperiod exerts profound effects on physiology, such as growth, energy balance and reproduction, via changes in the neuroendocrine axes. A key element of the photoperiodic response is the thyroid hormone level in the hypothalamus, which is controlled via retrograde transport of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pars tuberalis of the pituitary. TSH regulates type II deiodinase (Dio2) expression, which transforms inactive thyroid hormone to its active form, via TSH receptors expressed in the ependymal cells of the hypothalamus. In the present study, we hypothesised that a second peptide hormone, neuromedin U (NMU), may play a role in the photoperiodic response alongside TSH because the gene for NMU is also expressed in a strongly photoperiod-dependent manner in the pars tuberalis and its receptor NMU2 is expressed in the ependymal layer of the third ventricle in photoperiod-sensitive F344 rats. Consistent with other studies conducted in nonseasonal mammals, we found that acute i.c.v. injections of NMU into the hypothalamus negatively regulated food intake and body weight and increased core body temperature in F344 rats. At the same time, NMU increased Dio2 mRNA expression in the ependymal region of the hypothalamus similar to the effects of TSH. These data suggest that NMU may affect acute and photoperiodically controlled energy balance through distinct pathways. We also showed that TSH inhibits the expression of type III deiodinase (Dio3) in F344 rats, a response not mimicked by NMU. Furthermore, NMU also increased the expression of genes from the Wnt/?-catenin pathway within the ependymal layer of the third ventricle. This effect was not influenced by TSH. These data indicate that, although NMU acts with some similarities to TSH, it also has completely distinct signalling functions that do not overlap. In summary, the present study of NMU signalling reveals the potential for a new player in the control of seasonal biology. PMID:24164054

Helfer, G; Ross, A W; Morgan, P J

2013-12-01

55

Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered when evaluating the cause of hyperthyroidism. Early diagnosis and treatment of such adenomas is critical in reducing neurological and endocrine complications.

George Jyothis T

2008-02-01

56

Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

1988-01-01

57

The Direct Cooling of the Preoptic-Hypothalamic Area Elicits the Release of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone during Wakefulness but Not during REM Sleep  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermoregulatory responses to temperature changes are not operant during REM sleep (REMS), but fully operant in non-REM sleep and wakefulness. The specificity of the relationship between REMS and the impairment of thermoregulation was tested by eliciting the reflex release of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH), which is integrated at hypothalamic level. By inducing the sequential secretion of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Thyroid Hormone, TRH intervenes in the regulation of obligatory and non-shivering thermogenesis. Experiments were performed on male albino rats implanted with epidural electrodes for EEG recording and 2 silver-copper wire thermodes, bilaterally placed in the preoptic-hypothalamic area (POA) and connected to small thermoelectric heat pumps driven by a low-voltage high current DC power supply. In preliminary experiments, a thermistor was added in order to measure hypothalamic temperature. The activation of TRH hypophysiotropic neurons by the thermode cooling of POA was indirectly assessed, in conditions in which thermoregulation was either fully operant (wakefulness) or not operant (REMS), by a radioimmunoassay determination of plasmatic levels of TSH. Different POA cooling were performed for 120 s or 40 s at current intensities of 80 mA and 125 mA, respectively. At both current intensities, POA cooling elicited, with respect to control values (no cooling current), a significant increase in plasmatic TSH levels in wakefulness, but not during REMS. These results confirm the inactivation of POA thermal sensitivity during REMS and show, for the first time, that this inactivation concerns also the fundamental endocrine control of non-shivering thermogenesis. PMID:24498374

Cerri, Matteo; Tupone, Domenico; Mastrotto, Marco; Perez, Emanuele; Zamboni, Giovanni; Amici, Roberto

2014-01-01

58

Influence of thyroid-stimulating hormone on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In poorly differentiated thyroid cancer originating from thyroid follicular cells, the ability to concentrate iodine is lost. This makes recurrence undetectable by 131I whole-body scan. In this situation, other radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI), are used to evaluate recurrence or metastasis. Some reports suggest that 18F-FDG uptake is increased by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation. This study aimed to determine the influence of TSH on 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro. The cells were stimulated with 1000 ?U/ml of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) for 1 day, 3 days, and 5 days. Each cell was incubated with 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 18F-FDG or 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 99mTc-MIBI for 1 h at 37degC. The uptake of each radiopharmaceutical in the cells was quantified as a percent of whole radioactivity per total viable cell number. The quantification of glucose transporter 1, 2, 3 and 4 mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TSH stimulation increased 18F-FDG uptake in a time-dependent manner. Following 5 days of rhTSH stimulation, 18F-FDG uptake was approximately 2.2 times that of the control. The increase in 18F-FDG uptak The increase in 18F-FDG uptake following rhTSH stimulation was correlated to the increase in GLUT4 mRNA level. The GLUT1 mRNA level was unchanged. An increased uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was observed with a pattern similar to that of 18F-FDG. The 99mTc-MIBI uptake was approximately 1.5 times that of the control 5 days later. These results suggest that TSH stimulates 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in poorly differentiated papillary thyroid cancer, and therefore 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) or 99mTc-MIBI scans under TSH stimulation may be more accurate than under suppression. (author)

59

The Effects of Simvastatin on the Serum Concentrations of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Free Thyroxine in Hypothyroid Patients Treated with Levothyroxine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Statins, such as simvastatin, are the drugs of choice for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. On the other hand hypercholesterolmia can occur in hypothyroid patients, who receive levothyroxine. There are few clinical case reports in regards to drug interaction between levothyroxine and lovastatin or simvastatin, indicating decreased levothyroxine effects. This study aimed at determining possible interaction between simvastatin and levothyroxine in hypothyroid patients by assessing serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (FT4, the two important laboratory indices for levothyroxine therapy. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 41 eligible hypothyroid patients receiving levothyroxine (50-150 µg/d were selected. Blood samples were taken before and after three months of simultaneous treatment with simvastatin (20 mg/d and levothyroxine to determine the serum levels of TSH and FT4. Results: There was no significant difference between the serum levels of TSH (P=0.77 or FT4 (P=0.76 before and after three months of simultaneous treatment. Also, there was no aggravation or initiation of any sign or symptom of hypothyroidism in the patients during the study period. Conclusion: Considering that FT4 and TSH are the most reliable indicators for the levothyroxine treatment, the findings of the present study suggest that there may not be any significant interaction between simvastatin and levothyroxine

Mohammad Abbasinazari

2011-06-01

60

Microarray analysis of thyroid stimulating hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and insulin-induced gene expression in FRTL-5 thyroid cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine which genes are regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH), insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the rat thyroid, we used the microarray technology and observed the changes in gene expression. The expressions of genes for bone morphogenetic protein 6, the glucagon receptor, and cyclin D1 were increased by both TSH and IGF-1; for cytochrome P450, 2c37, the expression was decreased by both. Genes for cholecystokinin, glucuronidase, beta, demethyl-Q 7, and cytochrome c oxidase, subunit VIIIa, were up-regulated; the genes for ribosomal protein L37 and ribosomal protein L4 were down-regulated by TSH and insulin. However, there was no gene observed to be regulated by all three: TSH, IGF-1, and insulin molecules studied. These findings suggest that TSH, IGF-1, and insulin stimulate different signal pathways, which can interact with one another to regulate the proliferation of thyrocytes, and thereby provide additional influence on the process of cellular proliferation. PMID:17982240

Lee, You Jin; Park, Do Joon; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Bo Youn

2007-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

The effect of changing somatostatin tone on the pituitary growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone responses to their respective releasing factor stimuli.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Somatostatin (SS) inhibits GH and TSH secretion, but its role in modulating their pulsatility is unclear. We studied GH and TSH responses to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and TRH stimulation upon a variable background infusion of saline, SS-(1-14) at 20 and 100 micrograms/m2.h, and oral pyridostigmine (30 and 60 mg) in six adult males. Basal GH levels were unaffected by SS-(1-14). Deconvolution analysis of serum GH values demonstrated that the pituitary responded to two GHRH stimuli 90 min apar...

Spoudeas, Ha; Matthews, DR; Brook, Cg; Hindmarsh, Pc

1992-01-01

62

Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are not associated with exercise capacity and lung function parameters in two population-based studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Thyroid dysfunction has been described to be linked to a variety of cardiovascular morbidities. Through this pathway thyroid function might also be associated with cardiorespiratory function and exercise capacity. So far only few patient-studies with small study populations investigated the association between thyroid dysfunction and exercise capacity. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the association of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with lung function and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in the general population. Methods Data from the two independent cross-sectional population-based studies (Study of Health in Pomerania [SHIP] and SHIP-Trend-0) were pooled. SHIP was conducted between 2002 and 2006 and SHIP-Trend-0 between 2008 and 2012. Participants were randomly selected from population registries. In total, 4206 individuals with complete data were available for the present analysis. Thyroid function was defined based on serum TSH levels. Lung function was evaluated by forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity. CPET was based on symptom limited exercise tests on a bicycle in a sitting position according to a modified Jones protocol. Associations of serum TSH levels with lung function and CPET parameters were analysed by multivariable quantile regression adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, use of beta blockers, smoking status, and physical activity. Results Serum TSH levels, used as continuously distributed variable and categorized according to the clinical cut-offs 0.3 and 3.0 mIU/L or according to quintiles, were not consistently associated with parameters of lung function or CPET. Conclusions Our results suggest that thyroid dysfunction is not associated with lung function and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in the general population. PMID:25182209

2014-01-01

63

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

2012-04-13

64

Comparison of serum levels of Tri-iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The physiological changes in thyroid gland during pregnancy have been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic causes of preeclampsia. Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this case?control study, 40 normal pregnant women and 40 cases of preeclampsia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated. They were compared for serum levels of Free T3 (FT3), Free T4 (FT4) and TSH. The data was analyzed by SPSS software with the use of t?student, Chi?square, Independent sample T-test and Bivariate correlation test. p?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was not statistically different between two groups (p=0.297). No significant difference was observed in terms of parity between two groups (p=0.206). Normal pregnant women were not significantly different from preeclampsia cases in the view of FT3 level (1.38 pg/ml vs. 1.41 pg/ml, p=0.803), FT4 level (0.95 pg/ml vs. 0.96 pg/ml, p=0.834) and TSH level (3.51 ?IU/ml vs. 3.10 ?IU/ml, p=0.386). Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the hypothesis that changes in FT3, FT4 and TSH levels could be possible etiology of preeclampsia.

Khadem, Nayereh; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Vahid Roodsari, Fatemeh; Ayati, Sedigheh; Dalili, Ehsan; Shahabian, Masoud; Mohajeri, Taraneh; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi

2012-01-01

65

Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ? The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ? method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L?1 and became 0.003 mIU L?1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L?1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

66

Role of vitamin B 12 , folate, and thyroid stimulating hormone in dementia: A hospital-based study in north Indian population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 and folate represent modifiable risk factors for dementia. They may increase the risk of Alzheimer?s dementia (AD and vascular dementia (VaD as their deficiency can increase the homocysteine level due to slowed methylation reaction. Homocysteine has a neurotoxic effect that could lead to neurologic disturbances. Hence, it is important to explore the status of serum B 12 and folate in AD and VaD to evolve the treatment strategies for the same. Objectives: A retrospective study was conducted to assess the levels of vitamin B 12 , folate, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in serum and the relationship of these factors, including age and sex to cognitive decline in VaD, AD, and dementia due to other causes (DOC. Materials and Methods: Serum vitamin B 12 , folate, TSH, and total cholesterol were studied in 32 AD patients (mean age: 65 years, 12 VaD patients (mean age: 61 years, 83 DOC (mean age: 65 years, and 127 control subjects (mean age: 49 years. Results: In AD, VaD, and DOC, the levels of vitamin B 12 and folate were significantly lower (P < 0.002; 0.026; 0.002 for vitamin B 12 and P < 0.000 in all the 3 groups for folate as compared with the controls. Similarly, TSH levels were significantly lower in AD and DOC (P < 0.008; 0.038 as compared with the controls. Conclusion: Vitamin B 12 and folate were significantly low in both AD and VaD patients. Hence, B vitamin supplementation should be considered as possible targets for the therapeutic intervention in dementia.

Agarwal Rachna

2010-01-01

67

Phorbol ester prevents the thyroid-stimulating-hormone-induced but not the forskolin-induced decrease of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in thyroid cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) affects several thyroid cell functions and interacts with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) either by inhibiting or potentiating its action on different cellular parameters. Since phorbol ester acts mainly through the activation of protein kinase C, which is its receptor, we studied this activation and its interaction with TSH and forskolin in suspension cultures of porcine thyroid cells. In thyroid cell cultures, TPA has a dual effect on protein kinase C activity: immediately (2-5 min) after exposure of cells to TPA, it began to be translocated from the cytosol to the particulate fraction. The transfer of the cytosolic enzyme was total and could occur with or without a loss of activity. The translocated enzyme still needed Ca2+ and phospholipids for its activation. The basal activity increased transiently (2-4 h) in both the cytosol and particulate fractions during translocation. The peak activity in the particulate fraction was reached 10-30 min after exposure of cells to TPA, and was followed by down-regulation of protein kinase C and almost complete disappearance of its activity. The residual activity was about 13% of control after a 2-day exposure to TPA. It was unequally distributed between cytosol (4%) and particulate fraction (9%). Prolonged exposure of cells to TPA did not affect either the activity or the subcellular distribution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. TPA interacted with TSH and prevented the decrease of this activity induced by prolonged exposure of cells to the hormone not only when it was introduced simultaneously with TSH, but also when it was added 24 h after TSH. However, the forskolin-induced decrease in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity was not prevented by the presence of TPA. TPA also affected the increases in cAMP accumulation mediated by TSH and forskolin. The TSH-induced increase was significantly stimulated by TPA after short contacts (5-15 min), while longer preincubations of cells with TPA provoked a very strong inhibition of the TSH action. However, the forskolin-induced stimulation of the cAMP accumulation was maintained and even further increased in the presence of TPA. Consequently, the actions of TSH and TPA are apparently interdependent, while those of forskolin and TPA seem to be parallel and independent. Neither TSH nor forskolin prevented the TPA-induced down regulation of protein kinase C. The biologically inactive phorbol ester analogue 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate had no effect on protein kinase C activity, and did not interact with either TSH or forskolin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3402444

Omri, B; Breton, M F; Haye, B; Jacquemin, C; Pavlovic-Hournac, M

1988-07-15

68

Casos clínicos en Endocrinología (n.º 2): niña de diez años con alteraciones de la hormona estimulante del tiroides / Clinical cases in Endocrinology (nº 2): a ten year old girl with thyroid stimulating hormone alteration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Continuando con los casos clínicos de Endocrinología, se presenta una niña de diez años derivada de un centro de salud por alteraciones de la hormona estimulante del tiroides. En este artículo trataremos especialmente de la disminución de la función tiroidea (hipotiroidismo). [...] Abstract in english Continuing with clinical cases in endocrinology we report the case of a 10 years old girl referred from a primary care center with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) alteration. In this paper we'll specially address the reduction in thyroid function (hypothyroidism). [...

N., Álvarez Gil; T., Angulo Sacristán.

2014-03-01

69

SIRT1 Regulates Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Release by Enhancing PIP5K?[subscript gamma] Activity through Deacetylation of Specific Lysine Residues in Mammals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: SIRT1, a NAD-dependent deacetylase, has diverse roles in a variety of organs such as regulation of endocrine function and metabolism. However, it remains to be addressed how it regulates hormone release there. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we report that SIRT1 is abundantly expressed in pituitary thyrotropes and regulates thyroid hormone secretion. Manipulation of SIRT1 level revealed that SIRT1 positively regulated the exocytosis of TSH-containing granules. Using...

Guarente, Leonard Pershing; Akieda-asai, Sayaka; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Ikegami, Koji; Kahyo, Tomoaki; Yao, Ikuko; Hatanaka, Takahiro; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Sugiyama, Rika; Yokozeki, Takeaki; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Koike, Morio; Ikeda, Kyoji; Chiba, Takuya; Yamaza, Haruyoshi

2010-01-01

70

Radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using a capillary blood-sample collected on filter paper. Value of the method for detecting neonatal hypothyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hypothyroidism is the thyroid disturbance most commonly encountered in paediatrics. Its average frequency is estimated at around one case per 6000 births. It is an exceptionally serious disease in newborn infants as it is accompanied by imperfect brain development leading to cerebral atrophy, degenerescence of the cortical neurons, defective myelinization and, most often, in children, irreversible psychomotor retardation. It should be possible to avoid this complication provided that a substitutive therapy using thyroid hormone is initiated very rapidly. For this it is necessary that the hypothyroidism be detected during the first few days of life since the chances of the therapy being successful decline very quickly. Save in a few exceptional cases, early detection cannot be based on clinical signs alone. The laboratory can play a decisive part by bringing to light either a defect in the production of thyroid hormone or a high blood level of TSH. The paper presents a description of the micromethod used together with a detailed analysis of certain important technical points, a study of the quality of the results obtained and a general discussion of the strategy for detecting neonatal hypothyroidism. (author)

71

Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone beta-subunit of common duck and mule duck pituitaries: in vitro regulation of steady-state TSHbeta mRNA level.  

Science.gov (United States)

For better understanding of phylogenetic diversity and evolution of pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in birds, we have cloned the cDNAs encoding TSH beta subunit (TSHbeta), by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) from two species of domestic ducks, common duck (Tsaiya duck and Pekin duck) (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) and mule duck (hybrid of male muscovy duck Cairina moschata and female A. platyrhynchos domesticus). The nucleotide sequences of isolated TSHbeta cDNAs of the two species of ducks are identical, with each including 66 bp of 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 402 bp of coding region, and 82 bp 3'-UTR followed by 18 bp poly A tract. The deduced TSHbeta subunit of the ducks contains 134 amino acids consisting of a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids and a putative mature protein of 115 amino acids. However, the TSHbetas of common duck and mule duck differ from the TSHbeta of muscovy duck in one amino acid at position 97 of the mature protein: isoleucine for common duck and mule duck, and valine for muscovy duck. Our findings thus demonstrate that inter-genus variation of TSHbeta exists in Family Anatidae, and that TSHbeta gene in the mule duck is preferentially transcribed from the maternal genome rather than from the paternal genome. TSHbeta mRNA expressions were investigated by culturing common duck pituitaries with various doses of hormones. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulated, while thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)), inhibited the TSHbeta mRNA levels, in dose-related manners. The findings thus support that the mode of regulation of TSH gene expression in hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis in birds is similar to that in mammals. Cortisol and corticosterone decreased the steady-state TSHbeta mRNA levels at the pituitary level, in a dose-related manner, the first-time demonstration in vertebrates. The results may suggest that glucocorticoids exert suppressive action directly at pituitary level in modulation of steady-state TSHbeta mRNA level. PMID:17215160

Hsieh, Ya-Lun; Chowdhury, Indrajit; Chien, Jung-Tsun; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

2007-03-01

72

Elevação de hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH) após as lobectomias: incidência e fatores associados / Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) rising following hemithyroidectomy: incidence and adjuvant factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de elevação da dosagem sérica do hormônio tireoestimulante (TSH) em pacientes submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide, em um período de até 12 semanas após a operação, buscando fatores associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODO: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 88 pacientes [...] submetidos à lobectomia da tireóide no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, no período de setembro de 2002 a setembro de 2004. Realizaram-se dosagens de hormônios tireoideanos a partir de quatro semanas após a cirurgia. Excluíram-se os pacientes com dosagens hormonais pré-operatórias alteradas, os casos que necessitaram de totalização da tireoidectomia e também aqueles em que houve perda do seguimento pós-operatório. Foram analisados os dados quanto à idade e ao sexo dos pacientes, quanto à presença de tireoidite no estudo histopatológico da tireóide e quanto ao tempo de aparecimento do hipotireoidismo. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos foi realizada através do teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Dos 88 pacientes, 71 (80,7%) eram mulheres. A idade média foi de 41,7 anos. Observou-se elevação do TSH em 20 (22,73%) dos 88 pacientes estudados. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de elevação do TSH, quando analisados quanto ao sexo, à idade ou à presença de tireoidite. CONCLUSÃO: A elevação do TSH é freqüente após lobectomias da tireóide e ocorre, muitas vezes, precocemente após a cirurgia. Não se encontraram, neste estudo, fatores que pudessem predizer sua ocorrência a curto prazo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency of serum elevations of thyrotropin in patients submitted to lobectomy within a period of up to 12 weeks after surgery, in the search for factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients submitted to thyroid lobectomy from September 2002 to [...] September 2004 in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery - University of São Paulo Medical School were retrospectively analyzed. Thyroid hormone determinations were performed from 4 weeks on after the surgery. Cases of patients with altered preoperative hormone determination, need for total thyroidectomy, and loss of postoperative follow-up were excluded. Data regarding age and gender of patients, presence of thyroiditis on histopathologic analysis of the thyroid and time of emergence of hypothyroidism were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: Of the 88 patients, 71 (80.7%) were women. The mean age was of 41.7 years. Elevation of thyrotropin was observed in 20 (22.73%) of the 88 studied patients. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding its incidence in relation to gender, age or the presence of thyroiditis. CONCLUSION: Elevation of thyrotropin is frequent after thyroid lobectomy and it may occur early after surgery. In this study, no factor that could predict its occurrence in the short term were found.

Vergillius José Furtado de, Araújo Filho; Lenine Garcia, Brandão; Dorival, Carlucci Jr; Raquel Ajub, Moysés; Marília D' Elboux Guimarães, Brescia; Alberto Rosseti, Ferraz.

2007-04-01

73

Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides / Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma pap [...] ilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares). El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %), en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 %) y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %). En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia. Abstract in english The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular a [...] nd undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

María Teresa, Marrero Rodríguez.

74

Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares. El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %, en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 % y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %. En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia.The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas. The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %, in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %, and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %. No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

2007-12-01

75

Growth Hormone  

Science.gov (United States)

... Roberts, W. (Updated 2010 May). Growth Hormone Deficiency. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ... org . Growth Hormone (Human Growth Hormone, HGH, Somatotropin). ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing (CLT) [On-line ...

76

Hormone assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

77

Stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion by thyrotropin in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine thyroid stimulating hormone administered to three beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, was effective in producing an increase in circulating levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine. A single dose of 10 I.U. of thyroid stimulating hormone resulted in a 145% increase in triiodothyronine and a 35% increase in thyroxine after nine hours in a whale tested within two hours after capture. The response was less pronounced in an animal tested with the same does on two occasions after four and eight weeks in captivity. In the third whale, 10 I.U. of thyroid stimulating hormone given on each of three consecutive days produced a marked increase in triiodothyronine and thyroxine. The elevation of thyroxine concentration persisted for at least two days after the last injection of thyroid stimulating hormone. A subsequent decrease in thyroxine to levels below baseline signalled the suppression of endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone. This preliminary study helps to establish a protocol for testing thyroid function in cetaceans. PMID:3651900

St Aubin, D J

1987-07-01

78

HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

Mallick, U. [Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Harmer, C.; Clarke, S.; Moss, L.; Nicol, A.; Clarke, P.; Smellie, J.; McCready, R.; Farnell, K.; Franklyn, J.; John, R.; Nutting, C.; Yap, B.; Lemon, C.; Wadlsey, J.; Gerrard, G.; Roques, T.; Macias, E.; Whitaker, S.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Alvarez, P.; Kadalayil, L.; Hackshaw, A.

2012-07-01

79

Thyroid hormone resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a rare syndrome of reduced end organ sensitivity. Patients with THR have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), but normal or slightly elevated serum thyrotropin values. The characteristic clinical feature is goitre without symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. THR can be classified on the basis of tissue resistance into pituitary, peripheral or generalised (both pituitary and peripheral) types. Mutations in the TRbeta gene, cell membrane transporter and genes controlling intracellular metabolism of thyroid hormone have been implicated. THR is differentiated from thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting pituitary adenoma by history of THR in the family. No specific treatment is often required for THR; patients with features of hypo- or hyperthyroidism are appropriately treated with levo-triiodothyronine (L-T3), levo-thyroxine (L-T4), dextro-thyroxine(D-T4) or 3,3,5 triiodo-thyroacetic acid (TRIAC). The diagnosis helps in appropriate genetic counselling of the family. PMID:18940949

Agrawal, N K; Goyal, R; Rastogi, A; Naik, D; Singh, S K

2008-09-01

80

Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

 
 
 
 
81

Efectos del fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental en los niveles plasmáticos de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH) / Phothoperiod and Environmental Temperature Effects on Plasmatic Levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Estudios realizados en el Alto Valle del R ío Negro, Patagonia Argentina, indican que existe una prevalencia de bocio ligeramente superior a la línea de corte establecida por el Internacional Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders con un grado de nutrición de yodo apropiado; prevalen [...] cia que podría ser atribuida a factores ambientales y/o nutricionales que interfieren con el metabolismo tiroideo. La concentración de TSH circulante responde a variaciones circadianas y es influenciada por las estaciones y la temperatura ambiental. Las características geográficas, el clima semidesértico o la presencia de sustancias que actúan como disruptores endocrinos, son factores que podrían relacionarse a modificaciones en la producción hormonal en zonas urbanas o rurales. Objetivos: a) Evaluar la posible asociación entre la variación anual de los valores de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH), el fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental. b) Estimar si los valores plasmáticos de TSH son significativamente diferentes en poblaciones rurales y urbanas de Alto Valle del Río Negro. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 1393 pacientes sanos residentes en el Alto Valle: 226 masculinos y 1167 femeninos, que acudieron por control clínico en el año 2010. Se utilizó para el análisis el software SPSS 17.0. Se encontraron variaciones significativas en el Log-TSH con un pico máximo al comienzo del otoño-invierno y un pico mínimo en primavera-verano. Se obtuvo una diferencia significativa en valores de Log-TSH en área rural: 0,46 uUI/ml (0,30-0,61) contra 0,28 uUI/ml (0,26-0,30) con p Abstract in english Studies carried out in Alto Valle del Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina, show a prevalence of goiter slightly above the cut-off line established by the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IC-CIDD), with an appropriate iodine nutrition grade; such prevalence could be at [...] tributed to environmental and/ or nutritional factors that interfere with thyroid metabolism. Blood TSH concentration responds to circadian variations and is influenced by seasonality and environmental temperature. The geographic characteristics, semi-desert climate or the presence of endocrine disruptors are factors that could be related to hormonal production modifications in urban or rural areas. Objectives: a) To evaluate the potential association between annual variation in TSH levels, photoperiod and environmental temperature. b) To estimate if plasma TSH values are significantly different in populations from rural and urban areas in Alto Valle del Rio Negro. We retrospectively evaluated 1393 healthy patients living in Alto Valle del Río Negro: 226 males and 1167 females, who presented for routine clinical check-up during 2010. SPSS 17.0 software was used for the analysis. Significant variations were found in Log-TSH, with a maximal peak at the beginning of the fall-winter and a minimal peak in spring-summer. There is a significant difference in the values of TSH between rural and urban areas, (values of Log-TSH in rural area: 0.46 uUI/ml (0.30-0.61) vs. urban area: 0.28 uUI/ml (0.26-0.30) with p

Villagrán, De Rosso; CM, Elizondo; Posadas, Martinez; D, Giunta; EI, Barragán.

2013-09-01

82

Efectos del fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental en los niveles plasmáticos de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH) / Phothoperiod and Environmental Temperature Effects on Plasmatic Levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Estudios realizados en el Alto Valle del R ío Negro, Patagonia Argentina, indican que existe una prevalencia de bocio ligeramente superior a la línea de corte establecida por el Internacional Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders con un grado de nutrición de yodo apropiado; prevalen [...] cia que podría ser atribuida a factores ambientales y/o nutricionales que interfieren con el metabolismo tiroideo. La concentración de TSH circulante responde a variaciones circadianas y es influenciada por las estaciones y la temperatura ambiental. Las características geográficas, el clima semidesértico o la presencia de sustancias que actúan como disruptores endocrinos, son factores que podrían relacionarse a modificaciones en la producción hormonal en zonas urbanas o rurales. Objetivos: a) Evaluar la posible asociación entre la variación anual de los valores de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH), el fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental. b) Estimar si los valores plasmáticos de TSH son significativamente diferentes en poblaciones rurales y urbanas de Alto Valle del Río Negro. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 1393 pacientes sanos residentes en el Alto Valle: 226 masculinos y 1167 femeninos, que acudieron por control clínico en el año 2010. Se utilizó para el análisis el software SPSS 17.0. Se encontraron variaciones significativas en el Log-TSH con un pico máximo al comienzo del otoño-invierno y un pico mínimo en primavera-verano. Se obtuvo una diferencia significativa en valores de Log-TSH en área rural: 0,46 uUI/ml (0,30-0,61) contra 0,28 uUI/ml (0,26-0,30) con p Abstract in english Studies carried out in Alto Valle del Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina, show a prevalence of goiter slightly above the cut-off line established by the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IC-CIDD), with an appropriate iodine nutrition grade; such prevalence could be at [...] tributed to environmental and/ or nutritional factors that interfere with thyroid metabolism. Blood TSH concentration responds to circadian variations and is influenced by seasonality and environmental temperature. The geographic characteristics, semi-desert climate or the presence of endocrine disruptors are factors that could be related to hormonal production modifications in urban or rural areas. Objectives: a) To evaluate the potential association between annual variation in TSH levels, photoperiod and environmental temperature. b) To estimate if plasma TSH values are significantly different in populations from rural and urban areas in Alto Valle del Rio Negro. We retrospectively evaluated 1393 healthy patients living in Alto Valle del Río Negro: 226 males and 1167 females, who presented for routine clinical check-up during 2010. SPSS 17.0 software was used for the analysis. Significant variations were found in Log-TSH, with a maximal peak at the beginning of the fall-winter and a minimal peak in spring-summer. There is a significant difference in the values of TSH between rural and urban areas, (values of Log-TSH in rural area: 0.46 uUI/ml (0.30-0.61) vs. urban area: 0.28 uUI/ml (0.26-0.30) with p

Villagrán, De Rosso; CM, Elizondo; Posadas, Martinez; D, Giunta; EI, Barragán.

83

Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010 / Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean [...] National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

Lorena, Mosso; Paula, Margozzini; Pamela, Trejo; Angélica, Domínguez; Sandra, Solari; Gonzalo, Valdivia; Eugenio, Arteaga.

84

Hormonal evaluation in erectile dysfunction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Erectile dysfunction (ED is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between ED and hormonal abnormalities. Material and methods: We evaluated 178 patients between the ages of 25 and 85 years old. Medical histories and details were collected, and the IIEF question test was completed by all patients. After the basic evaluation, serum total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured.Results: The mean age of the patients and IIEF scores were 50.5±12.3 and 12.8±6.13, respectively. The mean testosterone, prolactin, TSH, LH and FSH were 426±152 ng/dL, 15.8±45.6 ng/mL, 1.56±1.2 micro IU/mL, 5.5±4.3 m IU/mL and 7.7±6.9 m IU/mL, respectively. Two patients had abnormal TSH levels, and 27 patients had abnormal LH levels. Abnormal FSH levels were detected in 6 patients. Eight patients had abnormal testosterone levels, and twenty had abnormal prolactin levels.Conclusion: ED is an illness that affects older men, and multiple factors cause this illness. Hormonal abnormalities are one of these factors that can be corrected. When appropriate, hormone levels should be measured and treated in patients who present with ED.

Selahattin Çal??kan

2012-03-01

85

Effect of HCV Treatment on Circulating Pituitary Hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To analyse the relationship between pegylated interferontherapy and levels of pituitary hormones.METHODS: 49 chronic HCV patients were recruited at specializedhepatology clinic in National Hepatology and Tropical MedicineResearch Institute (NHTMRI, Cairo; they were treated withpegylated interferon and ribavirin according to the standard treatmentcriteria and regimen. Pituitary hormones levels were assessed at week0, 24 of treatment.RESULTS: Significant changes in the pituitary hormones levelswere noticed with perceived rise in Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH, Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH, Human growth hormone. (HGH, Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEAS, Prolactin and Cortisol, while significant reduction inthe levels of Testosterone, free Testosterone and sex hormone wereobserved.CONCLUSION: Treatment of HCV with Peg-INF/RBV may beassociated with pituitary hormonal dysfunction which may lead tomany neglected side effects like libido, erectile dysfunction andgalactorrhea.

Amin Abdel Baki

2013-07-01

86

Anticoncepción hormonal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

Miguel Lugones Botell

1997-02-01

87

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

... Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual ... Glands & Their Hormones The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although ...

88

[Hormonal dysnatremia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. PMID:24356291

Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

2013-10-01

89

Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, ? and ?, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5'-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun; Brent, Gregory A

2014-04-01

90

Silent thyroiditis with thyroid-stimulation-blocking antibodies (TSBAb).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 24-year-old man showed thyrotoxic symptoms with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Serum thyroid hormone levels were high and thyrotropin (TSH) was undetectable. 123I-thyroidal uptake was suppressed. TSH-binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) was positive. After a month without any treatment, he became hypothyroid. Thyroid hormone level was decreased and TSH was increased to above the normal range. 123I-thyroidal uptake was increased. TBII activity was still positive. From the clinical findings, a diagnosis of silent thyroiditis was made. Sera obtained in the hypothyroid state revealed the presence of thyroid-stimulation-blocking antibodies (TSBAb), but there were no thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb). These results suggest that the hypothyroidism in this patient was due to the presence of TSBAb with TBII activity. PMID:1983199

Nakamura, S; Sugimoto, M; Kosaka, J; Watanabe, H; Shima, H; Kawahira, S

1990-01-01

91

Hormones and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

92

Growth hormone radioimmunoassay (RIA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Growth hormone not only stimulates growth, but also influences several other metabolic processes in the body. By its growth-promoting activity, the hormone accelerates the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins by stimulating the uptake of amino acids by the tissues. Using rat diaphragm preparations in vitro, a reduced uptake of several amino acids following Hypophysectomy has been demonstrated. Among other hormones, only pancreatic insulin is a potent stimulator of this process. On the cellular level, growth hormone effects appear to be mediated by cAMP. The hormone affects protein synthesis in rat levator ani and cardiac muscles, but they display a different behavior from the diaphragm. In adipose tissue, growth hormone also has a stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in virto, primarily at the ribosomal level as RNA synthesis is blocked by actinomycin D. Growth hormone effects on protein synthesis in liver were similarly demonstrated and require a lower concentration of hormone than for synthesis by muscle or adipose tissue

93

Thyroid Hormone Levels in Foals with Congenital Musculoskeletal Lesions  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen foals with congenital or neonatal musculoskeletal abnormalities are described. Ten of the fourteen foals had abnormally low total serum T3 and/or T4 concentrations suggesting hypothyroidism. Response to thyroid-stimulating hormone was determined in two foals and found to be poor. Seven of the foals were necropsied and six of these had histological evidence of thyroid hyperplasia. These findings suggest hypothyroidism as a cause of congenital musculoskeletal lesions. PMID:17422675

McLaughlin, B. G.; Doige, C. E.; McLaughlin, P. S.

1986-01-01

94

MOLECULAR BASIS OF INFERTILITY–II: RELATED TO DEFECTIVE BIOSYNTHESIS, SECRETION AND ACTION OF FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The anterior pituitary gland of vertebrates synthesizes and secretes three glycoprotein hormones. Two of these i.e. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH and Luteinizing Hormone (LH are called gonadotropins. They exert diverse and direct effects upon the gonads (Ovary and Testes including regulation and maintenance of essential reproductive processes such as gametogenesis, steroidogenesis, ovulation, implantation etc. Indirectly, even the third glycoprotein hormone i.e. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH as well as Growth Hormone (GH and Prolactin (PRL regulate many gonadal functions.

Lima Kidwai, Imran Moin, Shah Saddad Hussain and K Muralidhar

2013-01-01

95

[Resistance to thyroid hormone].  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to thyroid hormone is a syndrome involving reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone. Most cases involve mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene. Since many patients demonstrate tachycardia, goiter and elevated serum thyroid hormone levels, some patients have been misdiagnosed with Graves' disease, and nearly one third of patients are being treated inappropriately. It is important to keep this diagnosis in mind when a patient with elevated thyroid hormone level accompanied by normal or slightly increased TSH levels (SITSH) is encountered. Therapy with TRIAC has been used in several patients. PMID:17154085

Yamada, Masanobu

2006-12-01

96

Growth hormone-releasing hormone: therapeutic perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), the hypothalamic peptide which stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary, has been the center of intense study since its structure was described in 1982. It is in the area of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) that GHRH has its greatest clinical potential. Several studies have addressed the efficacy of GHRH as an alternative therapy in GHD. It appears that GHRH can be equally effective, whether given in a pulsatile manner or as discrete injections several times a day; i.e. the total dose may be more crucial than how it is given. While there are several issues that must be addressed before an optimal GHRH regimen can be devised, the available data would suggest that GHRH may become a safe, effective alternative to GH therapy in some patients with GHD. PMID:3134651

Gelato, M C; Malozowski, S; Pescovitz, O H; Cassorla, F; Loriaux, D L; Merriam, G R

1987-01-01

97

Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simul...

Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-sil

2013-01-01

98

Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that hormonal changes in papillary thyroid cancer include the reduction of thyroxine in blood. In case of papillary thyroid cancer the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is increased at various stages of the spread of neoplasia

Zyablov ?. V.

2011-09-01

99

Does High Quality Fat Diet Cause Hormonal Level Changes?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty adult male albino rats arranged into three equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of adding 15% oil, normal or fried, to the rat diet for two months on the levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), corticosterone, testosterone and progesterone. Addition of 15% normal oil to the rat diet for two months caused non-significant changes in all these hormones while fried oil (thermally oxidized fat) caused increases in T4, testosterone and decrease in corticosterone. These results denoted that although high fat diet affect numerous blood components, adding 15% of normal oil to the diet had no affect on thyroid, stress or sex hormones while fried oil disturbed some hormones, most probably due to high lipid peroxides found in fried oil.

100

Regulation of seasonal reproduction by hypothalamic activation of thyroid hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organisms living outside the tropics measure the changes in the length of the day to adapt to seasonal changes in the environment. Animals that breed during spring and summer are called long-day breeders, while those that breed during fall are called short-day breeders. Although the influence of thyroid hormone in the regulation of seasonal reproduction has been known for several decades, its precise mechanism remained unknown. Recent studies revealed that the activation of thyroid hormone within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH plays a key role in this phenomenon. This localized activation of the thyroid hormone is controlled by thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH secreted from the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland. Although seasonal reproduction is a rate-limiting factor in animal production, genes involved in photoperiodic signal transduction pathway could emerge as potential targets to facilitate domestication.

TakashiYoshimura

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Development of antiserum against bovine-luteinizing hormone for radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antiserum against bovine luteinzing hormone (bLH) was raised in male rabbits, and tested against cross-reacting contaminants by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. The anti-bLH showed cross-reaction against bovine follicle-stimulating hormone (bFSH), bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (bTSH) and normal calf serpm (NCS) but on cross-reaction with bovine prolactin and bovine growth hormone. The cross reaction of anti-bLH against bFSH and NCS disappeared on absorption with these antigens. A slight cross-section against bTSH was observed after absorption of the antiserum with bTSH. Absorbed antiserum when tested through inhibition binding studies showed negligible cross-reaction due to bFSH and bTSH. The antiserum had a high working titre. (author)

102

Effects of growth hormone secretagogues on the release of adenohypophyseal hormones in young and old healthy dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of three growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs), ghrelin, growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), on the release of adenohypophyseal hormones, growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and on cortisol were investigated in young and old healthy Beagle dogs. Ghrelin proved to be the most potent GHS in young dogs, whereas in old dogs GHRH administration was associated with the highest plasma GH concentrations. The mean plasma GH response after administration of ghrelin was significantly lower in the old dogs compared with the young dogs. The mean plasma GH concentration after GHRH and GHRP-6 administration was lower in the old dogs compared with the young dogs, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. In both age groups, the GHSs were specific for GH release as they did not cause significant elevations in the plasma concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, TSH, LH, and PRL. It is concluded that in young dogs, ghrelin is a more powerful stimulator of GH release than either GHRH or GHRP-6. Ageing is associated with a decrease in GH-releasing capacity of ghrelin, whereas this decline is considerably lower for GHRH or GHRP-6. PMID:15951209

Bhatti, Sofie F M; Duchateau, Luc; Van Ham, Luc M L; De Vliegher, Sarne P; Mol, Jan A; Rijnberk, Ad; Kooistra, Hans S

2006-11-01

103

Growth Hormone and Stroke Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hand corner of the player. Growth Hormone and Stroke Risk HealthDay August 14, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Growth Disorders Hormones Stroke Transcript Children who receive growth hormone treatments may ...

104

Hormonal Regulators of Appetite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

Juliana Austin

2009-01-01

105

Hormonal Regulators of Appetite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

Austin Juliana

2008-11-01

106

Nutrition, hormones and growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review is presented relating to the effects of hormones on food intake and nutritional state and also of the effects of food intake and nutritional state on hormone activity. These interactions and their effect on fish growth are described.Growth hormone, thyroid hormones, insulin, and gonadal steroids have all been implicated in the normal growth processes of fish and their metabolic actions have been related to the nutritional state of the animal. Furthermore, variations in plasma levels and hormone application appear to affect food intake and food conversion.Anabolic steroids and their possible involvement in aquaculture practice has been an area of active investigation for the past few years. The current situation is reviewed, particularly regarding relevance to protein intake. PMID:24233176

Matty, A J

1986-10-01

107

Hormones and female sexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional-motivational and social factors.

Bjelica Artur L.

2003-01-01

108

Elevated prealbumin level following high thyroid hormones levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is the first to report about a patient with high prealbumin level [56.8 mg/dL (reference range 22.0-40.0 mg/dL] following elevation in thyroid hormones levels. Among the thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine (free T4 and total T4 level showed an elevation. Triiodothyronine (free T3 and total T3 level was within normal limits. Since prealbumin mainly transports T4, the elevation of prealbumin level along with T4 level is reaso- nable. When patients have chronic hyperthyroidism without thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb, a diagnosis will be Negative Graves’ disease. However, a part of patients with Negative Graves’ disease may be High prealbumin syndrome.

Fumiatsu Yakushiji

2013-01-01

109

Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine t [...] he profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F), free thyroxine (T4F), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibody (TPO), and estradiol (E2). Estrogen receptor ß (ERß) was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P

P.P., Saraiva; N.B., Figueiredo; C.R., Padovani; M.M., Brentani; C.R., Nogueira.

110

Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine t [...] he profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F), free thyroxine (T4F), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibody (TPO), and estradiol (E2). Estrogen receptor ß (ERß) was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P

P.P., Saraiva; N.B., Figueiredo; C.R., Padovani; M.M., Brentani; C.R., Nogueira.

2005-05-01

111

Hormonal regulation of implantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Implantation is a complex process that requires synchronization between the embryo and a receptive endometrium. Hormones, such as the female sex steroids, prostaglandins, and peptide hormones, regulate the cellular and molecular mediators of endometrial receptivity, which include pinopodes, cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, homeobox genes, and growth factors. These mediators can be altered, despite the presence of normal hormone levels and endometrial histology; this limits the usefulness of the luteal phase endometrial biopsy. Therefore, analysis of markers of endometrial receptivity may predict successful implantation better. Elevated androgen and estrogen levels, as seen with polycystic ovary syndrome and controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, respectively, also can have detrimental effects on the endometrium, and therefore, implantation. PMID:15550333

Kodaman, Pinar H; Taylor, Hugh S

2004-12-01

112

Effect of radiation on proteo-hormones activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of pituitary hormones were irradiated by a 60Co source. A dose rate of 1.0-1.1 Mrad/hour and the doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5 Mrad were used. The hormone preparations in the dry solid state or in solution were sealed into glass ampules. After sterilization they were kept at 40C until the biological activity had been tested. The biological activity of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, subjected to a sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrad of gamma radiation, was found to have decreased when tested 3-5 months after irradiation. TSH remained fully active for up to 1 month after sterilization. The activity of vasopressin dropped off markedly during the 3-4 week period after irradiation. Biological activity of growth hormone tested shortly after irradiation was found to be unaffected. The activities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone were not affected. The experiments can be considered promising since they show that pituitary proteohorm, one preparations in the solid state may be sterilized. The stability on storage needs, however, to be carefully checked individually for every single hormone

113

Hormone Health Network  

Science.gov (United States)

... Infographics Myth vs Fact Patient Alerts Scientific Statements Social Media Resources Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health ...

114

Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause  

Science.gov (United States)

... Infographics Myth vs Fact Patient Alerts Scientific Statements Social Media Resources Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health ...

115

Human Parathyroid Hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patent application relates to the isolation and purification of human parathyroid hormone from human parathyroid adenomas. The primary sequence of the amino terminal 34 residues was determined and the peptide of the first 34 residues synthesized.

H. B. Brewer

1973-01-01

116

LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... a 24-hour urine collection may be taken Test Preparation Needed? None, but the timing of a ... will be correlated with her menstrual cycle. The Test Sample What is being tested? Luteinizing hormone (LH) ...

117

Hormones and female sexuality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

Bjelica Artur L.; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Maticki-Sekuli? Milana

2003-01-01

118

Menopausal Hormone Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides this compilation of Web links for important information on the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. The links lead to relevant NIH Web pages, including the most current NIH research on the subject. Topics covered range from NIH's Women's Health Initiative estrogen/ progestin hormone therapy study to the use of black cohosh as an alternative therapy to osteoporosis and ovarian cancer. A useful and well-organized resource.

119

MUTAGENOUS EFFECTS OF HORMONES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a widely accepted view that the endogenous substances, includinghormones, do not have any mutagenous effect when present in the usualphysiological concentrations. However, beside relative stability and permanence ofthe genetic material, its changeability is also needed to provide for the biologicalevolution. Thus, it is possible to expect that certain reactions, due to the complexity ofthe mechanism of the signal transduction under the effect of hormones, still! lead tothe creation of reactive derivatives able to inter-react with the DNA molecules thusencouraging the emergence of mutations. This paper gives a survey of the explorationof the hormones' genotoxic effects in various test-systems, namely, from the bactericthrough the ?eli cultures and experiments in vivo upon laboratory guinea-pigs, up tothe determination of the mutagenous effects in the people that were treated byhormones. The steroid hormones' effects are described in detail in the literaturewhile, on the other hand, there is not sufficient knowledge yet about possible changesof the genetic material under the influence of the non-steroid hormones. Theexaminations of the steroid hormones' geonotoxicity in the bacterial systems havemainly given negative results. Tn more complex eukaryotic systems in vitro and invivo most of the steroid hormones manifest mutagenous effects, though the resultmay vary depending one the type of ?eli or the biological species used in theexperiment. As for the non-steroid hormones, though they have been studied less, itseems that they do not mostly express mutagenous effects. Today it is clear that thesteroid hormones (especially estrogen are completely carcinogenic and that they arecapable of encouraging the process of carcinogenesis both by inducing covalentsimulating the cell division (tumor promoters.

Dijana Djelic

2001-07-01

120

Heterogeneity of protein hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms of enteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones

 
 
 
 
121

Hormonal control of inflammatory responses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Almost any stage of inflammatory and immunological responses is affected by hormone actions. This provides the basis for the suggestion that hormones act as modulators of the host reaction against trauma and infection. Specific hormone receptors are detected in the reactive structures in inflamed areas and binding of hormone molecules to such receptors results in the generation of signals that influence cell functions relevant for the development of inflammatory responses. Diversity of hormon...

Garcia-leme, J.; Farsky, Sandra P.

1993-01-01

122

Headache And Hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

Shukla Rakesh

2002-01-01

123

Radioimmunoassay of GI hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive review describes the radioimmunoassay method of quantitating the wide variety of gastrointestinal peptide hormones, particularly gastrin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, secretin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The problems associated with the development of the radioimmunoassay method are discussed. These include the production of antisera and ways of overcoming the difficulties of raising antibodies to low molecular weight peptide hormones; the quantity, quality and specificity of antisera; the different methods of labelling tracer antigen with 125I depending on the nature of amino acids available for labelling in the peptide hormone and the subsequent methods of labelled antigen purification; the methods of separating antibody bound from free hormone; and the standardization and quality control of assays and ways of increasing their sensitivity. A summary of the conditions and sensitivities of nine radioimmunoassays for gastrointestinal peptide hormones performed routinely in the author's laboratory is given. The problems associated with the interpretation of radioimmunoassay results are also raised including non-specific interference and other possible sources of error. (U.K.)

124

Hormone selectivity in thyroid hormone receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Separate genes encode thyroid hormone receptor subtypes TRalpha (NR1A1) and TRbeta (NR1A2). Products from each of these contribute to hormone action, but the subtypes differ in tissue distribution and physiological response. Compounds that discriminate between these subtypes in vivo may be useful in treating important medical problems such as obesity and hypercholesterolemia. We previously determined the crystal structure of the rat (r) TRalpha ligand-binding domain (LBD). In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the rTRalpha LBD in a complex with an additional ligand, Triac (3,5, 3'-triiodothyroacetic acid), and two crystal structures of the human (h) TRbeta receptor LBD in a complex with either Triac or a TRbeta-selective compound, GC-1 [3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-hydroy-3'-isopropylbenzyl)-phenoxy acetic acid]. The rTRalpha and hTRbeta LBDs show close structural similarity. However, the hTRbeta structures extend into the DNA-binding domain and allow definition of a structural "hinge" region of only three amino acids. The two TR subtypes differ in the loop between helices 1 and 3, which could affect both ligand recognition and the effects of ligand in binding coactivators and corepressors. The two subtypes also differ in a single amino acid residue in the hormone-binding pocket, Asn (TRbeta) for Ser (TRalpha). Studies here with TRs in which the subtype-specific residue is exchanged suggest that most of the selectivity in binding derives from this amino acid difference. The flexibility of the polar region in the TRbeta receptor, combined with differential recognition of the chemical group at the 1-carbon position, seems to stabilize the complex with GC-1 and contribute to its beta-selectivity. These results suggest a strategy for development of subtype-specific compounds involving modifications of the ligand at the 1-position. PMID:11222741

Wagner, R L; Huber, B R; Shiau, A K; Kelly, A; Cunha Lima, S T; Scanlan, T S; Apriletti, J W; Baxter, J D; West, B L; Fletterick, R J

2001-03-01

125

Treatment with thyroid hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses. PMID:24433025

Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

2014-06-01

126

Growth Hormone and Stroke Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Growth Hormone and Stroke Risk HealthDay August 14, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Growth Disorders Hormones ... of Health Page last updated on 16 October 2014

127

Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test  

Science.gov (United States)

ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

128

SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)  

Science.gov (United States)

... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... Get Tested? To evaluate whether the concentration of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is affecting the amount ...

129

Growth Hormone and Stroke Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Growth Hormone and Stroke Risk HealthDay August 14, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Growth Disorders Hormones Stroke Transcript Children who receive growth ...

130

Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

131

Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

132

Hormonal effects in newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... leave the newborn's body. Do not squeeze or massage the newborn's breasts because this can cause an infection under the skin ( abscess ). Hormones from the mother may also cause some fluid to leak from the infant's nipples. This is called witch's milk. It is ...

133

Recombinant hormones in osteoporosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For the last 10 years, bone anabolic therapy with the recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) analogue, teriparatide (rhPTH[1 - 34]), or full-length rhPTH(1 - 84) has been an option in the treatment of osteoporosis. Both drugs are given as a daily subcutaneous injection. In the USA, only teriparatide is marketed.

Rejnmark, Lars; Rejnmark, Lars

2013-01-01

134

Terapia hormonal da menopausa / Menopausal hormone therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM), estrogênica (TE) ou estro-progestagênica (TEP). A principal indica [...] ção para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida. Abstract in english Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET), and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT). The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal w [...] omen remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT) of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

Dolores, Pardini.

135

Thyroid hormones before and after weight loss in obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Little is known about changes in thyroid function in obese children. An influence of leptin on thyroid hormone synthesis has been proposed. Aims: To examine thyroid function and leptin concentrations in obese children. Methods: Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and leptin were measured in 118 obese children (aged 4.5–16 years); thyroid function was also determined in 107 healthy children of normal weight. T3, T4, and TSH were analysed in 55 obese children who had achieved weight reduction and in 13 obese children who had not achieved weight reduction after one year based on normal energy diet. Results: TSH, T3, and T4 were significantly higher in obese children compared to those of normal weight. Twelve per cent of the obese children had TSH, 15% had T3, and 11% had T4 concentrations above the twofold standard deviation of normal weight children. The degree of overweight correlated with T3, T4, and TSH. Thyroid hormones did not correlate significantly with leptin. A reduction in overweight showed a significant decrease in T3, T4, and leptin serum concentrations, but there was no significant change in TSH. Conclusion: Peripheral thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and TSH are moderately increased in obese children; weight reduction leads to a long term decrease in the peripheral thyroid hormones but not in TSH. There is no necessity to treat the increased serum TSH. PMID:12244007

Reinehr, T; Andler, W

2002-01-01

136

[Growth hormone and lipids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth hormone (GH), Insulin Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and lipids are linked by important reciprocal influences. Their knowledge allowed relevant pathophysiological and clinical acquisitions more and more interesting in scientific research and in medical practice. In this survey the influence of (GH) on lipid metabolism, particularly on free fatty acids (FFA) and lypoprotein metabolism has been analysed. Attention has been given to the disorders of the lipid-metabolism in GH hypo- and hyper-sec...

Maccario, Mauro; Ghigo, Ezio; Camanni, Franco

1997-01-01

137

Steroid hormones and bone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steroid hormones have an important impact on bone. The mechanism of steroid action on bone cells is through an interaction with specific receptor proteins in the target cells. Steroid receptors are a class of molecules that function as both signal transducers and transcription factors. The receptors each have similar functional domains that are responsible for discrete functions. The mechanism of receptor action is mediated by both genomic and nongenomic pathwa...

Huang, W. H.; Zheng, M. H.

1999-01-01

138

PREVALENCE OF SERUM THYROID HORMONES AND MENSTRUAL IRREGULARETIES WITH INFERTILITY IN UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is important to predict the serum thyroid hormones level in females during infertility to prevent its occurrence later on. In this study, we studied serum thyroid hormones and menstrual irregularities during infertility. A case control study was performed in 75 infertile patients with menstrual irregularities and 50 healthy matched women. Three biochemical parameters were measured in serum, hormones triiodothyronine (T3, tetra-iodothyronine (T4 and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH by TOSOH-AIA-360, immunoassay method. Out of 75 infertile women sixteen percent (16% had menstrual irregularities with hypothyroidism. The mean serum thyroid level in 75 infertile women were 0.88±0.34 ng/ml, 7.69±2.87 ?Iu/dl and 5.43±6.88 ?Iu/ml, respectively. Serum T3, T4 and TSH level were statistically highly significant in infertile women. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was found at higher side in infertile women. High incidence of hypothyroidism was found in infertile women and it shows a positive correlation with menstrual disorder.

Neha Sharma et al

2012-09-01

139

Hormones and Borderline Personality Features  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Borderline personality is diagnosed in clinical settings three times more often in women than in men, and symptom severity in women appears sensitive to circulating sex steroid levels. In non-human mammals, prenatal hormones contribute to the development of sex-linked behavior and their responsiveness to postnatal hormones. Therefore, this study examined the hypothesis that prenatal hormones may influence the development of borderline personality traits by measuring a marker of perinatal andr...

Evardone, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M.; Morey, Leslie C.

2008-01-01

140

Mammalian sex hormones in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture. PMID:16044944

Janeczko, Anna; Skoczowski, Andrzej

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Interactions between calciotropic hormones.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The metatarsal cytochemical bioassay (CBA) for parathyroid hormone (PTH) was adapted to study interactions between PTH and certain vitamin D metabolites. Thus, while they had no effect in the system alone, both 1,25(OH)2D3 and 25(OH)D3 caused a dose-dependent potentiation of PTH-stimulated glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the hypertrophic chondrocytes of the rat metatarsal. 1,25(OH)2D3 was about 1000 times more potent than 25(OH)D3. Specificity is indicated by the lack of a simil...

Bradbeer, J. N.

1987-01-01

142

Growth hormone and aging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John

2000-01-01

143

A Study On Thyroxine and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Women During Pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study on 50 pregnant women in Allied Hospital, Faisalabad revealed non significant difference in T4 and TSH levels between women of 2nd and 3rd trimester. Similarly, T4 and TSH levels showed no statistical difference between those women used multivitamins and iodine supplements and those did not used. The correlation between T4 and TSH was higher and negative in women having normal body weight to their height and those did not used multivitamins tablets. However, a positive correlation between T4 and TSH was observed in women those used iodine and negative in women those did not used iodine.

Amna Habib

1999-01-01

144

A small molecule inverse agonist for the human thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small molecule inverse agonists for the TSH receptor (TSHR) may be used as probes of the role of basal (or agonist-independent or constitutive) signaling and may have therapeutic potential as orally active drugs to inhibit basal signaling in patients with thyroid cancer and in some patients with hyperthyroidism. We describe the first small-molecule ligand [1;2-(3-((2,6-dimethylphenoxy)methyl)-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one] that exhibits inverse agonist properties at TSHR. 1 inhibits basal and TSH-stimulated signaling, measured as cAMP production, by TSHRs in HEK-EM 293 cells stably expressing wild-type TSHRs; the antagonism of TSH-mediated signaling is competitive. 1 also inhibits basal signaling by wild-type TSHRs, and four constitutively active mutants of TSHR expressed transiently in HEK-EM 293 cells. 1 was active under more physiologically relevant conditions in primary cultures of human thyrocytes expressing endogenous TSHRs where it inhibited basal levels of mRNA transcripts for thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase, sodium iodide symporter, and TSHR. These data serve as proof of principle that small, drug-like molecules can inhibit basal signaling by TSHR. We suggest that this small molecule is a lead compound for the development of higher-potency inverse agonists that can be used as probes of TSHR biology with therapeutic potential. PMID:20427476

Neumann, Susanne; Huang, Wenwei; Eliseeva, Elena; Titus, Steve; Thomas, Craig J; Gershengorn, Marvin C

2010-07-01

145

Growth hormone-releasing hormone and growth hormone secretagogue-receptor ligands: focus on reproductive system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin are the most important hypothalamic neurohormones controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion. Several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides also play an important role in the control of GH secretion, mainly acting via modulation of GHRH and somatostatin. In the past two decades, particular attention has been given to a new family of substances showing a strong GH-releasing effect: GH secretagogues (GHSs). GHSs increase GH secretion in a do...

Muccioli, Giampiero; Ghigo, Ezio; Papotti, Mauro Giulio; Lanfranco, Fabio; Broglio, Fabio; Giordano, Roberta; Arvat, Emanuela; Maccario, Mauro

2001-01-01

146

Hormone therapy and phytoestrogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

As ageing progresses the levels of sex hormones decrease in the human body. In the male population, the decrease or absence of testosterone leads to decreased strength and stamina, thin bones and a low sex drive (1). In the female population, the immediate symptoms of menopause include irregular periods, painful sexual intercourse due to vaginal dryness, hot flushes and night sweats (2). Lack of oestrogen also leads to the risk of developing osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. In this report, the authors will mainly discuss the effects of hormone therapy (HT) in menopausal women. Available current clinical data on the effects of calcium supplementation with and without HT, exercise, exercise plus calcium and exercise with HT on bone loss are presented. The effects of transdermal and oral oestrogen therapy (OT) on serum lipids are discussed. Commercially-available HT products, their indications, dosages, contra-indications, side-effects and drug interactions are compared. Alternative therapies for menopausal symptoms with Chinese traditional herbs, and a comparison of the molecular structures of phytoestrogens with estradiol and diethylstilbestrol are examined (3, 4). A list of medicinal herbs and foods reported to elicit an oestrogenic response in animals is compiled. PMID:8809647

Lien, L L; Lien, E J

1996-04-01

147

Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/lit mice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising from mutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p<0.001). In comparison, an intermediate growth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a. PMID:22473409

Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nascimento, Nancy; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Bartolini, Paolo; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P.A.

2012-01-01

148

Hormonal changes during menopause.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ovarian senescence occurs gradually during the fourth and fifth decades of life, leading to menopause at an average age of about 51 years. This senescence results in a changing hormonal milieu, with decreases in the levels of estrogens and androgens. Similar changes may be induced by surgical menopause (bilateral oophorectomy) or ovarian failure resulting from cancer treatment. The declining levels of estrogens and androgens affect many tissues of the body and can produce a variety of signs and symptoms, including vasomotor symptoms, decreased bone density, changes in mood and energy, loss of pubic hair and changes in the genital tissues, and effects on sexual function. Accurate measurement of testosterone levels in postmenopausal women requires methods that are validated in the lower ranges of testosterone level observed in this population. PMID:19372016

Al-Azzawi, Farook; Palacios, Santiago

2009-06-20

149

Selective modulation of thyroid hormone receptor action.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones have some actions that might be useful therapeutically, but others that are deleterious. Potential therapeutically useful actions include those to induce weight loss and lower plasma cholesterol levels. Potential deleterious actions are those on the heart to induce tachycardia and arrhythmia, on bone to decrease mineral density, and on muscle to induce wasting. There have been successes in selectively modulating the actions of other classes of hormones through various means, including the use of pharmaceuticals that have enhanced affinities for certain receptor isoforms. Thus, there is reason to pursue selective modulation of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) function, and several agents have been shown to have some beta-selective, hepatic selective and/or cardiac sparring activities, although development of these was largely not based on detailed understanding of mechanisms for the specificity. The possibility of selectively targeting the TRbeta was suggested by the findings that there are alpha- and beta-TR forms and that the TRalpha-forms may preferentially regulate the heart rate, whereas many other actions of these hormones are mediated by the TRbeta. We determined X-ray crystal structures of the TRalpha and TRbeta ligand-binding domains (LBDs) complexed with the thyroid hormone analog 3,5,3'-triiodithyroacetic acid (Triac). The data suggested that a single amino acid difference in the ligand-binding cavities of the two receptors could affect hydrogen bonding in the receptor region, where the ligand's 1-position substituent fits and might be exploited to generate beta-selective ligands. The compound GC-1, with oxoacetate in the 1-position instead of acetate as in Triac, exhibited TRbeta-selective binding and actions in cultured cells. An X-ray crystal structure of the GC-1-TRbeta LBD complex suggests that the oxoacetate does participate in a network of hydrogen bonding in the TR LBD polar pocket. GC-1 displayed actions in tadpoles that were TRbeta-selective. When administered to mice, GC-1 was as effective in lowering plasma cholesterol levels as T(3), and was more effective than T(3) in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. At these doses, GC-1 did not increase the heart rate. GC-1 was also less active than T(3) in modulating activities of several other cardiac parameters, and especially a cardiac pacemaker channel such as HCN-2, which may participate in regulation of the heart rate. GC-1 showed intermediate activity in suppressing plasma thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The tissue/plasma ratio for GC-1 in heart was also less than for the liver. These data suggest that compounds can be generated that are TR-selective and that compounds with this property and/or that exhibit selective uptake, might have clinical utility as selective TR modulators. PMID:11384861

Baxter, J D; Dillmann, W H; West, B L; Huber, R; Furlow, J D; Fletterick, R J; Webb, P; Apriletti, J W; Scanlan, T S

2001-01-01

150

Combined growth hormone-releasing hormone and growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 test for the evaluation of growth hormone secretion in children with growth hormone deficiency and growth hormone neurosecretory dysfunction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

? ???????? ????????? ?? GHRH + GHRP-6 ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? GH. ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? GH (Growth Hormone Deficiency, GHD) ???? ??? ?? ?????????????? ????????????? ??? GH (GH Neurosecretory Dysfunction, GHND), 35 ??...

??????????????, ?????????? ?.

2008-01-01

151

Migraine: is it related to hormonal disturbances or stress?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rachna Parashar,1 Payal Bhalla,2 Nirendra K Rai,3 Abhijit Pakhare,4 Rashmi Babbar5 1Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 2Department of Physiology, Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 5Department of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India Background: Common neurological syndrome (migraine without aura is more common among women than men. Migraine is among the top 20 causes of disability. Menstruation is known to be a powerful trigger for migraine, and so is stress, but the presentation of headache is similar in both. Also, women are more vulnerable to stress as well as migraine, and this makes a complex relationship of menstruation, stress, and migraine. Objective: This study was done to understand the association of hormonal fluctuation in menstruation and stress with common migraine. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 40 young adult females, of whom 20 participants were cases of migraine without aura (18–35 years old, and the remaining 20 participants were age-matched controls. The study was done in Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. Study participants were selected on the basis of International Headache Society (ICHD-IIA1.1 (2004 classification. Study participants with neurological disorders, chronic diseases, and disease suggestive of any hormonal disturbances were excluded. Clinically diagnosed migraine cases were asked to maintain a headache diary and to fill in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales questionnaire. Biochemical assessment of hormonal status for thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin was also done on the second day of their menstrual cycle. We used the Mann–Whitney U test to compare hormonal levels and the ?2 test to compare anxiety- or depression-related stress among the migraine and nonmigraine groups. Results: Significantly higher values of prolactin were observed in cases (mean ± standard deviation, 152.7 mIU/L±30.5 compared to controls (76.1 mIU/L±8.7, with a P-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant difference observed in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (P=0.081, estrogen (P=0.086, luteinizing hormone (P=0.091, or follicle-stimulating hormone (P=0.478. Also, anxiety with stress or depression with stress was significantly higher among the migraine group than the controls (P=0.002. Odds of any stress in migraine were higher in the migraine group than in the nonmigraine group (odds ratio 12, 95% confidence interval 2.7–53.33. Conclusion: Migraine, particularly without aura, in women is mainly associated with stress-related anxiety or depression, and are more susceptible to stress in the premenstrual period. Keywords: migraine, menstruation, stress

Parashar R

2014-10-01

152

Genetic analysis of thyroid hormone receptors in development and disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone (T3) fulfills diverse functions in vertebrate development and physiology. These functions are thought to be mediated by two genes encoding the related T3 receptors. TR alpha and TR beta. The use of homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to generate defined, single-gene mutations provides a powerful means to investigate the individual functions of TR alpha and TR beta in mice. We have shown that targeted inactivation of the TR beta gene results in goiter and elevated levels of thyroid hormone. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released by pituitary thyrotropes and is normally suppressed by increased levels of thyroid hormone, was present at elevated levels in homozygous mutant (Thrb-/-) mice. These findings suggest a unique role for TR beta that cannot be substituted by TR alpha in the T3-dependent feedback regulation of TSH transcription. Thrb-/- mice provide a recessive model for the human syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). Typically, RTH is associated with dominant mutations in TR beta. It is unknown whether TR alpha, TR beta, or other receptors are targets for inhibition in dominant RTH; however, the analysis of Thrb-/- mice suggests that antagonism of TR beta-mediated pathways underlies the disorder of the pituitary-thyroid axis. Thrb-/- mice also display defective maturation of auditory function, demonstrating that TR beta is essential for the development of hearing. Interestingly, hearing defects are generally absent in dominant RTH, indicating that in the auditory system, a dominant TR beta mutant cannot mimic the defect caused by loss of TR beta. This suggests the existence of tissue-specific mechanisms that modulate the activity of TR beta. These results define in vivo functions for TR beta and indicate that specificity in T3 signaling is conferred by distinct receptor genes. PMID:8701076

Forrest, D; Golarai, G; Connor, J; Curran, T

1996-01-01

153

Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormonereleasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormonereceptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+ littermates and wild-type (+/+ C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p<0.001. In comparison, an intermediate growth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a.

Cibele N. Peroni

2012-01-01

154

Thyroid hormone and heart failure: from myocardial protection to systemic regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heart failure (HF) is an intriguing model of chronic disease. It starts as an organ disorder developing, in its progression, into a systemic disease in which the dysfunction of other organs plays a relevant clinical and prognostic impact. Furthermore, continuous activation of systemic pathways plays a role in disease progression, switching their effect from protective to harmful. In this combination of organ dysfunction and systemic derangement, thyroid hormone (TH) have an important regulative impact from cardiovascular to systemic level and from molecular/cellular processes to clinical setting. Whether it is accepted to include TH and thyroid stimulating hormone assessment in the clinical HF course, the next challenge will be to ascertain the benefit of TH replacement therapy in HF patients, taking into consideration the type of hormone to administer, dosage and treatment schedule. PMID:25220579

Sabatino, Laura; Iervasi, Giorgio; Pingitore, Alessandro

2014-10-01

155

Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on acquired growth hormone resistance in malnourished children using radioisotopic technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to clarify the influence of nutrition on growth hormone resistance in children who were suffering from prologed protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The plasma levels of glucose and serum levels of insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free teraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were analyzed by radioisotopic techniques in 7 children with marasmus (mean age 5.29 1.01) and 14 children with unexplained short stature (stunted) (mean age 6.21 1.72) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. At the basal condition of laboratory investigations, the GH level was significantly higher in the two malnourished groups compared to control (P< 0.01), whereas, plasma glucose levels and insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two malnourished groups and the control

156

Thyroid hormone receptors and resistance to thyroid hormone disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone action is predominantly mediated by thyroid hormone receptors (THRs), which are encoded by the thyroid hormone receptor ? (THRA) and thyroid hormone receptor ? (THRB) genes. Patients with mutations in THRB present with resistance to thyroid hormone ? (RTH?), which is a disorder characterized by elevated levels of thyroid hormone, normal or elevated levels of TSH and goitre. Mechanistic insights about the contributions of THR? to various processes, including colour vision, development of the cochlea and the cerebellum, and normal functioning of the adult liver and heart, have been obtained by either introducing human THRB mutations into mice or by deletion of the mouse Thrb gene. The introduction of the same mutations that mimic human THR? alterations into the mouse Thra and Thrb genes resulted in distinct phenotypes, which suggests that THRA and THRB might have non-overlapping functions in human physiology. These studies also suggested that THRA mutations might not be lethal. Seven patients with mutations in THR? have since been described. These patients have RTH? and presented with major abnormalities in growth and gastrointestinal function. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in these individuals is minimally affected, which suggests that the central T3 feedback loop is not impaired in patients with RTH?, in stark contrast to patients with RTH?. PMID:25135573

Ortiga-Carvalho, Tânia M; Sidhaye, Aniket R; Wondisford, Fredric E

2014-10-01

157

Growth hormone stimulation test (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

... stimulation test is usually performed to identify if hGH (human growth hormone) is deficient. The test is ... amino acid arginine in a vein to raise hGH levels. The test measures the ability of the ...

158

Network Identification of Hormonal Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment. PMID:24852517

Vis, Daniel J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Greef, Jan

2014-01-01

159

[Hormones and mammographic breast density].  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast constitutional density may be altered and increased (acquired density) by hormonal interventions such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The effects of endogenous (steroids, prolactin, insulin-like factors...) and exogenous (HRT, levonorgestrel IUD, tibolone, tamoxifen, SERMs) hormones will be reviewed. Continuous combined estrogen-progestin preparations are most likely to cause an increase in density. Estrogen alone and tibolone are less likely to cause an increase in density. The sensitivity and specificity of mammography are decreased, with increased risk of interval carcinoma and rate of short interval follow-up from false positive results. The issue with regards to interruption of the hormonal therapy prior to mammography, and the duration of the interruption, are discussed. PMID:18772804

Boisserie-Lacroix, M; Lebiez-Michel, N; Cavagni, P; Bentolila, J; Laumonier, H; Bouzgarrou, M; Trillaud, H

2008-09-01

160

Steroid hormones and BDNF.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application. PMID:23380505

Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Sex Hormones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The liver is morphologically and functionally modulated by sex hormones. Long-term use of oral contraceptives and androgenic steroids can induce benign and malignant hepatocellular tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is more prevalent in men than in women. The role of sex hormones and their receptors in the development of HCC was reviewed. Some HCCs may be androgen dependent but others may be estrogen or even both dependent. Further studies are mandatory in order to utilize ...

Nagasue, Naofumi; Kohno, Hitoshi

1992-01-01

162

In vitro effect of mammalian pituitary hormones on germinal vesicle breakdown in oocytes of major carps, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla and Cyprinus carpio.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among all the mammalian pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) was the most potent in vitro inducer of oocyte maturation in L. rohita, C. mrigala, C. catla and C. carpio. It induced significant germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) at concentrations of 10, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 micrograms/ml. At the highest concentration used, LH induced 77.9 +/- 5.9, 73.8 +/- 4.6, 50.3 +/- 2.8 and 40.8 +/- 1.4% GVBD in oocytes of L. rohita, C. mrigala, C. catla and C. carpio, respectively. Among other hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induced only a marginally significant GVBD (13.2 +/- 0.8%) in the oocytes of C. carpio, but not in other three species. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) had no effect on GVBD. PMID:2632393

Haider, S; Inbaraj, R M

1989-07-01

163

Pituitary Hyperplasia in Glycoprotein Hormone Alpha Subunit-, p18INK4C-, and p27kip-1-Null Mice : Analysis of Proteins Influencing p27kip-1 Ubiquitin Degradation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most spontaneously developing hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the pituitary occur in the anterior pituitary. Targeted disruption of various cell-cycle proteins, including Rb, p27kip1 (p27), and p18INK4c (p18), is associated with intermediate lobe pituitary hyperplasia. To develop a model of anterior pituitary proliferation to study the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors, we crossed the glycoprotein hormone ?-subunit (?SU)-null mice that develop thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) cell hy...

Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Ruebel, Katharina H.; Zhang, Shuya; Jin, Long

2002-01-01

164

Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

1978-01-01

165

Growth hormone-releasing hormone in the diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone deficient children.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has recently been extracted and synthesised, and appears to be identical to human hypothalamic GHRH. Immunoreactive GHRH is found in the venous blood of normal subjects and GH-deficient children, but is probably not hypothalamic in origin and therefore not important in GH regulation. GHRH is a potent specific stimulator of GH secretion in man, and provides a valuable diagnostic test in differentiating hypothalamic from pituitary causes of GH deficienc...

Ross, Rj; Grossman, A.; Besser, Gm; Savage, Mo

1986-01-01

166

Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

167

Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor ß (ERß was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

Saraiva P.P.

2005-01-01

168

Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

AntonioBianco

2012-06-01

169

Recessive resistance to thyroid hormone in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor beta: evidence for tissue-specific modulation of receptor function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diverse functions of thyroid hormone (T3) are presumed to be mediated by two genes encoding the related receptors, TRalpha and TRbeta. However, the in vivo functions of TRalpha and TRbeta are undefined. Here, we report that targeted inactivation of the mouse TRbeta gene results in goitre and elevated levels of thyroid hormone. Also, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released by pituitary thyrotropes and which is normally suppressed by increased levels of thyroid hormone, was present at elevated levels in homozygous mutant (Thrb-/-) mice. These findings suggest a unique role for TRbeta that cannot be substituted by TRalpha in the T3-dependent feedback regulation of TSH transcription. Thrb-/- mice provide a recessive model for the human syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) that exhibits a similar endocrine disorder but which is typically caused by dominant TRbeta mutants that are transcriptional inhibitors. It is unknown whether TRalpha, TRbeta or other receptors are targets for inhibition in dominant RTH; however, the analysis of Thrb-/- mice suggests that antagonism of TRbeta-mediated pathways underlies the disorder of the pituitary-thyroid axis. Interestingly, in the brain, the absence of TRbeta may not mimic the defects often associated with dominant RTH, since no overt behavioural or neuroanatomical abnormalities were detected in Thrb-/- mice. These data define in vivo functions for TRbeta and indicate that specificity in T3 signalling is conferred by distinct receptor genes. PMID:8670802

Forrest, D; Hanebuth, E; Smeyne, R J; Everds, N; Stewart, C L; Wehner, J M; Curran, T

1996-06-17

170

[Sports anthropological knowledge of relationships between individual hormone levels and anthropometric measuring values].  

Science.gov (United States)

As a tentative investigation of morpho-endocrinology, 92 male and 18 female long-distance runners (ages 21 to 72) were measured according to the standard anthropological techniques. 66 anthropometric parameters, the colours of hair and eyes were recorded. Seven growth factors were derived by means of factor analysis. The levels of 13 hormones were measured and morphological and endocrinological parameters were compared by means of correlation coefficients. So human growth hormone showed correlations to macrosomia and hyperplastic robustness. Estradiol was primarily related to the more feminine features of men, but also to leanness and slenderness of women. Testosterone exhibited significant correlations to mesomorphy and masculinity of males and leptomorphism and strength of females. Both sexes with higher insulin levels seemed to be more fat. Thyroxine (T4) showed a relation to endomorphy and leptomorphism of face, whereas Triiodothyronine (T3) exhibited correlations to ectomorphy. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was paralleling mesomorphy of males and hyperplastic robustness of females. Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Prolactin were related to microsomia and hypoplasia. The T4 levels of the dark-haired athletes were significantly higher than the levels of the bright-haired. Several correlations between morphology and hormonal status have been shown, which may be interpreted as a permanent endocrine constitution paralleling the somatotypical body shape, outlasting growth. These correlations however should not be interpreted as causal, as further experimental studies are needed to ascertain such a link. PMID:8342008

Raschka, C

1993-06-01

171

Maternal and fetal hormonal profiles of anemic pregnant women of Eastern Sudan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaemia is defined as reduction in circulating hemoglobin mass below the critical level expected for age and sex. Anaemia affects almost two- thirds of pregnant women in developing countries, it is associated with poor maternal and prenatal outcomes. Anaemia during pregnancy through many endocrine alterations-may influence the maternal and fetal environment. To investigate the anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal profiles in paired maternal and cord blood samples and to compare between the two groups, anaemic (n=68) and non-anaemic groups (n=57), in order to study the endocrine effects of anaemia during pregnancy in the mothers and their neonates. This cross sectional study was conducted in Gadarif hospital, Eastern Sudan. Women were classified into two groups based on the WHO classification of anaemia: Group 1(normal control-no anaemia Hb>11.0 g/dl) Group 2 anaemic, (Hb11g/dl). There was no significant difference in the fetal anthropometrics parameters (weight, length and placental weight) between the anaemic (Hb11g/dl). Maternal prolactin was significantly higher in anaemic group when compared with non anaemic group with p-value =.002. Cord serum albumin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anaemic group with p-value=.04. Cord serum ferritin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anemic group with p-value<.001. There was no significant difference was observed in the other maternal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). There was no significant difference was observed in the other fetal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). In this study there were some maternal and fetal endocrine modulations due to anaemia during pregnancy as indicated by the high levels of maternal prolactin in blood of the anemic women group and also the high values of albumun and ferritin in the cord blood of the anemic women group.(Author)

172

Biochemical characterization of four novel mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

In resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), decreased tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones is usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. Subsequently, in serum the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is not suppressed despite increased concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). In our laboratory, DNA sequences of exon 7 to 10 in the THRB gene have been analysed in individuals with biochemical signs of RTH. Four novel point mutations were identified (I250T, A279E, T327A and L440P) and their effects on T3 binding activity characterized. The mutations were introduced into a vector carrying the wild-type THRB cDNA by in vitro mutagenesis. T3-binding activity was measured by a filter-binding assay procedure in receptors generated from the vector by in vitro transcription and translation. Specific binding was calculated as total activity subtracted by non-specific activity. The association constants (Ka) of the wildtype (WT) and mutant receptors were determined by Scatchard analysis. No specific T3-binding was observed for the receptor with the A279E mutation. The binding affinity was reduced by 74% in the T327A mutant and by about 50% in the I250T and L440P mutants compared to the WT receptor (Ka = 4.2 x 10(10) L/mol). The reduction of T3-binding affinity caused by the four mutations in our study is comparable to the effects of THRB gene mutations found in other patients with RTH and supports the assumption that the signs of RTH observed in our patients are caused by the mutations. PMID:19378427

Asadi, A B; Torjesen, P A; Haug, E; Berg, J P

2008-01-01

173

Nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid hormones, T3 and T4, modulate a vast number of metabolic processes in mammalian tissues. High affinity, low capacity binding sites for T3 and T4 have been demonstrated in cell nuclei of target organs using both in vivo and in vitro labelling techniques. The displacement of [125I]T3 from nuclear binding sites by thyroid hormone analogues correlates well with the thyromimetic activities of the analogues tested. Dose-response relationships between T3 occupancy and growth hormone secretion as a function of free T3 concentration have been established with the GH1 cell line. The equilibrium dissociation constant of the equation which describes how T3 binds to the nuclei of intact cells is essentially the same as the free T3 concentration that elicits the half-maximal biological response of the hormone. It is becoming apparent that these nuclear binding sites represent specific thyroid hormone receptors, whose function may be to regulate gene activity in target tissues. This report concerns the binding of the rat liver nuclear receptor to duplex and random coil DNA as well as to non-mammalian and synthetic DNAs. We postulate that the receptor binds in vivo to native DNA in the minor groove of the DNA helix

174

Prader-Willi Syndrome and Growth Hormone Deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare multisystem genetic disorder demonstrating great variability with changing clinical features during patient’s life. It is characterized by severe hypotonia with poor sucking and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity in later infancy or early childhood. The phenotype is most probably due to hypothalamic dysfunction which is also responsible for growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies, central adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadism. The multidimensional problems of patients with PWS can be managed with multidisciplinary approach. Reduced GH secretion, low peak GH response to stimulation, decreased spontaneous GH secretion and low serum IGF-1 levels in PWS patients have been documented in many studies. GH therapy has multiple beneficial effects on growth and body composition, motor and mental development in PWS patients. The recommended dosage for GH is 0.5-1 mg/m2/day. GH therapy should not be started in the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, severe obesity and diabetes mellitus. GH treatment should be considered for patients with genetically confirmed PWS in conjunction with dietary, environmental and life-style measures. PMID:24932597

Aycan, Zehra; Bas, Veysel Nijat

2014-01-01

175

Prader-Willi syndrome and growth hormone deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare multisystem genetic disorder demonstrating great variability with changing clinical features during patient's life. It is characterized by severe hypotonia with poor sucking and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity in later infancy or early childhood. The phenotype is most probably due to hypothalamic dysfunction which is also responsible for growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies, central adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadism. The multidimensional problems of patients with PWS can be managed with multidisciplinary approach. Reduced GH secretion, low peak GH response to stimulation, decreased spontaneous GH secretion and low serum IGF-1 levels in PWS patients have been documented in many studies. GH therapy has multiple beneficial effects on growth and body composition, motor and mental development in PWS patients. The recommended dosage for GH is 0.5-1 mg/m2/day. GH therapy should not be started in the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, severe obesity and diabetes mellitus. GH treatment should be considered for patients with genetically confirmed PWS in conjunction with dietary, environmental and life-style measures. PMID:24932597

Aycan, Zehra; Ba?, Veysel Nijat

2014-01-01

176

Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

177

Sekretin--det første hormon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Secretin was discovered by Starling & Bayliss in 1902. Three years later the hormone concept and hormonal regulation were described and early regulatory physiology took a major step forward. After several years of unsuccessful investigations, secretin was isolated with new chromatographic techniques and subsequently synthesised in the 1960s. Radioimmunoassays in the 1970s confirmed the final endocrine role of secretin. Cloning and molecular hybridisation in the 1990s have identified the size of production, precursor, genetic structure, and evolutionary relation to other gastrointestinal peptides. In addition, the secretin receptor has been described. In recent years, synthetic secretin has been applied in the functional and structural diagnostics of pancreatic function and in experimental therapy. Although it was the first bioactive substance to be identified as a hormone, our knowledge of secretin today, 100 years on, is still incomplete. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Jan-14

Henriksen, Jens H; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

2002-01-01

178

Sekretin--det første hormon.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Secretin was discovered by Starling & Bayliss in 1902. Three years later the hormone concept and hormonal regulation were described and early regulatory physiology took a major step forward. After several years of unsuccessful investigations, secretin was isolated with new chromatographic techniques and subsequently synthesised in the 1960s. Radioimmunoassays in the 1970s confirmed the final endocrine role of secretin. Cloning and molecular hybridisation in the 1990s have identified the size of production, precursor, genetic structure, and evolutionary relation to other gastrointestinal peptides. In addition, the secretin receptor has been described. In recent years, synthetic secretin has been applied in the functional and structural diagnostics of pancreatic function and in experimental therapy. Although it was the first bioactive substance to be identified as a hormone, our knowledge of secretin today, 100 years on, is still incomplete.

Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

2002-01-01

179

Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia / Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pit [...] uitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

Julio, Brito; Lya, Sáez; Melchor, Lemp; Claudio, Liberman; Harold, Michelsen; A Verónica, Araya.

180

Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone (GH producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

Julio Brito

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia / Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pit [...] uitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

Julio, Brito; Lya, Sáez; Melchor, Lemp; Claudio, Liberman; Harold, Michelsen; A Verónica, Araya.

2008-07-01

182

Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

183

Genetics Home Reference: Combined pituitary hormone deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

... Growth Hormone Deficiency MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: ACTH MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: FSH MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Growth Hormone Deficiency MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Prolactin MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: TSH Test You might also find information on the diagnosis ...

184

Growth hormone releasing hormone in the assessment and long-term treatment of growth hormone deficiency.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The secretion of hGH after the administration of the analogue of growth hormone releasing hormone, GHRH (1-29)NH2, to 8 normal adults and 41 short children has been studied. The children were classified on the basis of their hGH response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia; 28 had severe hGH deficiency (peak serum hGH less than 7 mIU/litre) and 13 had simple short stature (peak serum hGH greater than 15 mIU/litre). The hGH response to GHRH was similar in normal adults and short stature children,...

Ross, Rj; Grossman, A.; Preece, Ma; Savage, Mo; Besser, Gm

1987-01-01

185

Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the sto [...] mach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a) discovery of this peptide, b) mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c) regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

A.-M.J., Lengyel.

1003-10-01

186

Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a discovery of this peptide, b mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

A.-M.J. Lengyel

2006-08-01

187

Assay for parathyroid hormone receptors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents methods used to identify and quantify parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in kidney and bone. Experimental details are provided for the preparation of radioiodinated PTH, purification of labeled PTH, and PTH binding assays using renal plasma membranes and cultured cells from embryonic chick bone cells

188

INJECTION HORMONIC CONTRACEPTION FOR WOMEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injection hormonic contraception for women enables reliable, secure and reversible birth control methods independent of coitus. However, it requires a periodical contact with health centre. There are two groups of medicaments for injection contraception: medicaments containing only progestagen Aa well as combined injection medicaments. These methods have become very important in setting up the family.

Milena Veljkovi?

2004-01-01

189

Measurement of free thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characteristics of various methods for the determination of free thyroid hormones are presented together with the results of an interlaboratory comparison of free thyroxine determination and free triiodothyronine radioimmunoassay with different kits. Degree of dilution and influence of calibration standards are discussed. (Auth.)

190

Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pParathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

2009-01-01

191

The hormonal regulation of life processes in insects (2.) The anti-juvenile hormones (1.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Those compounds that decrease either the level or activity of natural endogenous juvenile hormones in insects are called anti-juvenile hormones (AJH). The possible effects of anti-juvenile hormones are manifold: they may inhibit special enzymes or the bindings of juvenile hormones to receptors and transport proteins or may cause the destruction of corpora allata, the sources of juvenile hormones. The most obvious possibility to elicit an anti-juvenile hormone effect lies in the inhibition of enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones

192

Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T4) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), tri iodine thyronine (T3) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

193

[Thyroid hormone resistance (THR): a case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormone resistance is a syndrome characterized by a reduced response to thyroid hormone with different degrees of resistance at target tissues. We present the clinical features, physical findings, and study protocol in a woman with thyroid hormone resistance. An arginine to tryptophan mutation on the ? isoform of the thyroid hormone receptor gene was demonstrated. Thyroid hormone resistance is an uncommon cause of thyroid dysfunction. It is necessary to perform an adequate study and confirmation to avoid an inadequate and ineffective treatment of this condition. PMID:25275849

Almeda-Valdés, Paloma; Pérez-Enríquez, Bernardo; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Pérez-Díaz, Iván; Tusié-Luna, María Teresa; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco Javier

2014-01-01

194

Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

195

Growth hormone state after completion of treatment with growth hormone.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After completion of treatment with growth hormone (GH) 19 patients with isolated 'idiopathic' GH deficiency and 15 with post-irradiation GH deficiency underwent retesting of GH secretion with an insulin tolerance test or an arginine stimulation test, or both. Patients with post-irradiation GH deficiency comprised 13 patients with central nervous system tumours distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and two with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, who had received cranial or craniospinal irrad...

Clayton, P. E.; Price, D. A.; Shalet, S. M.

1987-01-01

196

Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.

Sermin Kesebir

2010-12-01

197

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.

2010-01-01

198

Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes th [...] e levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

Jose Carlos, Pereira Jr.; Marcia, Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins, Pessoa.

199

Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

200

Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior. PMID:25224609

Maria, Megan M Moran-Santa; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

A Simulated Growth Hormone Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone is a drug that is sometimes abused by amateur or professional athletes for performance-enhancement. This laboratory is a semimicroscale simulation analysis of a sample of "urine" to detect proteins of two very different molecular weights. Gel filtration uses a 10 mL disposable pipette packed with Sephadex. Students analyze the fractions from the filtration by comparing colors of the Brilliant Blue Coomassie Dye as it interacts with the proteins in the sample to a standard set of known concentration of protein with the dye. The simulated analysis of growth hormone is intended to be included in a unit on organic chemistry or in the second year of high school chemistry.

Harris, Mary

1996-08-01

202

Growth hormone-releasing peptides.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence str...

Ghigo, Ezio; Arvat, Emanuela; Muccioli, Giampiero; Camanni, Franco

1997-01-01

203

Stress hormones regulate periodontal inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal disease involves inflammation of the gingival tissues, caused by microbial pathogens. Recent papers suggest that emotional stress worsens periodontal disease. Here we review the literature and propose that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secreted under stress stimulates gingival mast cells together with other neuropeptides and cytokines to secrete pro-inflammatory molecules that contribute to periodontal pathology. Stress reduction and/or mast cell inhibition may provide additional therapeutic approaches. PMID:24152831

Papathanasiou, E; Palaska, I; Theoharides, T C

2013-01-01

204

Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on...

Elvar Theodorsson; Strom, Jakob O.; Annette Theodorsson

2011-01-01

205

Growth hormone doping: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic...

Erotokritou-Mulligan I; Ri, Holt; Amp Ouml Nksen Ph, S.

2011-01-01

206

Sex, Hormones and Neuroeffector Mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Incidence and rate of cardiovascular disease differ between men and women across the life span. Although hypertension is more prominent in men than women, there is a group of vasomotor disorders [i.e. Raynaud’s disease, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes) of menopause and migraine] with a female predominance. Both sex and hormones interact to modulate neuroeffector mechanisms including integrated regulation of the Sry gene and direct effect ...

Hart, Emma C.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Miller, Virginia M.

2011-01-01

207

Hormonal evaluation in erectile dysfunction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between ED and hormonal abnormalities. Material and methods: We evaluated 178 patients between the ages of 25 and 85 years old. Medical histories and details were collected, and the IIEF question test was completed by all patients. After the basic evaluation, serum total testosterone, thyroid sti...

Selahattin Çal??kan; Orhan Koca; Metin Öztürk; Mehmet Akyüz; Muhammet ?hsan Karaman

2012-01-01

208

Growth hormone, inflammation and aging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

Michal M. Masternak

2012-04-01

209

Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

2015-01-01

210

Hypogonadism, ADAM, and hormone replacement  

Science.gov (United States)

Male hypogonadism, or testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), results from a failure of the testes to produce adequate androgen. Patients have low circulating testosterone in combination with clinical symptoms such as fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and body composition changes. The cause may be primary (genetic anomaly, Klinefelter’s syndrome) or secondary (defect in hypothalamus or pituitary), but often presents with the same symptomatology. In the older patient, androgen deficiency of the aging male (ADAM) is an important cause of secondary hypogonadism because testosterone levels decline progressively after age 40. Hypogonadal patients have alterations not only in sexual function and body composition, but also in cognition and metabolism. Regardless of etiology, hypogonadal patients who are both symptomatic and who have clinically significant alterations in laboratory values are candidates for treatment. The goal of hormone replacement therapy in these men is to restore hormone levels to the normal range and to alleviate symptoms suggestive of hormone deficiency. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways, although most commonly testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is employed. PMID:21789087

Pinsky, Michael R.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

2010-01-01

211

Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ? Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ? Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ? Exposure to PBDEs and alternate FRs was associated with alterations in hormone levels

212

Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ? Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ? Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ? Exposure to PBDEs and alternate FRs was associated with alterations in hormone levels.

Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-02-15

213

Arginine potentiates but does not restore the blunted growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone in obesity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A blunted growth hormone (GH) response to several stimuli, including growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), has been shown in obesity. Arginine (ARG) has been demonstrated to potentiate the GHRH-induced GH increase in normal subjects, likely acting via inhibition of hypothalamic somatostatin release. To shed further light onto the mechanisms underlying the blunted GH secretion in obesity, we studied the effect of ARG (0.5 g/kg infused intravenously [IV] over 30 minutes) on both basal and GH...

Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Camanni, Franco

1992-01-01

214

Growth hormone-releasing hormone: studies in normal subjects and patients with disorders of growth hormone secretion.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has been characterised as a 40-44 residue peptide with full biological activity residing in the first 29 residues. In normal subjects GHRH selectively promotes the release of growth hormone (GH) with little change in responsiveness throughout childhood and young adult life. The majority of 'GH-deficient patients' show a GH response to GHRH, suggesting that they have a hypothalamic defect in GH release. GHRH given subcutaneously promotes growth in 50% of...

Ross, Rj; Grossman, A.

1987-01-01

215

Disfunción eréctil de origen hormonal / Hormonal etiology in erectile dysfunction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adecuado funcionamiento del mecanismo de la erección depende de la correcta interrelación de factores psicológicos, vasculares, neurológicos y hormonales. Las enfermedades endocrinas afectan a la función sexual y la disfunción sexual puede ser uno de los síntomas de alguna alteración hormonal. La [...] diabetes mellitus es la alteración endocrina que con más frecuencia causa disfunción eréctil debido a las frecuentes complicaciones vasculares y neurológicas que conlleva. Es importante la determinación de glucosa en la evaluación inicial del varón con disfunción eréctil, así como intentar un adecuado control de los niveles de glucemia para evitar el empeoramiento. La disfunción eréctil del diabético es multifactorial, de mayor severidad y responde peor al tratamiento oral. La hiperprolactinemia es causante de alteraciones en la esfera sexual, ya que provoca descenso de la testosterona. En estos casos, la sintomatología sexual se trata corrigiendo los niveles de prolactina. La determinación rutinaria de la prolactina no está clara y parece que debe determinarse cuando las cifras de testosterona están disminuidas. Las alteraciones de la hormona tiroidea (tanto el hiper como el hipotiroidismo) se asocian a disfunción eréctil, que en la mitad de los casos remitirá con la normalización de la hormona tiroidea. No está claro el papel que juegan las hormonas suprarrenales en la función eréctil y su determinación rutinaria no se contempla en la evaluación diagnóstica de la disfunción eréctil. Tampoco se conoce bien el papel del estradiol en la regulación del mecanismo de la erección, aunque se sabe que cifras elevadas de este pueden provocar disfunción eréctil. Dentro de las alteraciones endocrino-metabólicas reseñar las dislipemias, con la hipercolesterolemia como factor de riesgo importante de disfunción eréctil y aunque su corrección puede prevenir el deterioro del sistema vascular, no está claro el papel de las estatinas en la disfunción eréctil. Abstract in english The proper function of erection mechanisms depend on correct interrelationship between psychological, vascular, neurological and hormonal factors. Endocrine diseases affect sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may be one of the symptoms of some hormonal anomalies. Diabetes mellitus is the endocri [...] ne disease most frequently causing erectile dysfunction due to the frequent vascular and neurological complications associated. It is important to determine blood glucose in the initial evaluation of a male with erectile dysfunction, as well as to try an adequate control of blood glucose levels to avoid worsening. Diabetic male erectile dysfunction is multifactorial, more severe and has worse response to oral treatment. Hyperprolactinemia causes disorders of the sexual sphere because it produces a descent of testosterone. In these cases, sexual symptoms are treated by correcting the levels of prolactin. Routine determination of prolactin is not clear and it seems it should be determined when testosterone levels are diminished. Thyroid hormone disorders (both hyper and hypotyroidism) are associated with erectile dysfunction, which will subside in half the patients with thyroid hormone normalization. The role of adrenal hormones in erectile function is not clear and their routine determination is not considered in the diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction. The role of estradiol in the regulation of the erection mechanism is not well known either, although it is known that high levels may cause erectile dysfunction. Among endocrine-metabolic disorders we point out dyslipemias, with hypercholesterolemia as an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction and, though its correction may prevent vascular system deterioration, the role of statins in erectile dysfunction is not clear.

José María, Martínez Jabaloyas.

216

Disfunción eréctil de origen hormonal / Hormonal etiology in erectile dysfunction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adecuado funcionamiento del mecanismo de la erección depende de la correcta interrelación de factores psicológicos, vasculares, neurológicos y hormonales. Las enfermedades endocrinas afectan a la función sexual y la disfunción sexual puede ser uno de los síntomas de alguna alteración hormonal. La [...] diabetes mellitus es la alteración endocrina que con más frecuencia causa disfunción eréctil debido a las frecuentes complicaciones vasculares y neurológicas que conlleva. Es importante la determinación de glucosa en la evaluación inicial del varón con disfunción eréctil, así como intentar un adecuado control de los niveles de glucemia para evitar el empeoramiento. La disfunción eréctil del diabético es multifactorial, de mayor severidad y responde peor al tratamiento oral. La hiperprolactinemia es causante de alteraciones en la esfera sexual, ya que provoca descenso de la testosterona. En estos casos, la sintomatología sexual se trata corrigiendo los niveles de prolactina. La determinación rutinaria de la prolactina no está clara y parece que debe determinarse cuando las cifras de testosterona están disminuidas. Las alteraciones de la hormona tiroidea (tanto el hiper como el hipotiroidismo) se asocian a disfunción eréctil, que en la mitad de los casos remitirá con la normalización de la hormona tiroidea. No está claro el papel que juegan las hormonas suprarrenales en la función eréctil y su determinación rutinaria no se contempla en la evaluación diagnóstica de la disfunción eréctil. Tampoco se conoce bien el papel del estradiol en la regulación del mecanismo de la erección, aunque se sabe que cifras elevadas de este pueden provocar disfunción eréctil. Dentro de las alteraciones endocrino-metabólicas reseñar las dislipemias, con la hipercolesterolemia como factor de riesgo importante de disfunción eréctil y aunque su corrección puede prevenir el deterioro del sistema vascular, no está claro el papel de las estatinas en la disfunción eréctil. Abstract in english The proper function of erection mechanisms depend on correct interrelationship between psychological, vascular, neurological and hormonal factors. Endocrine diseases affect sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may be one of the symptoms of some hormonal anomalies. Diabetes mellitus is the endocri [...] ne disease most frequently causing erectile dysfunction due to the frequent vascular and neurological complications associated. It is important to determine blood glucose in the initial evaluation of a male with erectile dysfunction, as well as to try an adequate control of blood glucose levels to avoid worsening. Diabetic male erectile dysfunction is multifactorial, more severe and has worse response to oral treatment. Hyperprolactinemia causes disorders of the sexual sphere because it produces a descent of testosterone. In these cases, sexual symptoms are treated by correcting the levels of prolactin. Routine determination of prolactin is not clear and it seems it should be determined when testosterone levels are diminished. Thyroid hormone disorders (both hyper and hypotyroidism) are associated with erectile dysfunction, which will subside in half the patients with thyroid hormone normalization. The role of adrenal hormones in erectile function is not clear and their routine determination is not considered in the diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction. The role of estradiol in the regulation of the erection mechanism is not well known either, although it is known that high levels may cause erectile dysfunction. Among endocrine-metabolic disorders we point out dyslipemias, with hypercholesterolemia as an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction and, though its correction may prevent vascular system deterioration, the role of statins in erectile dysfunction is not clear.

José María, Martínez Jabaloyas.

2010-10-01

217

Study on changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrome due to the stagnation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrom due to the stagnation of liver-qi. Methods: Serum thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), free thyroxine (FT4), cortisol levels were measured with immunoradioassay (IMRA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 30 patients with this type of insomnia and 30 controls. Results: The serum TSH levels were significantly lower and serum TRH, GH, cortisol FT4 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: This insomnia syndrome was closely related to the dysfunction of mpothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and adrenal axis. (authors)

218

Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin: structural elucidation of the sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides on bovine, ovine, and human pituitary glycoprotein hormones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have elucidated the structures of the anionic asparagine-linked oligosaccharides present on the glycoprotein hormones lutropin (luteinizing hormone), follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone), and thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone). Purified hormones, isolated from bovine, ovine, and human pituitaries, were digested with N-glycanase, and the released oligosaccharides were reduced with NaB(/sup 3/H)/sub 4/. The /sup 3/H-labeled oligosaccharides from each hormone were then fractionated by anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into populations differing in the number of sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties. The sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures, which together comprised 67-90% of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the pituitary glycoprotein hormones, were highly heterogeneous and displayed hormone- as well as animal species-specific features. A previously uncharacterized dibranched oligosaccharide, bearing one residue each of sulfate and sialic acid, was found on all of the hormones except bovine lutropin. In this study, they describe the purification and detailed structural characterizations of the sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated oligosaccharides found on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin from several animal species.

Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

1988-01-05

219

VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyroxine (T3. The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4, Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3?IU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 57-59

Pallavi Chaurasia

2011-04-01

220

Prenatal pyrethroid insecticide exposure and thyroid hormone levels and birth sizes of neonates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyrethroid insecticides have been shown to possess thyroid hormone disrupting properties in previous animal studies. In this study, the relationship between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides during pregnancy and neonatal thyroid hormone status (free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in whole blood) and birth sizes were explored in 147 mother-neonate pairs in Tokyo. The concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) in maternal urine, sampled in the first trimester of gestation, was used for pyrethroid exposure assessment. Neonatal fT4 and TSH were within the normal range except for one elevated TSH (but normal fT4) in a neonate. Multiple regression analyses with stepwise variable selection did not extract maternal 3-PBA as significant for neonatal fT4 and TSH, indicating that maternal pyrethroid exposure had no apparent effect on the neonatal thyroid hormone status of the neonate subjects. For birth weight and head circumference, maternal 3-PBA was selected as significant with a positive partial regression coefficient along with other factors known to increase birth sizes of neonates (gestational weeks or maternal BMI). It was not clear if this was causal because no biological mechanism was apparent. PMID:24836137

Zhang, Jie; Yoshinaga, Jun; Hisada, Aya; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Koyama, Maiko; Watanabe, Noriko; Suzuki, Emiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Komine, Yoko; Ariki, Nagako; Kato, Nobumasa

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Variations of Endocrine Hormones Concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under Simulated Seasonal Acclimatized: Role of Leptin Sensitivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seasonal variations in endocrine hormones concentrations are important for the survival of small mammals during acclimatization. In order to understand the role of leptin sensitivity on other endocrine hormones concentrations, we examined body mass, serum leptin level, serum insulin, tri-iodothyronine (T 3, thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under seasonal acclimatized (The simulated temperature and photoperiod in winter: 5°C and SD, 8h:16h Light:Dark; the simulated temperature and photoperiod in summer: 30°C and SD, 16h:8h Light:Dark for 4 weeks. The results showed that body mass, serum leptin level, serum T3, T4 concentrations and T3/T4 showed significant variation, but serum insulin and TSH concentrations showed no variations between treatment group. There were positive correlation between serum leptin level and insulin, T4 concentrations, and were negative correlation between serum leptin level and body mass, T3 concentrations. However, no correlation was found between serum TSH concentrations and serum leptin level. The present results suggested T. belangeri overcome winter thermogenesis challenges by adjusting body mass and endocrine hormones concentrations. Furthermore, leptin may play an potential role in their body mass regulation in T. belangeri.

Zhu, Wan-long

2013-04-01

222

Thyroid hormone levels in patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted with three main objectives, to study thyroid hormones (T 4, T 3) and TSH levels in patients with CRF under haemodialysis and to compare them with normal subjects, to study best means of treatment and to compare these findings with results from other parts of the world. This study was done on 61 patients with renal failure in Khartoum dialysis and kidney transplant centre U of K, 45 males and 16 females with ages ranging from 17-75 years and 42 symptoms-free subjects 14 males and 23 females with age ranging from 16-60 years. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used for the determination of serum T 4, T 3 and TSH. By using t-test found that the mean concentrations of T 4, T 3 of normal subjects were much higher than those of the patients (p0.05). These results also illustrated that 45.9% of patients with renal failure of low T 4, and 91.8%, 90.26 of patients had T 3 and TSH hormone levels in the normal range, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean of thyroid hormones (T 4, T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormones between males and females (p>0.05). The T 3 and T '4 concentrations in patients at all age groups (year) was less than the age groups of the control group, and this decrease was statistically significant (p0.05).(Author)

223

Free thyroid hormones in health and disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T3 is slightly enhanced. Free T4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T4 substitution free T4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.)

224

Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet therapy, physical activity, medical and surgical approaches. The specialists and obese patients prefer the first and second approaches. Physical activity helps to control and treat this disorder by influencing on obesity-related hormones. The main obesity-related hormones are ghrelin, agouti, obestatin, leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and resistin. In this review, the effect of physical activity on 10 major obesity-related hormones has been discussed.

Mehdi Hedayati

2014-08-01

225

Reproductive hormones: ageing and the perimenopause.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review explores the pituitary-ovarian hormones involved with ageing and the onset of menopause. The serum patterns of pituitary-ovarian hormones throughout the menstrual cycle alter as menopause approaches. The increase in follicular phase FSH prior to menopause is attributed to an early decline in the ovarian hormone, inhibin B, which negatively regulates follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. Serum inhibin B is believed to reflect the age-related decrease in ovarian follicle reserve, which is the primary source of serum inhibin B. The later rise in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) during the menopause transition is due to a cessation of ovarian follicle development. Hormonal patterns during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle also show changes with age but these changes are poorly understood. PMID:12190835

Robertson, David M; Burger, Henry G

2002-07-01

226

A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb negative Graves’s disease (GD is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia forty years ago. She did not show characteristic symptoms for hyperthyroidism, such as swelling of thyroid, exophthalmos, tachycardia and tremor, however, she showed only psychomotor agitation. Serum free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels were elevated and TSH level was suppressed, suggesting the existence of hyperthyroidism. However, both the first generation TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb1 and the thyroid stimulating autoantibody (TSAb were negative. Slightly increased blood flow and swelling was detected by thyroid echography. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse and remarkably elevated uptake of 123I uptake. Finally, we diagnosed her as having GD. She was treated by using methimazole, and hyperthyroidism and her psychiatric symptoms were promptly ameliorated. Discussion We experienced a patient with GD who did not show characteristic symptoms except for psychiatric symptoms, and also showed negativity for both TRAb1 and TSAb. Thyroid autoantibody-negative GD is extremely rare. Thyroid scintigraphy was useful to diagnose such a patient.

Hamasaki Hidetaka

2012-12-01

227

Human growth hormone (HGH), ch. 6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radioimmunoassay method for the human growth hormone (HGH) is described. The requirements are discussed in detail and a scheme for the preparation of incubation mixtures is given. HGH is labelled with 125I by the chloramine T method and purified by gel filtration or electrophoresis. Separation of bound and free-labelled hormones is performed by absorption of the free hormone, using talc or charcoal

228

Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada d...

Abucham Julio; Alfinito, Vieira Teresa C.; Barbosa Erika Ribeiro; Ribeiro Rogério Silicani; Alves, Martins Manoel R.

2003-01-01

229

Contraceptive Hormone Use and Cardiovascular Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contraceptive hormones, most commonly prescribed as oral contraceptives (OC), are a widely utilized method to prevent ovulation, implantation and therefore pregnancy. The Women’s Health Initiative demonstrated cardiovascular risk linked to menopausal hormone therapy among women without pre-existing cardiovascular disease, prompting review of the safety, efficacy and side effects of other forms of hormone therapy. A variety of basic science, animal and human data suggest that contraceptive h...

Shufelt, Chrisandra L.; Noel Bairey Merz, C.

2009-01-01

230

Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

2009-01-01

231

Disruption of thyroid hormone functions by low dose exposure of tributyltin: an in vitro and in vivo approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triorganotins, such as tributyltin chloride (TBTCl), are environmental contaminants that are commonly found in the antifouling paints used in ships and other vessels. The importance of TBTCl as an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) in different animal models is well known; however, its adverse effects on the thyroid gland are less understood. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the thyroid-disrupting effects of this chemical using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. We used HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells for the in vitro studies, as they are a thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-positive and thyroid responsive cell line. For the in vivo studies, Swiss albino male mice were exposed to three doses of TBTCl (0.5, 5 and 50?g/kg/day) for 45days. TBTCl showed a hypo-thyroidal effect in vivo. Low-dose treatment of TBTCl exposure markedly decreased the serum thyroid hormone levels via the down-regulation of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) genes by 40% and 25%, respectively, while augmenting the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expression was up-regulated in the thyroid glands of treated mice by 6.6-fold relative to vehicle-treated mice (p<0.05). In the transient transactivation assays, TBTCl suppressed T3 mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TBTCl was found to decrease the expression of TR. The present study thus indicates that low concentrations of TBTCl suppress TR transcription by disrupting the physiological concentrations of T3/T4, followed by the recruitment of NCoR to TR, providing a novel insight into the thyroid hormone-disrupting effects of this chemical. PMID:25101840

Sharan, Shruti; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha

2014-09-15

232

Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in TH activity.

Darras V.M.

2000-01-01

233

Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

1983-01-01

234

Green Light for Steroid Hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, D. Russell describes two papers--one in this week's issue of Science (Li et al., p. 398) and one in the 19 April issue of Cell (M. Szekeres et al.)--which report on two enzymes that synthesize steroid hormones cloned from Arabidopsis. These enzymes, DET2 and CPD, are in the biosynthetic pathway for brassinolides, steroids that seem to participate in the regulation of gene expression by light.

David W. Russell (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center;Department of Molecular Genetics)

1996-04-19

235

Free thyroid hormones in pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following parameters were measured in 95 euthyroid subjects and in 55 healthy pregnant women: TT4, TT3, rT3, RT3-Uptake, TSH, FT4 and FT3. In addition, FT4-index, TT4/TBG, FT3-index, TT3/TBG and the balance of free hormone indices were calculated. The results of FT4 and FT3 measurement indicated an euthyroid status in late pregnancy. Though the FT4 and FT3 levels were significantly lower than those of the euthyroid subjects, they did not fall outside the normal range. (orig.)

236

Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for serum luteinizing hormone was established by using the reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide. The measurement range of this method was 1.5 to 200 IU/L, the sensitivity was 0.08 IU/L, the recovery rate was 96.3% to 112.1%, the coefficient correlation of dilution was 0.995, and the intra-and inter-assay coefficient of variability were 4.09%-8.36% and 5.14%-10.23%, respectively.Compared with Beckman CLIA system, the coefficient correlation was 0.975. (authors)

237

Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.

Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette

2004-01-01

238

Lack of Association Between Peripheral Activity of Thyroid Hormones and Elevated TSH Levels in Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Ob­jec­ti­ve: An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is a frequent finding in obese children, but its association with peripheral hormone metabolism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that in obesity, the changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in peripheral tissues might lead to dysregulation in the thyroid axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of TSH with thyroid hormones in a group of obese children as compared to normal-weight controls. Methods: Serum TSH, free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were measured in 101 obese children and in 40 controls. Serum reverse T3 (rT3) levels were also measured in a subgroup of 51 obese children and in 15 controls. Results: Serum TSH level was significantly higher in obese children compared to controls (2.78 vs. 1.99 mIU/L, p<0.001), while no difference was found in fT4, fT3, rT3 levels and in fT3/rT3 ratio. In the obese group, fT3 level positively correlated with fT4 (r=0.217, p=0.033) and inversely with rT3 (r=-0.288, p=0.045). However, thyroid hormone levels and TSH levels were not correlated. Conclusion: In obese children, normal fT4, fT3 and rT3 levels suggest an undisturbed peripheral hormone metabolism. These levels show no correlation with elevated TSH levels. PMID:24932603

Lobotkova, Denisa; Stanikova, Daniela; Stanik, Juraj; Cervenova, Ol'ga; Bzduch, Vladimir; Ticha, L'ubica

2014-01-01

239

Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52%imental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

240

Glucoregulatory hormones in hepatic cirrhosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study hormonal responses to 75 gm oral glucose were studied in 34 biopsy proven cases of hepatic cirrhosis and 15 normal subjects. Though fasting blood glucose was similar in both controls and cirrhotics the latter showed higher glucose values throughout the study. The peak of glucose level in cirrhotics was delayed to 60 minutes. Two of 34 (5.8%) cirrhotics showed marginal fasting hyperglycaemia and 44% had (impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in blood glucose levels in patients with and without varices. The fasting serum insulin was significantly raised in cirrhotics (24.9 +/- 2.2 vs 8.4 +/- 1.2 mu/ml, p > 0.05). Hyperinsulinaemia was significantly marked in cirrhotics with abnormal Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as compared to those who had normal OGTT. The mean fasting serum insulin concentration in patients with and without varices was similar showing thereby that portasystemic shunt in cirrhotics is not the cause for peripheral hyper-insulinaemia. Basal cortisol was similar in cirrhotics and controls though expected fall in cirrhotics like control was absent. Twelve percent cirrhotics had basal human growth hormone (hGH) more than 10 ng/ml. Forty four percent showed paradoxical rise of hGH. hGH has significantly high (p < 0.01) in cirrhotics with abnormal OGTT as compared to those with normal OGTT. PMID:1484025

Saini, J S; Pruthi, H S; Naqvi, S; Karnani, I; Shetty, K J

1992-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

Elvar Theodorsson

2011-05-01

242

Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

Shen Wen-Jun

2006-02-01

243

Hormones as doping in sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge. PMID:22990405

Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

2013-04-01

244

21 CFR 862.1485 - Luteinizing hormone test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Luteinizing hormone test system. 862.1485...CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1485...luteinizing hormone test system is a device...hormone in serum and urine. Luteinizing...

2010-04-01

245

Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Comprehensive Report)  

Science.gov (United States)

... National Hormone and Pituitary Program (NHPP): Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (Comprehensive Report) ... How did Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) occur in people treated with pituitary human growth hormone (hGH)? Before ...

246

21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device...

2010-04-01

247

Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

Canalis, Ernesto

1985-01-01

248

Thyroid Hormone Function in the Rat Testis  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ, and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). These testicular cells also express deiodinases, which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific TRs to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., propylthiouracil) have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular, Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function, and blood–testis barrier assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein.

Gao, Ying; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

2014-01-01

249

The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease. PMID:22875454

Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

2012-08-01

250

Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity is localized in luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to determine the cell type of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK)-immunoreactive cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Immunoreactive cells were scattered throughout the pars distalis except for the dorso-caudal portion. These cells were immuno-positive for luteinizing hormone (LH), but they were immuno-negative for adrenocorticotrophic, growth, and thyroid-stimulating hormones, as well as prolactin. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that Leu-ENK-like substance and LH co-localized within the same secretory granules. Leu-ENK secreted from gonadotrophs may participate in LH secretion in an autocrine fashion, and/or may participate in the release of sex steroids together with LH. PMID:24034715

Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

2014-02-01

251

A study on the diagnostic significance of measurement of serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in various thyroid states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioimmunoassay of TSH (human thyrotropin) was performed by utilizing anti-h-TSH antibody and purified human thyrotropin supplied from Daiichi Radioisotope company in Japan. From Jan. 1978 through Aug. 1980 the serum concentration of TSH was measured on 41 cases with various thyroid diseases, and 22 normal persons. Among 41 cases, 9 (22%) were primary hypothyroidism, 17 (41%) Graves' disease, 8 (20%) subacute or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, and 7 (17%) nodular goiter. (author)

252

Development of an immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) for the estimation of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) in serum.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) of serum thyrotropin (hTSH) was developed using anti-hTSH rabbit polyclonal antibody and anti-hTSH in-house monoclonal antibody with a sensitivity of 0.12 mIU/L. Serum samples were incubated in ELISA wells precoated with polyclonal antibody. The hTSH bound to the wells was incubated with monoclonal antibody (detector antibody) and further with goat anti-mouse antibody-horse radish peroxidase (GAM-HRP), which obviates the need to label the detector antibody. The assay was validated by recovery, linearity, and cross-reactivity experiments with a working assay range of 0.15 to 100 mIU/L and <10% coefficient of variation (CV) for both intra- and interassay. Good correlations were obtained when compared with Immunotech hTSH IRMA (r = 0.971, n = 35). This in-house ELISA can be used as an initial screening test for thyroid dysfunction. PMID:21113842

Mirapurkar, Shubhangi; Samuel, G; Sivaprasad, N

2010-01-01

253

Hormone interactions during vascular development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular tissue in plants is unique due to its diverse and dynamic cellular patterns. Signals controlling vascular development have only recently started to emerge through biochemical, genetic, and genomic approaches in several organisms, such as Arabidopsis, Populus, and Zinnia. These signals include hormones (auxin, brassinosteroids, and cytokinins, in particular), other small regulatory molecules, their transporters, receptors, and various transcriptional regulators. In recent years it has become apparent that plant growth regulators rarely act alone, but rather their signaling pathways are interlocked in complex networks; for example, polar auxin transport (PAT) regulates vascular development during various stages and an emerging theme is its modulation by other growth regulators, depending on the developmental context. Also, several synergistic or antagonistic interactions between various growth regulators have been described. Furthermore, shoot-root interactions appear to be important for this signal integration. PMID:18654740

Dettmer, Jan; Elo, Annakaisa; Helariutta, Ykä

2009-03-01

254

Hormonal modulation of sensorimotor integration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal circuits commonly receive simultaneous inputs from descending, ascending, and hormonal systems. Thus far, however, most such inputs have been studied individually to determine their influence on a given circuit. Here, we examine the integrated action of the hormone crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and the gastropyloric receptor (GPR) proprioceptor neuron on the biphasic gastric mill (chewing) rhythm driven by the projection neuron modulatory commissural neuron 1 (MCN1) in the isolated crab stomatogastric ganglion. In control saline, GPR stimulation selectively prolongs the gastric mill retractor phase, via presynaptic inhibition of MCN1. In the absence of GPR stimulation, CCAP does not alter retraction duration and modestly prolongs protraction. Here, we show, using computational modeling and dynamic-clamp manipulations, that the presence of CCAP weakens or eliminates the GPR effect on the gastric mill rhythm. This CCAP action results from its ability to activate the same modulator-activated conductance (G(MI)) as MCN1 in the gastric mill circuit neuron lateral gastric (LG). Because GPR prolongs retraction by weakening MCN1 activation of G(MI) in LG, the parallel G(MI) activation by CCAP reduces the impact of GPR regulation of this conductance. The CCAP-activated G(MI) thus counteracts the GPR-mediated decrease in the MCN1-activated G(MI) in LG and reduces the GPR ability to regulate the gastric mill rhythm. Consequently, although CCAP neither changes retraction duration nor alters GPR inhibition of MCN1, its activation of a modulator-activated conductance in a pivotal downstream circuit neuron enables CCAP to weaken or eliminate sensory regulation of motor circuit output. PMID:20164325

DeLong, Nicholas D; Nusbaum, Michael P

2010-02-17

255

Significance of total and free thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in chronic hepatitis B patients and normal controls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatitis B destroys the liver cells. Proteins (albumin, pre albumin and thyroid binding globulin) produced by liver cells play an important role in metabolism and transport of thyroid hormones, therefore liver dysfunction is likely to disturb the transport of thyroid hormones resulting in disease. To determine the significance of thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in Chronic Hepatitis B patients. It was a cross sectional study conducted at National Health Research Complex (NHRC) and department of Gastroenterology Sheikh Zayed Medical Complex Lahore. One hundred Chronic Hepatitis B patients diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reaction were matched with 100 healthy persons, served as control, were selected for total and free thyroid hormones using ELISA, while serum proteins were estimated spectrophotometrically. Serum total protein levels were within the normal range in both Chronic Hepatitis B patients and controls with mean value of 6.55 g/dl and 7.2 g/dl respectively, however serum albumin levels were lower in Chronic Hepatitis B patients (mean 2.69 g/dl) as compared to controls (mean 4.1 g/dl). Serum globulin was increased (4.09 g/dl) in patients as compared to controls (mean 3.1 g/dl).Albumin globulin ratio was 1(mean 13.5). Consequently, increased globulin resulted in more binding of T4 (mean 194 nmol/L) in Chronic Hepatitis B patients as compared to controls (mean 123 nmol/L). Conversion of T4 to T3 in Chronic Hepatitis B cases was also disturbed resulting in slight decrease of total T3 (mean 1.77 nmol/L) as compared to controls (mean 2.3 nmol/L). Free T3 (mean 3.56 pmol/L) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (mean 0.68 mIU/ml) also showed slight decrease when compared with controls (mean 4.5 pmol/L, mean 1.52 mIU/ml). FT4 remained within normal range in both the groups. In Chronic Hepatitis B related liver disease and cirrhosis, serum albumin levels go down while globulins go up and these changes alter the binding of thyroid hormones and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone resulting in disturbance in thyroid hormone levels. (author)

256

Effects of waterborne cadmium on thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium is a heavy metal abundant in the environment that can induce endocrine disorder and toxicity in aquatic organisms at low levels. However, its effects on the thyroid system in fish are still unclear. In this study, the thyroid hormone (TH) levels and the expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic- pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (tsh?), solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter) member 5 (slc5a5), thyroglobulin (tg), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (tr?) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (tr?), were determined in whole body of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae after exposure to different levels of Cd(2+) (0, 0.5 and 2.5mg/L) for 4days. And the 96-h lethal concentration of Cd(2+) on rare minnow larvae was determined as 2.59mg/L. The results showed that crh, slc5a5, tg and tsh? mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae, but the gene expression of tr? and tr? was down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Besides, the THs levels decreased in the whole-body of fish, especially the thyroxine (T4) level. The above results indicated that Cd(2+) could alter gene expression in the HPT axis that might subsequently contribute to thyroid disruption. PMID:24521933

Li, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yan-Hua; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Feng; Ni, Zhao-Hui

2014-04-01

257

Alteration of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae exposed to mercury chloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes endocrine disorder to human and other organisms. But little is known about the response of the thyroid functions and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to mercury in teleosts and the few studies that are available have not yielded consistent results. In this study, expression profiles of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (tsh?), solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter) member 5 (slc5a5), thyroglobulin (tg), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (tr?) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (tr?) genes were determined in whole-body of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae after exposure to different levels of Hg(2+) (0, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/l) for 4 days, as well as the thyroid hormones (THs) levels. Moreover, the 96-h lethal concentration of Hg(2+) on rare minnow larvae was determined as 0.32 mg/l. The results showed that crh, tg, tr? and tr? mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae, but the gene expression of tsh? and slc5a5 was not significantly changed in our study. Besides, the THs levels increased in the whole-body of fish, especially the thyroxine (T4) level. The above results indicated that Hg(2+) could alter some genes expression in the HPT axis which could be used as the potential biomarkers for evaluating the environmental Hg(2+)-induced stress in fish. PMID:25064382

Li, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yan-Hua; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Feng; Ni, Zhao-Hui

2014-07-01

258

Analysis of intact human follicle-stimulating hormone preparations by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of intact human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) was established and validated for accuracy, precision and sensitivity. Human FSH is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone widely used as a diagnostic analyte and as a therapeutic product in reproductive medicine. The technique developed preserves the protein integrity, allowing the analysis of the intact heterodimeric form rather than just of its subunits, as is the case for the majority of the conditions currently employed. This methodology has also been employed for comparing the relative hydrophobicity of pituitary, urinary and two Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived hFSH preparations, as well as of two other related glycoprotein hormones of the anterior pituitary: human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) and human luteinizing hormone (hLH). The least hydrophobic of the three glycohormones analyzed was hFSH, followed by hTSH and hLH. A significant difference (ppharmacopoeias. PMID:17049544

Loureiro, Renan Fernandes; de Oliveira, João Ezequiel; Torjesen, Peter A; Bartolini, Paolo; Ribela, Maria Teresa C P

2006-12-01

259

Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18-357 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23-435 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

Tietge, Joseph E., E-mail: tietge.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Degitz, Sigmund J., E-mail: degitz.sigmund@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Haselman, Jonathan T., E-mail: haselman.jon@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Butterworth, Brian C., E-mail: butterworth.brian@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Korte, Joseph J., E-mail: korte.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Kosian, Patricia A., E-mail: kosian.pat@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie J., E-mail: lind1020@d.umn.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); and others

2013-01-15

260

Inter-relationship of plasma markers of oxidative stress and thyroid hormones in schizophrenics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship of oxidative stress to thyroid hormones has not been studied in the schizophrenics. The present study determined the status and interrelationship of plasma markers of oxidative stress, nitric oxide and thyroid hormones in thirty (17 males and 13 females newly diagnosed patients with acute schizophrenia before initiation of chemotherapy. Twenty five (13 males and 12 females mentally healthy individuals served as controls. Patients and controls with history of hard drugs (including alcohol and cigarette, pre-diagnosis medications (e.g. antiparkinsonian/antipsychotic drugs, chronic infections, liver disease and diabetes mellitus were excluded from the study. Plasma levels of total antioxidant potential (TAP, total plasma peroxides (TPP, nitric oxide (NO, malondialdehyde (MDA, thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyronine (T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were determined in all participants using spectrophotometric and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods respectively. Oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated as the percent ratio of total plasma peroxides and total antioxidant potential. Findings Significantly higher plasma levels of MDA (p Conclusions Higher level of TPP may enhance thyroid hormogenesis in schizophrenics. Adjuvant antioxidant therapy may be a novel approach in the treatment of schizophrenic patients.

Akiibinu Moses O

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18–357 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23–435 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

262

Plasma growth hormone responses to constant infusions of human pancreatic growth hormone releasing factor. Intermittent secretion or response attenuation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Administration of human pancreatic tumor growth hormone (GH) releasing factor (hpGRF[1-40]) as a single injection to normal human subjects stimulates the secretion of GH in a dose-responsive manner. In the present studies, hpGRF(1-40) was infused in a graded stepwise manner over a 6-h period in order to determine whether the GH secretory response would be sustained. Normal adult males received four consecutive 90-min infusions of hpGRF(1-40) at doses of 1, 3.3, 10, and 33 ng/kg per min, preceded and followed by a 90-min saline infusion; and the plasma GH responses were compared with those during a separate control infusion. Plasma GH levels were significantly elevated by each hpGRF(1-40) infusion; and dose responsiveness was evident for the lowest three doses. Mean integrated GH secretory rates for the four doses were 1.95, 3.29, 4.29, and 3.65 times those of the respective control study. Plasma GH responses exhibited considerable variability, frequently decreasing during the latter part of each infusion; and at the highest dose, they decreased continuously beginning shortly after the onset of infusion. Episodic GH secretion occurred in individual subjects during each of the infusion periods. The possible contribution of hypothalamic somatostatin secretion to the diminished GH responsiveness was evaluated by determining plasma thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels during the infusions and the TSH responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (500 micrograms i.v.) during a separate hpGRF(1-40) infusion of 2 ng/kg per min. Neither basal nor stimulated TSH levels differed between GRF-infused and control groups. The results indicate that GH secretion is dose responsive to hpGRF(1-40) infusions, though the response to hpGRF(1-40) infusions, though the response is complex. The absence of impaired TSH secretion provides evidence against a mediating role of somatostatin. The explanation for the loss of GH responsiveness remains undetermined but could include GRF-induced receptor down-regulation, a postreceptor effect, or, in spite of our negative results, a somatostatin-mediated inhibition. PMID:6429198

Webb, C B; Vance, M L; Thorner, M O; Perisutti, G; Thominet, J; Rivier, J; Vale, W; Frohman, L A

1984-07-01

263

Reproductive hormone influences on thermoregulation in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present discussion reviews current knowledge regarding influences of the primary reproductive hormones on mechanisms of thermoregulatory control in women. The human body is remarkably capable of maintaining body temperature within a few tenths of a degree of normal (37°C) over a wide range of activity and environmental exposures; this regulation is accomplished via integration of central and peripheral thermal information at the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH). We describe both central and peripheral mechanisms involved in controlling thermoregulation in humans, and how these mechanisms are affected by sex and hormone exposure. Estrogens generally promote vasodilation, heat dissipation, and lower body temperature and progesterone or progestins generally have the opposite effect. Estrogens and progesterone/progestins can also interact with androgens; this is an important point because androgens in the body can increase in both older and younger women. The study of reproductive hormone (estrogens, progesterone, luteinizing, and follicle stimulating hormones) effects on body systems is challenging because of the complex and multifaceted influences of these hormones, both individually and in combination. Thus, a number of methods to alter hormone exposure are explained in this article. We conclude that men and women do not exhibit major quantitative differences in physiological thermoregulatory responses to exercise and/or body heating when factors such as fitness and body size are taken into account. However, female and male reproductive hormones have important influences that can significantly alter individual thermoregulatory responses at various points throughout the lifespan. PMID:24715568

Charkoudian, Nisha; Stachenfeld, Nina S

2014-04-01

264

Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

Krauss, R.M.

1991-12-01

265

Incretin hormone secretion over the day  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies, although some studies have demonstrated reduced incretin hormone secretion in type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes our knowledge on regulation of incretin hormone secretion and its potential changes in disease states.

Ahren, B; Carr, RD

2010-01-01

266

Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth- and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu, an e-waste area in southern China. We quantified eight PBDE congeners using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, lead and cadmium utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, three thyroids with radioimmunoassay and two types of growth hormones by an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 162 children, 4 to 6 years old, from Guiyu. In blood, median total PBDE was 189.99 ng/g lipid. Lead and cadmium concentrations in blood averaged 14.53±4.85 µg dL?1 and 0.77±0.35 µg L?1, respectively. Spearman partial correlation analysis illustrated that lead was positively correlated with BDE153 and BDE183. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively correlated with almost all PBDE congeners and negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were negatively correlated with BDE154. However, no correlation between the hormones and blood lead or cadmium levels was found in this study. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed that total PBDEs was negatively associated with FT3 and positively associated with TSH. Notably, FT4 was positively correlated with FT3, house functions as a workshop, and father's work involved in e-waste recycling and negatively correlated with vitamin consumptions. TSH was negatively related with FT4, paternal residence time in Guiyu, working hours of mother, and child bean products intake. IGFBP-3 was positively correlated with IGF-1 and house close to an e-waste dump. These results suggest that elevated PBDEs and heavy metals related to e-waste in Guiyu may be important risk factors for hormone alterations in children. PMID:25415336

Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

2014-01-01

267

Growth hormone responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone in Hand-Schüller-Christian Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bolus doses of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), 1 microgram/kg i.v., were given to two groups of adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD): 9 with Hand-Schüller-Christian disease (HSCD, presumed hypothalamic GHD) and 9 with idiopathic GHD (IGHD, etiology unknown). Six patients in each group were then given further GHRH doses daily for 5 days, and the GH responses to GHRH were measured over 3 h on day 1 and day 5. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were measured twice daily on days 1 and 5 during GHRH treatment. All patients with HSCD had measurable GH responses to the first dose of GHRH, with a mean peak response of 6.4 +/- 2.1 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Only 5 of 9 patients with IGHD had GH responses above the detection limits of the assay; their mean peak response, 1.3 +/- 0.2 ng/ml, was significantly lower than the GH responses of the HSCD patients (p less than 0.05). Responses in both groups of patients were lower than those previously observed in normal adult men (35 +/- 8 ng/ml; p less than 0.01). Five days of daily stimulation with GHRH significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the GH response in both groups of patients. The rise was greater in patients with HSCD than with IGHD (HSCD, 5.1 +/- 2.5 ng/ml on day 1, vs. 12.0 +/- 6.8 ng/ml on day 5; IGHD, 1.4 +/- 0.3 ng/ml vs. 2.9 +/- 0.6 ng/ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2507952

Gelato, M C; Loriaux, D L; Merriam, G R

1989-09-01

268

Development of specific antiserum against bovine follicle stimulating hormone (bFSH) and production of second antibody for bFSH radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antisera against bovine follicle stimulating hormone (bFSH) and rabbit gamma globulins (RGG) were raised in male rabbits and male goats, respectively. The anti bFSH crossreacted with bovine luteinzing hormone (bLH), bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) and normal calf serum (NCS). The crossreaction with bLH and bTSH was almost absent when anti bFSH serum was treated with NCS and the antigen (1 mg/ml) was diluted twice or more. Antibody titre curve determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) demonstrated that NCS treated bFSH antiserum could bind approximately 52% and 28% with 1:2,000 and 1:10,000 final dilutions respectively. When the antiserum against RGG (ARGG) was tested against its antigen, ARGG serum showed very strong precipitin band. The ARGG serum of 1:16 final dilution preipitated the bound fraction maximum when used as a second antibody in RIA. (author)

269

Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy. This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin. Physical activity should be promoted, and cigarette smoking reduced if possible. Women at risk of cardiovascular disease will also benefit from hormone replacement therapy. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone therapy will protect against both coronary heart disease and stroke, and there is no increased risk of venous thrombosis or hypertension. A disadvantage of hormone replacement therapy is an increased risk of forming gall-bladder stones and undergoing cholecystectomy. Unopposed estrogen therapy gives a higher incidence of endometrial cancer in women with an intact uterus, but the contribution of progestins for about 10 days every month excludes this risk. Breast cancer in relation to estrogen-progestogen therapy has been given much concern, and the problem is still not fully solved. If there is a risk, it is small, and only after prolonged use of estrogen (15-20 years). The decision whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy should, of course, be taken by the individual woman in question, but her decision should be based on the available scientific information. It is the opinion of the authors that the advantages of hormone replacement therapy far exceed the disadvantages. We suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J

1994-01-01

270

A common polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor is associated with increased responsiveness to growth hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone is used to increase height in short children who are not deficient in growth hormone, but its efficacy varies largely across individuals. The genetic factors responsible for this variation are entirely unknown. In two cohorts of short children treated with growth hormone, we found that an isoform of the growth hormone receptor gene that lacks exon 3 (d3-GHR) was associated with 1.7 to 2 times more growth acceleration induced by growth hormone than the full-length isoform (P d3-GHR homo- or heterodimers was approximately 30% higher than through full-length GHR homodimers (P d3-GHR isoform, which is dominant over the full-length isoform. These observations suggest that the polymorphism in exon 3 of GHR is important in growth hormone pharmacogenetics. PMID:15208626

Dos Santos, Christine; Essioux, Laurent; Teinturier, Cécile; Tauber, Maïté; Goffin, Vincent; Bougnères, Pierre

2004-07-01

271

Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during [...] parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

J., Gutkowska; M., Jankowski; S., Mukaddam-Daher; S.M., McCann.

272

Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during [...] parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

J., Gutkowska; M., Jankowski; S., Mukaddam-Daher; S.M., McCann.

2000-06-01

273

Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

Gutkowska J.

2000-01-01

274

Suppression of androgen production by D-tryptophan-6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in man.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four male transsexual subjects were given a superactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue, D-tryptophan-6-LHRH at daily doses of 100 micrograms for 3--6 mo. A decrease in beard growth, acne, and erectile potency was noted; the latter was documented objectively with the recordings of nocturnal penile tumescence episodes. Plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels fell to castrate values; basal prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels showed a small decline, whereas ...

Tolis, G.; Mehta, A.; Comaru-schally, A. M.; Schally, A. V.

1981-01-01

275

Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo Hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitarism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada d...

Julio Abucham; Alfinito Vieira, Teresa C.; Erika Ribeiro Barbosa; Rogério Silicani Ribeiro; Alves Martins, Manoel R.

2003-01-01

276

Stress increases putative gonadotropin inhibitory hormone and decreases luteinizing hormone in male rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subjective experience of stress leads to reproductive dysfunction in many species, including rodents and humans. Stress effects on reproduction result from multilevel interactions between the hormonal stress response system, i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and the hormonal reproductive system, i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis. A novel negative regulator of the HPG axis known as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was recently discovered i...

Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Geraghty, Anna C.; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George E.; Kaufer, Daniela

2009-01-01

277

Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

... infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. It ... test, as exercise or increased activity can alter hGH levels. Inform your health-care provider if you ...

278

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated growth hormone deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

... with type II have underdevelopment of the pituitary gland (pituitary hypoplasia). The pituitary gland is located at the ... pattern ; inherited ; kinase ; metabolic processes ; molecule ; mutation ; pituitary gland ; pituitary growth hormone ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sex chromosomes ; short ...

279

The Hormonal Control of Estrous in Bitches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The researchers analyzed the possibility to stop the estrous in bitches through the hormonal treatment. For this reason, during 2007-2009 sixteen bitches of different ages and breeds being in anestrous period were selected from clinics of Tirana district excluding bitches with health problems. For every case, the appearance of estrous cycle is determined through anamnesis, clinical examination and vaginal cytology. As a hormonal treatment for stopping cycling Proligestone (Covinan®, Intervet was used. The bitches were treated with injection in doses 20 mg kg•1 or 0.1 mL kg•1 weigh SC. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the estrus appears 190±14 days after the last treatment. Collateral effects were found after the last application of the hormonal treatment. The systemic application of the hormonal sub-stances for the prevention of the estrus results to be efficient, however other risk factors should be additionally considered.

V. Ceroni

2011-01-01

280

Hormone patterns in early human gestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

 
 
 
 
281

Hormonal contraception: recent advances and controversies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Educational Bulletin outlines delivery systems and contraceptive formulations, summarizes advances in emergency contraception and reviews the effects of hormonal contraception on cancer risks, cardiovascular disease, and bone. PMID:19007605

2008-11-01

282

Hormone therapy and breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use or nonuse of hormone therapy (HT) is a controversial decision for menopausal women that has taken on increasing significance as the large number of baby boomers enter this life stage. Studies suggest benefits of HT for prevention of osteoporosis and coronary artery disease, as well as a possible increased risk for cancer, particularly breast cancer. Because of this risk for breast cancer, women with a family history may feel differently about HT. However, differences have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in attitudes toward HT of menopausal women with and without a family history of breast cancer. A nonexperimental, cross-sectional design was used. The setting included various sites located in a rural community in northwestern Pennsylvania. A convenience sample of 110 was obtained. A Health Belief Model attitudinal scale was completed by the participants. Although there were no significant differences in attitudes toward HT between the groups, ancillary analysis revealed a significant difference (P = .04) in frequency of reported fear of breast cancer regarding HT in those women with a family history of breast cancer and those without such a history. The findings of this study point to a need for further research on attitudes of women regarding HT and how they may affect postmenopausal healthcare management. PMID:11858293

Zimmerman, V L; Smeltzer, S C

2000-01-01

283

Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [125I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [125I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

284

Growth hormone and ovarian function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth and reproductive development are closely co-ordinated during puberty but there is also evidence that growth hormone (GH) may have a physiological role in adult ovarian function. Both GH and the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have been shown to augment granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis in the human Graafian follicle, suggesting that GH may act as a 'co-gonadotrophin' at ovarian level. Furthermore, the intra-ovarian 'IGF system' (i.e. IGFs and IGF-binding proteins) may be implicated in folicular atresia and in disorders of follicular function associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The clinical importance of GH to ovarian function in the adult is illustrated by the finding that adjuvant GH treatment reduces the dose of exogenous gonadotrophin which is required to induce folliculogenesis in women with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. There is, however, no evidence that GH supplementation is of significant clinical benefit in the management of patients with other ovulatory disorders--including PCOS--or in superovulation protocols for in vitro fertilization. PMID:10083900

Franks, S

1998-07-01

285

Growth hormone doping: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

Erotokritou-Mulligan I

2011-07-01

286

Osteoporotic fracture and parathyroid hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteoporosis and age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption, resulting in bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. Stimulating the function of bone-forming osteoblasts, is the preferred pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. Recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH, PTH(1-34, is an anabolic agent with proven benefits to bone strength and has been characterized as a potential therapy for skeletal repair. In spite of PTH’s clinical use, safety is a major consideration for long-term treatment. Studies have demonstrated that intermittent PTH treatment enhances and accelerates the skeletal repair process via a number of mechanisms. Recent research into the molecular mechanism of PTH action on bone tissue has led to the development of PTH analogs to control osteoporotic fractures. This review summarizes a number of advances made in the field of PTH and bone fracture to combat these injuries in humans and in animal models. The ultimate goal of providing an alternative to PTH, currently the sole anabolic therapy in clinical use, to promote bone formation and improve bone strength in the aging population is yet to be achieved.

Nabanita S Datta

2011-01-01

287

A rare syndrome: Thyroid hormone resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTH is a rare disorder, usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Patients with RTH are usually euthyroid but can occasionally present with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis or rarely with hypothyroidism. We present a patient with interesting syndrome as RTH but no family history. Goiter, increased weight gain and normal mental status were observed despite high serum thyroid hormones and normal TSH levels

Yunus ?lyas Kibar

2011-09-01

288

L'hormone de croissance : une cytokine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L'hormone de croissance (GH) est une hormone paradoxale. Historiquement reconnue comme responsable de la croissance post-natale, elle est actuellement considérée comme une véritable cytokine, synthétisée en de nombreux sites extra-hypophysaires et impliquée, lorsque dérégulée, dans les processus de tumorigénèse. Le travail présenté dans cette thèse a permis de caractériser et localiser par RT-PCR in situ, les cellules capables de synthétiser la GH dans le système immunitaire ...

Raccurt, Mireille

2003-01-01

289

Growth hormone response to GHRH during lifespan.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent evidence has shown that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) enables investigation of the pathophysiology of GH secretion in a variety of different states, but it cannot be used as a test for probing pituitary somatotrophic function, due to the extreme inter- and intra-subject variability in normal subjects. This task is better accomplished when compounds which deprive the pituitary of inhibitory (somatostatinergic) influences, e.g. pyridostigmine, arginine, etc., are given in combi...

Ghigo, Ezio; Camanni, Franco; Arvat, Emanuela

1993-01-01

290

State of hormones in blood, ch. 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To ensure the validity of radioimmunoassay, it is necessary to know the state and heterogeneity of the hormones in blood plasma or tissue extracts. Methods for evaluating and characterizing heterogeneity of peptide hormones in the unknown sample of biologic fluid are described. The methods are based on immunochemical reaction, sephadex gel filtration, electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. Table and graphs of the applications of both ultracentrifugation and gel filtration of 125I-labelled ACTH are given. Chemical and biological aspects of heterogeneity are discussed

291

Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli. Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs is not only associated with less GH secreted per pulse but also with an impaired response to synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) (Chapter 3 a...

Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

2006-01-01

292

The role of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in resting and stress-induced release of corticotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our previous studies have shown that stimulation of the anteroventral third ventricle region increases atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release, whereas lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle or median eminence block the release of ANP from blood volume expansion, suggesting a critical central nervous system participation in this response. ANP is also produced within neurons that have cell bodies in the rostral hypothalamus and axons that extend to the median eminence and neural lobe. I...

Franci, C. R.; Anselmo-franci, J. A.; Mccann, S. M.

1992-01-01

293

An update: salivary hormones and physical exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva contains cells and compounds, of local and non-local oral origin, namely inorganic, organic non-protein, protein/polypeptide, and lipid molecules. Moreover, some hormones, commonly assayed in plasma, such as steroids, are detectable in oral fluid and peptide/protein, and non-steroid hormones have been investigated. The sports practice environment and athletes' availability, together with hormone molecule characteristics in saliva and physical exercise behavior effects, confirm this body fluid as an alternative to serum. This review focuses on the relation between salivary steroids and psycho-physiological stress and underlines how the measurement of salivary cortisol provides an approach of self-report psychological indicator and anxiety change in relation to exercise performance. The correlation between salivary and plasma steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels, observed during exercise, has been considered, underlining how the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise influence the salivary steroid concentrations in the same way as serum-level variations. Training conditions have been considered in relation to the salivary hormonal response. This review focuses on studies related to salivary hormone measurements, mainly steroids, in physical exercise. Saliva use in physical disciplines, as a real alternative to serum, could be a future perspective. PMID:21129038

Gatti, R; De Palo, E F

2011-04-01

294

Plant hormone signaling during development: insights from computational models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent years have seen an impressive increase in our knowledge of the topology of plant hormone signaling networks. The complexity of these topologies has motivated the development of models for several hormones to aid understanding of how signaling networks process hormonal inputs. Such work has generated essential insights into the mechanisms of hormone perception and of regulation of cellular responses such as transcription in response to hormones. In addition, modeling approaches have con...

Oliva, Marina; Farcot, Etienne; Vernoux, Teva

2013-01-01

295

West syndrome, vigabatrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Limited data are available on the etiology, clinical approach, treatment and outcome in West syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to document clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment response in children with West syndrome. Methods: Hospital charts of children who were diagnosed with West syndrome between July-2011 and December- 2013 and who had a follow-up at least 12-month, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: 38 patients (14 females, 24 males, mean aged 27.1±7.60 months were included. The mean age of seizure onset, interval to diagnosis, and follow-up period were 6.23±4.27 months, 1.36±1.58 months, and 19.3±5.86 months respectively. Perinatal asphyxia (13, tuberous sclerosis (2, cortical dysplasia (2, encephalitis (1, asphyxia due to aspiration (1, congenital cytomegalovirus infection (1, perinatal infarct (1, nonketotic hyperglycinemia (1 and Prader Willi syndrome (1 were the identified causes. The etiology could not be ascertained in the remaining 15 children. Psychomotor development was mildly retarded in 12, moderately retarded in 13, and severely in 13 patients at onset, and did not change significantly at month 12. The initial therapy was synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone in 11, vigabatrin in 17, levetiracetam in 8 and valproate in 2 patients. At 12th month of therapy, 15 patients were seizure-free, 12 patients showed more than 50% decrease in seizure frequency, and remaining 11 patients showed no significant reduction in seizure frequency. Conclusion: Besides the perinatal asphyxia as most frequent cause, a wide variety of disorders can present as West syndrome. Although, a 12-month-long treatment achieves seizure control in half of the patients, not beneficial effect on psychomotor development was seen. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 86-92

Ünsal Y?lmaz

2014-03-01

296

Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Secreting Thyroid Hormone and Radioiodine Avid without Stimulation: A Case Report and Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. This is an extremely rare case of a patient with metastatic follicular thyroid cancer who continued to produce thyroid hormone and was iodine scan positive without stimulation after thyroidectomy and radioiodine (I-131) therapy. Patient Findings. A 76-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma on lung nodule biopsy. Total thyroidectomy was performed and he was ablated with 160?mCi of I-131 after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) stimulation. Whole body scan (WBS) after treatment showed uptake in bilateral lungs, right sacrum, and pelvis. The thyroglobulin decreased from 2,063 to 965 four months after treatment but rapidly increased to 2,506 eleven months after I-131. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) remained suppressed and free T4 remained elevated after I-131 therapy without thyroid hormone supplementation. He was treated with an additional 209?mCi with WBS findings positive in lung and pelvis. Despite I-131, new metastatic lesions were noted in the left thyroid bed and large destructive lesion to the first cervical vertebrae four months after the second I-131 dose. Conclusions. This case is exceptional because of its rarity and also due to the dissociation between tumor differentiation and aggressiveness. The metastatic lesions continued to secrete thyroid hormone and remained radioiodine avid with rapid progression after I-131 therapy. PMID:25400957

Abid, Syed A.; Stack, Brendan C.; Bodenner, Donald L.

2014-01-01

297

The Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Physalis alkekengi on Serum Concentration of Thyroid Hormones in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are different factors which are effective on maintaining homeostasis, especially by pituitary-thyroid axis hormones. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Physalis alkekengi plant extract belonging to Solanaceae family on the concentration of the pituitary-thyroid axis hormones.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on five groups (n=10 of male Wistar rats (with mean weight 210±5g. The control group did not receive any substances, while the reference group received 0.2 ml normal saline daily and the experimental groups received maximum (0.4 g/kg, moderate (0.2 g/kg, and minimum (0.1 g/kg intraperitoneal (IP doses of the alcoholic extract for 14 days. At the end of this period, blood samples were drawn and the results were analyzed by SPSS-11.5 software.Results: The results of statistical analysis showed significant increases in plasma concentrations of thyroxin (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 in the maximum dose group (p<0.05 with no significant changes in plasma concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH.Conclusion: Increases in T3 and T4 levels with no changes in TSH concentration indicate hyperthyroidism euthyroidism in which the levels of thyroid hormones increase while the amount of TSH remains constant. These changes could be due to plasma proteins increase including albumin, which are probably induced by physaline and alkaloids existing in Physalis alkekengi. So, these drug doses do not seem to bring about pathological changes in the pituitary-thyroid axis.

Shahnaz Shekar-Foroosh

2012-05-01

298

Defective growth hormone secretion in children with pycnodysostosis and improved linear growth after growth hormone treatment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Short stature is a characteristic feature of pycnodysostosis. We report defective growth hormone secretion in response to provocation and low insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration in five out of six patients with pycnodysostosis. Physiological replacement with growth hormone increased IGF-I concentration and improved linear growth in these children.

Soliman, A. T.; Rajab, A.; Alsalmi, I.; Darwish, A.; Asfour, M.

1996-01-01

299

Single dose and pulsatile treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficiency.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth and growth hormone profiles in four children receiving three different regimens of treatment with human growth hormone (hGH) were compared. There was no significant difference in the rate of growth between the regimens; the rate of growth fell dramatically after treatment. Pulsatile administration of hGH was no better than conventional treatment.

Smith, P. J.; Pringle, P. J.; Brook, C. G.

1987-01-01

300

Secretion of neuron-specific enolase, prolactin, growth hormone, luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone by "functionless" and endocrine-active pituitary tumours in vitro.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Secretion of the neuroendocrine marker neuron-specific enolase by 24 pituitary tumours was measured in maintenance tissue culture. Eleven endocrine-active and 13 "functionless" tumours were defined by measurement of prolactin, growth hormone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion rates in vitro and the corresponding plasma hormone levels. Measurement of prolactin secretion provided a clear distinction between true prolactinomas and "functionless" tumours ca...

Lawton, N. F.; Evans, A. J.; Pickard, J. D.; Perry, S.; Davies, B.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo / Hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitarism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada [...] por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada deficiência, dosagens, vias de administração, efeitos colaterais e monitorização clínico-laboratorial durante os diferentes períodos da vida para cada reposição hormonal: hormônio de crescimento na criança e no adulto, hormônios tiroideanos no hipotiroidismo central, glicocorticóides no hipoadrenalismo central, análogos de vasopressina no diabetes insípidus central, esteróides sexuais no homem e na mulher, da puberdade à senescência e gonadotrofinas no tratamento da infertilidade. As informações aqui contidas resultam de uma revisão crítica da literatura aliada à nossa experiência de mais de duas décadas no diagnóstico e tratamento do paciente hipopituitário na Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Abstract in english This article brings an updated review of hypopituitarism with emphasis in hormone replacement therapy. The physiological basis of hormone replacement therapy and practical aspects of treating hypopituitary patients were both taken into account to provide a rational strategy for treatment. The review [...] is organized by individual pituitary hormone deficiency and covers epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of hypopituitarism, as well as the most relevant hormone preparations currently available for treating each hormone deficiency. Practical guidelines to hormone dosing, routes of administration, side effects and clinical and laboratory monitoring during the entire lifespan are given for each individual hormone replacement therapy: growth hormone in GH-deficient children and adults, thyroid hormone in central hypothyroidism, glucocorticoid in central hypoadrenalism, vasopressin analogs in diabetes insipidus, sex hormones in man and women from puberty to senescence, and gonadotropins for treating infertility. In addition to the literature review, we took into account our own experience of more than two decades in investigating, diagnosing, and treating hypopituitary patients at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

Julio, Abucham; Teresa C. Alfinito, Vieira; Erika Ribeiro, Barbosa; Rogério Silicani, Ribeiro; Manoel R. Alves, Martins.

2003-08-01

302

Steroid hormone receptors and human breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steroid hormone receptor (SR) binding capacity can be measured both in the cytosol and in the nuclear fraction of the cancerous cells. Approximately 30-40% of breast cancers are hormone dependent. SR-positive tumors can be treated by endocrine therapy resulting in a favourable clinical response in 60-70% of the cases. At the National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary, estradiol (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor assays are performed by a multipoint saturation analysis using Scatchard plot. Dextran coated charcoal technique is used for the separation of free and receptor protein-bound labelled hormones. Data obtained from 400 breast cancer patients show a correlation between the SR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients. The ER binding capacity is higher after menopause compared to the premenopausal values. Specific correlation between the PR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients cound not be observed. The PR binding capacity is the highest over 20 years. The highest clinical response rate, 80%, could be found in the group of patients with both ER and PR in their tumor tissues. (author)

303

Steroid hormone receptors and human breast cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steroid hormone receptor (SR) binding capacity can be measured both in the cytosol and in the nuclear fraction of the cancerous cells. Approximately 30-40% of breast cancers are hormone dependent. SR-positive tumors can be treated by endocrine therapy resulting in a favourable clinical response in 60-70% of the cases. At the National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary, estradiol (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor assays are performed by a multipoint saturation analysis using Scatchard plot. Dextran coated charcoal technique is used for the separation of free and receptor protein-bound labelled hormones. Data obtained from 400 breast cancer patients show a correlation between the SR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients. The ER binding capacity is higher after menopause compared to the premenopausal values. Specific correlation between the PR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients cound not be observed. The PR binding capacity is the highest over 20 years. The highest clinical response rate, 80%, could be found in the group of patients with both ER and PR in their tumor tissues. (author).

Szamel, I.

1985-02-01

304

Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormones on metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past few decades, obesity and its related metabolic disorders have increased at an epidemic rate in the developed and developing world. New signals and factors involved in the modulation of energy balance and metabolism are continuously being discovered, providing potential novel drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disease. A parallel strategy is to better understand how hormonal signals, with an already established role in energy metabolism, work, and how manipulation of the pathways involved may lead to amelioration of metabolic dysfunction. The thyroid hormones belong to the latter category, with dysregulation of the thyroid axis leading to marked alterations in energy balance. The potential of thyroid hormones in the treatment of obesity has been known for decades, but their therapeutic use has been hampered because of side-effects. Data gleaned over the past few years, however, have uncovered new features at the mechanisms of action involved in thyroid hormones. Sophisticated neurobiological approaches have allowed the identification of specific energy sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin, acting in specific groups of hypothalamic neurons, mediating many of the effects of thyroid hormones on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular function. More extensive knowledge about these molecular mechanisms will be of great relevance for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25256765

Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Alvarez, Clara V; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel

2014-10-01

305

Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss in fast muscle function (power), and accumulation of fat in skeletal muscle. Further HRT raises the protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscle after resistance training, and has an anabolic effect upon connective tissue in both skeletal muscle and tendon, which influences matrix structure and mechanical properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal muscle.

Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco

2013-01-01

306

Current trends in hormone replacement therapy.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

As life span increases, more and more women live longer after the menopause, and see its long-term consequences. The menopause and climacteric have major consequences for the well being of most women, resulting in a variety of symptoms including vasomotor, psychological, sexual symptoms and increased risk of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Prevention of osteoporosis and reduction in cardiovascular risks are the long-term goals of post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy. Post-menopausal women who receive hormone replacement therapy have approximately half of the rate of coronary artery disease compared to those who do not take it. Similarly, estrogen replacement alone for 5 years results in 50% reduction in the risk of overall fracture and is a major factor in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. A wide range of estrogen preparations is available for administration by various routes. The choice depends on indications, side effects and convenience. Oral estrogen is the most commonly used preparation followed by transdermal preparation. Controversy still exists over the efficacy and safety of hormone replacement therapy among both the medical and lay authorities. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone replacement therapy improves the quality of life and reduces the morbidity and mortality by reversing the metabolic and pathological changes induced by the menopause. The benefits of hormone replacement therapy out weigh any increased risk of venous thromboembolism or breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers.

Tariq Y. Khashoggi

2002-05-01

307

The "multiple hormone deficiency" theory of aging: is human senescence caused mainly by multiple hormone deficiencies?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the human body, the productions, levels and cell receptors of most hormones progressively decline with age, gradually putting the body into various states of endocrine deficiency. The circadian cycles of these hormones also change, sometimes profoundly, with time. In aging individuals, the well-balanced endocrine system can fall into a chaotic condition with losses, phase-advancements, phase delays, unpredictable irregularities of nycthemeral hormone cycles, in particular in very old or sick individuals. The desynchronization makes hormone activities peak at the wrong times and become inefficient, and in certain cases health threatening. The occurrence of multiple hormone deficits and spilling through desynchronization may constitute the major causes of human senescence, and they are treatable causes. Several arguments can be put forward to support the view that senescence is mainly a multiple hormone deficiency syndrome: First, many if not most of the signs, symptoms and diseases (including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, dementia) of senescence are similar to physical consequences of hormone deficiencies and may be caused by hormone deficiencies. Second, most of the presumed causes of senescence such as excessive free radical formation, glycation, cross-linking of proteins, imbalanced apoptosis system, accumulation of waste products, failure of repair systems, deficient immune system, may be caused or favored by hormone deficiencies. Even genetic causes such as limits to cell proliferation (such as the Hayflick limit of cell division), poor gene polymorphisms, premature telomere shortening and activation of possible genetic "dead programs" may have links with hormone deficiencies, being either the consequence, the cause, or the major favoring factor of hormone deficiencies. Third, well-dosed and -balanced hormone supplements may slow down or stop the progression of signs, symptoms, or diseases of senescence and may often reverse or even cure them. If hormone deficiencies and imbalances are the major causes of senescence, what then is the treatment? Crucial for the treatment of senescent persons is to make a correct diagnosis by making up an anamnesis of all symptoms related to hormone disturbances, conducting a thorough physical examination, and getting laboratory tests done such as serum and 24-hour urine analyses. The physician should look not only for hormone deficiencies, including the mildest ones, but also for any alterations in hormone circadian cycles, and for the presence of any factors--nutritional, dietary, behavioral, lifestyle, environmental (including illumination and indoor, outdoor, or dietary pollutants)--that cause or aggravate hormone deficiencies. After completion of the detailed diagnostic phase and obtaining and analyzing the results of the tests, treatment can start. In general, before supplying hormones, all other factors that contribute to senescence should be eliminated. After that, supplements of the missing hormones can then be administered, carefully respecting an appropriate timing of their intake, and eventually recommending measures such as lifestyle changes to restore circadian rhythmicity. PMID:16399912

Hertoghe, T

2005-12-01

308

Exogenous growth hormone inhibits growth hormone-releasing factor-induced growth hormone secretion in normal men.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies from this laboratory and by others in rats, monkeys, and humans support the concept that growth hormone (GH) can regulate its own secretion through an autofeedback mechanism. With the availability of human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), the possible existence of such a mechanism was reexplored by examining the effect of exogenous GH on the GH response induced by GRF-44-NH2 in six normal men (mean age, 32.4 yr). In all subjects the plasma GH response evoked by GRF-44-N...

Rosenthal, S. M.; Hulse, J. A.; Kaplan, S. L.; Grumbach, M. M.

1986-01-01

309

A comparative study of thyroid hormone levels in diabetic and non-diabetic patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic patients have a higher prevalence of thyroid disorders than the general population, this may influence diabetic management. In this study, we investigated thyroid hormone levels in uncontrolled diabetic patients. This comparative study was conducted at the Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM). Fifty-two diabetic patients were consecutively selected from diabetic patients attending the out-patient department of BIRDEM. Fifty control subjects were selected from non-diabetic patients who attended the out-patient department of BIRDEM for routine check-ups as advised by their attending physicians. The subjects in both groups were above 30 years of age. The concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroxine (FT4) were evaluated using a Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA) procedure. Patients with type 2 diabetes had significantly lower serum FT3 levels (p = 0.000) compared to the control groups. There were no significant differences observed in serum FT4 (p = 0.339) and TSH (p = 0.216) levels between the control and study subjects. All the diabetic patients had high fasting blood glucose levels (12.15 +/- 2.12). We conclude that FT3 levels were altered in these study patients with uncontrolled diabetes. PMID:19058589

Islam, Saiful; Yesmine, Saquiba; Khan, Shahidul Alam; Alam, Nur Haque; Islam, Sufia

2008-09-01

310

Secondary amenorrhea in a woman with spinocerebellar degeneration treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone: a case report and in vitro analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While thyrotropin-releasing hormone is known to be a prolactin-release stimulating factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate and its derivative, taltirelin hydrate, are used for the treatment of spinocerebellar degeneration, a degenerative disease characterized mainly by motor ataxia. We report the case of a patient being treated with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation for spinocerebellar degeneration who developed amenorrhea after a dose increase. Her hormonal background was analyzed and the effect of prolonged exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone on pituitary prolactin-producing cells was examined in vitro. Case presentation Our patient was a 36-year-old Japanese woman who experienced worsening of gait disturbance at around 23 years of age, and was subsequently diagnosed as having spinocerebellar degeneration. She had been treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate for four years. Taltirelin hydrate was added to the treatment seven months prior to her presentation, followed by an improvement in gait disturbance. Around the same period, she started lactating and subsequently developed amenorrhea three months later. Taltirelin hydrate was discontinued and she was referred to our hospital. She was found to have normal sex hormone levels. A thyrotropin-releasing hormone provocation test showed a normal response of thyroid-stimulating hormone level and an over-response of prolactin at 30 minutes (142.7 ng/mL. Resumption of menstruation was noted three months after dose reduction of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. In our in vitro study, following long-term exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, cells from the rat pituitary prolactin-producing cell line GH3 exhibited an increased basal prolactin promoter activity but showed a marked decrease in responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Conclusions Physicians should be aware of hyperprolactinemia-associated side effects in patients receiving thyrotropin-releasing hormone treatment. Long-term treatment with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation might cause a large amount of prolactin to accumulate in prolactin-producing cells and be released in response to exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation.

Kanasaki Haruhiko

2011-12-01

311

[Acne vulgaris. The role of hormones].  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripherally active androgens control cellular functions by binding to androgen receptors. Follicular keratinocytes and sebocytes are target cells for androgens, which, directly or indirectly, stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and the volume of sebaceous glands as well as the sebum secretion rate. Acne often begins with the adrenarche, namely with the up- regulation of adrenal synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, a hormone that is upstream to testosterone. The majority of acne patients exhibit normal levels of circulating androgens, while sebaceous glands from acne regions exhibit a stronger sensitivity to androgens than the sebaceous glands from other parts of the body. Hormone-like active lipids, hormones in diet and neuropeptides may also play a role in the development of acne lesions. The target of antiandrogen treatment of the skin is mainly the sebaceous gland and the primary effect is sebostasis. PMID:20107754

Zouboulis, C C

2010-02-01

312

Serpins as hormone carriers: modulation of release.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hormone-carrying serpins, thyroxine- and corticosteroid-binding globulins, TBG and CBG, provide a clear example of the way the serpin conformational mechanism can be adapted not only to give an irreversible switching-off of function but also more significantly to allow a constant dynamic modulation of activity. This is illustrated here with the demonstration that hormone release from both TBG and CBG is responsive to changes in ambient temperature and specifically to changes in body temperature. An exception to this adaptation of the serpin mechanism is seen with another family member, angiotensinogen, in which hormone release is modulated by a redox switch and is apparently independent of changes in the serpin framework. PMID:22078532

Carrell, Robin; Qi, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Aiwu

2011-01-01

313

Hormones and hormone antagonists: mechanisms of action in carcinogenesis of endometrial and breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proliferation of breast and endometrial cells is under the control of ovarian steroid hormones (SHs) such as oestrogen and progesterone. They mediate diverse physiological functions via interaction with nuclear-localised steroid hormone receptors (HRs). The SH receptor complex modifies the expression of SH-regulated genes by binding to conserved binding sites in their promoter region or through cross-talk with other transcription factors. In non-malignant tissues, HRs are in balance with other factors regulating proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. While dysfunction of the regulatory mechanisms is a part of malignant transformation, functional SH receptors can promote growth of SH-responsive tumours. Therefore, anti-hormones that block the interaction of steroid hormones with the SH receptor are useful tools for the treatment of SH-responsive carcinomas. However, a portion of ER-positive breast cancers and most endometrial cancers do not respond to anti-oestrogens and continued treatment results in hormone resistance, mostly without loss of the ER. This review focuses on the mechanisms of action of hormones and anti-hormones in breast and endometrial carcinomas. PMID:11544557

Flötotto, T; Djahansouzi, S; Gläser, M; Hanstein, B; Niederacher, D; Brumm, C; Beckmann, M W

2001-08-01

314

Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. ? Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. ? Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor ?, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

315

Retrospective evaluation of sex hormones and steroid hormone intermediates in dogs with alopecia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific steroid hormone aberrations associated with suspect endocrine alopecias in dogs in whom hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been excluded. Steroid hormone panels submitted to the UTCVM endocrinology laboratory over a 7.5-year period (783 samples) from dogs with alopecia were reviewed. During this period, 276 dogs met the criteria for inclusion and were comprised of 54 different breeds. Approximately 73% of dogs had at least one baseline or post-ACTH stimulation steroid hormone intermediate greater than the normal range. The most frequent hormone elevation noted was for progesterone (57.6% of samples). When compared with normal dogs, oestradiol was significantly greater in Keeshond dogs and progesterone was significantly greater in Pomeranian and Siberian Husky dogs. Not all individual dogs had hormone abnormalities. Chow Chow, Samoyed and Malamute dogs had the greatest percentage of normal steroid hormone intermediates of the dogs in this study. Baseline cortisol concentrations were significantly correlated with progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione. Results of this study suggest that the pathomechanism of the alopecia, at least for some breeds, may not relate to steroid hormone intermediates and emphasizes the need for breed specific normals. PMID:12662266

Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Rohrbach, Barton W; Oliver, Jack W

2003-04-01

316

Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: okbgeni@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

2011-04-15

317

Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated with significant fatigue

318

Incretin hormones and the satiation signal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 levels and responses to meals may be altered in obese subjects. Clinical trial results have shown further that two GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), exenatide and liraglutide, which are approved for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, also produce weight loss in overweight subjects without diabetes. Thus, GLP-1 RAs may provide a new option for pharmacological treatment of obesity.

Holst, Jens Juul

2013-01-01

319

The effect of repeated administration of hexarelin, a growth hormone releasing peptide, and growth hormone releasing hormone on growth hormone responsivity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: Hexarelin is a synthetic six-amino-acid compound capable of releasing GH in animals and in man. Its mechanism of action is not understood and little is known about the GH response after repeated administration. The aim of this study was to determine the GH response to the administration of two intravenous boluses of hexarelin, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) or hexarelin with GHRH. DESIGN: Single boluses of hexarelin (1 microgram/kg), GHRH-(1-29)-NH2 (1 microgram/kg) or hex...

Massoud, Af; Hindmarsh, Pc; Matthews, DR; Brook, Cg

1996-01-01

320

Recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer and hormone therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of hormone therapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer is not clear. Data on the efficacy and safety of antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors in recurrent ovarian cancer have been accumulated through phase II clinical studies. Most of these studies were conducted in platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, and although complete response rates were not high, reported adverse events were low. If administered to patients who are positive for estrogen receptors, hormone therapy may become a viable option for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer. PMID:24303498

Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Mizunuma, Hideki

2013-09-16

 
 
 
 
321

Effect of growth hormone administration on circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone in normal healthy men  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new area of growth hormone (GH) therapy in adults is the treatment of infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pharmacological GH administration on the secretion of pituitary and gonadal hormones in normal men. Eight healthy men, 23-32 years of age (mean 28.1 years), with a normal body mass index were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. All participants had a normal semen analysis before entering the study. Each participant was treated with placebo and GH (12/IU/day, Norditropin; Novo Nordisk, Denmark) during two different 14-day periods, separated by a 6 week washout period. Administration of GH for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I; P < 0.01) but no changes occurred in IGF-I values during placebo treatment. The concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone displayed no change during the two periods and did not differ between the GH treatment period and the placebo period. Theconcentration of testosterone was unchanged during the placebo/GH periods and there was no difference between the GH treatment period and the placebo period. We conclude that GH treatment for 14 days in normal healthy men does not affect gonadotrophin or testosterone patterns.

Ovesen, Per Glud; MØller, J

1993-01-01

322

Endogenous growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone is required for GH responses to pharmacological stimuli.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The roles of hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and of somatostatin (SRIF) in pharmacologically stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion in humans are unclear. GH responses could result either from GHRH release or from acute decline in SRIF secretion. To assess directly the role of endogenous GHRH in human GH secretion, we have used a competitive GHRH antagonist, (N-Ac-Tyr1,D-Arg2)GHRH(1-29)NH2 (GHRH-Ant), which we have previously shown is able to block the GH response to GH...

Jaffe, C. A.; Demott-friberg, R.; Barkan, A. L.

1996-01-01

323

Plant hormone signaling during development: insights from computational models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent years have seen an impressive increase in our knowledge of the topology of plant hormone signaling networks. The complexity of these topologies has motivated the development of models for several hormones to aid understanding of how signaling networks process hormonal inputs. Such work has generated essential insights into the mechanisms of hormone perception and of regulation of cellular responses such as transcription in response to hormones. In addition, modeling approaches have contributed significantly to exploring how spatio-temporal regulation of hormone signaling contributes to plant growth and patterning. New tools have also been developed to obtain quantitative information on hormone distribution during development and to test model predictions, opening the way for quantitative understanding of the developmental roles of hormones. PMID:23219863

Oliva, Marina; Farcot, Etienne; Vernoux, Teva

2013-02-01

324

Purification of Antidiuretic Hormone by High Voltage Electrophoresis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purified antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) can easily be obtained from commercial posterior pituitary extract by the use of preparative high voltage electrophoresis. The resulting product appears to be chemically identical to the synthetic hormone. (Auth...

W. J. Decker, M. L. Nusynowitz, C. Y. E. Brown, E. C. Arnold

1968-01-01

325

21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth hormone measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2010-04-01

326

Hormone Treatment Beginning Near the Onset of Menopause  

Science.gov (United States)

... ?ashes and other uncomfortable changes. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), sometimes called hormone replacement therapy, has been used ... has been observed that women who were receiving MHT closer to the onset of menopause may have ...

327

The physiological significance and measurement of free hormones in blood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation is primarily intended to provide an objective overview of alternative methodologies for free hormone assay, enabling the radioimmunoassay practitioner to understand the fundamental basis of the various approaches that are possible or, if he so wishes, to develop his own in-house methodology. Nevertheless, it would be insufficient to discuss techniques of measurement of free hormones without initial examination of the underlying physicochemical ideas governing the free hormone concept and of the mechanisms which are believed to govern hormone delivery to target tissues. The physiological significance of the ''free'' hormone is therefore first reviewed. Techniques for the direct radioimmunoassay of free hormones in blood are then presented. Consideration is next given to the standardization of free hormone assays. Finally, the diagnostic value of free hormone assays is briefly examined

328

Traffic Pollution Linked to Higher Levels of Obesity Hormone  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Traffic Pollution Linked to Higher Levels of Obesity Hormone Findings ... Friday, September 12, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Heart Diseases Hormones FRIDAY, Sept. 12, 2014 (HealthDay ...

329

[Sex hormones and adipocytokines in postmenopausal women].  

Science.gov (United States)

Visceral fat accumulation occuring in postmenopausal women is connected with hypoestrogenism, decreased production of sex-hormone binding globuline (SHBG) and with rise in free testosterone. They have been identified as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The exact mechanisms mediating relationships between the excess of visceral adiposity, hormonal variations after menopause and metabolic disturbances, remain unknown. We speculate that adipocytokines produced by adipose tissue: adiponectin, leptin and resistin, might play a role. Adiponectin is a hormone which plays a role in insulin sensitivity and lipid oxidation, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Increased levels of androgens post menopause and low SHBG are connected with decreased production of adiponectin. Leptin is another of the adipocytokines which has been shown to be linked to insulin resistance, increased pressure and hypertriglyceridaemia. Sex steroids have effect on leptin secretion but the associations between leptin and menopause are controversial. Recently it was found that resistin, another bioactive substance produced by adipose tissue may related to insulin resistance. Studies on animals indicate that ovariectomy and testosterone significantly increased resistin expression. It seems that adipocytokines may be a link connecting postmenopasual hormonal changes, the excess of visceral fat and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17007280

Siemi?ska, Lucyna; Cicho?-Lenart, Agata; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kos-Kud?a, Beata; Marek, Bogdan; Lenart, Jaros?aw; Nowak, Mariusz

2006-06-01

330

Gastrointestinal hormones and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease of women in reproductive age. It is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Most often patients with PCOS have metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. It is not surprising that obesity is high prevalent in PCOS. Over 60 % of PCOS women are obese or overweight. Modulation of appetite and energy intake is essential to maintain energy balance and body weight. The gastrointestinal tract, where nutrients are digested and absorbed, plays a central role in energy homeostasis. The signals from the gastrointestinal tract arise from the stomach (ghrelin release), proximal small intestine (CCK release), and distal small intestine (GLP-1 and PYY) in response to food. These hormones are recognized as "appetite regulatory hormones." Weight loss is the key in the treatments of obese/overweight patients with PCOS. However, current non-pharmacologic management of body weight is hard to achieve. This review highlighted the gastrointestinal hormones, and discussed the potential strategies aimed at modifying hormones for treatment in PCOS. PMID:24791734

Ma, Jing; Lin, Tzu Chun; Liu, Wei

2014-12-01

331

Menopausal hormone therapy and menopausal symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A majority of women will experience bothersome symptoms related to declining and/or fluctuating levels of estrogen during their menopausal transition. Vasomotor symptoms, vaginal dryness, poor sleep, and depressed mood have all been found to worsen during the menopausal transition. While vasomotor symptoms gradually improve after menopause, the time course can be many years. Vaginal dryness does not improve without treatment, while the long-term course of sleep and mood deterioration is not clearly defined at this time. A small minority of women have vasomotor symptoms that persist throughout the remainder of their lives. These common menopausal symptoms all improve with estrogen treatment. Over the last 10 years, we have witnessed a dramatic reduction in enthusiasm for menopausal hormone therapy, despite its high efficacy relative to other treatments. We have also seen the emergence of sound, evidence-based clinical trials of non-hormonal alternatives that can control the common menopausal symptoms. Understanding the natural history of menopausal symptoms, and the risks and benefits of both hormonal and non-hormonal alternatives, helps the clinician individualize management plans to improve quality of life. PMID:24613533

Al-Safi, Zain A; Santoro, Nanette

2014-04-01

332

Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in the Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the earliest initial reports from Europe and the United States demonstrated that a variety of pharmaceuticals and hormones could be found in surface waters, source waters, drinking water, and influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It is unknown...

333

Thyroid Hormones in Rats with Hyperluteinized Ovaries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The findings of research work showed that animals with hyperluteinized ovaries (HL obtained after mechanical lesions in the posterior hypothalamus, the circulatory patterns of pituitary and ovarian steroid hormones were disturbed. In these animals the pre-ovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH was lower and prolactin (Prl was higher, while in early proestrus estradiol was higher, and progesterone in late proestrus was lower when compared to the intact controls. It is recognized that there is a close relationship between ovarian function and thyroid hormones, measured the serum content of total tri-iodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in animals with hyperluteinized ovaries obtained after mechanical lesions in the posterior hypothalamus. There were no a significant differences in the circulatory concentrations of these hormones between rats with HL and intact controls. Histological analysis also showed that there were no significant differences in structure of thyroids between the two groups of animals, although the weights of the thyroid glands in the lesioned animals were significantly heavier than in intact controls. These results showed that lesions in the posterior hypothalamus, which result in a disturbance of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis inducing HL, did not bring about changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis.

M. Demajo

2001-01-01

334

Hormonal responses in strenuous jumping effort.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to test the possibility for rapid responses of blood hormone levels in short-term supramaximal exercises, serum concentrations of corticotropin (ACTH), cortisol (C), total testosterone (tT), free testosterone (fT), growth hormone (GH), thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), prolactin (PRL), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined by RIA procedures in blood samples obtained before and immediately after a 60-s period of consecutive vertical jumps (Bosco test). The study subjects were 16 Italian professional soccer players. Immediately after exercise, significant increases (p performance (the increase of serum tT correlated with average power output, r = 0.61 and jumping height, r = 0.66). The larger the drop in power output during 60-s jumping, the higher was the thyroid response: the difference in jumping height between the first and last 15-s period correlated with increases in TSH (r = 0.52) and in fT4, (r = 0.55). In conclusion, the obtained results indicate that in intense exercise, causing the rapid development of fatigue, rapid increases in serum levels of hormones of the pituitary-adrenocortical, pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid systems occur. PMID:8743723

Bosco, C; Tihanyl, J; Rivalta, L; Parlato, G; Tranquilli, C; Pulvirenti, G; Foti, C; Viru, M; Viru, A

1996-02-01

335

Determination of hormone parathyroid by radioimmunoassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelling of bovine parathyroid hormone and its employment for the determination of seric PTH by radioimmunoanalysis is described. The specific activity of 131I PTH is 200-350mCi/mg and the damage 3-5%. The method used for radioimmunoanalysis was that of C.D. Arnaud and coworkers. (author)

336

Radiation and neuroregulatory control of growth hormone secretion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cranial irradiation frequently results in growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Patients with radiation-induced GH deficiency usually remain responsive to exogenous growth hormone releasing hormone, implying radiation damages the hypothalamus rather than the pituitary. Little is known about the effect of cranial irradiation on the neuroendocrine control of GH secretion. This study was to determine the effect of cranial irradiation on somatostatin tone. (Author)

337

Photoperiod-dependent negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones in Fundulus heteroclitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Fundulus heteroclitus, an annual cycle in the response of the thyroid to ovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (oTSH) is characterized by maximal thyroxin (T4) secretion in mid-winter and minimal T4 secretion in summer. Four daily injections of oTSH, given in winter caused serum T4 to plateau at elevated levels for several days, while in summer fish similar treatment resulted in far more fluctuating titers of serum T4; maximum levels were similar in both groups. The difference in sustenance rather than magnitude of Peak T4 led to an examination of the negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones as they might relate to these seasonal changes. Radioiodine uptake by thyroid follicles served as a simple, but effective bioassay for endogenous TSH. Fish collected in summer were more sensitive to negative feedback of T3 than those collected in winter; feedback effects of T4 in the two groups were not significantly different. The effects of specific photoperiods on negative feedback sensitivity to T3 and T4 were also tested. Exposure of winter fish for one month to long days (LD 14:10) enhanced the degree of reduction of iodine uptake caused by T4 in the aquarium water (10 micrograms/100 ml). Negative feedback in short-day (LD 8:16) winter fish was not demonstrated. It is concluded that long days increase and short days diminish the negative feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis to thyroid hormones in F. heteroclitus. Such photoperiodically induced changes s. Such photoperiodically induced changes may act to aid in the year-round maintenance of T4 levels necessary for seasonal adaptation and survival

338

Androgenic-anabolic steroid effects on serum thyroid, pituitary and steroid hormones in athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocrine responses in seven power athletes were investigated during a 12 week strength training period, when the athletes were taking high doses of androgenic-anabolic steroids, and during the 13 weeks following drug withdrawal. During the use of steroids significant decreases (P less than 0.05 to 0.001) in the serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triidothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyroid hormone-binding globulin (TBG) were found, whereas the value of triidothyronine uptake increased (P less than 0.001). In relation to the changes in the thyroid function parameters measured, we suggest that the primary target of androgen action was TBG biosynthesis. In five of the seven subjects, serum concentrations of growth hormone increased at some point of the study 5 to 60-fold. Because of the use of exogenous testosterone, serum testosterone concentration tended to increase. This increase was associated with a corresponding increase (P less than 0.001) in serum estradiol. Furthermore, there were major decreases in serum LH (P less than 0.01) and FSH (P less than 0.01) concentrations, and testicular testosterone production was therefore decreased. This was characterized by a very low serum testosterone concentration (5.1 +/- 1.8 nmol/l) 4 weeks following drug withdrawal. Cessation of drug use resulted in return of all the variables measured to the initial values, except for serum testosterone, which was at a low level (14.6 +/- 8.8 nmol/l) 9 weeks after drug withdrawal, indicating prolonged impairment of testicular endocrine function. No consistent changes were found in the eight control athletes. PMID:3661817

Alèn, M; Rahkila, P; Reinilä, M; Vihko, R

1987-01-01

339

Modulation of pituitary thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor levels by estrogens and thyroid hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of estradiol and thyroid hormone treatment on pituitary TRH binding and TSH and PRL responses to the neurohormone was studied. A significant increase in the number of pituitary TRH binding sites was observed between 2 and 4 days after daily administration of estradiol benzoate with a plateau at 300% of control being reached at 7 days. Plasma PRL levels showed a similar early pattern of response. In animals rendered hypothyroid by a 2-month treatment with propylthiouracil or 1 month after surgical thyroidectomy, the level of pituitary TRH receptors was increased approximately 2-fold, this elevation being completely reversed by treatment with thyroid hormone. Estradiol-17beta administered with L-thyroxine partially reversed the inhibitory effect of thyroid hormone on TRH receptor levels in hypothyroid animals. The antagonism between estrogens and thyroid hormone is also apparent on the TSH response to TRH since estrogen administration can reverse the marked inhibition by thyroxine of the TSH response to TRH either partially or completely in intact and hypothyroid animals, respectively. The PRL response to TRH is 55 and 40% inhibited in hypothyroid and intact rats, respectively, by thyroid hormone when combined with estrogen treatment. The present data clearly show that estrogens and thyroid hormones can affect TSH and PRL secretion, the effect of estrogens being predominantly on PRL secretion while thyroid hormone affects mainly TSH. The close correlation observed between the level of TRH receptors and PRL and TSH responses to TRH suggests that estrogens and, to a lesser extent, thyroid hormones, exert their action by modulation of the level of receptors for the neurohormone in both thyrotrophs and mammotrophs. PMID:192537

Léan, A D; Ferland, L; Drouin, J; Kelly, P A; Labrie, F

1977-06-01

340

Nitric oxide inhibits hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by releasing gamma-aminobutyric acid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing neurons, termed NOergic neurons, occur in various regions of the hypothalamus, including the median eminence-arcuate region, which plays an important role in controlling the release of luteinzing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). We examined the effect of NO on release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from medial basal hypothalamic (MBH) explants incubated in vitro. Sodium nitroprusside (NP) (300 microM), a spontaneous releaser of NO, doubled the releas...

Seilicovich, A.; Duvilanski, B. H.; Pisera, D.; Theas, S.; Gimeno, M.; Rettori, V.; Mccann, S. M.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Inhibitory pathways and the inhibition of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by alcohol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research we examined the mechanisms by which ethanol (EtOH) inhibits luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release from incubated medial basal hypothalamic explants. EtOH (100 mM) stimulated the release of two inhibitory neurotransmitters: ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ?-endorphin. EtOH also inhibited NO production, indicative of a suppression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. This inhibition was reversed by naltroxone (10?8 M), a ?-opioid receptor blocker, indicat...

Lomniczi, Alejandro; Mastronardi, Claudio A.; Faletti, Alicia G.; Seilicovich, Adriana; Laurentiis, Andrea; Mccann, Samuel M.; Rettori, Valeria

2000-01-01

342

Alcohol inhibits luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by activating the endocannabinoid system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We hypothesized that ethanol (EtOH) might act through the endocannabinoid system to inhibit luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release. Therefore, we examined the mechanism by which EtOH and anandamide (AEA), an endogenous cannabinoid, inhibit LHRH release from incubated medial basal hypothalamic explants. In previous work, we demonstrated that EtOH inhibits the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-stimulated release of LHRH by increasing the release of two neurotransmitters: ?-endorphin and ?...

Ferna?ndez-solari, Javier; Scorticati, Camila; Mohn, Claudia; Laurentiis, Andrea; Billi, Silvia; Franchi, Ana; Mccann, Samuel M.; Rettori, Valeria

2004-01-01

343

Decreased hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone content and pituitary responsiveness in hypothyroidism.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of thyroidectomy (Tx) and thyroxine replacement (T4Rx) on pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion and hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GRH) concentration were compared to define the mechanism of hypothyroid-associated GH deficiency. Thyroidectomized rats exhibited a complete loss of pulsatile GH secretion with extensive reduction in GRH responsiveness and pituitary GH content. Cultured pituitary cells from Tx rats exhibited reduced GRH sensitivity, maximal GH responsiveness, and...

Katakami, H.; Downs, T. R.; Frohman, L. A.

1986-01-01

344

Growth hormone: its physiology and control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone produced by the somatotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland of birds and other vertebrates. The secretion of GH in birds is under hypothalamic control; it involves three peptidergic releasing factors: growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) (stimulatory); thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) (stimulatory); and somatostatin (SRIF) (inhibitory). In addition, there is evidence for effects of biogenic amines (including serotonin and norepinephrine) and prostaglandins at the level of the hypothalamus and possibly also the pituitary gland. In all avian species examined, plasma concentrations of GH are high in young posthatching chicks but low in the adult and embryo. The difference in plasma concentrations of GH between young and adult birds is due to both greater GH secretion and reduced clearance. The lower secretion of GH in adult birds reflects fewer somatotrophs in the pituitary, changes in somatotroph structure, and reduced GH responses to TRH or GRF administration. There is only limited data on the role of GH in birds. GH appears to be required for normal growth; acting at least in part by increasing somatomedin production. However, plasma concentrations of GH do not necessarily correlate with growth rate. For instance, in chicks with reduced growth rate owing to either goitrogen or protein deficiency in the diet, plasma concentrations of GH are elevated. GH also can influence lipid metabolism by increasing lipolysis, decreasing lipogenesis, and stimulating the uptake of glucose by adipose tissue. The physiological significance of these actions is, however, not established. In addition, GH affects the secretion of other hormones, the immune system, and perhaps also the reproductive system. PMID:6151579

Scanes, C G; Lauterio, T J

1984-12-01

345

Modulation of angiogenesis by thyroid hormone and hormone analogues: implications for cancer management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acting via a cell surface receptor on integrin ?v?3, thyroid hormone is pro-angiogenic. Nongenomic mechanisms of actions of the hormone and hormone analogues at ?v?3 include modulation of activities of multiple vascular growth factor receptors and their ligands (vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor), as well as of angiogenic chemokines (CX3 family). Thyroid hormone also may increase activity of small molecules that support neovascularization (bradykinin, angiotensin II) and stimulate endothelial cell motility. Therapeutic angio-inhibition in the setting of cancer may be opposed by endogenous thyroid hormone, particularly when a single vascular growth factor is the treatment target. This may be a particular issue in management of aggressive or recurrent tumors. It is desirable to have access to chemotherapies that affect multiple steps in angiogenesis and to examine as alternatives in aggressive cancers the induction of subclinical hypothyroidism or use of antagonists of the ?v?3 thyroid hormone receptor that are under development. PMID:24458693

Mousa, Shaker A; Lin, Hung-Yun; Tang, Heng Yuan; Hercbergs, Aleck; Luidens, Mary K; Davis, Paul J

2014-07-01

346

A priming effect of gonadotrophin releasing hormone on luteinizing hormone secretion in the boar.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) can prime the anterior pituitary to a second dose of GnRH resulting in a greatly enhanced secretion of luteinizing hormone was examined in three adult boars. Four experiments were conducted: saline injection followed one hour later by a second saline injection (control); 1 microgram of synthetic GnRH injection followed one hour later by saline injection; saline injection followed one hour later by GnRH injection; GnRH injection followed one hour later by a second GnRH injection. Immunoassayable levels of plasma luteinizing hormone resulting from GnRH plus GnRH treatment were significantly greater than the sum obtained when values from GnRH plus saline and saline plus GnRH were added. Testosterone values in plasma reached maximal concentrations about 60 minutes after peak values of luteinizing hormone were achieved. The results suggest that the first dose of GnRH, in addition to stimulating release of luteinizing hormone can also sensitize the gonadotrophs to a second dose of GnRH causing a significantly greater release of luteinizing hormone. PMID:6751507

Liptrap, R M; Doble, E

1982-01-01

347

Enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone: applications to the study of growth hormone variants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for rat growth hormone was developed. In this assay soluble growth hormone and growth hormone adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-growth hormone antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-growth hormone complex is detected and quantified using goat anti-monkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horse radish peroxidase. Therefore, a high concentration of soluble growth hormone in the sample will result in low absorbance detection from the colored products of the enzyme reaction. Assay parameters were optimized by investigating the concentration of reagents and the reaction kinetics in each of the assay steps. The assay can be performed in 27 hours. A sensitivity range of 0.19 ng to 25 ng in the region of 10 to 90% binding was obtained. Near 50% binding (3 ng) the intraassay coefficient of variation (CV) was 5.54% and the interassay CV was 5.33%. The correlation coefficient (r/sup 2/) between radioimmunoassay and EIA was 0.956 and followed the curve Y = 0.78X + 1.0. 9 references, 6 figures.

Farrington, M.A.; Hymer, W.C.

1987-06-29

348

A woman with Pituitary Microadenoma: May Thyroid Hormone Resistance be a Cause? A case report and Review of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH is an inherited syndrome characterized by reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone. It is usually first suspected due to findings of high serum free thyroxine (T4 and free triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations and normal or slightly high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations. Herein, we report a 37-year-old woman presented with anxiety and sleeplessness. She was found to have elevated free T3 and T4 plasma concentrations without goiter, unsuppressed TSH and pituitary microadenoma. Thus, we performed tests for differential diagnosis between TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma and RTH. The patients with inappropriate TSH secretion caused by RTH or TSHomas are misdiagnosed and incorrectly treated. Current diagnostic strategies suggest that RTH patients are distinguishable from patients with TSH-secreting pituitary tumors by the use of standard laboratory tests and imaging. Here, we present a woman in whom the standard evaluation for inappropriate TSH secretion was insufficient to distinguish these entities. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 130-4

Ece Harman

2011-12-01

349

The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

350

Lipid profile and thyroid hormone status in the last trimester of pregnancy in single-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in lipid metabolism have been shown to occur during pregnancy. The thyroid hormones affect lipid metabolism. The present study was carried out to find out whether the last trimester of pregnancy affects thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), lipid, and lipoprotein profile in healthy dromedary camels. Twenty clinical healthy dromedary camels aged between 4-5 years were divided into two equal groups: (1) pregnant camels in their last trimester of pregnancy and (2) non-pregnant age-matched controls. Thyroid function tests were carried out by measuring serum levels of TSH, free thyroxin (fT4), total thyroxin (T4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and total triiodothyronine (T3) by commercially available radio immunoassay kits. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were analyzed using enzymatic/spectrophotometric methods while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and total lipid (TL) were calculated using Friedewald's and Raylander's formula, respectively. Serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones except fT4 did not show any significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. fT4 level was lower in the pregnant camels (P < 0.05). Serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, total lipid, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and VLDL did not show significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. All of these variables in pregnant camels were higher than non-pregnant. Based on the results of this study, the fetus load may not alter the thyroid status of the camel and the concentrations of thyroid hormones were not correlated with TSH and lipid profile levels in the healthy pregnant camels. PMID:24429808

Omidi, Arash; Sajedi, Zhila; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Ansari Nik, Hossein

2014-04-01

351

Deficiência progressiva dos hormônios adeno-hipofisários após radioterapia em adultos / Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A radioterapia é um dos fatores desencadeantes do hipopituitarismo, mesmo quando não direcionada diretamente para o eixo hipotálamo-hipofisário, podendo resultar em redução de hormônios adeno-hipofisários, principalmente por lesão hipotalâmica. A perda da função da hipófise anterior é progressiva e [...] geralmente na seguinte ordem: hormônio do crescimento, gonadotrofinas, adrenocorticotrofina e o hormônio estimulante da tireóide. Vários testes estão disponíveis para a confirmação das deficiências, sendo discutidos, neste artigo, os melhores testes para pacientes submetidos à irradiação. Enfatizamos que o desenvolvimento do hipopituitarismo após a radioterapia é dose e tempo dependente de irradiação, com algumas diferenças entre os eixos hipofisários. Portanto, a conscientização da necessidade de terapia em conjunto de endocrinologistas e oncologistas otimizará o tratamento e a qualidade de vida do paciente. Abstract in english Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: [...] growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients.

Rafaela A., Loureiro; Mário, Vaisman.

2004-10-01

352

Deficiência progressiva dos hormônios adeno-hipofisários após radioterapia em adultos / Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A radioterapia é um dos fatores desencadeantes do hipopituitarismo, mesmo quando não direcionada diretamente para o eixo hipotálamo-hipofisário, podendo resultar em redução de hormônios adeno-hipofisários, principalmente por lesão hipotalâmica. A perda da função da hipófise anterior é progressiva e [...] geralmente na seguinte ordem: hormônio do crescimento, gonadotrofinas, adrenocorticotrofina e o hormônio estimulante da tireóide. Vários testes estão disponíveis para a confirmação das deficiências, sendo discutidos, neste artigo, os melhores testes para pacientes submetidos à irradiação. Enfatizamos que o desenvolvimento do hipopituitarismo após a radioterapia é dose e tempo dependente de irradiação, com algumas diferenças entre os eixos hipofisários. Portanto, a conscientização da necessidade de terapia em conjunto de endocrinologistas e oncologistas otimizará o tratamento e a qualidade de vida do paciente. Abstract in english Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: [...] growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients.

Rafaela A., Loureiro; Mário, Vaisman.

353

Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos / Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonal [...] es o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1) Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2) Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3) Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética), síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP). Abstract in english We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and [...] , more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1) It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2) It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3) It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone), ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP).

L., Forga; E., Anda; J. P., Martínez de Esteban.

354

Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos / Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonal [...] es o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1) Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2) Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3) Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética), síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP). Abstract in english We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and [...] , more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1) It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2) It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3) It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone), ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP).

L., Forga; E., Anda; J. P., Martínez de Esteban.

2005-08-01

355

Thyroid hormone receptor binds to a site in the rat growth hormone promoter required for induction by thyroid hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. The authors have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. They show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor

356

Thyroid Hormone Receptor Binds to a Site in the Rat Growth Hormone Promoter Required for Induction by Thyroid Hormone  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. We have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. We show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor.

Koenig, Ronald J.; Brent, Gregory A.; Warne, Robert L.; Reed Larsen, P.; Moore, David D.

1987-08-01

357

Stilboestrol pretreatment of children with short stature does not affect the growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oestrogens are known to enhance both basal and stimulated GH secretion. To examine whether this effect is mediated through the hypothalamus or the pituitary we performed insulin tolerance and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) tests with and without oestrogen priming in a group of 14 short children. Pretreatment with stilboestrol increased basal levels of GH and both peak and incremental levels during insulin hypoglycaemia. In contrast, there was no effect of stilboestrol priming on the GH response ...

Ross, Rj; Grossman, A.; Davies, Ps; Savage, Mo; Besser, Gm

1987-01-01

358

CRC handbook of neurohypophyseal hormone analogs. Volume I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is discussed in two parts. Part one discusses Introductory Remarks. Nomenclature. Natural Forms of Neurohypophyseal Hormones. Synthesis, Purification, and Stability of the Neurohypophyseal Hormone Analogs. Isotopically Modified Analogs. Studies of Analogs Using Physiocochemical and Theoretical Methods. Conformational properties of Neurohypophyseal Hormone Analogs in Solution as Determined bu NMR and Laser Raman Spectroscopies. Other Methods used in the Investigation of Neurohypophyseal Hormone Analog Conformations. Conformation Properties of Analogs in Solution as Revealed by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy. Conformational Energy Calculations. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships. References. Part 2 discusses The Use of Neurohypophyseal Hormone Analogs in the Study of Neurophysin-Hormone Interactions. Enzymatic Inactivation. Immunochemistry. Studies of Neurohypopophyseal Hormone Activities at the Cellular Level. Fundamental Biological Evaluation. Important Structural Modifications. Noncoded Amino Acids. Modification of ..cap alpha..-Amino Group; 1-Deamino and 1-Hydroxy Analogs. Modifications in the Issulfide Bridge (Carba-Analogs). Modification of Other Functional Groups. Changes in the Backbone. References. Index.

Jost, K.; Lebl, M.; Brtnik, F.

1987-01-01

359

Hormone levels and RAIU of Hashimoto's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of hypothesis-thyroid axis hormone and results of RAIU (radioactive iodine uptake) in sixty-six patients with Hashimoto's disease have been determined. According to the diagnostic criterion of thyroid function, fifty-nine patients except seven doubtful patients are classified as normal (42.37%), subclinical hypothyroidism (38.98%), hypothyroidism (11.86%) and hyperthyroidism (6.78%). Dynamic observation proved that the above four conditions can be turned into each other. The values of hormone levels in subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism could be ordered as follows: TSH, TT4, rT3, TT3; TT3 in prior of TT4 in hyperthyroidism. The results of RAIU could be represented normal, decrease and increase but with high dispersion and no rule can be found

360

Dimerization of Human Growth Hormone by Zinc  

Science.gov (United States)

Size-exclusion chromatography and sedimentation equilibrium studies demonstrated that zinc ion (Zn2+) induced the dimerization of human growth hormone (hGH). Scatchard analysis of 65Zn2+ binding to hGH showed that two Zn2+ ions associate per dimer of hGH in a cooperative fashion. Cobalt (II) can substitute for Zn2+ in the hormone dimer and gives a visible spectrum characteristic of cobalt coordinated in a tetrahedral fashion by oxygen- and nitrogen-containing ligands. Replacement of potential Zn2+ ligands (His18, His21, and Glu174) in hGH with alanine weakened both Zn2+ binding and hGH dimer formation. The Zn2+-hGH dimer was more stable than monomeric hGH to denaturation in guanidine-HCl. Formation of a Zn2+-hGH dimeric complex may be important for storage of hGH in secretory granules.

Cunningham, Brian C.; Mulkerrin, Michael G.; Wells, James A.

1991-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

A novel pathway for hormonally active calcitriol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcitriol [1alpha,25(OH)2D3], the hormonally active form of vitamin D3 (D3) is produced in both renal and extrarenal tissues. Our findings demonstrate that physiological doses of UVB radiation at 300 nm induce the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) via preD3 and D3 into calcitriol in the pmol range in epidermal keratinocytes. The hydroxylation of photosynthesized D3 to calcitriol is strongly suppressed by ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidases. The UVB-induced formation of calcitriol in human skin is demonstrable in vivo by the microdialysis technique. These results suggest that human skin is an autonomous source of hormonally active calcitriol. PMID:11595824

Lehmann, B; Knuschke, P; Meurer, M

2000-01-01

362

Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.

Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.

Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.

Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet

Pierpaola D’Arista

2008-09-01

363

Changes in thyroid hormones in surgical trauma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A prospective study of 20 patients who underwent elective surgery, is presented reporting the effect of surgical trauma on circulating thyroid hormone levels. Although no increase in the serum T4 levels was observed following surgery, serum T3 values were found to decrease and serum rT3 values were found to increase in the post-operative period, representing activation of an alternate pathway in the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. Since trauma induces a hypermetabolic state due to hypersecretion of cortisol, alterations in thyroid hormone levels were concluded to represent an appropriate response in trauma to counter the effects of trauma-induced cortisol hypersecretion.

Arunabh

1992-07-01

364

Determination of the concentration of thyroid hormone in dialysate and assessment of the loss of thyroid hormone during hemodialysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine the hormone concentration in a dialysate, the commercially available radioimmunossay test of Dow-Lepetit for determination of free thyroid hormones in serum had to be modified. The results raised the suspicion that additional protein-bound hormone had passed the membrane. This could be demonstrated by the addition of Thiomersal. In 64 patients examined 1 and 5 hrs after the beginning of hemodialysis the mean total hormone concentration in the dialysate was 12.05 pg/ml for thyroxine and 5.47 pg/ml for triiodothyronine. The resulting loss of total hormone in hemodialysis patients, calculated for 1 week, amounted to 2.25 ?g triiodothyronine and 4.87 ?g thyroxine. The comparison with the physiologic renal elimination of thyroid hormone shows that the hormone elimination in hemodialysis patients is negligibly small. The quantitative determination of the protein concentration in the dialysate however, that the loss of protein is without clinical relevance. (orig.)

365

Cigarette smoking and steroid hormones in women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidemiological evidence has suggested that cigarette smoking has an anti-oestrogenic effect in women, but the effects of smoking on steroid hormone metabolism are not fully understood. We compared serum concentrations of oestradiol, progesterone (luteal phase) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), and urinary excretion rates of six steroids of predominantly adrenal origin, in healthy premenopausal and postmenopausal female smokers and non-smokers. Serum concentrations of oestradiol, ...

Key, Tj; Pike, Mc; Baron, Ja; Moore, Jw; Wang, Dy; Thomas, Bs; Bulbrook, Rd

1991-01-01

366

Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og tumorinduceret osteomalaci. Hyperfosfatæmisk familiær tumoral calcinosis er derimod associeret med forhøjet nedbrydning af FGF23. Måling af FGF23 er et differentialdiagnostisk redskab ved udredning af tilstande med længerevarende hypofosfatæmi. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May 17

Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

2010-01-01

367

Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED).

Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied mult...

Pierpaola D’Arista; Pamela Blanco; Mariangela Rutilo; Alice Mannocci; Antonio Ciocca; Pietro Bria

2008-01-01

368

Immunoprecipitation of the parathyroid hormone receptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An 125I-labeled synthetic analog of bovine parathyroid hormone, [8-norleucine,18-norleucine,34-tyrosine]PTH-(1-34) amide ([Nle]PTH-(1-34)-NH2), purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), was employed to label the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor in cell lines derived from PTH target tissues: the ROS 17/2.8 rat osteosarcoma of bone and the CV1 and COS monkey kidney lines. After incubation of the radioligand with intact cultured cells, the hormone was covalently attached to receptors by using either a photoaffinity technique or chemical (affinity) crosslinking. In each case, covalent labeling was specific, as evidenced by a reduction of labeling when excess competing nonradioactive ligand was present. After covalent attachment of radioligand, membranes were prepared form the cells and solubilized in the nonionic detergent Nonidet P-40 or octyl glucoside. Analysis of the immunoprecipitate on NaDod-SO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography revealed the presence of a doublet of apparent molecular mass 69-70 kDa. Specifically labeled bands of approximate molecular mass 95 and 28 kDa were also observed. The anti-PTH IgG was affinity purified by passage over a PTH-Sepharose column and used to made an immunoaffinity column. These studies suggest that the use of an anti-PTH antiserum that binds receptor-bound hormone is likely to be a useful step in the further physicochemical characterization and purificasicochemical characterization and purification of the PTH receptor

369

Plant hormone conjugation: A signal decision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tight regulation of the auxin hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is crucial for plant development. Newly discovered IAA antagonists are the amide-linked tryptophan conjugates of IAA and jasmonic acid (JA). JA-Trp and IAA-Trp interfered with root gravitropism in Arabidopsis, and inhibited several responses to exogenously supplied IAA. Relatively low concentrations of the inhibitors occurred in Arabidopsis, but Pisum sativum flowers contained over 300 pmole g?1 FW of JA-Trp. DihydroJA was an ...

Staswick, Paul

2009-01-01

370

Hormonal levels affect endometrial cancer drug efficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Modulating the hormonal environment in which endometrial cancers grow could make tumors significantly more sensitive to a new class of drugs known as PARP inhibitors, a researcher at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center has shown for the first time. The findings could lead to a novel one-two punch therapy to fight endometrial cancers and provide an alternative option for conventional treatments that, particularly in advanced disease, have limited efficacy.

371

Ageing, growth hormone and physical performance.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human ageing is associated to a declining activity of the GH/IGF-I axis and to several changes in body composition, function and metabolism which show strict similarities with those of younger adults with pathological GH deficiency. The age-related changes of the GH/IGF-I axis activity are mainly dependent on age-related variations in the hypothalamic control of somatotroph function, which is also affected by changes in peripheral hormones and metabolic input. The term "somatopause" indicates...

Giordano, Roberta; Lanfranco, Fabio; Arvat, Emanuela; Maccario, Mauro

2003-01-01

372

Hormonal pregnancy tests and congenital malformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some general practitioners are still using hormonal pregnancy tests despite the warning notice by the Committee on Safety of Medicines. In view of the possible fetal damage, this practice requires further action. 12 different preparations have been used. Only Primodos and Norlestrin are still available. These products are also used for the symptomatic treatment of secondary amenorrhea. The manufacturers' data sheets have been revised but the warning notice should be reinforced. A change in the name of the products is suggested. PMID:974708

Gal, I

1976-10-23

373

Internet informs parents about growth hormone  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Parent knowledge influences decisions regarding medical care for their children. Methods Parents of pediatric primary care patients aged 9-14 years, irrespective of height, participated in open focus groups (OFG). Moderators asked, “How do people find out about growth hormone (GH)?” Because many parents cited the Internet, the top 10 results from the Google searches, growth hormone children and parents of children who take growth hormone, were examined as representative. Three investigators independently performed content analysis, then reached consensus. Results were tabulated via summary statistics. Results Eighteen websites were reviewed, most with the purpose of education (56%) and many funded by commercial sources (44%). GH treatment information varied, with 33% of sites containing content only about U.S Food and Drug Administration-approved indications. Fifty-six percent of sites included information about psychosocial benefits from treatment, 44% acknowledging them as controversial. Although important to OFG participants, risks and costs were each omitted from 39% of websites. Conclusion Parents often turn to the Internet for GH-related information for their children, though its content may be incomplete and/or biased. Clinicians may want to provide parents with tools for critically evaluating Internet-based information, a list of pre-reviewed websites, or their own educational materials. PMID:23942255

Cousounis, Pamela; Lipman, Terri H.; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Grimberg, Adda

2013-01-01

374

Transport of thyroid hormone in brain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating thyroid hormone uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and the blood-CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8 play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed.

JosefKöhrle

2014-06-01

375

Growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jesús Devesa1,2, Nerea Casteleiro2, Cristina Rodicio2, Natalia López2, Pedro Reimunde1,21Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2Medical Center Proyecto Foltra, 15886 Teo, SpainAbstract: Cerebral palsy (CP is a catastrophic acquired disease, occurring during development of the fetal or infant brain. It mainly affects the motor control centres of the developing brain, but can also affect cognitive functions, and is usually accompanied by a cohort of symptoms including lack of communication, epilepsy, and alterations in behavior. Most children with cerebral palsy exhibit a short stature, progressively declining from birth to puberty. We tested here whether this lack of normal growth might be due to an impaired or deficient growth hormone (GH secretion. Our study sample comprised 46 CP children, of which 28 were male and 18 were female, aged between 3 and 11. Data obtained show that 70% of these children lack normal GH secretion. We conclude that GH replacement therapy should be implemented early for CP children, not only to allow them to achieve a normal height, but also because of the known neurotrophic effects of the hormone, perhaps allowing for the correction of some of the common disabilities experienced by CP children.Keywords: growth hormone, IGF-I, cerebral palsy, short stature

Jesús Devesa

2010-09-01

376

Incretin hormones as immunomodulators of atherosclerosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atherosclerosis results from endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammatory processes affecting both macro-and microvasculature which are involved in vascular diabetic complications. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally as opposed to intravenously and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. GLP-1 based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor (R agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4, an enzyme that degrades endogenous GLP-1 are routinely used to treat patients with T2D. Recent experimental model studies have established that GLP-1R mRNA is widely expressed in several immune cells. Moreover, its activation contributes to the regulation of both thymocyte and peripheral T cells proliferation and is involved in the maintenance of peripheral regulatory T cells. GLP-1 R is also expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The effect of incretin hormones on atherosclerogenesis have recently been studied in animal models of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apo E-/-. These studies have demonstrated that treatment with incretin hormones or related compounds suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis and macrophage infiltration in the arterial wall as well as a marked anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells. This effect may have a major impact on the attenuation of atherosclerosis and may help in the design of new therapies for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

NuriaAlonso

2012-09-01

377

Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fat mass and abdominal fat mass in particular. It is also recognized that obesity and abdominal obesity in particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise interventions.

Rasmussen, Michael HØjby

2009-01-01

378

Personality × hormone interactions in adolescent externalizing psychopathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The "dual-hormone" hypothesis predicts that testosterone and cortisol will jointly regulate aggressive and socially dominant behavior in children and adults (e.g., Mehta & Josephs, 2010). The present study extends research on the dual-hormone hypothesis by testing the interaction between testosterone, cortisol, and personality disorder (PD) traits in predicting externalizing problems in a community sample of adolescent males and females. Participants were 106 youth from the community, ranging in age from 13-18 (Mage = 16.01 years, SDage = 1.29), and their parents. Parents and youth provided ratings on an omnibus measure of personality pathology and externalizing problems. Youth provided saliva samples via passive drool from which testosterone and cortisol levels were obtained. Robust moderation of the joint effects of testosterone and cortisol on parent-reported externalizing problems was found for both higher-order PD traits associated with externalizing psychopathology (Disagreeableness and Emotional Instability). Higher testosterone was associated with externalizing outcomes, but only when cortisol was low, and only among youth with high levels of Disagreeableness and Emotional Instability. These findings provide the first evidence for the dual-hormone hypothesis in a mixed-sex sample of community adolescents, but importantly offer novel evidence for the importance of personality traits. Examination of the joint regulation of externalizing problems by testosterone and cortisol in the context of adolescent personality may help to clarify inconsistent main effects of testosterone and cortisol on clinical externalizing phenotypes. PMID:24932763

Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Harden, K Paige; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Josephs, Robert A

2014-07-01

379

[Cryptorchism: basic concepts and hormonal therapy].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors analyze the clinical results of 368 cryptorchid testis that received intramuscular human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), at the dose of 50 U/kg once a week for 6 weeks. The patients with inguinal anatomical abnormalities or only with subtle retractility were excluded. There was a correlation among the testicle position, the cryptorchism side, the patient's age at the time of the therapy and the results obtained. We observed (i) a delay on child referral; (ii) concurrence of cryptorchism and systemic diseases, most of them with genetical origin; (iii) better results was obtained in children with retractile testis, older than 4 years old and with bilateral cryptorchism. The efficacy of second hormonal treatment was only present in retractile testis that showed partial response to the first hormonal therapy. It is argued that, although the treatment of children under 2 is less effective, the possible prevention of testicular lesions for this early intervention justify the hormonal therapy between 6 and 9 months of life. PMID:14688838

Longui, C A; Calliari, L E; Rodrigues, A G; Kochi, C; Domingues, A M; Kaneko, W; Monte, O

1994-01-01

380

Hormone profile of menopausal women in Havana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: There is a tendency among women today to delay the age at which they have their first child or subsequent children. This creates a dilemma for couples, since health professionals tend to counsel against pregnancy in women aged >40 years without considering their reproductive potential [...] and their ability to and likelihood of conceiving and carrying to term a healthy newborn at little or no risk. OBJECTIVE: Assess hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in menopausal women in Havana, to evaluate relevance to reproductive potential. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted from March 2006 through March 2008 of 230 healthy women aged 40-59 years seen in the Menopause and Osteoporosis Clinic in Havana, Cuba. Chart review yielded data on current age, stage of climacteric and hormone levels expressed in means and standard deviations: serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and testosterone. Analysis of variance was used for assesment by age group and stage of menopause (eumenorrheic, perimenopausal and postmenopausal), with a p value of

Daysi, Navarro; Alina, Acosta; Erick, Robles; Cóssette, Díaz.

2012-04-01