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Sample records for hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone

  1. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved double antibody radioimmunoassay method is described for the determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in biological and other fluids. Highly purified second antibody is immobilised on to hydrophilic, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles of a suspendable size to form a solid phase second antibody reagent. The immobilised second antibody reagent is used to precipitate the reaction product of the first antibody with labelled and unlabelled thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-anti-TSH-complex) so as to produce a two-phase system which permits rapid and efficient separation of bound TSH in the solid phase from free TSH in the liquid phase. Details of the preparation of this novel second antibody-polyacrylamide reagent and of the assay procedure for human TSH are described. (U.K.)

  2. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  3. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Thyroglobulin, and Thyroid Hormones and Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Ostergaard, Jane Nautrup; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Molina, Esther; Larrañaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Almquist, Martin; Sandström, Maria; Hennings, Joakim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Schmidt, Julie; Travis, Ruth C; Byrnes, Graham; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased levels of thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) risk, but strong epidemiological evidence is lacking. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-seven incident TC case patients (n = 300 women and 57 men; mean age at blood collection = 51.5 years) were identified in the EPIC cohort study and matched with 2 (women) or 3 (men) control subjects using incidence density sampling. Matching included study center, sex, a...

  4. Establishment of chemiluminescence immunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemiluminescence immunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone in human serum was developed. Two monoclonal antibodies of TSH were used in the assay, one of which was labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the other was coated on the microtiter plate. Luminol was used as the substrate of HRP and hydrogen peroxide was introduced into this system. The standard range of the method is 0.1- 100 mIU/L. The assay sensitivity is 0.04 mIU/L. The intra and inter-assay coefficients of variance are 3.98 %-6.48% and 4.61%-13.1%. Analytical recovery is 95.8%- 117.4%. The correlation coefficient between measured and expected values is more than 0.99. The cross reaction rate with LH is less than 1.62%, and that with FSH and HCG is less than 0.05% and 0.02%, respectively. Compared with determine value clinically in chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) kit from Roche company, the correlative equation is y=1.10x-0.207, and correlation coefficient is 0.969. Compared with immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kit, the correlative equation is y=1.00x+0.191, and correlation coefficient is 0.965. This method is rapid and convenient, and it is suitable for clinical and research application. (authors)

  5. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Measurement of Intracellular, Secreted, and Circulating Hormone in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced in the pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormone (TH). The concentration of TH controls developmental changes that take place in a wide variety of organisms. Many use the metaphoric ch...

  6. Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

  7. Association of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene (TSHR) with Graves' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Oliver J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Simmonds, Matthew J; Newby, Paul R; McCabe, Christopher J; Bruce, Christopher K; Kysela, Boris; Carr-Smith, Jackie D; Brix, Thomas; Hunt, Penny J; Wiersinga, Wilmar M; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Connell, John; Wass, John A H; Franklyn, Jayne A; Weetman, Anthony P; Heward, Joanne M; Gough, Stephen C L

    2009-01-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is a common autoimmune disease (AID) that shares many of its susceptibility loci with other AIDs. The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) represents the primary autoantigen in GD, in which autoantibodies bind to the receptor and mimic its ligand, thyroid stimulating...... hormone, causing the characteristic clinical phenotype. Although early studies investigating the TSHR and GD proved inconclusive, more recently we provided convincing evidence for association of the TSHR region with disease. In the current study, we investigated a combined panel of 98 SNPs, including 70...

  8. Preparation of quality control samples in radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To days, the radioimmunoassay is becomes the best technique to analysis different concentrations of substance, especially in medical and research laboratories. Although the specificity of RIA techniques, the quality controls must takes place to give good results as possible. In this dissertation i prepared quality control samples of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), to use it in RIA techniques and to control the reliability results of those laboratories which used these methods. We used China production kits of RIA method to determine the level of hormone (low-normal-high) concentration. Statistical parameters were used to drown the control chart of the mean to these data.(Author)

  9. Historical Note: Many Steps Led to the ‘Discovery’ of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, James

    2014-01-01

    Finding thyroid-stimulating hormone was a process rather than a circumscribed event, and many talented persons participated over many years. Key early participants were Bennet M. Allen and Philip E. Smith who had the misfortune just prior to World War I of independently and simultaneously starting very similar experiments with tadpoles. This led to a series of back and forth publications attempting to establish priority for finding evidence of a thyrotropic factor in the anterior pituitary. Decades of work by others would be required before sophisticated biochemical techniques would bring us to our modern understanding. PMID:25114872

  10. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism.

  11. Paracrine interactions of thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulation hormone in the female reproductive tract have an impact on female fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnneliStavreus-Evers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disease often causes menstrual disturbances and infertility problems. Thyroid hormone (TH acts through its receptors, transcription factors present in most cell types in the body. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH stimulates TH synthesis in the thyroid gland, but seems to have other functions as well in the female reproductive tract. The receptors of both TH and TSH increase in the receptive endometrium, suggesting that they are important for implantation, possible by influencing inflammatory mediators such as LIF. The roles of these receptors in the ovary need further studies. However, it is likely that the thyroid system is important for both follicular and embryo development. The association between thyroid disease and infertility indicate that TH and TSH affect the endometrium and ovary on the paracrine level.

  12. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

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    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  13. Development of magnetic solid phase immunoradiometric assay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid-stimulating homone (SH), or thyrotropin, is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 28.000 secreted by the pituitary gland. TSH is composed of tow subnits of approximately equalsize, called ? and ?. Other hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), both secerted by the pituitary, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the placenta, have ? subunits virtually identical to that of TSH, but there are important differences in their ? subunits. These differences confer biological specificity on the complete molecules and allow them to be distinguished in immunassays. The TSH magnetic soild phase immunoradiometric technique incorporates two high affinity monoclonal antibodies one of which is labeled with 125I which attached quickly to a unique site on the TSH motecule, while the second monoclonal antibody immobilized onto magnetic cellulose iron oxide particles, linked to other distinct site on the TSH molecule forming a sandwich. In this study the magnetic particles were firstly activated by carbonyl dimedazole then coupled with anti-TSH monoclonal antibodies which then allowedto bind with TSH hormone. The TSH magnetic soild phase immunoradiometric system, will be optimized where the characterization of the system including accuracy, specificity, sensitivity an dcomparative studies by compare the results of the prepared system with that of commericially used system

  14. Clinical evaluation of highly sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone immunoradiometric assay (RIABEAD II) kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify clinical evaluation of highly sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using RIABEAD II kit, we measured serum TSH and its changes after TRH test in normal subjects and patients with hyper- or hypo-thyroidism due to Grave's disease, TSH producing pituitary adenoma and chronic thyroiditis or Refetoff's syndrome. In 12 normals, basal TSH (0.23 - 1.85 ?IU/ml) increased in 2.29 - 18.85 ?IU/ml 30 min after TRH test. In patients whose serum TSH and thyroid hormone showed less than 0.10 ?IU/ml and more than normal level, respectively, no response of TSH to TRH was observed, while in patients whose serum TSH and thyroid hormone showed more than 3.5 ?IU/ml and less than normal level, respectively, hyperresponse of TSH to TRH was observed. In patients with hyper- or hypo-thyroidism, changes in serum TSH after treatment were normalized a few months later after normalizing of thyroid hormone. In patients with TSH-producing pituitary tumor or Refetoff's syndrome, serum TSH increased. These results show that serum TSH using IRMA-(RIABEAD II) kit indicates a precise function of pituitary TSH. (author)

  15. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24836306

  16. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?

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    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12 th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99mTc thyroid scan. Disproportionately high TSH in comparison to low maternal antithyroid drug dosage and further elevation of TSH after stopping mother?s antithyroid drugs ruled out maternal antithyroid drug-induced congenital hypothyroidism in the baby. Early institution of therapy in these patients can prevent mental retardation and other features of hypothyroidism.

  17. Evaluation and comparison of high-sensitivity immunoradiometric assay kits for thyroid stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental and clinical characteristics of 3 kinds of high-sensitivity immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kits for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). i.e., RIA BEADS II (kit A), TSH kit Daiichi II (kit B) and Ab tube TSH 'Eiken' (kit C) and one conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit, i.e., TSH kit Daiichi (kit D), were studied. In the recovery test and the reproducibility test, there was no significant difference between the 4 kits. The sensitivities of kits A, B and C were much higher than that of kit D, and those IRMA kits were sensitive enough to distinguish hyperthyroidism from normal samples. For low concentrations of TSH (< 5 ?U/ml), the data from kits D, B, C and A tended to show higher values in that order. The correlation between the data measured by kits B and D, and the tendency of kit A toward lower values agreed well with other reports. (author)

  18. CONTROL OF PITUITARY THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE SECRETION BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS DURING XENOPUS METAMORPHOSIS

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    Robin M Sternberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that the rate of thyroid-stimulating hormone ? (TSH? secretion by pituitaries from climactic Xenopus laevis tadpoles increases over time in culture. This implies that TSH? secretion during the climactic stages of Xenopus metamorphosis is under strict negative regulation by an extra-pituitary hormone. Using ex vivo experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the hypothalamus is a potential source of this negative regulatory signal for TSH? secretion. Pituitaries from X. laevis tadpoles (NF stages 54 – 66 and post-metamorphic froglets (2 weeks post-NF stage 66 were cultured alone or with attached hypothalamic tissue (i.e., pituitary-hypothalamic complexes for up to 72 hours, and the collected media was analyzed for TSH? via ELISA. Results showed that complexes from pre-NF stage 66 tadpoles secreted significantly and dramatically less TSH? than pre-NF stage 66 pituitaries whereas a difference in TSH? secretion by complexes and pituitaries from NF stage 66 tadpoles and 2 weeks post-metamorphic froglets was not detected. The results of these experiments allow us to conclude that the hypothalamus negatively regulates pituitary TSH? secretion during the thyroid hormone-dependent stages of Xenopus metamorphosis but not afterwards. Ongoing studies are seeking to ascertain the identity of the negative regulatory signal from the hypothalamus.

  19. Relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone and various components of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the relation between thyroid stimulating hormone and various components of metabolic syndrome. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology department, Army Medical College of National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad and Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan; from January to March 2013. Material and Methods: Hundred adult inhabitants (30-60 years) of Rawalpindi participated in this study. Subjects who fulfilled the WHO criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) were included and those who had any thyroid illness, or were using any thyroid medications were excluded from this study. For thyroid function tests (TFT's), serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (TT3), free throxine (FT4) were estimated. Insulin resistance (IR) was measured by Homeostasis Model Assessment for IR (HOMA-IR). Data was analyzed by SPSS-18. Results: Out of 50 subjects of control group, 26 (52%) were male and 24 (48%) were female. Basal metabolic rate (BMI), serum triglyceride (TG), HOMA-IR were higher and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was lower in MetS patients. There was no significant difference in serum TT3 and FT4 between MetS patients and control group, however, mean serum TSH levels were higher in MetS (2.622 + 0.924 vs 5.002 + 1.074 mIU/l, p<0.001). In correlation analysis, serum TSH was positively and significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.344, p=0.014) and HOMA-IR (r=0.419, p<0.002). Conclusion: These results suggest that serum TSH correlates with various components of metabolic syndrome patients. Analysis of serum TSH levels in metabolic syndrome patients may prove beneficial in preventing the various cardiometabolic complications in such patients. (author)

  20. A comparison of immunoenzymometric assays for human thyroid stimulating hormone and human growth hormone with established immunoradiometric assay methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-site immunoenzymometric assays (IEMAs) utilizing polyclonal antisera coated microtitre well (solid phase) and horse radish peroxidase labelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) have been developed with a view to supplying a non-radioisotopic immunoassay system for use in a bulk matched reagent scheme. A two state assay format with a spectrophotometric end point readout was chosen. Results for the pituitary hormones human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) and human growth hormone (hGH) are presented. Assay characteristics and performance of these IEMAs compared favourably with existing immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) which use microcrystalline cellulose coupled solid phase antibody and 125I labelled MAb. Intra-assay analytical precision was similar for both hTSH methods but slightly worse for the hGH IEMA. Relative to IRMA, mean IEMA sensitivity was better for the hTSH, but worse for hGH. However, ''working ranges'' with analytical imprecision of less than 10% covered the distribution of standards in all assays. Good agreement was obtained between methods for patient hTSH specimens up to 12.5 mIU/L but a concentration-dependent negative bias developed in the IEMA at higher hTSH levels. A similar bias was observed in the hGH IEMA. The bias was traced to a ''matrix effect'' due to the hTSH-free horse serum used to prepare standards. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  1. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and developmental regulation of a novel receptor from Drosophila melanogaster structurally related to members of the thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide probes derived from consensus sequences for glycoprotein hormone receptors, we have cloned an 831-amino acid residue-long receptor from Drosophila melanogaster that shows a striking structural homology with members of the glycoprotein hormone (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG)) receptor family from mammals. This homology includes a very large, extracellular N terminus (20% sequence identity ...

  2. Gender and Age Impact on the Association Between Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Serum Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Tan, Jian; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Guizhi; Wang, Renfei; He, Yajing; Ren, Xiaojun; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Wang, Shen; Li, Xue; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Tianpeng; Liu, Na; Upadhyaya, Arun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hyperlipidemia is still a topic of debate. We aimed to explore the impact of gender and age on the association between serum TSH and lipid profile in a large cohort of Chinese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 13,915 participants (8565 male, 5350 female), who self-reported as healthy without any known previous diseases. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements, thyroid function, and other serum parameters were collected. The associations between TSH and hyperlipidemia of males and females were analyzed separately after dividing TSH and age into subgroups. Odds ratio for hyperlipidemia was calculated by binary logistic regression models.Young males had significantly higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and high serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol than females, yet after menopause, females had higher prevalence than males. TSH was positively associated with hyperlipidemia independent of thyroid hormones. Males showed more reduced risks of hyperlipidemia in low TSH concentrations, while females demonstrated more enhanced risks of hyperlipidemia in high TSH concentrations. For instance, if TSH was lower than 0.3??IU/mL, the risks of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in males were only 0.198 (P??0.05), respectively. If TSH was higher than 4.0??IU/mL, women displayed significantly higher risks of developing hypertriglyceridemia than the reference TSH risks (P?hormone independent positive associations between serum TSH and lipids, which were substantially influenced by gender and age. Males demonstrated more protective effects of low TSH against hyperlipidemia, while females showed more detrimental effects of high TSH on hyperlipidemia. PMID:26656346

  3. Extended clinical utility of a sensitive and reliable radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmann, R E; Rubenstein, H A; Pugeat, M M; Nisula, B C

    1983-08-01

    We have developed a radioimmunoassay for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that is sufficiently sensitive to permit reliable measurement of subnormal serum TSH levels. We report our evaluation of the utility of this radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. In 59 normal subjects, the mean serum TSH level was 1.49 +/- 0.10 microU/ml (mean +/- SEM) with the range 0.5 to 4.5 microU/ml. In patients without pituitary-hypothalamic lesions, the serum TSH level accurately reflected thyroid status, being subnormal in 29 hyperthyroid patients, supranormal in 26 hypothyroid patients, and normal in 31 euthyroid patients being treated for nonthyroid conditions. In patients being treated for either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, the serum TSH level appeared to be a sensitive indicator of thyroid status, and its return to normal appeared to be a useful therapeutic criterion. We conclude that improving the sensitivtity and reliability of the serum TSH radioimmunoassay greatly extends its clinical applications. PMID:6879292

  4. Relationship of serum thyroid stimulating hormone with body mass index in healthy adults

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    Amrita Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate any possible relationship between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with body mass index (BMI in healthy adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 417 subjects aged 18-60 years who volunteered to get screened for thyroid illness with serum TSH have been enrolled from November 2012 to July 2013. Patients were divided into four groups based on BMI value: Underweight (BMI <18 kg/m 2 , normal (BMI: 18-22.9 kg/m 2 , overweight (BMI: 23-24.9 kg/m 2 , and obese (BMI ?25 kg/m 2 . Result: In our study we found a significant variation (P < 0.001 in TSH with increasing BMI. As the BMI increased, mean TSH in the BMI range also increased. The individuals with higher BMI had higher TSH and this trend continued from underweight to Obese. The mean TSH of underweight group was 1.6036 mIU/L, normal weight group 2.1727 mIU/L, overweight group 2.2870 mIU/L and obese group 2.6416 mIU/L. Conclusion: In this study we found a significant relationship between serum TSH and BMI and mean TSH increased as BMI increased. Further large scale data from the population is required to confirm our findings.

  5. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  6. Measurement of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins using a novel thyroid stimulating hormone receptor–guanine nucleotide-binding protein, (GNAS) fusion bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, M; Sandrock, R; Gillespie, G; Meikle, A W

    2012-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism, defined by overproduction of thyroid hormones, has a 2–3% prevalence in the population. The most common form of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. A diagnostic biomarker for Graves' disease is the presence of immunoglobulins which bind to, and stimulate, the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We hypothesized that the ectopically expressed TSHR gene in a thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) assay could be engineered to increase the accumulation of the GPCR pathway second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), the molecule measured in the assay as a marker for pathway activation. An ectopically expressing TSHR-mutant guanine nucleotide-binding protein, (GNAS) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell clone was constructed using standard molecular biology techniques. After incubation of the new clone with sera containing various levels of TSI, GPCR pathway activation was then quantified by measuring cAMP accumulation in the clone. The clone, together with a NaCl-free cell assay buffer containing 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG)6000, was tested against 56 Graves' patients, 27 toxic thyroid nodule patients and 119 normal patients. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, when comparing normal with Graves' sera, the assay yielded a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 99% and an efficiency of 98%. Total complex precision (within-run, across runs and across days), presented as a percentage coefficient of variation, was found to be 7·8, 8·7 and 7·6% for low, medium and high TSI responding serum, respectively. We conclude that the performance of the new TSI assay provides sensitive detection of TSI, allowing for accurate, early detection of Graves' disease. PMID:23039881

  7. Measurement of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins using a novel thyroid stimulating hormone receptor-guanine nucleotide-binding protein, (GNAS) fusion bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, M; Sandrock, R; Gillespie, G; Meikle, A W

    2012-11-01

    Hyperthyroidism, defined by overproduction of thyroid hormones, has a 2-3% prevalence in the population. The most common form of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. A diagnostic biomarker for Graves' disease is the presence of immunoglobulins which bind to, and stimulate, the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We hypothesized that the ectopically expressed TSHR gene in a thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) assay could be engineered to increase the accumulation of the GPCR pathway second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), the molecule measured in the assay as a marker for pathway activation. An ectopically expressing TSHR-mutant guanine nucleotide-binding protein, (GNAS) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell clone was constructed using standard molecular biology techniques. After incubation of the new clone with sera containing various levels of TSI, GPCR pathway activation was then quantified by measuring cAMP accumulation in the clone. The clone, together with a NaCl-free cell assay buffer containing 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG)6000, was tested against 56 Graves' patients, 27 toxic thyroid nodule patients and 119 normal patients. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, when comparing normal with Graves' sera, the assay yielded a sensitivity of 93%, a specificity of 99% and an efficiency of 98%. Total complex precision (within-run, across runs and across days), presented as a percentage coefficient of variation, was found to be 7·8, 8·7 and 7·6% for low, medium and high TSI responding serum, respectively. We conclude that the performance of the new TSI assay provides sensitive detection of TSI, allowing for accurate, early detection of Graves' disease. PMID:23039881

  8. Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

  9. Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels in patients with gout treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Atxotegi, Joana; Urionagüena, Irati; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles

    2015-11-01

    Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the upper normal limit has been reported in a small percentage of patients treated with febuxostat in clinical trials, but a mechanistic explanation is not yet available. In an observational parallel longitudinal cohort study, we evaluated changes in TSH levels in patients with gout at baseline and during urate-lowering treatment with febuxostat. Patients to be started on allopurinol who had a measurement of TSH in the 6-month period prior to baseline evaluation were used for comparison. TSH levels and change in TSH levels at 12-month follow-up were compared between groups. Patients with abnormal TSH levels or previous thyroid disease or on amiodarone were not included for analysis. Eighty-eight patients treated with febuxostat and 87 with allopurinol were available for comparisons. Patients to be treated with febuxostat had higher urate levels and TSH levels, more severe gout, and poorer renal function, but were similar regarding other characteristics. A similar rise in TSH levels was observed in both groups (0.4 and 0.5 µUI/mL for febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively); at 12-mo, 7/88 (7.9 %) of patients on febuxostat and 4/87 (3.4 %) of patients on allopurinol showed TSH levels over 0.5 µUI/mL. Doses prescribed (corrected for estimated glomerular filtration rate in the case if patients on allopurinol) and baseline TSH levels were determinants of TSH levels at 12-month follow-up. No impact on free T4 (fT4) levels was observed. Febuxostat, but also allopurinol, increased TSH levels in a dose-dependent way, thus suggesting rather a class effect than a drug effect, but with no apparent impact on either clinical or fT4 levels. PMID:26342297

  10. Development of serum-free bioreactor production of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiens, L R; Büntemeyer, H; Lütkemeyer, D; Lehmann, J; Bergmann, A; Weglöhner, W

    2000-01-01

    For the detection of autoantibodies to thyroid stimulating hormone receptors (TSH-R) in Graves' disease based on a novel coated tube assay system, human TSH-R is needed in large amounts. Whereas expression of TSH-R in bacteria, yeast, or insect cells results in nonfunctional, denaturated receptor, mammalian cells such as COS, CHO, and HeLa are able to express functional TSH-R, but only in very low amounts. Furthermore, for all of these cultivations expensive standard media containing 10% fetal calf serum are needed to obtain functional receptor. Here we report on the development of a serum-free production-scale process based on a stable transformed and highly productive human leukemia cell line K562 (1). Starting with K562-TSH-R cells growing in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum the cell line was adapted to serum-free medium. The adaptation medium was optimized in regards to amino acid and protein concentrations, since the use of unadjusted medium caused cell death after 2 days. The adapted cells were stable and could be cultivated without antibiotics for more than 50 cell doublings without losing their productivity. The obtained receptor showed improved TSH binding. The process development was based on cultivations in a 2-L bench-scale bioreactor. Cultivations in batch mode and chemostat mode and perfusion cultivation with the usage of an internal microfiltration device and a spin-filter device were compared. After process optimization a continuous process using spin-filter was set up and run in a 20 L-pilot-scale bioreactor. The presented results were the prerequisite for the production of the novel assay for the diagnosis of autoantibodies to TSH-R in Graves' disease. PMID:11027160

  11. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Thyroglobulin, and Thyroid Hormones and Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma : The EPIC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased levels of thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) risk, but strong epidemiological evidence is lacking. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-seven incident TC case patients (n = 300 women and 57 men; mean age at blood collection = 51.5 years) were identified in the EPIC cohort study and matched with 2 (women) or 3 (men) control subjects using incidence density sampling. Matching included study center, sex, age, date, time, and fasting status at blood collection. Levels of total and free (f) thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-thyronine (T3), TSH, Tg, and anti-Tg antibodies (TgAb) were measured by commercially available immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: TC risk was positively associated with Tg (OR for the highest vs lowest quartile = 9.15; 95% CI = 5.28 to 15.90; P < .001) and negatively associatedwith TSH level (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.81; P = .001). Odds ratios were not modified by adjustment for weight and height and were consistent across sexes, age groups, and countries. The association with Tg was stronger in follicular than papillary TC. The odds ratio for TgAb-positivity was 1.50 (95% CI = 1.05 to 2.15; P = .03). Among case patients, TSH level was stable over time, whereas Tg level was higher in proximity to TC diagnosis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 57% and 74% for TSH and Tg level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: High Tg levels precede by up to 8 years the detection of TC, pointing to a long sojourn time of the disease. Low TSH levels may predispose to TC onset. Neither marker has sufficient accuracy to be a screening test.

  12. Melatonin in the thyroid gland: regulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone and role in thyroglobulin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marin, R; Fernandez-Santos, J M; Morillo-Bernal, J; Gordillo-Martinez, F; Vazquez-Roman, V; Utrilla, J C; Carrillo-Vico, A; Guerrero, J M; Martin-Lacave, I

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is an indoleamine with multiple functions in both plant and animal species. In addition to data in literature describing many other important roles for melatonin, such as antioxidant, circadian rhythm controlling, anti-aging, antiproliferative or immunomodulatory activities, our group recently reported that thyroid C-cells synthesize melatonin and suggested a paracrine role for this molecule in the regulation of thyroid activity. To discern the role played by melatonin at thyroid level and its involvement in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, in the present study we have analyzed the effect of thyrotropin in the regulation of the enzymatic machinery for melatonin biosynthesis in C cells as well as the effect of melatonin in the regulation of thyroid hormone biosynthesis in thyrocytes. Our results show that the key enzymes for melatonin biosynthesis (AANAT and ASMT) are regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, exogenous melatonin increases thyroglobulin expression at mRNA and protein levels on cultured thyrocytes and this effect is not strictly mediated by the upregulation of TTF1 or, noteworthy, PAX8 transcription factors. The present data show that thyroid C-cells synthesize melatonin under thyroid-stimulating hormone control and, consistently with previous data, support the hypothesis of a paracrine role for C-cell-synthesised melatonin within the thyroid gland. Additionally, in the present study we show evidence for the involvement of melatonin in thyroid function by directly-regulating thyroglobulin gene expression in follicular cells. PMID:26579570

  13. Neonatal iodine status survey by thyroid-stimulating hormone screening in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Untario

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background lodine deficiency disorders (IDD are a significant public health problem globally. Iodine deficiency may cause subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early infancy. Neonatal thyroid screening of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH to detected hypothyroidism may olso be used to determine the prevcalence of IDD in a population. Previous studies reported mild IDD status in differen parts of Indonesia Objective To evaluate the iodine status of neonates born in Mitra Keluarga Surabaya Hospital (MKSH by TSH screening over a 6-year period. Methods This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study conducted in MKSH from January 2005 to December 2010. Of the 5,619 infants took part in this study. Blood specimens for TSH measurement were collected from subjects 2 to 6 days after birth, and sent to a reference laboraratory for evaluation. Using the neonatal TSH values, the iodine deficiency level of the group was determined according to the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of IDD criteria Results A total of 3,349 newborn babies underwent neonatal TSH screening in MKSH. Subjects’ mean TSH concentration was 5.14 mIU/L. A TSH concentration > 5mIU/L was found in 1270 (37.9% subjects, 166 (27.6% in 2005, 252 (44.0% in 2006, 331 (47.1% in 2007, 356 (57.7% in 2008, 114 (20.7% in 2009 and 51 (16.8% in 2010. On the basis of the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder criteria, this frequency corresponded to a moderate level of IDD. Twenty-two neonates had TSH > 20 mIU/L from which 2 infants were confirmed positive for hypothyroidism. Conclusion A 6-year study of 3,349 newborns screenerd for TSH revealed that 37.9% of subjects had TSH concentration of more than 5mIU/L. this frequency indicates a moderate level of IDD in the study population.

  14. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Sterian, Ward; Ilda Shizue, Kunii; Rui Monteiro de Barros, Maciel.

    2000-09-07

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os programas de detecção precoce trazem economias ao sistema de saúde e oferecem a oportunidade de rastrear e tratar precocemente casos de hipotiroidismo congênito. OBJETIVO: Determinar influências de doenças que afetam a dinâmica materno-fetal-placentária sobre programas de detecção preco [...] ce de hipotiroidismo congênito que se baseiam na dosagem do hormônio tirotrófico (TSH). TIPO DE ESTUDO: Ensaio clínico prospectivo não-randomizado com, ao menos, três meses de seguimento. LOCAL: Centro Universitário Público de Referência - Centro de Atendimento Integrado a Saúde da Mulher (CAISM). PARTICIPANTES: 415 recém-nascidos de 5 grupos de parturientes: 83 crianças eram filhas de mães cardiopatas; 98 de mães com toxemia gravídica; 54 de mães diabéticas; 40 de mães portadoras de imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV); e 140 de mães hígidas. PROCEDIMENTOS: Todos os recém-nascidos tiveram amostras de sangue de cordão umbilical coletadas em papel de filtro ao nascimento. VARIÁVEIS ESTUDADAS: Dosagem de TSH em sangue coletado em papel de filtro usando um ensaio imunofluorométrico próprio (sensibilidade em manchas de sangue seco = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTADOS: Não encontramos diferença na média de TSH dos 5 grupos. Além disso, os níveis de TSH estavam acima de 5 mU/L em 48% dos bebês, sugerindo que nossa região é severamente deficiente em iodo. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados demonstram que programas de detecção precoce de hipotiroidismo congênito, que utilizam primariamente TSH, não são afetados por doenças maternas não-tiroidianas. Sugerimos que, além das vantagens técnicas sobre a punção de calcanhar com dosagem primária de T4, os programas de detecção precoce que utilizam primariamente TSH de cordão umbilical também podem ser usados como instrumento de avaliação e controle da carências de iodo. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pos [...] sible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

  15. Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús, Alvarado-Flores; María Del Rosario, Montoya-Garcia; Javier, Ventura Juárez; Roberto, Rico-Martínez.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH), Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH), Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH) y Prolactina (PRL) en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identi [...] ficadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA), PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA), FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA) y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA). Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo. Abstract in english The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect [...] sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA), PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA), FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA) and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA). These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.

  16. Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alvarado-Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron identificadas por un método inmunológico-histológico-químico usando el complejo avidina-biotina- peroxidasa con los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: LH (Anti-Rata LH suero para RIA, PRL (Anti-Rata PRL suero para RIA, FSH (Anti-Rata FSH suero para RIA y TSH (Anti-Rata TSH en suero para RIA. Estas hormonas se encontraron en las hembras, machos, huevos partenogenéticos y huevos sexuales del rotífero dulceacuícola B. calyciflorus. La reactividad inmunológica de FSH, LH, PRL y TSH en las hembras se observó en ovarios, cerebro, mástax, estómago, lorica, y la glándula del estómago. Sin embargo, en machos, la LH se observó sólo en el disco trocal y cerebro mientras que las hormonas FSH, PRL y TSH, se observaron en testículos, vesícula contráctil, y la glándula cementaria. En cuanto a los huevos partenogenéticos o amícticos, las hormonas LH, FSH, TSH, y PRL, se encontraron principalmente en los micrómeros, y en los macrómeros la tinción es débil. Por otra parte, el huevo sexual o míctico muestra reactividad inmunológica en la cubierta interior del huevo para las hormonas LH y PRL, lo contrario para FSH y TSH, las cuales se observaron principalmente en el embrión. La reactividad inmunológica fue observada, en general, en áreas importantes para los procesos reproductivos, excretorios, digestivos y del desarrollo.

  17. Nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Yuling; Chen Huafeng; Hou Li; Zhang Bing; Liu Bingqian; Chen Guonan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2012-08-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab{sub 2}) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2} as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab{sub 2}. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab{sub 2}, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab{sub 2} to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 {mu}IU mL{sup -1} TSH at the 3s{sub B} criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

  18. Nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. ► Using nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. ► Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. ► Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab2) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L−1 H2O2 by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2 as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab2. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab2, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab2, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab2, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab2 to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 μIU mL−1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 μIU mL−1 TSH at the 3sB criterion. Significantly, no significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were encountered in the analysis of 15 spiking serum samples between the developed electrochemical immunoassay and the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for determination of TSH.

  19. Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

  20. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Suppression for Protection Against Hypothyroidism Due to Craniospinal Irradiation for Childhood Medulloblastoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Hypothyroidism is one of the earliest endocrine effects of craniospinal irradiation (CSI). The effects of radiation also depend on circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts as an indicator of thyrocyte function and is the most sensitive marker of thyroid damage. Hence, our study was launched in 1998 to evaluate the protective effect of TSH suppression during CSI for medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Patients and Methods: From Jan 1998 to Feb 2001, a total of 37 euthyroid children scheduled for CSI for medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor underwent thyroid ultrasound and free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and TSH evaluation at the beginning and end of CSI. From 14 days before and up to the end of CSI, patients were administered L-thyroxine at suppressive doses; every 3 days, TSH suppression was checked to ensure a value <0.3 ?M/ml. During follow-up, blood tests and ultrasound were repeated after 1 year; primary hypothyroidism was considered an increased TSH level greater than normal range. CSI was done using a hyperfractionated accelerated technique with total doses ranging from 20.8-39 Gy; models were used to evaluate doses received by the thyroid bed. Results: Of 37 patients, 25 were alive a median 7 years after CSI. They were well matched for all clinical features, except that eight children underwent adequate TSH suppression during CSI, whereas 17 did not. Hypothyroidism-free survival rates were 70% for the 'adequately TSH-suppressed' group and 20% for the 'inadequately TSH-suppressed' group (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression with L-thyroxine had a protective effect on thyroid function at long-term follow-up. This is the first demonstration that transient endocrine suppression of thyroid activity may protect against radiation-induced functional damage

  1. Comparison of effective I-131 half-life between thyroid hormone withdrawal and recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyroid cancer: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation for postoperative radioiodine ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is performed by either thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) administration. There is little information on the impact of the method of preparation with respect to whole-body effective I-131 half-life and its potential clinical implications in the Australian setting. A retrospective study was performed on patients admitted for adjuvant radioiodine ablation for non-metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the Royal Adelaide Hospital over a 4½-year period from 2009. Dose rate measurements were analysed for 19 rhTSH and 31 thyroid hormone withdrawal patients. The mean effective I-131 half-lives were 11.51 and 13.29?h for the rhTSH and thyroid hormone withdrawal groups, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P?=?0.761). This result differs from previously published data where withdrawal periods were typically longer, resulting in slower renal clearance and longer half-lives for withdrawal patients. Our study did not demonstrate a significant difference in whole-body effective half-life of I-131 between the two methods of preparation for radioiodine ablation. This suggests that putative advantages of rhTSH over withdrawal in terms of whole-body radiation dose, duration of hospital admission and quality of life may be sensitive to duration of withdrawal.

  2. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F; van der Spoel, E; Cobbaert, C M; Ballieux, B E; Egri, P; Kvarta-Papp, Z; Gereben, B; Fekete, C; Slagboom, P E; van der Grond, J; Demeneix, B A; Pijl, H; van Heemst, D; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2015-01-01

    hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of...... may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism....

  3. Effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995 on a growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone-producing pituitary tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirasawa,Ryoto

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary adenoma. She had high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels and very high serum growth hormone (GH levels. Transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, post-operative irradiation, frontal craniotomy for removal of residual tumor and large-dose bromocriptine therapy were carried out consecutively. After therapy, serum GH levels gradually decreased, but not to the normal range, and serum TSH levels remained at inappropriately normal levels. Using immunoperoxidase techniques, GH-, TSH- and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-containing cells were demonstrated in the adenoma. A long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995, 600 micrograms/day suppressed the serum GH level to the normal range with a concomitant suppression of TSH. Furthermore, the paradoxical serum GH responses to TRH and LH-RH were slightly improved. No important subjective side-effects were noted. Therefore, SMS 201-995 appeared to be a very effective drug in this patient with a GH- and TSH-producing pituitary tumor.

  4. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F; van der Spoel, E; Cobbaert, C M; Ballieux, B E; Egri, P; Kvarta-Papp, Z; Gereben, B; Fekete, C; Slagboom, P E; van der Grond, J; Demeneix, B A; Pijl, H; van Heemst, D; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2015-01-01

    hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of...... nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis...... may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism....

  5. Recombinant Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone versus Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal for Radioactive Iodine Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer with Nodal Metastatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Robert M.; Rachinsky, Irina; Morrison, Deric; Driedger, Al; Spaic, Tamara; Van Uum, Stan H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is approved for preparation of thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine (RAI) in low risk patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We studied the safety and efficacy of rhTSH preparation for RAI treatment of thyroid cancer patients with nodal metastatic disease. Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on 108 patients with histopathologically confirmed nodal metastatic DTC, treated with initial RAI between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007. Within this selected group, 31 and 42 patients were prepared for initial and all subsequent RAI treatments by either thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) or rhTSH protocols and were followed up for at least 3 years. Results. The response to initial treatment, classified as excellent, acceptable, or incomplete, was not different between the rhTSH group (57%, 21%, and 21%, resp.) and the THW group (39%, 13%, and 48%, resp.; P = 0.052). There was no significant difference in the final clinical outcome between the groups. The rhTSH group received significantly fewer additional doses of RAI than the THW group (P = 0.03). Conclusion. In patients with nodal-positive DTC, preparation for RAI with rhTSH is a safe and efficacious alternative to THW protocol.

  6. Establishment of a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference interval in healthy adults. The importance of environmental factors, including thyroid antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Hansen, Pia Skov; Brix, Thomas H; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been shown that thyroid antibodies affect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in men and women and that TSH levels are predictive of future thyroid disease. We investigated the validity of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines regarding the TSH reference interval by studying 1512 individuals. Two hundred and fifty had at least one thyroid antibody, 121 were taking medications other than estrogens and occasional analgesics, and 105 reported...

  7. Immunoradiometric assay of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as a first-line test in a mixed hospital population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An immunoradiometric assay of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-IRMA) was evaluated as a first-line test for the diagnosis of thyroid disease in a prospective study of 318 consecutive patients in a major city hospital. The results of TSH-IRMA were compared with the diagnoses made by means of usual diagnostic methods. Based on previous studies a serum TSH level of 0.15 mU/l was chosen as cutoff limit for calculation of diagnostic performance. For patients with serum TSH > 5.0 mU/l the results of TSH-IRMA were in accordance with the results of routine radioimmunoassay. Patients with serum TSH levels between 0.15 mU/l and 5.0 mU/l were euthyroid. Consequently, the final diagnosis could be made with one test and within two days for 88% of patients. Patients with serum TSH < 0.15 mU/l needed supplementary tests since only 32% of these patients had thyrotoxicosis, 32% had a non-toxic goiter, and 36% had no thyroid disease. 12 refs.; 4 tabs

  8. Electron Capture Dissociation of Divalent Metal-adducted Sulfated N-Glycans Released from Bovine Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Sulfated N-glycans released from bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH) were ionized with the divalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Co by electrospray ionization (ESI). These metal-adducted species were subjected to infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) and the corresponding fragmentation patterns were compared. IRMPD generated extensive glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, but most product ions suffered from sulfonate loss. Internal fragments were also observed, which complicated the spectra. ECD provided complementary structural information compared with IRMPD, and all observed product ions retained the sulfonate group, allowing sulfonate localization. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of ECD towards metal-adducted sulfated N-glycans released from a glycoprotein. Due to the ability of IRMPD and ECD to provide complementary structural information, the combination of the two strategies is a promising and valuable tool for glycan structural characterization. The influence of different metal ions was also examined. Calcium adducts appeared to be the most promising species because of high sensitivity and ability to provide extensive structural information.

  9. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G.J., Paz-Filho; C.O., Mesa-Junior; M., Olandoski; L.C., Woellner; C.A., Goedert; C.L., Boguszewski; G.A., Carvalho; H., Graf.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Sevent [...] een patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P

  10. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4-6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration-a surrogate marker for MID-was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10-15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children. PMID:26540070

  11. Comparison of radioiodine biokinetics following the administration of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and after thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luster, Markus; Lassmann, Michael; Haenscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sherman, Steven I. [Section of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Skarulis, Monica C. [Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Reynolds, James R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren Grant Magnusen Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Iodine kinetics were studied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer while euthyroid under exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and while hypothyroid to detect differences in radioiodine uptake, distribution and elimination. Nine patients with total or near-total thyroidectomy on thyroid hormone suppressive therapy received two or three daily doses of 0.9 mg recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) followed by administration of a diagnostic activity of 2 mCi (74 MBq) iodine-131. After the biokinetics assessments had been performed, patients stopped taking thyroid hormones to become hypothyroid. A second 2 mCi (74 MBq) diagnostic activity of {sup 131}I was administered, followed by a second set of biokinetics assessments. One week later the patients underwent remnant ablation with a therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I. A comparison of the {sup 131}I kinetics in the patients while euthyroid and while hypothyroid showed major differences in the doses to the remnant as well as in residence times and radiation exposure to the blood. In the first diagnostic assessment the remnant dose was higher in eight of the nine patients and clearance of the activity from the blood was faster in all of them. The data from this study suggest that radioiodine administration is potent and safe when administered to euthyroid patients following rhTSH administration. Enhanced residence time in the remnant and decreased radiation exposure to the blood were noted when patients were euthyroid compared to when they were rendered hypothyroid. However, all patients received diagnostic activities in the same order: first while euthyroid, followed by hypothyroidism. It is quite possible that ''stunning'' from the radioiodine administered in the initial uptake study inhibited the subsequent uptake of radioiodine by the remnant lesions in the second uptake study. (orig.)

  12. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Assay as the First Line Biochemical Parameter to Determine Thyroid Gland Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Abayomi Banjo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased cellular catabolic activities observed in hyperthyroid state had been established. This is consequent to excessive hormones secreted by the thyroid gland during this condition. A total of 60 subjects comprising of 45 females mean age 43.02±1.90 (range 22-70 years and 15 males mean age 50.40±3.59 (range 25-68 and 60 controls comprising of 45 females mean age 41.18±1.68 (range 22-68 years and 15 males mean age 40.53±2.88 (range 25-65 were recruited for the study. The plasma level of T4, T3 and TSH were determined in both the experiment group and the controls. A significant increase (p<0.05 in plasma T4, T3 and a significant decrease (p<0.05 in plasma TSH were observed in the experiment group in comparison to the controls. Also, an inverse relationship was noted to exist between the plasma T4 and T3; and TSH in primary hyperthyroid state.

  13. Is suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with subclinical depression in the Danish General Suburban Population Study?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, Jan; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The first phase of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) including 8214 individuals was an attempt to evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism without or with elevated peroxidase antibodies and depression. No such association was found. In the second phase, including 14,787 individuals, we have focused on suppressed TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and depression. Aims: To evaluate to what extent suppressed TSH is associated with subclinical depression. Methods: The total scores of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were used to evaluate subclinical depression, both by its total score and by an algorithm of the subthreshold depressed by presence of at least three of the 10 ICD-10 depression symptoms. Serum levels of TSH were used to classify the individuals into suppressed (TSH < 0.4 mIU/l), elevated (TSH ? 3.8 mIU/l) and normal reference (TSH between 0.4 and 3.7 mIU/l). Results: We identified 285 individuals with suppressed TSH and 1266 individuals with elevated TSH. The MDI total score was 7.55 in suppressed TSH individuals, 6.22 in elevated TSH individuals and 6.52 in normal reference individuals (P = 0.01). When the MDI was used diagnostically to identify subclinical depression, the prevalence was 8.07% in suppressed TSH individuals, 5.8% in normal reference individuals and 5.29% in elevated TSH individuals. Conclusion: This population-based study supports that persons with suppressed TSH (subclinical hyperthyroidism) seem to have a risk, although small, of subclinical depression.

  14. Reliability of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies level determination in diagnosing and prognosing of immunogenic hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi? Aleksandar Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Graves disease (GD is defined as hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter caused by immunogenic disturbances. Antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors of thyroid gland (TRAb have crucial pathogenetic importance in the development and maintenance of autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to identify sensitivity, specificity, positive an negative predictive value of TRAb level in sera of patients with GD as well as to estimate significance of TRAb level for remission and GD relapses occurrence. Methods. We studied prospectively and partly retrospectively 149 patients, 109 female and 40 male patients, 5-78 years old, in the period 1982-2007. There were 96 patients with GD. The control group consisted of 53 patients, 21 with hyperthyroidism of second etiology and 32 patients on amiodarone therapy, with or without thyroid dysfunction TRAb was measured by radioreceptor assay (TRAK Assay and DYNO Test TRAK Human Brahms Diagnostica GMBH. Results. According to the results the sensitivity (Sn of TRAb test was 80%, specificity (Sp 100%, positive predictive value (PP 100% and negative predictive value (NP 83%. Also, the Sn of hTRAb test was 94%, Sp 100%, PP 100% and NP 94%. Our results show that an increased level of TRAb/hTRAb at the beginning of the disease and the level at the end of medical therapy is associated with an increased number of GD relapses and a shorter remission duration. Conclusion. Detection and measurement of TRAb in serum is a very sensitive method for diagnosing GD and very highly specific in vitro method for differential diagnosis of various forms of hyperthyroidism. Clinical significance of differentiating various forms of hyperthyroidism, using this in vitro assay, lays in adequate therapeutic choice for these entities.

  15. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, total and free T4 during the neonatal period: Establishing regional reference intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sheikhbahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH, the most common etiology of preventable mental retardation in children, is estimated to be more prevalent among Asian population. Aims: Since thyroid function tests (TFTs varied among different ages and geographical regions, in this study, the neonatal thyroid reference intervals in a healthy neonatal population is determined for the first time in Iran. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study performed on 246 healthy term newborns aged between 2 days and 1 month. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from all subjects. The median, 2.5 th , 5 th , 95 th , and 97.5 th percentile of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, as well as the total and free T4 were assessed among different age groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Predictive Analytics Software (PASW Statistics 18 was used for the analysis. Results: Serum TSH, total and free T4 concentration peaked in 5 th to 7 th days of life, continued over 2 weeks, then decreased and started reaching to adult reference range. A significant negative correlation between age and serum concentration of TSH (P = 0.02, total T4 (P = 0.01 and free T4 (P = 0.01 was found. Conclusion: This study yielded fairly different values for TFTs compared compared values found in other countries and also different from values reported for laboratory kits we used. These differences were assumed to be due to variations in ethnicity, age, and laboratory methods used. Due to the lack of international standardization, conducting multicenter studies helps in making a more precise evaluation of thyroid status in neonates.

  16. Comparative assessment of quality of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and chemiluminescence immunometric assay (CHEIMA) for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological substances like hormones, vitamins and enzymes are found in minute quantities in blood. Their estimation requires very sensitive and specific methods. The most modern method for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone in serum is non-isotopic enzyme enhanced chemiluminescence immunometric method. In our laboratory immunoradiometric assay is in routine for the last many years. Recently interest has grown to establish non-isotopic techniques in laboratories of PAEC. However, the main requirement to adopt the new procedures is to compare their results, cost and other benefits with the existing method. Immunoassay laboratory of MINAR, therefore, conducted a study to compare the two methods. A total of 173 (males: 34 females: 139 age: between 1 and 65 years) cases of clinically confirmed thyroid status were included in the study. Serum samples of these cases were analyzed by two methods and results were compared by plotting precision profiles, correlation plots and calculating sensitivities and specificities of the methods. As the results in all the samples were not normally distributed Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied to compare the analytical results of two methods. The comparison shows that the results obtained in two methods are not completely similar (p=0.0003293), although analysis of samples in groups shows that some similarity exists between the results of hypo and hyperthyroid patients (p<=0.156 and p<=0.6138). This shows that results obtained in these two methods could sometimes disagree in final diagnosis. Although TSH-CHEIMA is analytically more sensitive than TSH-IRMA the clinical sensitivities and specificities of two methods are not significantly different. TSH-CHEIMA test completes in almost 2 hours whereas TSH-IRMA takes about 6 hours to complete. Comparison of costs shows that TSH-CHIEMA is almost 5 times more expensive than TSH-IRMA. We conclude that the two methods could sometimes disagree but the two techniques have almost same clinical efficacy (clinical usefulness). The clinical sensitivities and specificities are similar and TSH-IRMA is in no way inferior to the non-isotopic method. It is, therefore, not reasonable to abandon a good technique only for relatively speedy results. (author)

  17. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Paz-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years, who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P < 0.001, a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2. Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 ± 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase, 1.80 ± 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 ± 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%, painful thyroiditis (29.4% and hypothyroidism (52.9%. Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 ± 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001 and by 46.0 ± 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001. Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects.

  18. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz-Filho, G.J.; Mesa-Junior, C.O.; Boguszewski, C.L.; Carvalho, G.A.; Graf, H. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; Olandoski, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Bioestatistica; Woellner, L.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Goedert, C.A. [Centro de Tomografia Computadorizada, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances {sup 131}I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 {+-} 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to {sup 131}I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 {+-} 64.4 mL. {sup 131}I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean {sup 131}I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 {+-} 9.7 to 49.6 {+-} 13.4% (P < 0.001), a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2). Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 {+-} 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase), 1.80 {+-} 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 {+-} 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%), painful thyroiditis (29.4%) and hypothyroidism (52.9%). Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 {+-} 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001) and by 46.0 {+-} 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of {sup 131}I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

  19. Acute thyroid hormone administration increases systemic oxygen delivery and consumption immediately following resuscitation from cardiac arrest without changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwemer, C F; Whitesall, S E; Nachreiner, R F; Mayor, G H; D'Alecy, L G

    1997-01-01

    This study determined the acute effects of intravenous levothyroxine sodium (LT4) on systemic oxygen delivery and consumption for 6 h following resuscitation from 9 min of normothermic cardiac arrest in dogs. Male mongrel dogs (15-25 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups of seven. The treated group received a pre-cardiac arrest infusion of 15 micrograms/kg per h of LT4 for 1.5 h prior to arrest and for 6 h after, while controls received a comparable volume of 0.9 N saline infusion. Neurologic outcome was recorded at 1, 2 and 6 h following resuscitation. Systemic oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were calculated from directly measured cardiac output, arterial and mixed venous blood gases and contents. Serum levels of circulating canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH), total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), total 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), reverse 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3), and plasma markers of oxidant injury (malonaldehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-OH) and erythrocyte GSH) were measured before administration and after resuscitation. Following resuscitation, treated dogs maintained significantly higher cardiac output when compared with their control counterparts at 4 h (5.5 ml/g per h vs. 2.9 ml/g per h, respectively, P VO2 was significantly higher in treated dogs than control dogs at 1, 4 and 6 h (P < 0.05). Treated dogs had significantly elevated levels of T4, FT4, T3, FT3 and rT3 (P < 0.01), compared with control dogs. No changes in cTSH were detected between groups or over time. Acute administration of LT4 enhances systemic oxygen delivery and apparently, therefore, oxygen consumption following resuscitation. PMID:9044499

  20. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Hun; Na, Chang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; KIm, Hee Kwon; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0?±?10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (?), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (?). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p?=?0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p?=?0.001) and alanine transaminase (p?=?0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p?=?0.001) and creatinine (p?=?0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + ?0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -?1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change of body mass index was 0.4 (±0.7) kg/m2 in the THW group and was decreased by ?0.6 (±0.6) kg/m2 in the rh-TSH group. Consistent with previous studies, the rates of complete ablation between the THW and rh-TSH groups were not significantly different. The clinical parameters, as we mentioned above, were elevated for THW group but were irrelevant for the rh-TSH group. The findings favor HD-RIT after rh-TSH, especially for patients with chronic liver and kidney disease.

  1. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0?±?10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (?), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (?). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p?=?0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p?=?0.001) and alanine transaminase (p?=?0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p?=?0.001) and creatinine (p?=?0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + ?0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -?1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change of body mass index was 0.4 (±0.7) kg/m2 in the THW group and was decreased by ?0.6 (±0.6) kg/m2 in the rh-TSH group. Consistent with previous studies, the rates of complete ablation between the THW and rh-TSH groups were not significantly different. The clinical parameters, as we mentioned above, were elevated for THW group but were irrelevant for the rh-TSH group. The findings favor HD-RIT after rh-TSH, especially for patients with chronic liver and kidney disease

  2. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ?g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ?g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ?g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values

  3. Influence of thyroid-stimulating hormone on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In poorly differentiated thyroid cancer originating from thyroid follicular cells, the ability to concentrate iodine is lost. This makes recurrence undetectable by 131I whole-body scan. In this situation, other radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI), are used to evaluate recurrence or metastasis. Some reports suggest that 18F-FDG uptake is increased by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation. This study aimed to determine the influence of TSH on 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in human poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells in vitro. The cells were stimulated with 1000 ?U/ml of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) for 1 day, 3 days, and 5 days. Each cell was incubated with 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 18F-FDG or 0.5 MBq/ml-1 MBq/ml of 99mTc-MIBI for 1 h at 37degC. The uptake of each radiopharmaceutical in the cells was quantified as a percent of whole radioactivity per total viable cell number. The quantification of glucose transporter 1, 2, 3 and 4 mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TSH stimulation increased 18F-FDG uptake in a time-dependent manner. Following 5 days of rhTSH stimulation, 18F-FDG uptake was approximately 2.2 times that of the control. The increase in 18F-FDG uptake following rhTSH stimulation was correlated to the increase in GLUT4 mRNA level. The GLUT1 mRNA level was unchanged. An increased uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was observed with a pattern similar to that of 18F-FDG. The 99mTc-MIBI uptake was approximately 1.5 times that of the control 5 days later. These results suggest that TSH stimulates 18F-FDG and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in poorly differentiated papillary thyroid cancer, and therefore 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) or 99mTc-MIBI scans under TSH stimulation may be more accurate than under suppression. (author)

  4. Strong Neck Accumulation of 131I Is a Predictor of Incomplete Low-Dose Radioiodine Remnant Ablation Using Recombinant Human Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Keisuke; Sakata, Yoshiharu; Izumi, Kazuyuki; Takenaka, Yukinori; Nagai, Miki; Takeda, Kazuya; Enomoto, Yukie; Uno, Atsuhiko

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that predict incomplete low-dose radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) and to report the adverse events associated with this treatment. Between 2012 and 2014, 43 consecutive patients with thyroid cancer received low-dose RRA with rhTSH after total thyroidectomy. We retrospectively investigated the adverse events during low-dose RRA and during diagnostic whole body scan (DxWBS) using rhTSH, and analyzed the rate of RRA completion and the associations between RRA completion and various clinical/pathological factors. Complete RRA was seen in 33 (76.7%) patients, and incomplete RRA was observed in 10 (23.3%). Patients with incomplete RRA had stronger neck accumulation of 131I than those with complete RRA (P < 0.001). Adverse events at RRA and DxWBS were seen in 12 and 9 patients, respectively. All events at RRA were grade 1, with one exception (grade 2 vertigo after rhTSH administration). The rate of adverse events at DxWBS was significantly higher in patients with adverse events seen at RRA (risk ratio, 3.778, P = 0.008). Strong neck accumulation of 131I is significant independent predictor of incomplete low-dose RRA. The risk of adverse events at DxWBS was higher in patients who experienced adverse events at RRA than in those who did not. PMID:26426611

  5. An electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for thyroid stimulating hormone based on polyamidoamine-norfloxacin functionalized Pd-Au core-shell hexoctahedrons as signal enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuting; Zhang, Qiqi; Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a novel polyamidoamine-norfloxacin (PAMAM-NFLX) complex and core-shell Pd-Au hexoctahedrons (Pd@Au HOHs) as enhancers are employed for development of a sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor to detect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Here, norfloxacin (NFLX) is decorated abundantly on the surface of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer via amide linkage to form PAMAM-NFLX complex. Thus, the resultant PAMAM-NFLX can serve as a novel co-reactant to efficiently amplify the ECL signal of peroxydisulfate-oxygen (S2O8(2-)-O2) system. Pd@Au HOHs were used as nano-carriers to assemble detection antibody (Ab2) and the PAMAM-NFLX complex. Besides, it can further enhance the ECL signal by promoting the generation of intermediate free radical HO(•) during the ECL reaction of S2O8(2-)-O2 system. The proposed immunosensor shows high sensitivity and specificity, and responds linearly to the concentration of TSH from 0.05 to 20 μIU mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.02 μIU mL(-1) (S/N=3). Moreover, the immunosensor successfully achieves the detection of TSH in practical human blood serum with desirable results. PMID:25897886

  6. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yulin; Xia, Xiaohu; Xu, Ye; Ke, Wei; Yang, Wei; Li, Qingge

    2012-04-13

    Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L(-1) and became 0.003 mIU L(-1) when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L(-1) of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. PMID:22444539

  7. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ? The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ? method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L?1 and became 0.003 mIU L?1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L?1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  8. Comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Khadem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physiological changes in thyroid gland during pregnancy have been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic causes of preeclampsia.Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of serum levels of Tri?iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid?Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this case?control study, 40 normal pregnant women and 40 cases of preeclampsia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated. They were compared for serum levels of Free T3 (FT3, Free T4 (FT4 and TSH. The data was analyzed by SPSS software with the use of t?student, Chi?square, Independent sample T-test and Bivariate correlation test. p?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was not statistically different between two groups (p=0.297. No significant difference was observed in terms of parity between two groups (p=0.206. Normal pregnant women were not significantly different from preeclampsia cases in the view of FT3 level (1.38 pg/ml vs. 1.41 pg/ml, p=0.803, FT4 level (0.95 pg/ml vs. 0.96 pg/ml, p=0.834 and TSH level (3.51 ?IU/ml vs. 3.10 ?IU/ml, p=0.386. Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the hypothesis that changes in FT3, FT4 and TSH levels could be possible etiology of preeclampsia

  9. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  10. Phorbol ester prevents the thyroid-stimulating-hormone-induced but not the forskolin-induced decrease of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in thyroid cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omri, B; Breton, M F; Haye, B; Jacquemin, C; Pavlovic-Hournac, M

    1988-07-15

    The potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) affects several thyroid cell functions and interacts with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) either by inhibiting or potentiating its action on different cellular parameters. Since phorbol ester acts mainly through the activation of protein kinase C, which is its receptor, we studied this activation and its interaction with TSH and forskolin in suspension cultures of porcine thyroid cells. In thyroid cell cultures, TPA has a dual effect on protein kinase C activity: immediately (2-5 min) after exposure of cells to TPA, it began to be translocated from the cytosol to the particulate fraction. The transfer of the cytosolic enzyme was total and could occur with or without a loss of activity. The translocated enzyme still needed Ca2+ and phospholipids for its activation. The basal activity increased transiently (2-4 h) in both the cytosol and particulate fractions during translocation. The peak activity in the particulate fraction was reached 10-30 min after exposure of cells to TPA, and was followed by down-regulation of protein kinase C and almost complete disappearance of its activity. The residual activity was about 13% of control after a 2-day exposure to TPA. It was unequally distributed between cytosol (4%) and particulate fraction (9%). Prolonged exposure of cells to TPA did not affect either the activity or the subcellular distribution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. TPA interacted with TSH and prevented the decrease of this activity induced by prolonged exposure of cells to the hormone not only when it was introduced simultaneously with TSH, but also when it was added 24 h after TSH. However, the forskolin-induced decrease in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity was not prevented by the presence of TPA. TPA also affected the increases in cAMP accumulation mediated by TSH and forskolin. The TSH-induced increase was significantly stimulated by TPA after short contacts (5-15 min), while longer preincubations of cells with TPA provoked a very strong inhibition of the TSH action. However, the forskolin-induced stimulation of the cAMP accumulation was maintained and even further increased in the presence of TPA. Consequently, the actions of TSH and TPA are apparently interdependent, while those of forskolin and TPA seem to be parallel and independent. Neither TSH nor forskolin prevented the TPA-induced down regulation of protein kinase C. The biologically inactive phorbol ester analogue 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate had no effect on protein kinase C activity, and did not interact with either TSH or forskolin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3402444

  11. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone suppressive therapy on bone geometry in the hip area of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Hoon; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul

    2016-02-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been reported to increase the fracture risk. However, the effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy on bone geometry in the hip area of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TSH suppression on bone geometry in the hip area of pre- and postmenopausal women with DTC. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including 99 women with DTC (25 pre- and 74 postmenopausal) who had received TSH suppressive therapy for at least 3years and 297 control subjects (75 and 222, respectively) matched for sex and age. Bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and hip area and bone geometry at the femoral neck measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were compared between patients and controls. The association between thyroid hormone and bone parameters was investigated. All analyses of bone parameters were adjusted for age, body mass index, and serum calcium levels. In premenopausal subjects, TSH suppressive therapy was not associated with poor bone parameters. In postmenopausal subjects, patients with DTC undergoing TSH suppression showed lower cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area, and section modulus and thinner cortical thickness at the femoral neck than those of control subjects, whereas their femoral neck BMD was comparable with controls. Total hip BMD was lower in postmenopausal patients than in controls. CSMI and section modulus at the femoral neck were independently associated with serum free T4 levels in postmenopausal patients. The difference in femoral neck bone geometry between patients and controls was only apparent in postmenopausal DTC patients with free T4 >1.79ng/dL (23.04pmol/l), and not in those with free T4 levels ?1.79ng/dL (23.04pmol/l). TSH suppression in postmenopausal DTC patients was associated with decreased bone strength by altering bone geometry rather than BMD in the hip area, especially the femoral neck. This alteration in bone quality was observed only in patients with free T4 levels above the upper normal limit. PMID:26518742

  12. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using a capillary blood-sample collected on filter paper. Value of the method for detecting neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothyroidism is the thyroid disturbance most commonly encountered in paediatrics. Its average frequency is estimated at around one case per 6000 births. It is an exceptionally serious disease in newborn infants as it is accompanied by imperfect brain development leading to cerebral atrophy, degenerescence of the cortical neurons, defective myelinization and, most often, in children, irreversible psychomotor retardation. It should be possible to avoid this complication provided that a substitutive therapy using thyroid hormone is initiated very rapidly. For this it is necessary that the hypothyroidism be detected during the first few days of life since the chances of the therapy being successful decline very quickly. Save in a few exceptional cases, early detection cannot be based on clinical signs alone. The laboratory can play a decisive part by bringing to light either a defect in the production of thyroid hormone or a high blood level of TSH. The paper presents a description of the micromethod used together with a detailed analysis of certain important technical points, a study of the quality of the results obtained and a general discussion of the strategy for detecting neonatal hypothyroidism. (author)

  13. Antenatal management of recurrent fetal goitrous hyperthyroidism associated with fetal cardiac failure in a pregnant woman with persistent high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody after ablative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadashi; Miyakoshi, Kei; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Ikenoue, Satoru; Kasuga, Yoshifumi; Kadohira, Ikuko; Sato, Seiji; Momotani, Naoko; Minegishi, Kazuhiro; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2013-01-01

    High titer of maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) in patients with Graves' disease could cause fetal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Clinical features of fetal hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, goiter, growth restriction, advanced bone maturation, cardiomegaly, and fetal death. The recognition and treatment of fetal hyperthyroidism are believed to be important to optimize growth and intellectual development in affected fetuses. We herein report a case of fetal treatment in two successive siblings showing in utero hyperthyroid status in a woman with a history of ablative treatment for Graves' disease. The fetuses were considered in hyperthyroid status based on high levels of maternal TRAb, a goiter, and persistent tachycardia. In particular, cardiac failure was observed in the second fetus. With intrauterine treatment using potassium iodine and propylthiouracil, fetal cardiac function improved. A high level of TRAb was detected in the both neonates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the changes of fetal cardiac function in response to fetal treatment in two siblings showing in utero hyperthyroid status. This case report illustrates the impact of prenatal medication via the maternal circulation for fetal hyperthyroidism and cardiac failure. PMID:24025611

  14. HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, U. [Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Harmer, C.; Clarke, S.; Moss, L.; Nicol, A.; Clarke, P.; Smellie, J.; McCready, R.; Farnell, K.; Franklyn, J.; John, R.; Nutting, C.; Yap, B.; Lemon, C.; Wadlsey, J.; Gerrard, G.; Roques, T.; Macias, E.; Whitaker, S.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Alvarez, P.; Kadalayil, L.; Hackshaw, A.

    2012-07-01

    Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

  15. Thyroid hormone resistance may course hypotonia in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivkovska, Julijana; Born, Alfred Peter; Nielsen, Claus Thøger

    Allan Herndon Dudley's syndrome (AHDS) is X-linked mental retardation and hypotonia caused by mutations in a thyroid hormone transporter gene - MCT8. The typical thyreoidea AHDS profile is elevated T3, low-normal T4 and normal or elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Neonatal screening with...

  16. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  17. Efectos del fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental en los niveles plasmáticos de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH) / Phothoperiod and Environmental Temperature Effects on Plasmatic Levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Villagrán, De Rosso; CM, Elizondo; Posadas, Martinez; D, Giunta; EI, Barragán.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en el Alto Valle del R ío Negro, Patagonia Argentina, indican que existe una prevalencia de bocio ligeramente superior a la línea de corte establecida por el Internacional Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders con un grado de nutrición de yodo apropiado; prevalen [...] cia que podría ser atribuida a factores ambientales y/o nutricionales que interfieren con el metabolismo tiroideo. La concentración de TSH circulante responde a variaciones circadianas y es influenciada por las estaciones y la temperatura ambiental. Las características geográficas, el clima semidesértico o la presencia de sustancias que actúan como disruptores endocrinos, son factores que podrían relacionarse a modificaciones en la producción hormonal en zonas urbanas o rurales. Objetivos: a) Evaluar la posible asociación entre la variación anual de los valores de hormona estimulante de tiroides (TSH), el fotoperíodo y la temperatura ambiental. b) Estimar si los valores plasmáticos de TSH son significativamente diferentes en poblaciones rurales y urbanas de Alto Valle del Río Negro. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 1393 pacientes sanos residentes en el Alto Valle: 226 masculinos y 1167 femeninos, que acudieron por control clínico en el año 2010. Se utilizó para el análisis el software SPSS 17.0. Se encontraron variaciones significativas en el Log-TSH con un pico máximo al comienzo del otoño-invierno y un pico mínimo en primavera-verano. Se obtuvo una diferencia significativa en valores de Log-TSH en área rural: 0,46 uUI/ml (0,30-0,61) contra 0,28 uUI/ml (0,26-0,30) con p Abstract in english Studies carried out in Alto Valle del Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina, show a prevalence of goiter slightly above the cut-off line established by the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IC-CIDD), with an appropriate iodine nutrition grade; such prevalence could be at [...] tributed to environmental and/ or nutritional factors that interfere with thyroid metabolism. Blood TSH concentration responds to circadian variations and is influenced by seasonality and environmental temperature. The geographic characteristics, semi-desert climate or the presence of endocrine disruptors are factors that could be related to hormonal production modifications in urban or rural areas. Objectives: a) To evaluate the potential association between annual variation in TSH levels, photoperiod and environmental temperature. b) To estimate if plasma TSH values are significantly different in populations from rural and urban areas in Alto Valle del Rio Negro. We retrospectively evaluated 1393 healthy patients living in Alto Valle del Río Negro: 226 males and 1167 females, who presented for routine clinical check-up during 2010. SPSS 17.0 software was used for the analysis. Significant variations were found in Log-TSH, with a maximal peak at the beginning of the fall-winter and a minimal peak in spring-summer. There is a significant difference in the values of TSH between rural and urban areas, (values of Log-TSH in rural area: 0.46 uUI/ml (0.30-0.61) vs. urban area: 0.28 uUI/ml (0.26-0.30) with p

  18. Aproximación al patrón de normalidad de TSH para la población chilena según Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2009-2010 / Thyroid stimulating hormone reference values derived from the 2009-2010 Chilean National Health Survey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Mosso; Paula, Margozzini; Pamela, Trejo; Angélica, Domínguez; Sandra, Solari; Gonzalo, Valdivia; Eugenio, Arteaga.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: The determination ofthyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values is critical for the diagnosis ofthyroid diseases. Aim: To explore and discuss different definitions to establish TSH reference values using a Chilean national survey sample. Material and Methods: The 2009-2010 Chilean [...] National Health Survey recruited 5,416participants between the ages of 15 and 96years, from all geographic regions of Chile, including urban and rural zones. TSH was measured in a random subsample of 2,785 adults. Median value, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were described in three different populations: total survey population, "disease-free population" and the "laboratory kit disease free population". Results: TSH values were higher among women, the elderly and the less educated population. The 97.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 7.46 uUl/ml. Using this value as a cut-off, hypothyroidism prevalence would be 4.8% in Chile and estimated pharmacological treatment coverage would be 58%. When laboratory kit cut-offs are used, prevalence rises to 22% and treatment coverage drops to 12%. The 2.5 percentile value in the disease-free population was 0.83 uUl/ml, which yields an estimated hyperthyroidism prevalence of3.89%. Conclusions: Median TSH concentration values in the Chilean "disease-free population" are higher than those proposed by laboratory kits and those of developed countries. TSH values in the general population of Chile are also higher in women, the elderly and the less educated population.

  19. Hormonal evaluation in erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Çal??kan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Erectile dysfunction (ED is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between ED and hormonal abnormalities. Material and methods: We evaluated 178 patients between the ages of 25 and 85 years old. Medical histories and details were collected, and the IIEF question test was completed by all patients. After the basic evaluation, serum total testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured.Results: The mean age of the patients and IIEF scores were 50.5±12.3 and 12.8±6.13, respectively. The mean testosterone, prolactin, TSH, LH and FSH were 426±152 ng/dL, 15.8±45.6 ng/mL, 1.56±1.2 micro IU/mL, 5.5±4.3 m IU/mL and 7.7±6.9 m IU/mL, respectively. Two patients had abnormal TSH levels, and 27 patients had abnormal LH levels. Abnormal FSH levels were detected in 6 patients. Eight patients had abnormal testosterone levels, and twenty had abnormal prolactin levels.Conclusion: ED is an illness that affects older men, and multiple factors cause this illness. Hormonal abnormalities are one of these factors that can be corrected. When appropriate, hormone levels should be measured and treated in patients who present with ED.

  20. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.; Marcia Pradella-Hallinan; Hugo de Lins Pessoa

    2010-01-01

    Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregn...

  1. Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolobe OM

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available CorrigendumJolobe OM. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:299–301.On page 299, note that the title was incorrectly listed as "Upper limit of the normal range for thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". The correct title is "Upper limit of the normal range for thyroid-stimulating hormone is higher with increasing age". On line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".On page 301, line 2, note that TSH was incorrectly defined as "thyrotropin-stimulating hormone". The correct definition for TSH is "thyroid-stimulating hormone".Read the original letter

  2. The role of thyroid hormone in sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Carlos; Andersen, Mônica Levy

    2014-03-01

    Sleep deprivation is a stressful condition, as the subject experiences feelings of inadequate well-being and exhibits impairments in his/her functioning. However, in some circumstances sleep deprivation may be crucial for survival of the individual. Most likely, complex neural circuits and hormones play a role in allowing sleep deprivation to occur. For instance, thyroid hormone activity sharply increases when an individual is in a state of sleep deprivation. We believe that this increase is central to sleep deprivation physiology. During sleep deprivation, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis initially increases as a consequence of increased release of thyroid stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Subsequently, as sleep deprivation continues, the sympathetic nervous system is recruited through its anatomical connection with the thyroid gland. While thyroid stimulating hormone levels markedly increase during sleep deprivation, it has been suggested that these increases are secondary to sleep deprivation. However, there is little evidence to support this assumption. We believe that the physiology of the thyroid axis during sleep deprivation and the actions of the effector hormone thyroid hormone suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits sleep and not the contrary. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the possible neural functions that enable sleep deprivation. In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that an augmentation in the thyroid hormone axis is central to a subject's ability to curtail sleep. PMID:24468575

  3. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Hormone Abuse Men's Health Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Weight ... and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your Best Life with Diabetes ... vs Fact Patient Alerts Scientific Statements ...

  4. [Epilepsy and hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, E

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a review of reports concerned with how for hormones, epileptic seizures and antiepileptic drugs can be influenced by one another. Hormones influence brain excitability but, on the other hand, both epileptic seizures and antiepileptic drugs may alter hormone secretion and metabolism. Effect of hormones on seizures--Experimental studies revealed the properties which inhibit or stimulate convulsive reactivity of different hormones. Progesterone, testosterone, adrenocorticotropin and desoxycorticosterone are responsible for an increase in seizure threshold, while estradiol, cortisol and thyroid hormones cause a reduction. Effect of seizures on hormones--Epileptic seizures, chiefly tonic-clonic, also complex partial and sometimes simple partial seizures, result in "the hormonal storm". Immediately after an epileptic seizure, an increase is found in serum concentrations of prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropin, triidothyronine, thyroxin, thyrotropin, luteotropin, follicular stimulating hormone and growth hormone. These changes may persist for two hours, while prolactin concentration even for 24 hours after a seizure. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on hormones--Antiepileptic drugs may affect hypothalamus-pituitary function directly or indirectly through neurotransmitter system. By induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes, some antiepileptic drugs cause acceleration of hormone metabolism, reducing hormone serum concentrations. Moreover, antiepileptic drugs enhance sex hormone binding globulin SHBG/synthesis, increase binding of these hormones and reduce their active fraction concentration in serum. Recognition of the relationship between epilepsy and hormonal system is necessary to obtain better understanding of this disease. PMID:10768143

  5. Hormone therapy in acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  6. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  7. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered ...

  8. Growth hormone radioimmunoassay (RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth hormone not only stimulates growth, but also influences several other metabolic processes in the body. By its growth-promoting activity, the hormone accelerates the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins by stimulating the uptake of amino acids by the tissues. Using rat diaphragm preparations in vitro, a reduced uptake of several amino acids following Hypophysectomy has been demonstrated. Among other hormones, only pancreatic insulin is a potent stimulator of this process. On the cellular level, growth hormone effects appear to be mediated by cAMP. The hormone affects protein synthesis in rat levator ani and cardiac muscles, but they display a different behavior from the diaphragm. In adipose tissue, growth hormone also has a stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in virto, primarily at the ribosomal level as RNA synthesis is blocked by actinomycin D. Growth hormone effects on protein synthesis in liver were similarly demonstrated and require a lower concentration of hormone than for synthesis by muscle or adipose tissue

  9. Hormone therapy in acne

    OpenAIRE

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-l...

  10. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  11. The Immune System as a Regulator of Thyroid Hormone Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, John R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been known for decades that the neuroendocrine system can both directly and indirectly influence the developmental and functional activity of the immune system. In contrast, far less is known about the extent to which the immune system collaborates in the regulation of endocrine activity. This is particularly true for immune-endocrine interactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Although thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) can be produced by many types of extra-pituitary cell...

  12. Was sind hormone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  13. Radioimmunoassay for proparathyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay has been developed to bovine proparathyroid hormone which employs an antiserum produced by immunization of rabbits with a synthetic 18-amino acid peptide fragment of the bovine prohormone. The synthetic prohormone fragment was prepared by solid-phase synthesis and consists of the amino-terminal 12 residues of bovine parathyroid hormone plus the hexapeptide sequence of the bovine prohormone. The antiserum is uniquely specific to detection of the prohormone or synthetic fragments that preserve the peptide linkage between the prohormone region and amino-terminal hormonal sequences. Bovine proparathyroid hormone of natural origin, as well as synthetic fragments incorporating the prohormone hexapeptide sequence and amino-terminal sequences of bovine parathyroid hormone, are bound by the antiserum, but the hexapeptide, intact bovine or human hormone and amino-terminal hormonal fragments alone are not detected. The assay readily measures prohormone in extracts of bovine but not human parathyroids, a finding that may be explained by the fact that human proparathyroid hormone differs from bovine by a substitution of serine for alanine at position number one and leucine for phenylalanine at position number one and leucine for phenylalanine at position seven of the prohormone sequence. Thus, the assay should be particularly useful in studies of the intracellular localization of bovine proparathyroid hormone and the mechanism of intracellular transport and conversion of proparathyroid hormone to parathyroid hormone

  14. Hormones and psychosexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, G; Giusti, M

    1995-09-01

    The male phenotype arises from the optimal concordance of chromosomal, gonadal and hormonal sex. Hormonal sex depends directly on the type of gonads that have been formed, and is linked both to the production of hormones and to their optimal effect on target tissues. The present review underlines the fact that psychosexual orientation in the male is also related to factors linked to sex hormones. Many of the experimental and clinical data available militate against the long-held belief that the development of role and gender identity in man is predominantly determined by environmental factors. This study points out the importance of hormonal factors at the CNS level. The most common abnormalities of sexual orientation are homosexuality and transsexualism. Despite their relatively high frequency in the general population, research into possible biological influences in these abnormalities is very scant. The authors of the present paper have reviewed the literature data yielded by biological and hormonal studies on homosexuality and transsexualism. These data seem to support the hypothesis that androgens may be deficient in the CNS of male homosexuals. Morphological or functional (neurotransmitter) anomalies in androgen actions at the CNS level could also favor radical dissociation between psychological sex and gonadal, hormonal and phenotypic sex in transsexualism. In conclusion, the present review seems to indicate that hormonal factors (gonadal and adrenal hormones, hormone receptors, transduction mechanism of the hormonal signal, neurosteroids, neurotransmitters etc.) play a determining role in the formation of gender identity. PMID:8850137

  15. Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyablov Е. V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients — at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that hormonal changes in papillary thyroid cancer include the reduction of thyroxine in blood. In case of papillary thyroid cancer the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is increased at various stages of the spread of neoplasia

  16. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gupta,

    2011-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth...

  17. Does High Quality Fat Diet Cause Hormonal Level Changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty adult male albino rats arranged into three equal groups were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of adding 15% oil, normal or fried, to the rat diet for two months on the levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), corticosterone, testosterone and progesterone. Addition of 15% normal oil to the rat diet for two months caused non-significant changes in all these hormones while fried oil (thermally oxidized fat) caused increases in T4, testosterone and decrease in corticosterone. These results denoted that although high fat diet affect numerous blood components, adding 15% of normal oil to the diet had no affect on thyroid, stress or sex hormones while fried oil disturbed some hormones, most probably due to high lipid peroxides found in fried oil.

  18. DEHP reduces thyroid hormones via interacting with hormone synthesis-related proteins, deiodinases, transthyretin, receptors, and hepatic enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Letian; Wei, Li; Li, Lianbing

    2015-08-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used extensively in many personal care and consumer products, resulting in widespread nonoccupational human exposure through multiple routes and media. Limited studies suggest that exposure to DEHP may be associated with altered thyroid function, but detailed mechanisms are unclear. In order to elucidate potential mechanisms by which DEHP disturbs thyroid hormone homeostasis, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day for 30 days and sacrificed within 24 h after the last dose. Gene expressions of thyroid hormone receptors, deiodinases, transthyretin, and hepatic enzymes were measured by RT-PCR; protein levels of transthyretin were also analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that DEHP caused histological changes in the thyroid and follicular epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were observed. DEHP significantly reduced thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) levels, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was not affected. After exposure to DEHP, biosynthesis of thyroid hormones was suppressed, and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) levels were significantly reduced. Additionally, levels of deiodinases and transthyretin were also affected. TSH receptor (TSHr) level was downregulated, while TRH receptor (TRHr) level was upregulated. Metabolism of thyroid hormones was accelerated due to elevated gene expression of hepatic enzymes (UDPGTs and CYP2B1) by DEHP. Taken together, observed findings indicate that DEHP could reduce thyroid hormones through influencing biosynthesis, biotransformation, biotransport, receptor levels, and metabolism of thyroid hormones. PMID:25913319

  19. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional-motivational and social factors.

  20. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.P., Saraiva; N.B., Figueiredo; C.R., Padovani; M.M., Brentani; C.R., Nogueira.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine t [...] he profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F), free thyroxine (T4F), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibody (TPO), and estradiol (E2). Estrogen receptor ß (ERß) was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P

  1. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to keep any small or residual amounts of thyroid cancer cells from growing (see Thyroid Cancer brochure). Thyroid hormone ... is effective in stopping the growth of microscopic thyroid cancer cells or residual thyroid cancer. In this case, the ...

  2. Bioidentical Hormone Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Files, Julia A; Ko, Marcia G.; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2011-01-01

    The change in hormonal milieu associated with perimenopause and menopause can lead to a variety of symptoms that can affect a woman's quality of life. Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is an effective, well-tolerated treatment for these symptoms. However, combined HT consisting of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been associated with an increased number of health risks when compared with conjugated equine estrogen alone or placebo. As a result, some women are t...

  3. Effect of radiation on proteo-hormones activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pituitary hormones were irradiated by a 60Co source. A dose rate of 1.0-1.1 Mrad/hour and the doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5 Mrad were used. The hormone preparations in the dry solid state or in solution were sealed into glass ampules. After sterilization they were kept at 40C until the biological activity had been tested. The biological activity of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, subjected to a sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrad of gamma radiation, was found to have decreased when tested 3-5 months after irradiation. TSH remained fully active for up to 1 month after sterilization. The activity of vasopressin dropped off markedly during the 3-4 week period after irradiation. Biological activity of growth hormone tested shortly after irradiation was found to be unaffected. The activities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone were not affected. The experiments can be considered promising since they show that pituitary proteohorm, one preparations in the solid state may be sterilized. The stability on storage needs, however, to be carefully checked individually for every single hormone

  4. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms of enteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones

  5. Hormonal Link to Autoimmune Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Shilpa

    2012-01-01

    IgE recognition of autoantigens might augment allergic inflammation in the absence of exogenous allergen exposure. Among allergy and autoimmunity, there is disproportionate representation of males before puberty and females after puberty, suggesting a role for sex hormones. Hormone allergy is an allergic reaction where the offending allergens are one's own hormones. It is an immune reaction to the hormones, which can interfere with the normal function of the hormones. It can occur perimenstru...

  6. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individu...

  7. Radioimmunoassay of GI hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive review describes the radioimmunoassay method of quantitating the wide variety of gastrointestinal peptide hormones, particularly gastrin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, secretin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The problems associated with the development of the radioimmunoassay method are discussed. These include the production of antisera and ways of overcoming the difficulties of raising antibodies to low molecular weight peptide hormones; the quantity, quality and specificity of antisera; the different methods of labelling tracer antigen with 125I depending on the nature of amino acids available for labelling in the peptide hormone and the subsequent methods of labelled antigen purification; the methods of separating antibody bound from free hormone; and the standardization and quality control of assays and ways of increasing their sensitivity. A summary of the conditions and sensitivities of nine radioimmunoassays for gastrointestinal peptide hormones performed routinely in the author's laboratory is given. The problems associated with the interpretation of radioimmunoassay results are also raised including non-specific interference and other possible sources of error. (U.K.)

  8. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  9. [Hormonal contraception in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, F; Buttarelli, M; Cromi, A; Di Naro, E; Franchi, M

    2001-12-01

    The proper use of hormonal contraceptives represents an effective and safe prevention of unintended pregnancies which are still associated with morbidity and mortality. The side effects of the hormonal method are of concern to many young women even if a lot of adolescents are unaware of health benefits associated with their use except for those regarding menstrual disorders. Effective contraception improves health and may gives non contraceptives benefits such as a decreased risk of developing pelvic inflammatory diseases and improvement of endometriosis. However, incorrect or inconsistent use and discontinuation rate are higher in young girls than in older women determining a higher incidence of voluntary abortion. The use of hormonal contraception in adolescents is still a topic of discussion among medical practitioners. Adolescents require an accurate screening and a more frequent follow-up to reduce side effects and improve compliance and use. PMID:11723425

  10. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Fleming, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol.......To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  11. Impact of growth hormone administration on other hormonal axes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J O; Ovesen, Per Glud; Juul, A; Hansen, T K; Skakkebaek, N E; Christiansen, J S

    1999-01-01

    Growth hormone regulates several other hormonal systems and vice versa. The present review focusses on the effect of GH administration in adults on selected hormonal systems. Growth hormone treatment has been linked to development of central hypothyroidism in hypopituitary children. We now know that GH enhances the extra-thyroidal conversion of T(4) to T(3). Lowering of T(4) during GH treatment therefore reflects biochemical unmasking of subclinical central hypothyroidism. In normal adults GH ad...

  12. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  13. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  14. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ... produce the same amount at a slower rate. AGING CHANGES The hypothalamus is located in the brain. ...

  15. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  16. Recombinant hormones in osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-01-01

    For the last 10 years, bone anabolic therapy with the recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) analogue, teriparatide (rhPTH[1 - 34]), or full-length rhPTH(1 - 84) has been an option in the treatment of osteoporosis. Both drugs are given as a daily subcutaneous injection. In the USA, only teriparatide is marketed.

  17. Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cathy said she remembered hearing something on a TV talk show about using hormones around menopause. Were they ... are some questions you can ask yourself and talk to your doctor about: Do ... me a lot? Like many women, your hot flashes or night sweats will likely ...

  18. Deciding about hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the form of a pill, patch, injection, vaginal cream or tablet, or ring. Taking hormones can have some risks. ... pills. Your risk is lower if you use vaginal creams and tablets and the low-dose estrogen ring. BREAST CANCER ...

  19. Terapia hormonal da menopausa Menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Pardini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM, estrogênica (TE ou estro-progestagênica (TEP. A principal indicação para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida.Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT, estrogen therapy (ET, and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT. The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal women remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

  20. Terapia hormonal da menopausa / Menopausal hormone therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dolores, Pardini.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora a reposição estrogênica esteja disponível há mais de 6 décadas, as mulheres e mesmo os profissionais da saúde estão confusos pelas opiniões divergentes em relação aos riscos e benefícios da terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM), estrogênica (TE) ou estro-progestagênica (TEP). A principal indica [...] ção para terapêutica hormonal na menopausa é o alívio dos sintomas menopausais, tais como sintomas vasomotores, alterações gênito-urinárias e a prevenção de osteoporose nas pacientes de risco. Em outras áreas de pesquisa, principalmente ao que se refere aos efeitos nos sistemas cardiovasculares e nervoso central, os resultados atuais na literatura são conflitivos. O tratamento por mais de 5 anos não adiciona risco significativo para câncer de mama, mas diminui significativamente o risco de fratura osteoporótica. Algumas mulheres podem ser susceptíveis a risco tromboembólico precoce, mas quando a TH for adequada após avaliação individualizada, os benefícios superam os riscos e o tratamento deve ser recomendado. Estudos futuros são necessários para identificar novas indicações para TH e diminuir ou abolir seus riscos. A pesquisa clínica continua na identificação de fatores genéticos que possam influenciar a resposta individual à TH, diferentes formulações estrogênicas, diferentes vias de administração e liberação, além das opções de dose. Nas mulheres que apresentam os sintomas da síndrome climatérica de forma severa durante a peri e pós-menopausa já existem evidências conclusivas oriundas de vários estudos randomizados controlados de que a TH é a única terapia com resultados satisfatórios. Os médicos devem sempre fazer suas decisões terapêuticas com base nos riscos e benefícios individuais de cada paciente, tendo a responsabilidade e o dever de promover as condições para a mulher atravessar a transição menopáusica com qualidade de vida. Abstract in english Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than 6 decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET), and estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT). The main indication for HT use in postmenopausal w [...] omen remains the relief of vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy, and is effective in the prevention of osteoporosis. In other areas of research, notably in cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, the recent literature has produced conflicting results. Treatment for up to 5 years does not add significantly to lifetime risk of breast cancer, but significantly decreases bone loss and risk of osteoporotic fractures. Some women may be susceptible to early thrombotic risk, but when appropriate HT is given after individual clinical evaluation, the benefits will far outweigh any potential risks and the treatment should be recommended. Clinical research continues into genetic factors influencing the response to ET/HT, different estrogen formulations, different modes of delivery and lower-dose options. Patients and clinicians should make treatment decisions on the basis of an individual’s needs and risks, and should enhance a woman’s ability to undergo the menopausal transition with minimal disruption to her quality of life. In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomized controlled trials that systemic hormone therapy (HT) of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Future research is needed to identify new indications for HRT and to diminish or abolish its potential risks.

  1. Growth hormone and diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Singh R.; Agrawal J; Kumar V.; Raman R; Maurya OPS

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone has been considered to be the cause of diabetic retinopathy. However the relationship between growth hormone responses and diabetic retinopathy has not been consistent. Moreover, the correlation (if any) between the severity of retinopathy and growth hormone changes are also not well defined. In the present study 23 diabetics (16 with retinopathy, 7 without retinopathy) and 8 non-diabetic healthy controls were studied. Serum growth hormone was measured in the fasting state and ...

  2. Reproductive hormones in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low detections of reproductive hormones, at the part per trillion concentrations, are frequently measured in surface and subsurface waters. These exogenous hormones are a concern because they can bind strongly to hormone receptors in animals and induce an endocrine response or disruption. Human heal...

  3. Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Variation on a Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythrow, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events. PMID:17549577

  4. Thyroid hormones before and after weight loss in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, T; Andler, W

    2002-01-01

    Background: Little is known about changes in thyroid function in obese children. An influence of leptin on thyroid hormone synthesis has been proposed. Aims: To examine thyroid function and leptin concentrations in obese children. Methods: Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and leptin were measured in 118 obese children (aged 4.5–16 years); thyroid function was also determined in 107 healthy children of normal weight. T3, T4, and TSH were analysed in 55 obese children who had achieved weight reduction and in 13 obese children who had not achieved weight reduction after one year based on normal energy diet. Results: TSH, T3, and T4 were significantly higher in obese children compared to those of normal weight. Twelve per cent of the obese children had TSH, 15% had T3, and 11% had T4 concentrations above the twofold standard deviation of normal weight children. The degree of overweight correlated with T3, T4, and TSH. Thyroid hormones did not correlate significantly with leptin. A reduction in overweight showed a significant decrease in T3, T4, and leptin serum concentrations, but there was no significant change in TSH. Conclusion: Peripheral thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and TSH are moderately increased in obese children; weight reduction leads to a long term decrease in the peripheral thyroid hormones but not in TSH. There is no necessity to treat the increased serum TSH. PMID:12244007

  5. Hormones in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug?s safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus

  6. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse tr...

  7. [Hormones and the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Czyzyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Hormones have an influence on many tissues and organs, including the cardio-vascular system (CVS). Depending on their activity on CVS, they can be divided into 4 groups: having hypertensive or hypotensive influence and chronotropic positive or negative action. Endocrine regulation in CVS may occur in many ways. Apart from hormones usually connected with CVS regulation, other more recently, discovered ones can act on it. A few of these act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. Additionally, novel mechanisms of signal transduction have been discovered for steroid and thyroid hormones, which are independent of gene transcription regulation and are - known as "nongenomic". Hormones which increase blood pressure include: urotensin II, endothelins, angiotensin II, catecholamines, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and leptin. On the other hand, blood pressure can be decreased by: natriuretic peptides, the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, angiotensin 1-7, substance P, neurokinin A, ghrelin, Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), oxytocin, and, sex hormones. Hormones which when appearing in excess increase the heart rate are: catecholamines, endothelins, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, leptin and PTHrP. Those which decrease the heart rate include: natriuretic peptides, substance P, neurokinin A, oxytocin, angiotensin 1-7. This paper describes the contemporary view of the functions of hormones which act on the vessel tree and heart. The particular effect of mediator depends on many circumstances i.e.: hormone concentration, receptor type. It may also undergo contraregulation. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVS diseases', which can result in the development of new medicines. PMID:18979453

  8. Thyroid hormone auto-antibodies interference in thyroid hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect and investigate how thyroid hormone autoantibodies interfere in thyroid hormone assays. Methods: The binding reaction, dilution testing, calibration curves and the check analysis were performed. Results: Thyroid hormone autoantibodies were measured and identified. The combination of the auto-antibodies with 125I-T3 or 125I-T4 were specific, the binding rates were 58.77% and 49.05% respectively, 7-12 times higher than control groups, while with 125I-TSH was non-specific. The radioactive peaks of the autoantibodies and rabbit anti- T3 or T4 antibody appeared at the same position. These antibodies were considered as IgG. Conclusions: The presence of anti-thyroid hormone antibodies is the primal cause of falsely high concentrations of serum thyroid hormones. Determination of thyroid hormone autoantibodies is importance in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease

  9. Thyroid hormone autoantibodies interference in thyroid hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: Objective: To search the interference in thyroid hormone assays and determination way of thyroid hormone autoantibodies. Methods: The binding reaction, dilution testing, calibration curves and the check analysis were performed. Results: Thyroid hormone autoantibodies were measured and identified. The combination of the autoantibodies with 125I-T3 or 125I-T4 were specificity, the binding rates were 58.77% and 49.05% respectively, 7-12 times higher than control groups, while with 125I-TSH was non-specificity. The radioactive peaks of the autoantibodies and rabbit anti- T3 or T4 antibody appeared at the same position, these antibodies were considered as IgG. Conclusions: The presence of anti-thyroid hormone antibodies is the primal cause of falsely high concentrations of serum thyroid hormones. Determination of thyroid hormone autoantibodies is of importance to diagnosis and treatment thyroid disease

  10. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other cell types. The extraintestinal cells may synthesize different bioactive fragments of the same prohormone due tocell-specific processing pathways. Moreover, endocrine cells, neurons, cancer cells, and, for instance, spermatozoa release the peptides differentially (autocrine, endocrine, neurocrine, paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells. Also the target cells of gut hormones occur widespread outside the digestive tract.

  11. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone. PMID:8503009

  12. Israel EQAS for thyroid related hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free Thyroxine (FT4) radioimmunoassay (RIA) was operated in 36 laboratories. The 17 serum pools distributed covered analyte concentrations from subnormal to elevated values. Five of these were based on ''zero analyte'' pools artificially prepared by treatment with Amberlite. ''Spiked'' sera was used for recovery studies. Eleven pools were analyzed more than once. Abnormal, method dependent results with large interlaboratory variation was observed in the Amberlite treated pools. A ''matrix effect' was suspected and the results excluded from analysis. The All Laboratory Trimmed Mean (ALTM) was stable to within 4% for each analyte and taken as target value. Overall recovery for T3, T4, and TSH was 101, 91, and 89 per cent. Laboratory performance was assessed from the bias of each result and the variability of bias (as CV of bias for each test), over one year. Performance has improved, especially for TSH, where median bias decreased to 1% from 39%. Percentage of laboratories with unacceptable performance fell from 79% to 32%. A trend towards increased use of IRMA for TSH and of F-T4 was observed. However, F-T4 results proved method dependent. TSH IRMA is suggested as the best supplementary test to T4 for thyroid function testing. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. GONADAL HORMONES, WOMEN AND PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Aloisi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The clear presence of sex differences in chronic pain and the number of studies showing the power of gonadal hormones to modify pain-induced behavioral responses appear to have convinced clinicians and researchers. In the present review, the old and new literature is summarized to put together data on pain and its modulation by gonadal hormones, particularly estrogens. Targets of these hormones are discussed.

  14. Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Bridget M; Tobet, Stuart A.; Lara, Hernan E.; Lucion, Aldo B.; Wilson, Melinda E; SERGIO E RECABARREN; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2012-01-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal ho...

  15. A case of thyroid hormone resistance: a rare mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pires Gonçalves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones (RSTH is a rare disease that affects about 3,000 individuals, belonging to about 1,000 families. It results from reduced intracellular action of thyroid hormones (TH genetically determined and manifests as persistent hyperthyroxinemia with non-suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH. We describe a 67-years old, Caucasian woman, with past history of subtotal thyroidectomy due to diffuse goiter, who presents with a recurrence of goiter. Although she is clinically euthyroid, laboratory evaluation shows persistent hyperthyroxinemia with non-suppressed TSH. Response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH test was normal and TSH concentrations were not suppressed during oral administration of suprafisiologic doses of levothyroxine (L-T4. Peripheral blood DNA was extracted from the patient and a mutation was found localized in cluster one, at codon 346 of the ligand binding domain of the THRB gene. The patient’s son underwent thyroid function testing (TFT and genetic study, both negative, suggesting a sporadic mutation. RSTH should be considered in all hyperthyroxinemic patients who are clinically euthyroid. Mutations interfering with three major steps required for TH action on target tissues have been, so far, identified (TR-?, TR-?, MCT8, SPB2. Each mutation is associated with a distinctive syndrome. Goal of management is to maintain a normal serum TSH level and a eumetabolic state and offer appropriate genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Inappropriate treatment of eumetabolic patients results in hypothyroidism and need for TH replacement.

  16. Growth hormone and diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh R

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone has been considered to be the cause of diabetic retinopathy. However the relationship between growth hormone responses and diabetic retinopathy has not been consistent. Moreover, the correlation (if any between the severity of retinopathy and growth hormone changes are also not well defined. In the present study 23 diabetics (16 with retinopathy, 7 without retinopathy and 8 non-diabetic healthy controls were studied. Serum growth hormone was measured in the fasting state and one hour after levodopa administration. The mean growth hormone levels were significantly higher in the diabetics as compared to controls, however there was no correlation between the mean growth hormone levels (either in the fasting state or after levodopa stimulation and presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy although diabetics with retinopathy had significantly greater mean growth hormone response. The mean growth hormone was found to have no correlation with the fasting blood sugar levels. Diabetics with back ground retinopathy had significantly greater mean growth hormone levels than those with proliferative retinal changes

  17. Studies on Setting up of Radioimmunoassay System of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various TSH RIA kit components were prepared. Conditions for 125I labelling of h-TSH were optimized by diminishing the amount of chloramine-T, extending reaction time and lowering reaction temperature. Yield, specific activity, and immunological activity could be maintained moderately under such mild reaction conditions. The mixture of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and second antibody worked effectively as a B/F separation agent. Even though the mixture was made with more diluted PEG and second antibody than those of using the sole component separately, the time required for the B/F separation was shorter in case of using the mixture. The sequential saturation technique was efficient than those of applying ordinary equilibrium saturation technique in assay sensitivity and assay precision points of view.

  18. Negative Feedback Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A basic understanding of the endocrinology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of anuran larvae is necessary for predicting the consequences of HPT perturbation by thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) on the whole organism. This project examined negative feedback con...

  19. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  20. [Hormonal treatment of transsexual persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkanen, Helena; Das, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The primary investigations and starting the hormonal treatment of transsexual persons takes place in Helsinki and Tampere University hospitals as part of the real life period. The hormones used are estrogen and anti-androgen for MtoF and testosterone for FtoM persons. The medication suppresses the endogenous sex-hormone production and brings about the desired features of the other sex. While the recommended doses result in physiological hormone levels, higher doses do not hasten or increase the desired changes and are a health risk. After the transition period, the follow up is referred to the person's home district. The physical and psychological status and laboratory values are evaluated at the yearly follow-up doctor visits. Although the hormone doses are lowered and percutaneous administration route is favored upon aging, stopping the medication is not recommended. PMID:26237927

  1. Effects of EDTA and Sodium Citrate on hormone measurements by fluorometric (FIA and immunofluorometric (IFMA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lando Valeria

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurements of hormonal concentrations by immunoassays using fluorescent tracer substance (Eu3+ are susceptible to the action of chemical agents that may cause alterations in its original structure. Our goal was to verify the effect of two types of anticoagulants in the hormone assays performed by fluorometric (FIA or immunofluorometric (IFMA methods. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 30 outpatients and were drawn in EDTA, sodium citrate, and serum separation Vacutainer®Blood Collection Tubes. Samples were analyzed in automatized equipment AutoDelfia™ (Perkin Elmer Brazil, Wallac, Finland for the following hormones: Luteinizing hormone (LH, Follicle stimulating homone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, growth hormone (GH, Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, insulin, C peptide, total T3, total T4, free T4, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. Statistical analysis was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis method and Dunn's test. Results No significant differences were seen between samples for LH, FSH, PRL and free T4. Results from GH, TSH, insulin, C peptide, SHBG, total T3, total T4, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone were significant different between serum and EDTA-treated samples groups. Differences were also identified between serum and sodium citrate-treated samples in the analysis for TSH, insulin, total T3, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Conclusions We conclude that the hormonal analysis carried through by FIA or IFMA are susceptible to the effects of anticoagulants in the biological material collected that vary depending on the type of assay.

  2. Emergence of an Ancestral Glycoprotein Hormone in the Pituitary of the Sea Lamprey, a Basal Vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sower, Stacia A; Decatur, Wayne A; Hausken, Krist N; Marquis, Timothy J; Barton, Shannon L; Gargan, James; Freamat, Mihael; Wilmot, Michael; Hollander, Lian; Hall, Jeffrey A; Nozaki, Masumi; Shpilman, Michal; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2015-08-01

    The gnathostome (jawed vertebrates) classical pituitary glycoprotein hormones, FSH, LH, and TSH, consist of a common ?-subunit (GpA1) and unique ?-subunits (Gp?1, -2, and -3), whereas a recently identified pituitary glycoprotein hormone, thyrostimulin, consists of GpA2 and GpB5. This paper reports the identification, expression, and function of an ancestral, nonclassical, pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone (GpH) consisting of the thyrostimulin A2 subunit with the classical ?-subunit in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, a jawless basal vertebrate. Lamprey (l) GpA2, and lGpH? were shown to form a heterodimer by coimmunoprecipitation of lGpA2 with FLAG-tagged lGpH? after the overexpression in transiently transfected COS7 cells using a bipromoter vector. Dual-label fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed the coexpression of individual subunits in the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. GnRH-III (1??) significantly increased the expression of lGpH? and lGpA2 in in vitro pituitary culture. Recombinant lamprey GpH was constructed by tethering the N terminal of lGpA2 to the C terminal of lGpH? with a linker region composed of six histidine residues followed by three glycine-serine repeats. This recombinant lamprey GpH activated the lamprey glycoprotein hormone receptor I as measured by increased cAMP/luciferase activity. These data are the first to demonstrate a functional, unique glycoprotein heterodimer that is not found in any other vertebrate. These data suggest an intermediate stage of the structure-function of the gonadotropin/thyroid-stimulating hormone in a basal vertebrate, leading to the emergence of the highly specialized gonadotropin hormones and thyroid stimulating hormones in gnathostomes. PMID:26066074

  3. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults; Deficiencia progressiva dos hormonios adeno-hipofisarios apos radioterapia em adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: rafaela_loureiro@hotmail.com

    2004-10-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  4. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-05-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

  5. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method

  6. Migraine: is it related to hormonal disturbances or stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashar R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rachna Parashar,1 Payal Bhalla,2 Nirendra K Rai,3 Abhijit Pakhare,4 Rashmi Babbar5 1Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 2Department of Physiology, Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 5Department of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India Background: Common neurological syndrome (migraine without aura is more common among women than men. Migraine is among the top 20 causes of disability. Menstruation is known to be a powerful trigger for migraine, and so is stress, but the presentation of headache is similar in both. Also, women are more vulnerable to stress as well as migraine, and this makes a complex relationship of menstruation, stress, and migraine. Objective: This study was done to understand the association of hormonal fluctuation in menstruation and stress with common migraine. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 40 young adult females, of whom 20 participants were cases of migraine without aura (18–35 years old, and the remaining 20 participants were age-matched controls. The study was done in Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. Study participants were selected on the basis of International Headache Society (ICHD-IIA1.1 (2004 classification. Study participants with neurological disorders, chronic diseases, and disease suggestive of any hormonal disturbances were excluded. Clinically diagnosed migraine cases were asked to maintain a headache diary and to fill in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales questionnaire. Biochemical assessment of hormonal status for thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin was also done on the second day of their menstrual cycle. We used the Mann–Whitney U test to compare hormonal levels and the χ2 test to compare anxiety- or depression-related stress among the migraine and nonmigraine groups. Results: Significantly higher values of prolactin were observed in cases (mean ± standard deviation, 152.7 mIU/L±30.5 compared to controls (76.1 mIU/L±8.7, with a P-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant difference observed in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (P=0.081, estrogen (P=0.086, luteinizing hormone (P=0.091, or follicle-stimulating hormone (P=0.478. Also, anxiety with stress or depression with stress was significantly higher among the migraine group than the controls (P=0.002. Odds of any stress in migraine were higher in the migraine group than in the nonmigraine group (odds ratio 12, 95% confidence interval 2.7–53.33. Conclusion: Migraine, particularly without aura, in women is mainly associated with stress-related anxiety or depression, and are more susceptible to stress in the premenstrual period. Keywords: migraine, menstruation, stress

  7. Sex hormones and ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Benn, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke(IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men(n=4......,615) and women(n=4,724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-83 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through potential...

  8. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele N. Peroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormonereleasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormonereceptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+ littermates and wild-type (+/+ C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p<0.001. In comparison, an intermediate growth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a.

  9. Carcinogênese hormonal e neoplasias hormônio-dependentes Hormonal carcinogenesis and hormone dependents neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Estrêla da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias hormônio-dependentes podem originar-se de mutações genéticas resultantes da proliferação de células normais ou da multiplicação de células já transformadas por outros carcinógenos. Alguns hormônios e drogas anti-hormonais estão sendo utilizados com sucesso no tratamento dessas neoplasias em humanos. Apesar da freqüência elevada das neoplasias hormônio-dependentes nos animais, seu tratamento com hormônios antagonistas e fármacos anti-hormonais, bem como a identificação imunoistoquímica de receptores hormonais nas neoplasias não fazem parte da rotina dos hospitais veterinários.The hormone-dependent neoplasms may originate from genetic mutations resulting the normal cells proliferation or of the cells multiplication already transformed by other carcinogen. Some hormones and anti-hormones drugs are being used with success in the treatment of those neoplasm in humans. In spite of the elevated frequency of the hormone dependent neoplasms in the animals, the use of antagonistic hormones and anti-hormones drugs, as well as the identification immunohistochemical of hormones receptors in the neoplasm is not already part of the veterinary hospitals routine.

  10. Carcinogênese hormonal e neoplasias hormônio-dependentes / Hormonal carcinogenesis and hormone dependents neoplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra Estrêla da, Silva; Rogéria, Serakides; Geovanni Dantas, Cassali.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias hormônio-dependentes podem originar-se de mutações genéticas resultantes da proliferação de células normais ou da multiplicação de células já transformadas por outros carcinógenos. Alguns hormônios e drogas anti-hormonais estão sendo utilizados com sucesso no tratamento dessas neoplasi [...] as em humanos. Apesar da freqüência elevada das neoplasias hormônio-dependentes nos animais, seu tratamento com hormônios antagonistas e fármacos anti-hormonais, bem como a identificação imunoistoquímica de receptores hormonais nas neoplasias não fazem parte da rotina dos hospitais veterinários. Abstract in english The hormone-dependent neoplasms may originate from genetic mutations resulting the normal cells proliferation or of the cells multiplication already transformed by other carcinogen. Some hormones and anti-hormones drugs are being used with success in the treatment of those neoplasm in humans. In spi [...] te of the elevated frequency of the hormone dependent neoplasms in the animals, the use of antagonistic hormones and anti-hormones drugs, as well as the identification immunohistochemical of hormones receptors in the neoplasm is not already part of the veterinary hospitals routine.

  11. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on acquired growth hormone resistance in malnourished children using radioisotopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the influence of nutrition on growth hormone resistance in children who were suffering from prologed protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The plasma levels of glucose and serum levels of insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free teraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were analyzed by radioisotopic techniques in 7 children with marasmus (mean age 5.29 1.01) and 14 children with unexplained short stature (stunted) (mean age 6.21 1.72) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. At the basal condition of laboratory investigations, the GH level was significantly higher in the two malnourished groups compared to control (P< 0.01), whereas, plasma glucose levels and insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two malnourished groups and the control

  12. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat • Growth hormone deficiency • Muscle wasting (loss of muscle tissue) from HIV • Short bowel ... and strength, with increased muscle and decreased fat mass. But other studies did not show similar benefits. ...

  13. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer : The use of hormone therapy to treat breast cancer before surgery ( neoadjuvant therapy ) has been studied in clinical trials ( 11 ). The goal of neoadjuvant therapy is to reduce the size of a breast tumor to allow breast-conserving ...

  14. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  15. Growth Hormone in Renal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rabbani

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth retardation is one of the known complications of chronic renal failure. Although protein-calorie malnutrition, electrolyte disturbances, acidosis and renal osteodystrophy are important factors in the development a growth failure in children with chronic renal failure, recent investigations in therapy of these children with growth hormone are promising. Growth hormone therapy increases growth velocity and final adult high in patients with chronic renal failure.

  16. History of growth hormone therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyar, Vageesh S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of the pituitary gland for growth was recognized in late 19 th century, Growth hormone (GH) therapy was made available for severely GH-deficient children and adolescents only in late 1950s. Use of GH for other conditions was limited because of the limited supply of human pituitary-derived hormone. With unlimited availability of recombinant human GH (rhGH), the scenario of GH treatment has been changed enormously. Currently there is ever increasing list of indications o...

  17. Growth hormone in male infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Magon; Suneeta Singh; Ajit Saxena; Rakesh Sahay

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is expressed in a variety of tissues, including the testes, and has autocrine and paracrine functions as well. This, along with other factors, exerts autocrine and paracrine control over spermatogenesis. GH, used as an adjuvant therapy, induces spermatogenesis in non-responder patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, who are not responding to gonadotropin or pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) therapy. GH has an important physiological role to play in spermatogenesis an...

  18. Growth Hormone in Renal Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    A Rabbani; A Sotoodeh; F Assadi

    2000-01-01

    Growth retardation is one of the known complications of chronic renal failure. Although protein-calorie malnutrition, electrolyte disturbances, acidosis and renal osteodystrophy are important factors in the development a growth failure in children with chronic renal failure, recent investigations in therapy of these children with growth hormone are promising. Growth hormone therapy increases growth velocity and final adult high in patients with chronic renal failure.

  19. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual link...

  20. Growth hormone and protein metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Vendelbo, Mikkel; Kampmann, Ulla; Christensen, Britt; Madsen, Michael; Nørrelund, Helene; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and intracellular STAT 5 signalling represents a very old regulatory system and, whereas insulin dominates periprandially, GH may be viewed as the primary anabolic hormone during stress and fasting. GH exerts metabolic effects both directly and through stimulation of IGF-I, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA). When well nourished the GH-induced stimulation of IGF-I and insulin is important for tissue anabolism whereas during fasting and other catabolic states GH predominantly...

  1. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased risk of venous thromboembolism as compared with nonusers, and about twice the risk as compared with users of products with norethisterone, levonorgestrel or norgestimate (low-risk products). Transderma...

  2. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  3. Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul J; Goglia, Fernando; Leonard, Jack L

    2016-02-01

    The nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone begin at receptors in the plasma membrane, mitochondria or cytoplasm. These receptors can share structural homologies with nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) that mediate transcriptional actions of T3, or have no homologies with TR, such as the plasma membrane receptor on integrin ?v?3. Nongenomic actions initiated at the plasma membrane by T4 via integrin ?v?3 can induce gene expression that affects angiogenesis and cell proliferation, therefore, both nongenomic and genomic effects can overlap in the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, a truncated TR? isoform mediates T4-dependent regulation of intracellular microfilament organization, contributing to cell and tissue structure. p30 TR?1 is another shortened TR isoform found at the plasma membrane that binds T3 and mediates nongenomic hormonal effects in bone cells. T3 and 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine are important to the complex nongenomic regulation of cellular respiration in mitochondria. Thus, nongenomic actions expand the repertoire of cellular events controlled by thyroid hormone and can modulate TR-dependent nuclear events. Here, we review the experimental approaches required to define nongenomic actions of the hormone, enumerate the known nongenomic effects of the hormone and their molecular basis, and discuss the possible physiological or pathophysiological consequences of these actions. PMID:26668118

  4. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  5. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AntonioBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  6. [Development of monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzyme kit for detection of human thyrotropin hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, E R; Koriazova, L K; Kovalevskaia, G I; Pozdniakova, T A; Kandyba, E I; Kuznetsov, V A; Vasilov, R G

    1997-04-01

    An enzyme immunoassay kit based on monoclonal antibodies (Mab) has been developed for measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone in human serum and plasma. Laboratory trials demonstrated its high sensitivity (3.1 microIU/ml), specificity, reliability, and accuracy. The analysis is simple and rapid (2.5 h), which is convenient for clinical use. The kit permits differentiation between normal subjects and patients with primary hypo- or hyperthyroidism and helps monitor the treatment efficacy. Comparison with the Amerlite TSH-60 kit, carried out on 357 sera, showed a high correlation coefficient (0.96) between the two kits. PMID:9221072

  7. Profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22 were analyzed for free triiodothyronine (T3F, free thyroxine (T4F, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, antiperoxidase antibody (TPO, and estradiol (E2. Estrogen receptor ß (ERß was determined in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Thyroid disease incidence was higher in patients than in controls (58 vs 18%, P < 0.05. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was the most frequent disorder in patients (31%; hypothyroidism (8% and positive anti-TPO antibodies (19% were also found. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the only dysfunction (18% found in controls. Hyperthyroidism was associated with postmenopausal patients, as shown by significantly higher mean T3 and T4 values and lower TSH levels in this group of breast cancer patients than in controls. The majority of positive ERß tumors were clustered in the postmenopausal patients and all cases presenting subclinical hyperthyroidism in this subgroup concomitantly exhibited Erß-positive tumors. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in only one of 6 premenopausal patients. We show here that postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a significantly increased thyroid hormone/E2 ratio (P < 0.05, suggesting a possible tumor growth-promoting effect caused by this misbalance.

  8. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

  9. Nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid hormones, T3 and T4, modulate a vast number of metabolic processes in mammalian tissues. High affinity, low capacity binding sites for T3 and T4 have been demonstrated in cell nuclei of target organs using both in vivo and in vitro labelling techniques. The displacement of [125I]T3 from nuclear binding sites by thyroid hormone analogues correlates well with the thyromimetic activities of the analogues tested. Dose-response relationships between T3 occupancy and growth hormone secretion as a function of free T3 concentration have been established with the GH1 cell line. The equilibrium dissociation constant of the equation which describes how T3 binds to the nuclei of intact cells is essentially the same as the free T3 concentration that elicits the half-maximal biological response of the hormone. It is becoming apparent that these nuclear binding sites represent specific thyroid hormone receptors, whose function may be to regulate gene activity in target tissues. This report concerns the binding of the rat liver nuclear receptor to duplex and random coil DNA as well as to non-mammalian and synthetic DNAs. We postulate that the receptor binds in vivo to native DNA in the minor groove of the DNA helix

  10. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  11. Physiological Response of Two Age Groups of Omani Male Goats to Short Road Transportation in Relation to Circulating Levels of Gonadotropins, Cortisol, Thyroid Hormones, Sex Steroids and Plasma Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    M.Al-Maani; J. Plude; Mahgoub, O.; I.Y. Mahmoud; I.T. Kadim; A. Al-Kindi; C.S. Bakheit

    2005-01-01

    The effect of short road transportation in two age groups of Omani male goats was evaluated to assess their physiological response to stress in relation to circulating levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), Thyroid Stimulating Hormones (TSH), thyroid hormones (T , T ), gondadotropins 3 4 (FSH, LH) and testosterone (T). In addition, plasma parameters cholesterol, total protein, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate, Mg PO Ca and CO were also analyzed. Thirty...

  12. Maternal and fetal hormonal profiles of anemic pregnant women of Eastern Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaemia is defined as reduction in circulating hemoglobin mass below the critical level expected for age and sex. Anaemia affects almost two- thirds of pregnant women in developing countries, it is associated with poor maternal and prenatal outcomes. Anaemia during pregnancy through many endocrine alterations-may influence the maternal and fetal environment. To investigate the anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal profiles in paired maternal and cord blood samples and to compare between the two groups, anaemic (n=68) and non-anaemic groups (n=57), in order to study the endocrine effects of anaemia during pregnancy in the mothers and their neonates. This cross sectional study was conducted in Gadarif hospital, Eastern Sudan. Women were classified into two groups based on the WHO classification of anaemia: Group 1(normal control-no anaemia Hb>11.0 g/dl) Group 2 anaemic, (Hb11g/dl). There was no significant difference in the fetal anthropometrics parameters (weight, length and placental weight) between the anaemic (Hb11g/dl). Maternal prolactin was significantly higher in anaemic group when compared with non anaemic group with p-value =.002. Cord serum albumin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anaemic group with p-value=.04. Cord serum ferritin was significantly higher in anaemic group compared with non anemic group with p-value<.001. There was no significant difference was observed in the other maternal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). There was no significant difference was observed in the other fetal parameters (total protein, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total thyroxin and triiodo thyroxine). In this study there were some maternal and fetal endocrine modulations due to anaemia during pregnancy as indicated by the high levels of maternal prolactin in blood of the anemic women group and also the high values of albumun and ferritin in the cord blood of the anemic women group.(Author)

  13. T3 release from thyroid slices as an assay for thyroid stimulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new in vitro bioassay for thyroid stimulators is described. The method is based on radioimmunological measurement of triiodothyronine (T3) release from thyroid slices. Small thyroid slices were cut from several porcine thyroids. The slices were pooled in incubation vessels. The stimulating effect of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), bovine TSH, and serum from a patient with Graves's disease was investigated. After 3 hr the T3 concentration was significantly higher in the vessels containing the thyroid stimulators than in the control vessels. For maximal sensitivity 16 hr of incubation was used in the assay. Bovine TSH, human TSH, and serum from a patient with Graves's disease gave linear dose response curves in a log-log system. For bovine TSH the curve was linear from 5 to 125 ?U/ml incubation medium. The dilution curves for bovine TSH and serum from a patient with Graves's disease were parallel. The dilution curve for human TSH was considerably steeper. In 5 assays the ? values for the bovine TSH curves were 0.10-0.16 (mean, 0.12). In 3 assays the ? values for the human TSH curves were 0.05-0.07. (auth.)

  14. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  15. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cibele N., Peroni; Cesar Y., Hayashida; Nancy, Nascimento; Viviane C., Longuini; Rodrigo A., Toledo; Paolo, Bartolini; Cyril Y., Bowers; Sergio P.A., Toledo.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormonereleasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormo [...] ne to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormonereceptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p

  16. Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Brito

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone (GH producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones. This condition could confer them a higher proliferative capacity. Ki-67 is a nuclear protein antigen that is a marker for proliferative activity. Aim: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly. To determine if the pluríhormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67. Material and methods: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied. Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out. Results: All samples were positive for GH. Twenty seven had positive staining for PRL, 12 had positive staining for glycoproteic hormones and 11 for PRL and one or more glycoproteic hormones. Mean staining for Ki-67 was Z.6±3.3%. There were no differences in the expression of this marker between mono or pluríhormonal tumors. The expression was neither associated with extrasellar extensión. Conclusions: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are pluríhormonal. There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and pluríhormonal adenomas

  17. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ond?ej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Ture?ková, Veronika; Grúz, Ji?í; Rol?ík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 240, ?. 1 (2014), s. 55-76. ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  18. Hormonal contraception: what is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Hormonal contraception has become more effective and more widely used, while the world population has grown from 3000 million in 1960 to 6000 million in 2000. There is a need for improved contraception, because legal abortion is used in a high proportion of pregnancies and illegal abortion continues to be common in some countries. Hormonal contraception now includes different choices of administration and dose regimens. The best selection depends on the benefits and risks of the method and whether there is a medical disability. Medical eligibility for combined oral contraceptives has improved during the past 40 years so that, for most women, all currently available low-dose products are safe. For women with medical conditions, wider eligibility for oral contraceptive use has evolved from better knowledge of the risk factors. The long-term risks of rare cardiovascular and malignant adverse events remain controversial. There are long-term benefits, however, as oral contraceptive use appears to protect against endometrial, ovarian and colorectal cancers. Emergency contraception provides an option that reduces the number of unplanned pregnancies with little or no long-term risk. Endometrial contraception is an option that would ideally have no influence on ovarian function or the bleeding pattern, and cause no significant side-effects. Hormonal male contraception, with indirect suppression of spermatogenesis by decreasing gonadotrophin output, is a further choice. Although hormonal contraception is effective and safe, many research investigations remain to be carried out in order to improve tolerance and achieve wider utilization. PMID:12206470

  19. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  20. Hormone Action in the Mammary Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Brisken, C; O'Malley, B

    2010-01-01

    A woman’s breast cancer risk is affected by her reproductive history. The hormonal milieu also influences the course of the disease. The female reproductive hormones, estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin, have a major impact on breast cancer and control postnatal mammary gland development. Analysis of hormone receptor mutant mouse strains combined with tissue recombination techniques and proteomics revealed that sequential activation of hormone signaling in the mammary epithelium is require...

  1. Developing a model of plant hormone interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu Hua; Helen R. Irving

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth and development is influenced by mutual interactions among plant hormones. The five classical plant hormones are auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. They are small diffusible molecules that easily penetrate between cells. In addition, newer classes of plant hormones have been identified such as brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and various small proteins or peptides. These hormones also play important roles in the regulation of plant growth...

  2. Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.-M.J., Lengyel.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the sto [...] mach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a) discovery of this peptide, b) mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c) regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

  3. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  4. The hormonal regulation of life processes in insects (2.) The anti-juvenile hormones (1.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those compounds that decrease either the level or activity of natural endogenous juvenile hormones in insects are called anti-juvenile hormones (AJH). The possible effects of anti-juvenile hormones are manifold: they may inhibit special enzymes or the bindings of juvenile hormones to receptors and transport proteins or may cause the destruction of corpora allata, the sources of juvenile hormones. The most obvious possibility to elicit an anti-juvenile hormone effect lies in the inhibition of enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones

  5. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. ...

  6. The menopause and hormone replacement therapy: views of women in general practice receiving hormone replacement therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    Women's views on the menopause and hormone replacement therapy were explored using a questionnaire given to women attending one general practice who were having hormone replacement therapy under the supervision of their doctor. Sixty four women (67%) responded. Although only 5% of women had requested hormone replacement therapy from their general practitioner the majority of women indicated that they had been helped by hormone replacement therapy. Eight per cent of women were using hormone re...

  7. Effects of antidepressant treatment on thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation, growth hormone response to L-DOPA, and dexamethasone suppression tests in major depressive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esel, Ertugrul; Kartalci, Sukru; Tutus, Ahmet; Turan, Tayfun; Sofuoglu, Seher

    2004-03-01

    Dexamethasone suppression (DST), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and growth hormone (GH) response to L-DOPA tests were evaluated in 19 depressed inpatients before the commencement of the antidepressant treatment and after the clinical response to examine: (i) the functional relationships among the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and dopaminergic system in depression, (ii) any alterations in these hormonal functions with the antidepressant treatment. TSH responses to TRH showed a tendency to increase from pre- to posttreatment period, while TRH-induced PRL and L-DOPA-induced GH responses did not change with treatment in depressed patients who responded to the treatment. Females showed significantly higher TSH and PRL responses to TRH compared to males. No interconnections were found among the responses in DST, TRH stimulation test and L-DOPA-induced GH test in the patients. The results do not support the interrelations between the abnormalities in the HPT and HPA axes and central dopaminergic activity in depression. PMID:14751427

  8. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bastos Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem.La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven.Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

  9. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular / Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system / Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena Bastos, Brito; Fernando, Nobre; Carolina Sales, Vieira.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, reali [...] zamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem. Abstract in spanish La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujere [...] s con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven. Abstract in english Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascu [...] lar disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

  10. Exposure to difenoconazole causes changes of thyroid hormone and gene expression levels in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Yu, Liang; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2015-11-01

    Difenoconazole was believed to induce a large suite of symptoms during zebrafish development, but little is known about the negative invisible effect known as endocrine disruption. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to various concentrations of difenoconazole from fertilization to 120h post-fertilization (hpf), and the whole body content of thyroid hormone and gene transcription in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were investigated. Results showed thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly decreased, while triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were not changed. Moreover, the mRNA transcription of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh?), transthyretin (ttr), thyronine deiodinase (dio1 and dio2), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (ugt1ab) in the HPT axis were significantly up-regulated, but the transcriptions of thyroglobulin (tg), sodium/iodide symporter (nis) and thyroid hormone receptors tr? were not changed. The overall results showed that exposure to difenoconazole could alter thyroid hormone levels and gene transcription in zebrafish larvae, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. PMID:26590868

  11. Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T4) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), tri iodine thyronine (T3) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

  12. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.

  13. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior. PMID:25224609

  14. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...... infarction is increased 50 - 100% with use of combined products, with little difference in risk between different progestins. Progestin-only products do not confer any increased risk of venous or arterial thrombosis, except for progestin depot, which may double the risk of venous thrombosis. EXPERT OPINION......: First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome...

  15. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma?gorzata Bi?kowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens.

  16. Hormonal Replacement: advantages and disdvantagens Reposição Hormonal: vantagens e desvantagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Aparecida Campesatto Mella

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of estrogens was considered by many people as a physiological condition and not pathological one probably because the ovarian inadequacy is genetically programmed. However with the increase of the expection of the women´s life, the negative impact of the deficiency of estrogens became more significant. Although this deficiency is easy to take care less than, 20% of the women post menopáusicas receive estrogens. The therapy of hormonal replacement (THR in the menopause it appeared as the mainly treatment form, to alleviate the symptoms and act as prevention, reducing the emergence of diseases, as the cardiovascular and the osteoporosis, but THR is not totally unproved of risks. The hormonal therapeutical has past the last years for doubts and uncertainties, in consequence of several related publications of its use, this way it becomes important to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this therapy. Analyse througha wide bibliographical revision, the advantages and disadvantages of the TRH replacement in women climatérias, as well as evaluate if the possible risks of this therapy overcomes s the benefits proportionate for the same . It was used as methodology bibliographical researches made in libraries and internet. The texts of books and scientific articles were studied and the contents of them were selected for the elaboration of this work. The THR is recommended to alleviate the vasomotores symptoms , treatment of vaginal atrophy and prevention of osteoporosis. In spite of the acquaintances advantages, approximately 70% of the women interrupt the treatment after the first year. One of the principal causes of the low adherence of THR is the bleed irregular , other reasons includes mastalgia, nausea, chronic headache, profit of weight and hidrica retention, besides the fear of cancer. The decision of a woman to use the TRH is a complex process and it is recommended by the doctor, who is taking care of her by the individual risk of diseases, by the attitudes toward the menopause and THR, values menopausais, symptoms and to the middle to which the woman belongs. A deficiência de estrogênio foi considerada por muitos uma condição fisiológica ,e não patológica, provavelmente porque a insuficiência ovariana é geneticamente programada. Entretanto com o aumento da expectativa de vida das mulheres, o impacto negativo da deficiência de estrogênio tornou-se mais significativo. Embora essa deficiência seja tratável, menos de 20% das mulheres pós menopáusicas recebem estrogênio. Embora a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH na menopausa não seja totalmente isenta de riscos,ela tem sido utilizada com o objetivo de aliviar sintomas e de agir preventivamente e assim reduzir o aparecimento de doenças, como as cardiovasculares e a osteoporose. A terapêutica hormonal tem passado os últimos anos por duvidas e incertezas, em conseqüência de diversas publicações relacionadas a seu uso, desta forma torna-se importante analisar as vantagens e desvantagens dessa terapia: analisar através de uma ampla revisão bibliográfica, as vantagens e desvantagens da terapia de reposição hormonal em mulheres climatérias, bem como avaliar se os possíveis riscos dessa terapia superam os benefícios proporcionados pela mesma. Utilizou-se como metodologia a pesquisa bibliográfica efetuada em bibliotecas e internet e os textos de livros e artigos científicos foram estudados e os conteúdos selecionados para a elaboração do trabalho.A terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH é recomendada para alivio dos sintomas vasomotores, tratamento da atrofia vaginal e prevenção da osteoporose. Apesar das conhecidas vantagens, aproximadamente 70% das mulheres cessam o tratamento após o primeiro ano. Uma das principais causas da baixa aderência a TRH é o sangramento irregular, outras razões incluem mastalgia, náusea, cefaléia, ganho de peso e retenção hídrica, além do medo de câncer. A decisão de uma mulher em usar terapia de reposição hormonal é um processo complexo determinado pela r

  17. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Antonietta, Costantino; Giulia, Gava; Marta, Berra; Cristina, Meriggiola Maria

    2014-01-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important ...

  18. Hormones, genes, and?behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Donald W

    1997-01-01

    With assays of hormone-sensitive behaviors, it is possible to demonstrate both direct and indirect actions of genes on mammalian social behaviors. Direct effects of estrogen receptor gene expression and progesterone receptor gene expression figure prominently in well analyzed neuroendocrine mechanisms for sex behavior, operating through a neural circuit that has been delineated. Indirect effects, notably the consequences of sexual differentiation, display complex d...

  19. [Hormone replacement and breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhäuser, M

    2002-12-11

    This review discusses the effect of Oestrogens, Progestagens, Tibolone, Raloxifene and Phytooestrogens in postmenopausal women on the breast. Epidemiological statisticians are only speaking of a clinical significance if the relative risk is half ( 2.0). All published data from observational studies or from important meta- and reanalyses concerning the relative risk of breast cancer in women using postmenopausal hormone therapy are within these limits and clearly below the risk observed in young smokers. The relative risk for breast cancer observed in the Womens Health Initiative (WHI) stays within these limits too, in women treated by a fix Oestrogen-Progestagen combination. However, in the WHI, there was no increase of the relative risk for breast cancer in women using oestrogens alone. The risk for breast cancer rises in parallel to the duration of the hormone treatment. The risk for hormone users to suffer from breast cancer does not increase earlier than 4-5 years after the start of the therapy. An important reanalysis reports, that after 5 years of hormone use, a breast cancer is diagnosed in 2 additional women out of 1000 (47 instead of 45 women). The absolute risk should be indicated in addition to the relative risk because, for non-specialists, the exclusive indication of the relative risk might be misleading. Following the results from the WHI and from some other, older studies, the relative risk for breast cancer might be higher in women taking an oestrogen-progestagen combination than in women using oestrogens alone. Experimental and preliminary clinical data on Tibolone and Raloxifene do not show a negative effect on breast tissue. However, if Tibolone and Raloxifene as well as Phytooestrogens possess a protective activity remains open because prospective randomized long-term clinical studies are still missing. PMID:12520726

  20. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    GHIGO, Ezio; ARVAT, Emanuela; MUCCIOLI, Giampiero; CAMANNI, Franco

    1997-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence str...

  1. Gut hormones in acute diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Besterman, H S; Christofides, N D; Welsby, P.D.; Adrian, T. E.; Sarson, D L; Bloom, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    The gut hormone response to a breakfast meal was studied in 12 subjects hospitalised for an episode of acute diarrhoea (presumed infective) who were otherwise well and in 13 healthy control subjects. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were low but basal insulin concentrations were raised. Basal concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide and both basal and postprandial responses of motilin, enteroglucagon, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were also significantly greater than control...

  2. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer A. Robinson; Anne E. Burke

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating alter...

  3. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112. ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  4. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcorrelated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  5. Keeping circadian time with hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet, E

    2015-09-01

    Daily variations of metabolism, physiology and behaviour are controlled by a network of coupled circadian clocks, comprising a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus and a multitude of secondary clocks in the brain and peripheral organs. Light cues synchronize the master clock that conveys temporal cues to other body clocks via neuronal and hormonal signals. Feeding at unusual times can reset the phase of most peripheral clocks. While the neuroendocrine aspect of circadian regulation has been underappreciated, this review aims at showing that the role of hormonal rhythms as internal time-givers is the rule rather than the exception. Adrenal glucocorticoids, pineal melatonin and adipocyte-derived leptin participate in internal synchronization (coupling) within the multi-oscillatory network. Furthermore, pancreatic insulin is involved in food synchronization of peripheral clocks, while stomach ghrelin provides temporal signals modulating behavioural anticipation of mealtime. Circadian desynchronization induced by shift work or chronic jet lag has harmful effects on metabolic regulation, thus favouring diabetes and obesity. Circadian deregulation of hormonal rhythms may participate in internal desynchronization and associated increase in metabolic risks. Conversely, adequate timing of endocrine therapies can promote phase-adjustment of the master clock (e.g. via melatonin agonists) and peripheral clocks (e.g. via glucocorticoid agonists). PMID:26332971

  6. Updates in hormonal emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrader, Sarah P; Hall, Larissa N; Ragucci, Kelly R; Rafie, Sally

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, there have been many updates in hormonal emergency contraception. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception has been available for several years to prevent pregnancy when used within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure, and it was recently approved for nonprescription status for patients aged 17 years or older. Current research suggests that the primary mechanism of action is delaying ovulation. Ulipristal is the newest emergency contraception, available by prescription only, approved for use up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure. The primary mechanism of action is delaying ovulation. When compared with levonorgestrel emergency contraception, ulipristal was proven noninferior in preventing pregnancy. Evidence suggests that ulipristal does not lose efficacy from 72-120 hours; however, more studies are warranted to support this claim. Many misconceptions and controversies about hormonal emergency contraception still exist. Research does not support that increased access to emergency contraception increases sexual risk-taking behavior. Several studies suggest that health care providers, including pharmacists, could benefit from increased education about emergency contraception. It is important for pharmacists to remain up-to-date on the most recent hormonal emergency contraception products and information, as pharmacists remain a major point of access to emergency contraception. PMID:21923590

  7. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HuguesDardente

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  8. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M. Masternak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  9. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

  10. Correlation of skin changes with hormonal changes in polycystic ovarian syndrome: A cross-sectional study clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vijaya Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%, followed by hirsutism (62.5%, seborrhea (52.5%, androgenetic alopecia (AGA (30%, acanthosis nigricans (22.5% and acrochordons (10%. Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone.

  11. Correlation of Skin Changes with Hormonal Changes in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, B Vijaya; Chandravathi, PL; Sindhu, PS; Naidu, K Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%), followed by hirsutism (62.5%), seborrhea (52.5%), androgenetic alopecia (AGA) (30%), acanthosis nigricans (22.5%) and acrochordons (10%). Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone. PMID:26288423

  12. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Bastos Brito; Fernando Nobre; Carolina Sales Vieira

    2011-01-01

    A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose ...

  13. Disfunción eréctil de origen hormonal / Hormonal etiology in erectile dysfunction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José María, Martínez Jabaloyas.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El adecuado funcionamiento del mecanismo de la erección depende de la correcta interrelación de factores psicológicos, vasculares, neurológicos y hormonales. Las enfermedades endocrinas afectan a la función sexual y la disfunción sexual puede ser uno de los síntomas de alguna alteración hormonal. La [...] diabetes mellitus es la alteración endocrina que con más frecuencia causa disfunción eréctil debido a las frecuentes complicaciones vasculares y neurológicas que conlleva. Es importante la determinación de glucosa en la evaluación inicial del varón con disfunción eréctil, así como intentar un adecuado control de los niveles de glucemia para evitar el empeoramiento. La disfunción eréctil del diabético es multifactorial, de mayor severidad y responde peor al tratamiento oral. La hiperprolactinemia es causante de alteraciones en la esfera sexual, ya que provoca descenso de la testosterona. En estos casos, la sintomatología sexual se trata corrigiendo los niveles de prolactina. La determinación rutinaria de la prolactina no está clara y parece que debe determinarse cuando las cifras de testosterona están disminuidas. Las alteraciones de la hormona tiroidea (tanto el hiper como el hipotiroidismo) se asocian a disfunción eréctil, que en la mitad de los casos remitirá con la normalización de la hormona tiroidea. No está claro el papel que juegan las hormonas suprarrenales en la función eréctil y su determinación rutinaria no se contempla en la evaluación diagnóstica de la disfunción eréctil. Tampoco se conoce bien el papel del estradiol en la regulación del mecanismo de la erección, aunque se sabe que cifras elevadas de este pueden provocar disfunción eréctil. Dentro de las alteraciones endocrino-metabólicas reseñar las dislipemias, con la hipercolesterolemia como factor de riesgo importante de disfunción eréctil y aunque su corrección puede prevenir el deterioro del sistema vascular, no está claro el papel de las estatinas en la disfunción eréctil. Abstract in english The proper function of erection mechanisms depend on correct interrelationship between psychological, vascular, neurological and hormonal factors. Endocrine diseases affect sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may be one of the symptoms of some hormonal anomalies. Diabetes mellitus is the endocri [...] ne disease most frequently causing erectile dysfunction due to the frequent vascular and neurological complications associated. It is important to determine blood glucose in the initial evaluation of a male with erectile dysfunction, as well as to try an adequate control of blood glucose levels to avoid worsening. Diabetic male erectile dysfunction is multifactorial, more severe and has worse response to oral treatment. Hyperprolactinemia causes disorders of the sexual sphere because it produces a descent of testosterone. In these cases, sexual symptoms are treated by correcting the levels of prolactin. Routine determination of prolactin is not clear and it seems it should be determined when testosterone levels are diminished. Thyroid hormone disorders (both hyper and hypotyroidism) are associated with erectile dysfunction, which will subside in half the patients with thyroid hormone normalization. The role of adrenal hormones in erectile function is not clear and their routine determination is not considered in the diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction. The role of estradiol in the regulation of the erection mechanism is not well known either, although it is known that high levels may cause erectile dysfunction. Among endocrine-metabolic disorders we point out dyslipemias, with hypercholesterolemia as an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction and, though its correction may prevent vascular system deterioration, the role of statins in erectile dysfunction is not clear.

  14. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ? Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ? Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ? Exposure to PBDEs and alternate FRs was associated with alterations in hormone levels.

  15. [Hormonal aspects in the diagnosis of hirsutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleev, A; Milkov, V

    1989-01-01

    Hormones of hypophyseal-adrenal axes were determined in 135 girls with hirsutism. On the basis of changes in the hormonal levels it was established that the syndrome of Stein-Leventhal in 62 girls (54% of the patients) was dependent on luteinizing hormone (LH) and was characterized by an increased index of LH/FSH over 3.0 as well as by an increased level of testosterone; hirsutism in 73 girls (67% of the patients) was dependent on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and was characterized by an increased level of ACTH and cortisol secretion; in the remaining patients hirsutism was a combination of both forms of dependence on LH and ACTH and an increase of hormones of both axes was present or was idiopathic with normal hormonal plasma levels, but with increased skin conversion and metabolic testosterone clearance. PMID:2742087

  16. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in TH activity.

  17. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M; Blaakaer, J; Gluud, C; Andersen, J R; Homann, C; Garred, P

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis and...... experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  18. [Parathyroid hormone and Wnt signaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yukinori; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is clinically used as therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in Japan. However, the mechanisms for bone anabolic action of PTH are not fully understood. Recently, numerous studies suggest that PTH enhances bone formation through the suppression of sclerostin, DKK1 and sFRP1, inhibitors of Wnt-?-catenin signal. Moreover, we identified Tmem119 as new osteoblast differentiation factor, which is involved in an increase in?-catenin level by PTH in osteoblasts. Further understanding of Wnt-?-catenin signaling in the bone anabolic action by PTH may lead to the development of novel bone anabolic agent. PMID:23719497

  19. Cracking the Code for Thyroid Hormone Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Antonio C.

    2013-01-01

    Cells are not passive bystanders in the process of hormonal signaling and instead can actively customize hormonal action. While diffusing from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, thyroid hormone is modified via the action of thioredoxin fold–containing selenoenzymes known as deiodinases. Whereas the type II deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active T3, the type III deiodinase (D3) converts it to reverse T3, an inactive metabolite. D3 also inactivates T3...

  20. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C; Moser, K; Reeves, G; Peto, R; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone ther...

  1. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael; Pöllänen, Eija; Atkinson, Ross A; Hansen, Mette; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated...

  2. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD results in reduction of fa...

  3. Reference intervals for thyroid hormones on the architect analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubl, Walter; Schmieder, Jürgen; Gladrow, Eberhard; Demant, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to establish reference intervals for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyronine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) on the Architect i2000 analyser (Abbott). Serum samples were obtained from apparently healthy adults (n=217, age 18-90 years) excluding individuals taking oral contraceptives or under hormone replacement therapy. The second group were ambulatory euthyroid patients (n=323) excluding those with a history of thyroid disorders. We also investigated thyroid hormones in sera from euthyroid hospitalised patients (n=490) excluding those with severe non-thyroidal illness. The reference intervals for the healthy adults were for TSH 0.17-4.23 mIU/l, for FT4 11.24-26.86 pmol/l, for FT3 2.56-6.36 pmol/l, for TT4 55.8-155.1 nmol/l and for TT3 0.90-2.54 nmol/l. TSH and TT3 concentrations were similar in males and females. However, FT4, FT3 and TT4 levels exhibited significant differences between females and males. No significant differences were observed between the concentrations of TSH, FT3, TT3, FT4 and TT4 in healthy subjects and in euthyroid ambulatory patients aged 18-90 years. TSH levels in healthy subjects were the same in younger and older individuals. In contrast, in outpatients and in hospitalised patients TSH concentrations were significantly lower (20%) in subjects older than 50 years compared to those younger than 50 years. For FT3 and TT3 we consistently observed in all three study groups 6-7% and 8-12% higher concentrations in the younger ( 50 years) subjects. For FT4 and TT4 no consistent pattern of correlation with age was detectable when the three study groups were analysed independently. The reference intervals for thyroid hormones determined in this study differ considerably from values found in other European and non-European countries. This underlines the need for population-specific reference ranges. PMID:11939490

  4. Variations of Endocrine Hormones Concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under Simulated Seasonal Acclimatized: Role of Leptin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-long

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in endocrine hormones concentrations are important for the survival of small mammals during acclimatization. In order to understand the role of leptin sensitivity on other endocrine hormones concentrations, we examined body mass, serum leptin level, serum insulin, tri-iodothyronine (T 3, thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under seasonal acclimatized (The simulated temperature and photoperiod in winter: 5°C and SD, 8h:16h Light:Dark; the simulated temperature and photoperiod in summer: 30°C and SD, 16h:8h Light:Dark for 4 weeks. The results showed that body mass, serum leptin level, serum T3, T4 concentrations and T3/T4 showed significant variation, but serum insulin and TSH concentrations showed no variations between treatment group. There were positive correlation between serum leptin level and insulin, T4 concentrations, and were negative correlation between serum leptin level and body mass, T3 concentrations. However, no correlation was found between serum TSH concentrations and serum leptin level. The present results suggested T. belangeri overcome winter thermogenesis challenges by adjusting body mass and endocrine hormones concentrations. Furthermore, leptin may play an potential role in their body mass regulation in T. belangeri.

  5. VARIATION IN THYROID HORMONES LEVEL AMONG PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE, GENDER AND SEASONS, PIPARIA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Chaurasia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid is an endocrine gland located below the larynx. The principal thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4, tri-iodothyroxine (T3. The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of age, gender and seasons on the level of Thyroxine (T4, Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in individuals free of thyroid diseases. Methods: - Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH in 198 individuals attending Dhiraj General Hospital in different seasons were examined. Hormonal assay was done by using AIA 360 immunoassay. Results: - Levels of T3, T4 and TSH ranged from 0.98-4.8ng/dl, 0.56-3-25ng/dl and 0.01-5.3?IU/L. There is significant change in thyroid hormone levels in both genders of different age group in different seasons. Conclusion:- It is concluded that the age, gender and seasons have an appreciable effects on the levels T3, T4 and TSH. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 57-59

  6. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  7. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2012-02-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  8. Thyroid hormone levels in patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted with three main objectives, to study thyroid hormones (T 4, T 3) and TSH levels in patients with CRF under haemodialysis and to compare them with normal subjects, to study best means of treatment and to compare these findings with results from other parts of the world. This study was done on 61 patients with renal failure in Khartoum dialysis and kidney transplant centre U of K, 45 males and 16 females with ages ranging from 17-75 years and 42 symptoms-free subjects 14 males and 23 females with age ranging from 16-60 years. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used for the determination of serum T 4, T 3 and TSH. By using t-test found that the mean concentrations of T 4, T 3 of normal subjects were much higher than those of the patients (p0.05). These results also illustrated that 45.9% of patients with renal failure of low T 4, and 91.8%, 90.26 of patients had T 3 and TSH hormone levels in the normal range, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean of thyroid hormones (T 4, T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormones between males and females (p>0.05). The T 3 and T '4 concentrations in patients at all age groups (year) was less than the age groups of the control group, and this decrease was statistically significant (p0.05).(Author)

  9. Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

  10. Study on changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrome due to the stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrom due to the stagnation of liver-qi. Methods: Serum thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), free thyroxine (FT4), cortisol levels were measured with immunoradioassay (IMRA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 30 patients with this type of insomnia and 30 controls. Results: The serum TSH levels were significantly lower and serum TRH, GH, cortisol FT4 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: This insomnia syndrome was closely related to the dysfunction of mpothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and adrenal axis. (authors)

  11. DNA regulatory elements for steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, M; Chalepakis, G; Schauer, M; Slater, E P

    1989-05-01

    Gene regulation by steroid hormones is mediated through an interaction of the hormone receptors with DNA regulatory sequences called hormone regulatory or responsive elements (HRE). An analysis of the HRE's in the DNA of mouse mammary tumour provirus, human metallothionein IIA gene, chicken lysozyme gene, chicken and Xenopus vitellogenin genes, growth hormones genes, Moloney murine sarcoma provirus, rabbit uteroglobin gene, rat tyrosine aminotransferase gene, rat tryptophan oxygenase gene and rat acidic glycoprotein gene, yields the following consensus for positively modulated glucocorticoid responsive elements (GRE): 5'-GGTACAnnnTGTTCT-3'. This element can also mediate induction by progesterone and probably by androgens, but not by estrogens. Detailed analysis of the DNA protection pattern suggests that a dimer of the hormone receptor interacts with this palindromic 15-mer. In genes that are negatively regulated by glucocorticoids an imperfect copy of the GRE is found, and repression is probably due to competition between hormone receptor and other transcription factors or enhancer binding proteins for binding to overlapping DNA sequences. The receptors without bound hormone are able to interact specifically with DNA in vitro, but binding of hormone is needed for transcriptional activation in vivo. This could be due, at least in part, to changes in the rate parameters of the receptor-DNA interaction induced by binding of the hormone to the receptor. The possible role of precise chromatin organization in glucocorticoid induction is discussed on the basis of the nucleosome phasing found in the LTR region of mouse mammary tumour virus. PMID:2661921

  12. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Fleming, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol.......To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  13. Steroid hormone influence on melanomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkov, Mario; Joseph, Richard; Copland, John

    2015-12-01

    Disparities in the prognosis and incidence of melanoma between male and female patients have led clinicians to explore the influence of steroid hormones on the development and progression of this malignancy. A better understanding of the disparities of melanoma behavior between sexes and ages could lead to improved prevention and treatment options. There are multiple themes in the literature that unify the physiologic functions of estrogen and androgen receptors; herein we discuss and map their pathways. Overall, it is important to understand that the differences in melanoma behavior between the sexes are multifactorial and likely involve interactions between the immune system, endocrine system, and environment, namely UV-radiation. Melanoma deserves a spot among hormone-sensitive tumors, and if tamoxifen is re-introduced for future therapy, tissue ratios of estrogen receptors should be obtained beforehand to assess their therapeutic predictive value. Because androgens, estrogens, and their receptors are involved in signaling of commonly mutated melanoma pathways, potential synergistic properties of the recently developed molecular kinase inhibitors that target those pathways may exist. PMID:26415591

  14. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wen-Jun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

  15. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  16. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  17. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  18. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 le...

  19. In vitro hormone assays with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of radioimmunoassay are given, with special emphasis on the following topics: preparation of radioactive tracer and standard solutions; obtention of specific antiserum and choice of adequate techniques for the separation of antibody-bound hormone from unbound hormone. The various applications of radioimmunoassay are discussed. A brief comment is made about the radioreceptor assay. (M.A.)

  20. Chronic renal failure and anterior hypophysial hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkov, V; Pironcheva, G; Russev, G

    2001-01-01

    Kidneys are not only organs with an excretory function but they produce their own endocrine factors which are involved in supporting homeostasis in the organism. The kidneys are the organs in which metabolism and biodegradation of many hormones take place. Together with the liver, the kidneys actively take part in the catabolism of hormones. PMID:11318509

  1. Thyroid hormone effects on mitochondrial energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Mary-Ellen; Seifert, Erin L

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid hormones are the major endocrine regulators of metabolic rate, and their hypermetabolic effects are widely recognized. The cellular mechanisms underlying these metabolic effects have been the subject of much research. Thyroid hormone status has a profound impact on mitochondria, the organelles responsible for the majority of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, mechanisms are not well understood. We review the effects of thyroid hormones on mitochondrial energetics and principally oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic and nongenomic mechanisms have been studied. Through the former, thyroid hormones stimulate mitochondriogenesis and thereby augment cellular oxidative capacity. Thyroid hormones induce substantial modifications in mitochondrial inner membrane protein and lipid compositions. Results are consistent with the idea that thyroid hormones activate the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation through various mechanisms involving inner membrane proteins and lipids. Increased uncoupling appears to be responsible for some of the hypermetabolic effects of thyroid hormones. ATP synthesis and turnover reactions are also affected. There appear to be complex relationships between mitochondrial proton leak mechanisms, reactive oxygen species production, and thyroid status. As the majority of studies have focused on the effects of thyroid status on rat liver preparations, there is still a need to address fundamental questions regarding thyroid hormone effects in other tissues and species. PMID:18279015

  2. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and periods of sweating and heat (hot flashes), vaginal symptoms (itching, burning, and dryness) and difficulty with ... Hormone replacement therapy comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once a day. To help you remember to take hormone replacement therapy, take it ...

  3. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular dise...

  4. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and ?-32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  5. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial in the...... treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment....... Recently, the first randomized, controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of PTH on fracture healing was published, indicating a possible clinical benefit of PTH treatment in inducing fracture healing. The aim of this article is therefore to review the evidence for the potential of PTH in bone...

  6. Thyroid hormone and reproduction in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Habibi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As in many vertebrates, fish reproduction is regulated by environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. During reproductive season a significant amount of metabolic energy is diverted to development of ovary and testis through precise regulation of brain-pituitary-peripheral axis by a number of key hormones, including pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroids. Since thyroid hormones are important regulator of metabolism and development in vertebrates, we investigated the possibility that thyroid hormones may mediate a change from gonadotropic to somatotropic state. Multiple experiments were performed across the four reproductive seasons to test the effects of triiodothyronine (T3 on estrogen and androgen receptors in the liver, testis and ovary as well as secretion of gonadal steroids and expression of pituitary glycoprotein hormone subunits (TSH?, LH? & FSH? and aromatase. Previous studies suggested that thyroid hormones influence reproduction in vertebrates, but little information is available on the mechanisms. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that thyroid hormones regulate pituitary hormone and gonadal steroid production in fish. The results demonstrate that thyroid hormone, (T3 regulates estrogen level as well as estrogen receptor subtypes (ER alpha, beta-1 and beta-II in the testis and ovary of goldfish. We also observed that T3 influence pituitary gonadotropin and gonadal aromatase gene expression in goldfish. Collectively, it appears that T3 acts to diminish gonadotropic response by influencing hormone production as well as decreasing sensitivity to estrogen by down-regulating the estrogen receptor subtypes. We propose that thyroid hormones play a role in switching energy expenditure from reproductive to growth in goldfish. Funded by NSERC grants to HRH.

  7. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. PMID:18385901

  8. Regulation of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Release from the Pituitary by Thyroxine during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally-relevant chemicals such as perchlorate have the ability to disrupt the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of exposed individuals. Larval anurans are a particularly suitable model species for studying the effects of thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) becaus...

  9. Sialadenitis following low dose I-131 diagnostic thyroid scan with Thyrogen® (recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone--thyrotropin alfa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marta E; Muttikkal, Thomas Jose Eluvathingal; Rehm, Patrice K

    2015-06-01

    Salivary dysfunction and sialadenitis are well known complications of radioiodine treatment for thyroid cancer. The parotid gland is more frequently affected and the salivary gland injury is dose related. The symptoms may develop shortly after therapeutic Iodine 131(I-131) administration or months later and progress with time. The development of unilateral parotiditis following a low dose, diagnostic I-131 scan performed following Thyrogen stimulation in a patient without prior history of sialadenitis is rare in our experience, and has not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:26622936

  10. Sialadenitis following low dose I-131 diagnostic thyroid scan with Thyrogen® (recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone - thyrotropin alfa)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Marta E; Muttikkal, Thomas Jose Eluvathingal; Rehm, Patrice K.

    2015-01-01

    Salivary dysfunction and sialadenitis are well known complications of radioiodine treatment for thyroid cancer. The parotid gland is more frequently affected and the salivary gland injury is dose related. The symptoms may develop shortly after therapeutic Iodine 131(I-131) administration or months later and progress with time. The development of unilateral parotiditis following a low dose, diagnostic I-131 scan performed following Thyrogen stimulation in a patient without prior history of sia...

  11. Sialadenitis following low dose I-131 diagnostic thyroid scan with Thyrogen® (recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone - thyrotropin alfa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marta E; Muttikkal, Thomas Jose Eluvathingal; Rehm, Patrice K

    2015-01-01

    Salivary dysfunction and sialadenitis are well known complications of radioiodine treatment for thyroid cancer. The parotid gland is more frequently affected and the salivary gland injury is dose related. The symptoms may develop shortly after therapeutic Iodine 131(I-131) administration or months later and progress with time. The development of unilateral parotiditis following a low dose, diagnostic I-131 scan performed following Thyrogen stimulation in a patient without prior history of sialadenitis is rare in our experience, and has not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:26622936

  12. Characteristics of hormonal profile of children with allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumna T.Ye.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to determine features of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases, the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and cortisol were investigated in 110 children in the age from 6 to 17 years. Of them 79 children with allergic diseases (40 children from Zaporozhye and 39 children – from eco¬friendly clean Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area and 31 healthy children (16 children - from Zaporozhye and 15 - with conventionally ecofriendly clean districts of the Zaporozhye area. Levels of hormones (ACTH (pg/ml, TSH (mkIU/ml, cortisol (ng/ml were determined through diagnostic test systems by a standard method in laboratories of the Zaporozh?e state medical university. By research results it is set, that in the conditions of large industrial city Zaporozh?e, forming of allergic pathology in children took place during activating of the hypophysis-adrenal system with the increase of TSH, cortisol, ACTH secretion with a high risk of exhaustion of immunoreactions and persistence of antigens; this was confir¬med by increase of values of their medians in relation to healthy children. In children with allergic diseases, habitants of ecologically favourable Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area, vice versa, lower indexes of medians of ACTH, TSH and cortisol were registered; this testifies to sup¬pression of hypothalamus function and hypophysis system with violation of protective reaction and adaptation mechanisms in response to forming of allergic inflammation. Thus, adjusting of hormonal activity by principle of ne¬gative reverse link in children with allergic diseases was not executed, regardless of place of residence. In addition, indexes of median of ACTH, TSH, cortisol in children with different clinical forms of allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis in comparison to healthy ones, testified that for children with bronchial asthma the highest level of index of medians of ACTH (37,39 (29,1-56,11 pg/ml and cortisol (249,23 (169,57-293,83 ng/ml was registered, for children with a rhin¬allergosis – indexes of medians of cortisol were the lowest (84,69 (84,06-92,81 ng/ml, and indexes of medians of TSH were reliably higher only in comparing groups of children with bronchial asthma (2,73 (1,13-3,18 mkMU/ml with healthy (1,96 (1,59-1,99 mkMU/ml. As a result of the conducted research, it was well-proven that indexes of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases depend not only on their place of residence but also on the clinical forms of allergic pathology; this must be taken into account in individual selection of doses and duration of treatment even by inhalation and by topical glucocorthicosteroid agents.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of pituitary and hypothalamic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimunoassay (RIA) systems have been developed to quantitate virtually every hormone available in pure form. This exquisitely sensitive technique has revolutionized the fields of endocrine physiology and clinical endocrinology. Bioassay techniques which have been employed for many years are not sufficiently sensitive to measure accurately all the anterior pituitary hormones in plasma; the development of RIAs in biologic fluids and tissues has permitted studies which have greatly expanded our knowledge of the factors involved in an anterior pituitary hormone synthesis, metabolism, and action. A chapter on the general principles of RIAs for anterior pituitary hormones would have the disadvantage of being repetitive, several excellent reviews on this topic being already available in the literature. In view of these points, this chapter, in addition to quoting many papers from the literature describing the technical procedures of pituitary hormone RIAs in several animal species, will focus on some aspects thought to be of peculiar interest. More space will be given to the second part of the chapter, on the RIA detection of hypophysiotropic neurohormones. This is an expanding field on endocrinology, particularly after the recent recognition of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Besides a description of the general problems related to the assay of hypophysiotropic peptides and a critical assessment of available techniques, the significance of determinations of these peptides in brain areas or biologic fluid as an index of neuronal function will be considered

  14. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  15. Mechanisms of genotoxic effects of hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?eli? Ninoslav J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept that compounds commonly present in biological systems lack genotoxic and mutagenic activities is generally in use, hence a low number of endogenous substances have ever been tested to mutagenicity. Epidemiological and experimental analyses indicated, however, that sexual steroids could contribute to initiation and/or continuation of malign diseases. Detailed studies using methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, cytogenetics and other branches, showed that not only epigenetic mechanisms, such as a stimulation of cell proliferation, but also certain hormones, that can express genotoxic effects, such as covalent DNA modification, then chromosomal lesions and chromosomal aberrations, are in the background of malign transformation under activities of hormones. In the case of oestrogens, it was shown that excessive hormonal stimulation led to a metabolic conversion of these hormones to reactive intermediates with formation of reactive oxygenic derivates, so that cells were virtually under conditions of oxidative stress. Individual and tissue susceptibility to occurrence of deterioration of DNA and other cell components generally results from the differences in efficiency of enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms of resistance against oxidative stress. Besides, steroid thyeroid hormones and catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine and adrenaline can express genotoxic effects in some test-systems. It is interesting that all above mentioned hormones have a phenolic group. Data on possible genotoxic effects of peptide and protein hormones are very scarce, but based on the available literature it is considered that this group of hormones probably lacks mutagenic activities. The possibility that hormones, as endogenous substances, express mutagenic activities results from the fact that DNA is, regardless of chemical and metabolic stability susceptible, to a certain extent, to changeability compatible with the processes of the biological evolution.

  16. Significance of total and free thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in chronic hepatitis B patients and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis B destroys the liver cells. Proteins (albumin, pre albumin and thyroid binding globulin) produced by liver cells play an important role in metabolism and transport of thyroid hormones, therefore liver dysfunction is likely to disturb the transport of thyroid hormones resulting in disease. To determine the significance of thyroid hormones in relation to serum proteins in Chronic Hepatitis B patients. It was a cross sectional study conducted at National Health Research Complex (NHRC) and department of Gastroenterology Sheikh Zayed Medical Complex Lahore. One hundred Chronic Hepatitis B patients diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reaction were matched with 100 healthy persons, served as control, were selected for total and free thyroid hormones using ELISA, while serum proteins were estimated spectrophotometrically. Serum total protein levels were within the normal range in both Chronic Hepatitis B patients and controls with mean value of 6.55 g/dl and 7.2 g/dl respectively, however serum albumin levels were lower in Chronic Hepatitis B patients (mean 2.69 g/dl) as compared to controls (mean 4.1 g/dl). Serum globulin was increased (4.09 g/dl) in patients as compared to controls (mean 3.1 g/dl).Albumin globulin ratio was 1(mean 13.5). Consequently, increased globulin resulted in more binding of T4 (mean 194 nmol/L) in Chronic Hepatitis B patients as compared to controls (mean 123 nmol/L). Conversion of T4 to T3 in Chronic Hepatitis B cases was also disturbed resulting in slight decrease of total T3 (mean 1.77 nmol/L) as compared to controls (mean 2.3 nmol/L). Free T3 (mean 3.56 pmol/L) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (mean 0.68 mIU/ml) also showed slight decrease when compared with controls (mean 4.5 pmol/L, mean 1.52 mIU/ml). FT4 remained within normal range in both the groups. In Chronic Hepatitis B related liver disease and cirrhosis, serum albumin levels go down while globulins go up and these changes alter the binding of thyroid hormones and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone resulting in disturbance in thyroid hormone levels. (author)

  17. Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietge, Joseph E., E-mail: tietge.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Degitz, Sigmund J., E-mail: degitz.sigmund@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Haselman, Jonathan T., E-mail: haselman.jon@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Butterworth, Brian C., E-mail: butterworth.brian@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Korte, Joseph J., E-mail: korte.joe@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Kosian, Patricia A., E-mail: kosian.pat@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Lindberg-Livingston, Annelie J., E-mail: lind1020@d.umn.edu [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); and others

    2013-01-15

    Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18-357 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23-435 {mu}g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

  18. Inhibition of the thyroid hormone pathway in Xenopus laevis by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining the effects of chemicals on the thyroid system is an important aspect of evaluating chemical safety from an endocrine disrupter perspective. Since there are numerous chemicals to test and limited resources, prioritizing chemicals for subsequent in vivo testing is critical. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a high production volume chemical, was tested and shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme activity in vitro, a key enzyme necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone. To determine the thyroid disrupting activity of MBT in vivo, Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed using 7- and 21-day protocols. The 7-day protocol used 18–357 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated: metamorphic development, thyroid histology, circulating T4, circulating thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidal sodium-iodide symporter gene expression, and thyroidal T4, T3, and related iodo-amino acids. The 21-day protocol used 23–435 ?g/L MBT concentrations and evaluated metamorphic development and thyroid histology. Both protocols demonstrated that MBT is a thyroid disrupting chemical at the lowest concentrations tested. These studies complement the in vitro study used to identify MBT as a high priority for in vivo testing, supporting the utility/predictive potential of a tiered approach to testing chemicals for TPO activity inhibition. The 7-day study, with more comprehensive, sensitive, and diagnostic endpoints, provides information at intermediate biological levels that enables linking various endpoints in a robust and integrated pathway for thyroid hormone disruption associated with TPO inhibition.

  19. Liver X receptor ? controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-11-10

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXR?, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity. PMID:26504234

  20. Thyroid hormone regulates the obesity gene tub

    OpenAIRE

    Koritschoner, Nicolás P.; Alvarez-Dolado, Manuel; Kurz, Steffen M.; Heikenwälder, Mathias F.; Hacker, Christine; Vogel, Frank; Muñoz, Alberto; Zenke, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone T3/T4 is a major regulator of energy metabolism in vertebrates, and defects in thyroid status are frequently associated with changes in body weight. It is demonstrated here that thyroid hormone regulates in vivo and in vitro the tub gene, which when mutated in tubby mice causes obesity, insulin resistance and sensory deficits. Hypothyroidism in rats altered tub mRNA and protein in discrete brain areas. These changes could be attributed to thyroid hormone deficiency since T3/T4...

  1. Hormones and acoustic communication in anuran amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Christopher J

    2009-10-01

    Circulating hormone levels can mediate changes in the quality of courtship signals by males and/or mate choice by females and may thus play an important role in the evolution of courtship signals. Costs associated with shifts in hormone levels of males, for example, could effectively stabilize directional selection by females on male signals. Alternatively, if hormone levels affect the selection of mates by females, then variation in hormone levels among females could contribute to the maintenance of variability in the quality of males' signals. Here, I review what is known regarding the effects of hormone levels on the quality of acoustic signals produced by males and on the choice of mates by females in anuran amphibians. Surprisingly, despite the long history of anuran amphibians as model organisms for studying acoustic communication and physiology, we know very little about how variation in circulating hormone levels contributes to variation in the vocal quality of males. Proposed relationships between androgen levels and vocal quality depicted in recent models, for example, are subject to the same criticisms raised for similar models proposed in relation to birds, namely that the evidence for graded effects of androgens on vocal performance is often weak or not rigorously tested and responses seen in one species are often not observed in other species. Although several studies offer intriguing support for graded effects of hormones on calling behavior, additional comparative studies will be required to understand these relationships. Recent studies indicate that hormones may also mediate changes in anuran females' choice of mates, suggesting that the hormone levels of females can influence the evolution of males' mating signals. No studies to date have concurrently addressed the potential complexity of hormone-behavior relationships from the perspective of sender as well as receiver, nor have any studies addressed the costs that are potentially associated with changes in circulating hormone levels in anurans (i.e., life-history tradeoffs associated with elevations in circulating androgens in males). The mechanisms involved in hormonally induced changes in signal production and selectivity also require further investigation. Anuran amphibians are, in many ways, conducive to investigating such questions. PMID:21665833

  2. Impact of Growth Hormone on Cystatin C

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Lisa; Bernays, René L.; Zwimpfer, Cornelia; Wiesli, Peter; Brändle, Michael; Schmid, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC) is an alternative marker to creatinine for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hormones such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids are known to have an impact on CysC. In this study, we examined the effect of growth hormone (GH) on CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS: Creatinine, CysC, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in 24 patients with acromegaly before and following transs...

  3. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Gutkowska; M., Jankowski; S., Mukaddam-Daher; S.M., McCann.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during [...] parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

  4. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone.

  5. STATUS SOSIAL-EKONOMI DAN KADAR HORMON TIROTROPIN RUMAH-TANGGA PENGGUNA GARAM BERIDOIUM DI PERKOTAAN INDONESIA : ANALISIS DATA RISKESDAS 2007 (SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND THYROTROPIN HORMONE LEVEL OF HOUSEHOLDS USING IODIZED SALT IN INDONESIAN URBAN : ANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Kartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iodized salt is the long term and sustainable strategy to improve iodine intakeof the community.Level of thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin hormone can be used as indicator of iodine intake adequacy. To study the socio-economic status of households using iodized salt and thyrotropin hormone level in urban areas. Riskesdas data 2007 that include 280.000 households was used.Thyrotropin hormone data include 9.457 people aged above 1 years. Variables included classification of village, rapid test on salt, education and occupation of households’ head, household expenditure and level of thyrotropin hormone. Around 80 percentof households where households’ head graduated from college/university used salt containing sufficient iodine. Only 18 percent households with households’ headworks as government workers used salt containing sufficient iodine. Around 70 percent households in 5th quintile of household’s expenditure were using salt with sufficient iodine content. Around 70 percent households in urban areas were using salt withsufficient iodine content.Among children 1-4 years, percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormon level was 3.3 percentand among 60 years of age and above was 15.8 percent. The higher the educational levelthe higher the percentage of households used salt with sufficient iodine. Percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine was higher in urban than in rural areas. The higher the quintiles of household expenditures the higher the percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine. There was a trend that the higher the age the higher the percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormone level. Keywords: householdsalt, education, occupation, urban, rural, expenditure, thyrotropin hormone   ABSTRAK Garam beriodium merupakan strategi jangka panjang dan berkesinambungan untuk memperbaiki asupan iodium masyarakat. Sementara itu, kadar thyroid stimulating hormone (hormon tirotropin dapat digunakan sebagai indikator kecukupan asupan iodium. Meneliti status sosial-ekonomi rumah-tangga yang menggunakan garam beriodium dan kadar hormon tirotropin di perkotaan.  Data yang digunakan untuk artikel ini adalah data Riskesdas 2007 yang mencakup 280.000 rumah-tangga. Data hormon tirotropin mencakup 9.457 individu umur 1 tahun keatas. Variabel yang digunakan untuk makalah ini meliputi klasifikasi desa, tes cepat pada garam, pendidikan dan pekerjaan kepala keluarga (KK, kadar hormon tirotropin. Sekitar 80 persen rumah-tangga,dimana KK tamat perguruan tinggi, menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium. Hanya 18 persen rumah-tangga yang KK-nya bekerja sebagai pegawai negeri menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium. Sekitar 70 persen rumah-tangga pada kuintil 5 pengeluaran rumah-tangga menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium. Sekitar 70 persen rumah-tangga di perkotaan menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium.Pada umur 1-4 tahun, persentase hormon tirotropin kategori rendah adalah 3,3 persen dan pada umur 60 tahun keatas adalah 15,8 persen.  Semakin tinggi tingkat pendidikan kepala rumah-tangga semakin tinggi persentase rumah-tangga yang menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium. Persentase rumah-tangga yang menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium adalah lebih tinggi di perkotaan dibandingkan di perdesaan.Semakin tinggi kuintil pengeluaran rumah-tangga semakin tinggi persentase rumah-tangga yang menggunakan garam mengandung cukup iodium. Ada kecenderungan semakin tinggi umur semakin tinggi persentase kadar tirotropin kategori rendah. [Penel Gizi Makan 2012, 35(2: 90-98] Kata kunci: garam rumah-tangga, pendidikan, pekerjaan, perkotaan, perdesaan, pengeluaran, hormon tirotropin

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF END-STAGE LIVER DISEASE AND LIVER TRANSPLANTATION ON THYROID HORMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rocha PENTEADO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Thyroid dysfunction has been reported in most chronic illnesses including severe liver disease. These defects in thyroid hormone metabolism result in the sick euthyroid syndrome, also known as low T3 syndrome. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the thyroid function in patients with end stage liver disease prior and after deceased donor liver transplantation and to correlate thyroid hormonal changes with the MELD score (Model for End stage Liver Disease. Methods In a prospective study, serum levels of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, total thyroxine (tT4, free thyroxine (fT4 and triiodothyronine (T3 from 30 male adult patients with end stage liver disease were measured two to four hours before and 6 months after liver transplantation (LT. MELD was determined on the day of transplant. For this analysis, extra points were not added for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results The patients had normal TSH and fT4 levels before LT and there was no change after the procedure. Total thyroxine and triiodothyronine were within the normal range before LT, except for four patients (13.3% whose values were lower. Both hormones increased to normal values in all four patients after LT (P=0.02 and P18, it was observed that there was no change in the TSH, freeT4, and total T4 levels in both groups after LT. Although there was no significant variation in the level of T3 in MELD 18 group after LT (P=0.003. Conclusion Patients with end stage liver disease subjected to liver transplantation had normal TSH and fT4 levels before and after LT. In a few patients with lower tT4 and T3 levels before LT, the level of these hormones increased to normal after LT.

  7. Unsulfated cholecystokinin : An overlooked hormone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Agersnap, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosyl O-sulfation is a common posttranslational derivatization of proteins that may also modify regulatory peptides. Among these are members of the cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin family. While sulfation of gastrin peptides is without effect on the bioactivity, O-sulfation is crucial for the cholecystokinetic activity (i.e. gallbladder emptying) of CCK peptides. Accordingly, the purification of CCK as a sulfated peptide was originally monitored by its gallbladder emptying effect. Since then, the dogma has prevailed that CCK peptides are always sulfated. The dogma is correct in a semantic context since the gallbladder expresses only the CCK-A receptor that requires sulfation of the ligand. CCK peptides, however, are also ligands for the CCK-B receptors that do not require ligand sulfation. Consequently, unsulfated CCK peptides may act via CCK-B receptors. Since in vivo occurrence of unsulfated products of proCCK with an intact ?-amidated C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence (-Trp-Met-Asp-PheNH(2)) has been reported, it is likely that unsulfated CCK peptides constitute a separate hormone system that acts via CCK-B receptors. This review discusses the occurrence, molecular forms, and possible physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of unsulfated CCK peptides.

  8. Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T4 and T3. In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T4 and T3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T4 and T3. Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

  9. Growth hormone doping: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erotokritou-Mulligan I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

  10. Considerations in parathyroid hormone testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier, Etienne; Plebani, Mario; Delanaye, Pierre; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a major player in phosphocalcic metabolism and its measurement is very important for the correct diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. PTH determination represents the paradigm of quality in laboratory medicine as many variables in the pre-, intra-, and post-analytical phases strongly affect the value of the clinical information. Analytical determination of PTH has been rendered difficult by the presence, in the circulation, of truncated fragments that can cross-react with the antibodies used for its determination. In addition, pre-analytical phase is complicated by the lack of stability of the peptide and the best sample to use for its determination remains controversial, as well as sample handling and storage. PTH secretion is also affected by circadian and seasonal rhythms and by physical exercise. Finally, from the post-analytical perspective, establishment of reliable reference ranges requires further efforts as the selection criteria for reference subjects should take into consideration new variables such as gender, race and vitamin D levels. Finally, clinical guidelines have recently revised and improved the criteria for a correct interpretation of PTH values. PMID:26035114

  11. Osteoporotic fracture and parathyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita S Datta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption, resulting in bone fragility and increased risk of fractures. Stimulating the function of bone-forming osteoblasts, is the preferred pharmacological intervention for osteoporosis. Recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH, PTH(1-34, is an anabolic agent with proven benefits to bone strength and has been characterized as a potential therapy for skeletal repair. In spite of PTH’s clinical use, safety is a major consideration for long-term treatment. Studies have demonstrated that intermittent PTH treatment enhances and accelerates the skeletal repair process via a number of mechanisms. Recent research into the molecular mechanism of PTH action on bone tissue has led to the development of PTH analogs to control osteoporotic fractures. This review summarizes a number of advances made in the field of PTH and bone fracture to combat these injuries in humans and in animal models. The ultimate goal of providing an alternative to PTH, currently the sole anabolic therapy in clinical use, to promote bone formation and improve bone strength in the aging population is yet to be achieved.

  12. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  13. Stress increases putative gonadotropin inhibitory hormone and decreases luteinizing hormone in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Geraghty, Anna C; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George E.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The subjective experience of stress leads to reproductive dysfunction in many species, including rodents and humans. Stress effects on reproduction result from multilevel interactions between the hormonal stress response system, i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and the hormonal reproductive system, i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis. A novel negative regulator of the HPG axis known as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was recently discovered in quail,...

  14. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    contribution of progestins for about 10 days every month excludes this risk. Breast cancer in relation to estrogen-progestogen therapy has been given much concern, and the problem is still not fully solved. If there is a risk, it is small, and only after prolonged use of estrogen (15-20 years). The decision......The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy. This...... no increased risk of venous thrombosis or hypertension. A disadvantage of hormone replacement therapy is an increased risk of forming gall-bladder stones and undergoing cholecystectomy. Unopposed estrogen therapy gives a higher incidence of endometrial cancer in women with an intact uterus, but the...

  15. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1 levels and responses to meals may be altered in obese subjects. Clinical trial results have shown further that two GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), exenatide and liraglutide, which are approved for ...

  16. Thyroid hormone and reproduction in goldfish

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid R. Habibi

    2010-01-01

    As in many vertebrates, fish reproduction is regulated by environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. During reproductive season a significant amount of metabolic energy is diverted to development of ovary and testis through precise regulation of brain-pituitary-peripheral axis by a number of key hormones, including pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroids. Since thyroid hormones are important regulator of metabolism and development in vertebrates, we investigated the possibil...

  17. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Mortensen, Kristian H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2012-01-01

    The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequent osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play ...

  18. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular disease has been suggested as a primary cause of death, whereas cancer statistics might be influenced by the number of malignancies causing the pituitary disease. Furthermore, differences in mortality rates ...

  19. Gut hormone release after intestinal resection.

    OpenAIRE

    Besterman, H S; Adrian, T. E.; Mallinson, C. N.; Christofides, N D; Sarson, D L; Pera, A.; Lombardo, L; Modigliani, R.; Bloom, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of gut and pancreatic hormones in the adaptive responses to gut resection, plasma concentrations of the circulating hormones were measured, in response to a test breakfast, in patients with either small or large intestinal resection and in healthy control subjects. In 18 patients with partial ileal resection a significant threefold rise was found in basal and postprandial levels of pancreatic polypeptide, a fourfold increase in motilin, and more than a twofold...

  20. Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), various experiments such as 125I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

  1. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsboll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are dyin...

  2. Menopausal Hormone Therapy after Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Colditz, Graham A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of postmenopausal hormone therapy after breast cancer remains controversial. Evidence shows variation by study design, and even among three randomized controlled trials there is substantial heterogeneity of results. Two Swedish trials of comparable size show relative risks of recurrence of 3.3 and 0.82 on comparing women receiving postmenopausal hormone therapy with control women. The extent of use of tamoxifen and concomitant use of progestins in combination with estrogen, although r...

  3. Therapy for Obesity Based on Gastrointestinal Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Jonatan I.; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsboll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are d...

  4. Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients and communicate information regarding the current state of energy balance to the brain. These hormones regulate appetite, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. They can act either via the circulation at target peripheral tissues, by activation of the vagus nerve or by acting on key brain regions implicated in energy homeostasis such as the hypothalamus and brainstem. This review gives an overview of t...

  5. Positioning the nodule, the hormone dictum

    OpenAIRE

    DING, Yiliang; Oldroyd, Giles ED

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a nitrogen-fixing nodule involves two diverse developmental processes in the legume root: infection thread initiation in epidermal cells and nodule primordia formation in the cortex. Several plant hormones have been reported to positively or negatively regulate nodulation. These hormones function at different stages in the nodulation process and may facilitate the coordinated development of the epidermal and cortical developmental programs that are necessary to allow bacteria...

  6. Proinsulin: From Hormonal Precursor to Neuroprotective Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique J. de la Rosa; de Pablo, Flora

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, non-canonical functions have been described for several molecules with hormone-like activities in different stages of vertebrate development. Since its purification in the 1960s, proinsulin has been one of the best described hormonal precursors, though it has been overwhelmingly studied in the context of insulin, the mature protein secreted by the pancreas. Beginning with our discovery of the presence and precise regulation of proinsulin mRNA in early neurulation and neuro...

  7. Proinsulin: from hormonal precursor to neuroprotective factor

    OpenAIRE

    FloraDe Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, non-canonical functions have been described for several molecules with hormone-like activities in different stages of vertebrate development. Since its purification in the 1960s, proinsulin has been one of the best described hormonal precursors, though it has been overwhelmingly studied in the context of insulin, the mature protein secreted by the pancreas. Beginning with our discovery of the presence and precise regulation of proinsulin mRNA in early neurulation and neuro...

  8. Reproductive hormone replacement alters sleep in mice

    OpenAIRE

    PAUL, KETEMA N.; Laposky, Aaron D.; Turek, Fred W.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have reported that reproductive hormones can alter baseline sleep-wake states, however, no studies in mice have examined whether reproductive hormone replacement in adult females and males influences sleep. In this study, we determined whether androgen replacement in males and estrogen replacement in females alter sleep-wake amount and sleep rebound after extended wakefulness. The gonads from adult male and female C57BL/6J mice were removed and animals were implanted with cont...

  9. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K; van Schie, Annelies; Ghatei, Mohammed A; Holst, Jens Juul; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Diamant, Michaela; Eekhoff, E Marelise W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohyd...

  10. Activation of tumor cell proliferation by thyroid hormone in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C; Zhu, X; Willingham, M C; Cheng, S-Y

    2012-04-19

    Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancy of the endocrine system in humans. To understand the molecular genetic events underlying thyroid carcinogenesis, we have generated a mouse model that spontaneously develops follicular thyroid carcinoma similar to human thyroid cancer (Thrb(PV/PV) mouse). This mutant mouse harbors a dominant-negative mutated thyroid hormone receptor β (denoted PV). The PV mutation was identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone (TH). Thrb(PV/PV) mice exhibit highly elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and increased TH. We have previously shown that thyroid-stimulating hormone is required, but not sufficient to induce metastatic follicular thyroid cancer in Thrb(PV/PV) mice. However, whether the elevated TH also contributes to the thyroid carcinogenesis of Thrb(PV/PV) mice was not elucidated. To understand the role of TH in thyroid carcinogenesis, we blocked the production of TH by treating Thrb(PV/PV) mice with propylthiouracil (Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU mice) and compared the development of thyroid cancer in Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU and untreated Thrb(PV/PV) mice. We found that thyroid tumor growth was reduced by ∼42% in Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU mice as compared with Thrb(PV/PV) mice. Analysis by bromodeoxyuridine-nuclear labeling showed decreased incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine in thyroid tumor cells of Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU mice, indicative of decreased tumor cell proliferation. However, cleaved-caspase 3 staining showed no apparent changes in apoptosis of tumor cells in Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU mice. Molecular studies identified a marked attenuation of the PI3K-AKT-β-catenin signaling pathway that led to decreased protein levels of cyclin D2, thereby decreasing tumor cell proliferation in Thrb(PV/PV)-PTU mice. Furthermore, matrix metalloproteinase-2, a downstream target of β-catenin and a key regulator during tumor invasion and metastasis, was also decreased. Thus, the present study uncovers a critical role of TH in promoting the thyroid carcinogenesis of Thrb(PV/PV) mice via membrane signaling events. Importantly, these findings suggest that anti-thyroid drugs could be considered as possible therapeutic agents of thyroid cancer. PMID:21909131

  11. TIME AND DOSE-DEPENDENT THYROID HORMONE RELEASE FROM XENOPUS THYROID GLAND CULTURES IN RESPONSE TO THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE AND INHIBITION BY METHIMAZOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis.

  12. The role of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in resting and stress-induced release of corticotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Franci, C R; J.A. Anselmo-Franci; McCann, S M

    1992-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that stimulation of the anteroventral third ventricle region increases atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release, whereas lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle or median eminence block the release of ANP from blood volume expansion, suggesting a critical central nervous system participation in this response. ANP is also produced within neurons that have cell bodies in the rostral hypothalamus and axons that extend to the median eminence and neural lobe. I...

  13. Cracking the code for thyroid hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonio C

    2013-01-01

    Cells are not passive bystanders in the process of hormonal signaling and instead can actively customize hormonal action. While diffusing from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, thyroid hormone is modified via the action of thioredoxin fold-containing selenoenzymes known as deiodinases. Whereas the type II deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active T3, the type III deiodinase (D3) converts it to reverse T3, an inactive metabolite. D3 also inactivates T3 to T2, terminating thyroid hormone action. Therefore, D2 provides cells with the ability to produce extra amounts of T3 and thus enhances thyroid hormone signaling. In contrast, expression of D3 results in the opposite action. In addition, the D2 protein is unique in that it can be switched off and on via an ubiquitin-regulated mechanism, triggered by catalysis of T4. Induction of D2 enhances local thyroid hormone signaling and energy expenditure during activation of brown adipose tissue by cold exposure or high fat diet. On the other hand, induction of D3 in myocardium and brain during ischemia and hypoxia decreases energy expenditure as part of a homeostatic mechanism to slow down cell metabolism in the face of limited O2 supply. PMID:23874007

  14. Thyroid hormone in neural rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alecy, L G

    1997-02-01

    Serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) were followed for 24 h in dogs resuscitated following 9 min of controlled cardiac arrest (CA). Total T4, free T4, total T3, and free T3 decreased, while reverse T3 was elevated in the 24 h following resuscitation. Similar changes occurred with only 30 sec of CA. Levothyroxine sodium (L-T4) post-CA (7.5 micrograms/kg/h = CA + 7.5 or 15 micrograms/kg/h = CA + 15) increased total T4, free T4, and total T3. Free T3 decreased in the CA + 7.5 group but did not fall in CA + 15 group. Neurologic function improved significantly by 6 through 24 h (p VO2) and delivery was assessed in a separate group of seven dogs that received a pre-CA L-T4 infusion of 15 micrograms/kg/h for 1.5 h and L-T4 infusion for 6 h afterward while controls (n = 7) received saline. Systemic VO2, VCO2, and RQ were calculated from blood contents and cardiac output and serum levels of circulating TSH, T4, FT4, T3, FT3, and rT3 were measured before L-T4 and periodically over 6 h. L-T4 maintained significantly higher T4, FT4, T3, FT3, rT3, VO2, and cardiac output compared to controls. No change in canine TSH was detected. Rapid and dramatic decreases in thyroid hormones following resuscitation indicate a significant acute serum hypothyroid state that may benefit from L-T4 treatment. L-T4 enhances systemic oxygen consumption and delivery and these changes may contribute to L-T4's neural protective effect. PMID:9086579

  15. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  16. Smoking effects on the hormonal balance of fertile women.

    OpenAIRE

    Frairia, Roberto; BERTA, Laura Adelaide Angela

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated serum pituitary hormones (prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone), gonadal hormones (estrone, estradiol, progesterone), sex steroid binding protein (SBP) and urine estrogens in 684 healthy fertile women, subdivided into smokers (n = 237) and nonsmokers (n = 447). The aim of the work was to elucidate whether smoking habits can affect hormonal balance. Smoking interference of estrogen metabolism has been postulated, but no unequivocal data have been reported. ...

  17. Blunted peripheral tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone in uremic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, V S; Zavala, D C; Flanigan, M J; Freeman, R M

    1987-03-01

    To understand the biologic significance of the low triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), we examined thyroid hormone profile, basal O2 uptake (VO2), and peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte (PBL) ouabain binding in these patients and in the control subjects before and after L-triiodothyronine (T3) and sodium ipodate treatment. In the controls (N = 8), T3 administration increased serum total T3 from 136 +/- 15 to 232 +/- 11 ng/dl, and reduced total thyroxine (T4) from 8.14 +/- 0.56 to 6.08 +/- 0.43 micrograms/dl, free T4 from 1.59 +/- 0.12 to 1.03 +/- 0.05 ng/dl and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from 1.74 +/- 0.24 to 0.41 +/- 0.09 microU/ml. VO2 increased from 2.66 +/- 0.11 to 3.15 +/- 0.09 ml/kg/min. Ipodate treatment, on the other hand, resulted in a reduction of serum total T3 to 102 +/- 21 ng/dl, an increase in total T4 to 9.59 +/- 0.50 micrograms/dl, free T4 to 1.91 +/- 0.13 ng/dl and TSH to 3.64 +/- 1.14 microU/ml. VO2 decreased to 2.43 +/- 0.06 ml/kg/min. P values ranged from less than 0.05 to less than 0.001. In the CRF patients (N = 14), T3 treatment also resulted in a rise in serum total T3 from 75 +/- 5 to 185 +/- 8 ng/dl. Total T4 declined from 6.68 +/- 0.34 to 5.18 +/- 0.48 micrograms/dl, free T4 from 0.85 +/- 0.1 to 0.67 +/- 0.08 ng/dl and TSH from 3.67 +/- 0.86 to 0.94 +/- 0.3 microU/ml. VO2, however, did not change (from 2.91 +/- 0.12 to 2.99 +/- 0.17 ml/kg/min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3573541

  18. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Xue; Yan Wang; Jie Yang; Yukun Li

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochr...

  19. Terapia de reposição hormonal no hipopituitarismo / Hormone replacement therapy in hypopituitarism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Abucham; Teresa C. Alfinito, Vieira; Erika Ribeiro, Barbosa; Rogério Silicani, Ribeiro; Manoel R. Alves, Martins.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo traz uma revisão do hipopituitarismo com ênfase na terapia de reposição hormonal. O conhecimento das bases fisiológicas da terapia de reposição hormonal, assim como dos aspectos práticos do tratamento, constitui o suporte racional para tratar esses pacientes. Essa revisão foi organizada [...] por deficiência hormonal e cada um desses tópicos inclui epidemiologia, etiologia, apresentação clínica, diagnóstico, preparações hormonais disponíveis para o tratamento de cada deficiência, dosagens, vias de administração, efeitos colaterais e monitorização clínico-laboratorial durante os diferentes períodos da vida para cada reposição hormonal: hormônio de crescimento na criança e no adulto, hormônios tiroideanos no hipotiroidismo central, glicocorticóides no hipoadrenalismo central, análogos de vasopressina no diabetes insípidus central, esteróides sexuais no homem e na mulher, da puberdade à senescência e gonadotrofinas no tratamento da infertilidade. As informações aqui contidas resultam de uma revisão crítica da literatura aliada à nossa experiência de mais de duas décadas no diagnóstico e tratamento do paciente hipopituitário na Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Abstract in english This article brings an updated review of hypopituitarism with emphasis in hormone replacement therapy. The physiological basis of hormone replacement therapy and practical aspects of treating hypopituitary patients were both taken into account to provide a rational strategy for treatment. The review [...] is organized by individual pituitary hormone deficiency and covers epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of hypopituitarism, as well as the most relevant hormone preparations currently available for treating each hormone deficiency. Practical guidelines to hormone dosing, routes of administration, side effects and clinical and laboratory monitoring during the entire lifespan are given for each individual hormone replacement therapy: growth hormone in GH-deficient children and adults, thyroid hormone in central hypothyroidism, glucocorticoid in central hypoadrenalism, vasopressin analogs in diabetes insipidus, sex hormones in man and women from puberty to senescence, and gonadotropins for treating infertility. In addition to the literature review, we took into account our own experience of more than two decades in investigating, diagnosing, and treating hypopituitary patients at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

  20. The influence of caloric deprivation and food composition on TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J

    1989-01-01

    In vivo changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and nuclear binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells were studied in obese women during seven days of caloric deprivation (maximum 1,100 kcal/d). In seven women given a high protein diet (80% protein, 7% carbohydrates, 7% fat) and in two women who fasted (group 1), total T3 (TT3) decreased from 1.66 +/- 0.43 nmol/L to 1.11 +/- 0.32 nmol/L (P less than .01), free T3 (FT3) decreased from 5.7 +/- 1.1 p...

  1. Plasma zinc, copper, and serum thyroid hormones and insulin levels after zinc supplementation followed by placebo in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lucianna Fernandes J C; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Franco, Juliana Gastao; Pires, Luciane; Luna, Aderval Severino; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Koury, Josely Correa

    2011-09-01

    Intense physical activity is associated with biological adaptations involving hormones and trace elements. Zinc supplementation may affect plasma copper concentration, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose homeostasis, but data in athletes are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate in competitive athletes (cyclists, n?=?7, 32?±?8 years) the effect of zinc supplementation (22 mg/day as zinc gluconate) during 30 days, and discontinuation using placebo (maltodextrin) during the following 30 days, on plasma zinc and copper concentrations, serum thyroid hormones, insulin and glucose levels, and HOMA2-IR. Compared to baseline, plasma zinc and Zn:Cu plasma ratio increased, but plasma copper decreased after zinc supplementation (day 30) and discontinuation (day 60) (p?HOMA2-IR increased (27% and 47%, respectively) on day 60 compared to baseline (p?=?0.03), suggesting a delayed effect of zinc supplementation. Moreover, plasma zinc was positively associated with serum insulin (r?=?0.87, p?=?0.009) and HOMA2-IR (r?=?0.81, p?=?0.03) after zinc supplementation (day 30), indicating that supplemental zinc may impair glucose utilization in cyclists. PMID:20809272

  2. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss in fast muscle function (power), and accumulation of fat in skeletal muscle. Further HRT raises the protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscle after resistance training, and has an anabolic effect upon connective tissue in both skeletal muscle and tendon, which influences matrix structure and mechanical properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal muscle.

  3. Hormonal control of tick development and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, H H

    2004-01-01

    Ecdysteroids (moulting hormones), juvenoids and neuropeptides in ticks are reviewed but, by far, the emphasis is on the former since this class of hormones has been the subject of most investigations. In immature stages of ticks, ecdysteroids have been shown to regulate moulting and to terminate larval diapause. Although there is a paucity of information on the molecular action of ecdysteroids in ticks, their action appears to be via a heterodimeric ecdysone/ultraspiracle receptor, as in insects. The role of ecdysteroids in sperm maturation in adult males is considered. In females, ecdysteroids function in the regulation of salivary glands, of production of sex pheromones and of oogenesis and oviposition. There is evidence for ecdysteroid production in the integument and pathways of hormone inactivation are similar to those in insects. Ecdysteroids also function in embryogenesis. Although evidence for the occurrence and functioning of juvenile hormones in ticks has been contradictory, in recent thorough work it has not been possible to detect known juvenile hormones in ticks, nor to demonstrate effects of extracts on insects. Factors (neuropeptides) from the synganglion affect physiological processes and limited immunocytochemical studies are reviewed. Sigificantly, a G-protein-coupled receptor has been cloned, expressed, and specifically responds to myokinins. PMID:15938509

  4. Sex Hormone Receptor Repertoire in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Gerald M.; Fell, Ryan G.

    2013-01-01

    Classification of breast cancer as endocrine sensitive, hormone dependent, or estrogen receptor (ER) positive refers singularly to ER?. One of the oldest recognized tumor targets, disruption of ER?-mediated signaling, is believed to be the mechanistic mode of action for all hormonal interventions used in treating this disease. Whereas ER? is widely accepted as the single most important predictive factor (for response to endocrine therapy), the presence of the receptor in tumor cells is also of prognostic value. Even though the clinical relevance of the two other sex hormone receptors, namely, ER? and the androgen receptor remains unclear, two discordant phenomena observed in hormone-dependent breast cancers could be causally related to ER?-mediated effects and androgenic actions. Nonetheless, our understanding of regulatory molecules and resistance mechanisms remains incomplete, further compromising our ability to develop novel therapeutic strategies that could improve disease outcomes. This review focuses on the receptor-mediated actions of the sex hormones in breast cancer. PMID:24324894

  5. Steroid hormone receptors and human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steroid hormone receptor (SR) binding capacity can be measured both in the cytosol and in the nuclear fraction of the cancerous cells. Approximately 30-40% of breast cancers are hormone dependent. SR-positive tumors can be treated by endocrine therapy resulting in a favourable clinical response in 60-70% of the cases. At the National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary, estradiol (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor assays are performed by a multipoint saturation analysis using Scatchard plot. Dextran coated charcoal technique is used for the separation of free and receptor protein-bound labelled hormones. Data obtained from 400 breast cancer patients show a correlation between the SR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients. The ER binding capacity is higher after menopause compared to the premenopausal values. Specific correlation between the PR content of the tumor and the hormonal status of the patients cound not be observed. The PR binding capacity is the highest over 20 years. The highest clinical response rate, 80%, could be found in the group of patients with both ER and PR in their tumor tissues. (author)

  6. Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Baki ÇİFTCİ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-α due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

  7. Terapêutica hormonal na coréia de Sydenham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Albernaz

    1957-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinco casos de coréia de Sydenham foram submetidos à terapêutica hormonal com Cortisona, Prednisona e Prednisolona; o fenobarbital e a clorpromazina foram utilizados como medicação sintomática e a Penicilina-Benzatina como profilática. Depois de analisadas as referências bibliográficas, comparados os resultados de ?;rios autores, e ajuizados os resultados obtidos em nossos casos, acreditamos poder concluir que: 1 a terapêutica hormonal da coréia de Sydenham, com o uso de ACTH, Cortisona, Prednisona ou Pred-nisclona apresenta resultados satisfatórios; 2 a Prednisona e a Prednisolona são os hormônios mais úteis no tratamento da coréia de Sydenham, sendo possível que sua associação aos salicilatos permita obter resultados ainda melhores; 3 o tratamento deve prolongar-se até o completo desaparecimento dos sintomas, as doses variando de acôrdo com a gravidade e a evolução da moléstia; 4 a terapêutica hormonal deve ser usada sem prejuízo de medicação sintomática (sedativa e profilática (antibiótica.

  8. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Mortensen, Kristian H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2012-01-01

    The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequent...... osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner...... syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects of...

  9. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude; Kindblom, Jenny; Törnell, Jan; Billestrup, Nils; Usson, Yves; Morel, Gérard; Lobie, Peter E

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not...... affect the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the...

  10. Comparison Between the Effects of the Alcholic Extract of Mellissia Officinalis and Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Materials and Methods: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Results: The results showed that in experimental groups receiving the plant extract and atorvastatin, the concentration of thyroid hormones increased, whereas the amount of the thyroid-stimulating hormone showed a significant decrease (p<0.05.Conclusion: Mellissia officinalis extract decreases TSH but it increases T3 and T4. Further studies are required for applying this extract to the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

  11. Transdermal hormone therapy and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee P Shulman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lee P ShulmanDivision of Reproductive Genetics, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: The clinical aftermath of the reporting of the initial findings of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI in 2002 was a profound reduction in the use of hormone therapies by menopausal women. This reduction led to a well documented increase in vasomotor symptoms and vaginal atrophy among those women who discontinued their hormone regimens. However, another adverse impact among these women, as well as many other menopausal women, is the well recognized increased likelihood of osteoporosis resulting from the decline in circulating estradiol levels associated with natural and surgical menopause. Although the use of non-hormonal drugs such as bisphosphonates has been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in women with osteoporosis, bisphosphonates have not been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in non-osteoporotic women. Indeed, only oral estrogen (as demonstrated in the WHI studies has been shown to reduce the risk of fracture in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women. As non-oral hormone therapies have been shown to be as effective in treating vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy and to have a different (and perhaps more beneficial physiological effect than oral regimens, it behooves us to assess the impact of non-oral hormone regimens on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Although there are no clinical trials that primarily assess the impact of non-oral regimens on fracture risk in menopausal women, numerous studies are consistent in demonstrating the positive impact of non-oral regimens in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density among users, even for those women using estrogen doses that are considered to be “too low” to have a beneficial impact on other menopausal symptoms.Keywords: menopause, hormone, estrogen, non-oral, bone, osteoporosis, fracture

  12. Levels of endocrine hormones and lipids in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Uzkeser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between endocrine hormones, lipid levels and clinical parameters in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Materials and methods: Fifteen male patients with CTS and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum free T3, free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were analyzed. Symptom severity and hand function were assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire in clinical examination.Results: Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were similar between CTS patients and controls (p> 0.05. Also, there was no statistically significant correlation between laboratory parameters and clinical characteristics in patients with CTS (p> 0.05.Conclusion: The serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels seem within normal range in male CTS patients. Further studies are needed to investigate association endocrine factors, lipid levels such as triglyceride and total cholesterol with CTS in male and female patients.

  13. Thyroxine modifies the effects of growth hormone in Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Andrew; Menon, Vinal; Zhi, Xu; Gesing, Adam; Wiesenborn, Denise S; Spong, Adam; Sun, Liou; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M

    2015-04-01

    Ames dwarf (df/df) mice lack growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin. Treatment of juvenile df/df mice with GH alone stimulates somatic growth, reduces insulin sensitivity and shortens lifespan. Early-life treatment with thyroxine (T4) alone produces modest growth stimulation but does not affect longevity. In this study, we examined the effects of treatment of juvenile Ames dwarf mice with a combination of GH + T4 and compared them to the effects of GH alone. Treatment of female and male dwarfs with GH + T4 between the ages of 2 and 8 weeks rescued somatic growth yet did not reduce lifespan to match normal controls, thus contrasting with the previously reported effects of GH alone. While the male dwarf GH + T4 treatment group had no significant effect on lifespan, the female dwarfs undergoing treatment showed a decrease in maximal longevity. Expression of genes related to GH and insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) of female dwarfs was differentially affected by treatment with GH + T4 vs. GH alone. Differences in the effects of GH + T4 vs. GH alone on insulin target tissues may contribute to the differential effects of these treatments on longevity. PMID:25935838

  14. Effects of electroconvulsive therapy on the thyrotropin-releasing hormone test in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esel, Ertugrul; Kilic, Canan; Kula, Mustafa; Basturk, Mustafa; Ozsoy, Saliha; Turan, Tayfun; Keles, Salih; Sofuoglu, Seher

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the acute and lasting effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in patients with depression. The TRH stimulation test was conducted (1) under basal conditions, after a first ECT, and at the end of a therapeutic course of 7 ECTs in 20 inpatients with depression; (2) before the initiation of antidepressant therapy and after the therapeutic response in 16 other inpatients with depression who responded to antidepressant drug treatment; and (3) in 20 healthy control subjects. Baseline TSH levels were lower in patients with depression, especially in those with more severe depression who were considered appropriate for ECT. Before the treatment, TSH response to TRH did not differ between the patients with depression and controls; however, more blunted TSH responses to TRH were observed in these patients compared with the controls. TSH response to TRH changed neither with one ECT nor throughout consecutive ECT sessions in patients with depression. Drug treatment also was found to have no impact on this response. These findings suggest that the therapeutic action of ECT in depression is not directly related to its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, possible delayed effects of ECT on the HPT axis function should not be overlooked. PMID:15591859

  15. Thyroid hormones and adult interpersonal violence among women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Cave; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter; Nilsonne, Åsa; Wilczek, Alexander; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-06-30

    Elevated T3 levels have been reported in men with antisocial behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and expressed adult interpersonal violence in female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Furthermore, expressed adult interpersonal violence in female BPD patients was compared to healthy female controls. A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD and 57 healthy women were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS). Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3), thyroxine (FT4 and T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with immunoassays in patients. Plasma cortisol was also measured. Among females with BPD, expressed interpersonal violence as an adult showed a significant positive correlation with the T3 levels. The mean expression of interpersonal violence as an adult was significantly higher in BPD patients as compared to healthy controls. The multiple regression model indicated that two independent predictors of KIVS expressed interpersonal violence as an adult: T3 and comorbid diagnosis of alcohol abuse. Association between T3 levels and violent/aggressive behavior earlier reported exclusively in male samples may be valid also in females with BPD. PMID:25858801

  16. Interactions between hormonal contraception and antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Arne; Brodtkorb, Eylert; Sabers, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and hormonal contraceptives may affect each other's metabolism and clinical efficacy. Loss of seizure control and unplanned pregnancy may occur when these compounds are used concomitantly. Although a large number of available preparations yield a plethora of possible drug...... combinations, most of these drug interactions are predictable and, thus, avoidable. Unfortunately, there is a substantial lack of data regarding the newer AEDs. Detailed understanding of these issues is necessary for those who prescribe AEDs and/or hormonal contraception to women with epilepsy, as well as for...

  17. Hormonal and nonhormonal treatment of vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Miriam S; Nakajima, Steven T

    2015-03-01

    This article focuses on the cause, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis of, and treatment options for vasomotor symptoms. In addition, it summarizes important points for health care providers caring for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with regard to health maintenance, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and vaginal atrophy. Treatment options for hot flashes with variable effectiveness include systemic hormone therapy (estrogen/progestogen), nonhormonal pharmacologic therapies (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, clonidine, gabapentin), and nonpharmacologic therapy options (behavioral changes, acupuncture). Risks and benefits as well as contraindications for hormone therapy are further discussed. PMID:25681847

  18. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: okbgeni@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  19. Vitellogenin hormonal control in the green frog, Rana esculenta. Interplay between estradiol and pituitary hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, A; Polzonetti-Magni, A; Zerani, M; Carnevali, O; Botte, V

    1985-01-01

    1. The effect of estradiol and pituitary hormones on the titre of serum vitellogenin has been studied in Rana esculenta by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. 2. Hepatic synthesis of vitellogenin depends on physiological doses of estradiol. 3. Gonadotrophins enhance the uptake, presumably by acting directly on the oocyte plasma membrane. 4. In addition, our data support direct pituitary intervention on liver synthesis and/or release of vitellogenin. 5. Hormonal response, as evaluated by vitellogenin serum titres, tends to increase from November to July. This could be the expression of a modification, throughout the sexual cycle, of liver sensitivity to the hormones. PMID:14575034

  20. Secondary amenorrhea in a woman with spinocerebellar degeneration treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone: a case report and in vitro analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanasaki Haruhiko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While thyrotropin-releasing hormone is known to be a prolactin-release stimulating factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate and its derivative, taltirelin hydrate, are used for the treatment of spinocerebellar degeneration, a degenerative disease characterized mainly by motor ataxia. We report the case of a patient being treated with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation for spinocerebellar degeneration who developed amenorrhea after a dose increase. Her hormonal background was analyzed and the effect of prolonged exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone on pituitary prolactin-producing cells was examined in vitro. Case presentation Our patient was a 36-year-old Japanese woman who experienced worsening of gait disturbance at around 23 years of age, and was subsequently diagnosed as having spinocerebellar degeneration. She had been treated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone-tartrate for four years. Taltirelin hydrate was added to the treatment seven months prior to her presentation, followed by an improvement in gait disturbance. Around the same period, she started lactating and subsequently developed amenorrhea three months later. Taltirelin hydrate was discontinued and she was referred to our hospital. She was found to have normal sex hormone levels. A thyrotropin-releasing hormone provocation test showed a normal response of thyroid-stimulating hormone level and an over-response of prolactin at 30 minutes (142.7 ng/mL. Resumption of menstruation was noted three months after dose reduction of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. In our in vitro study, following long-term exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, cells from the rat pituitary prolactin-producing cell line GH3 exhibited an increased basal prolactin promoter activity but showed a marked decrease in responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Conclusions Physicians should be aware of hyperprolactinemia-associated side effects in patients receiving thyrotropin-releasing hormone treatment. Long-term treatment with a thyrotropin-releasing hormone preparation might cause a large amount of prolactin to accumulate in prolactin-producing cells and be released in response to exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation.

  1. Women with epilepsy and infertility have different reproductive hormone profile than others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One-third of women with epilepsy (WWE may experience infertility (failure to conceive after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse. We aimed to compare the hormone profile of WWE and infertility (WWE-I with that of WWE who had conceived earlier (WWE-F. Materials and Methods: In the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy, we compared the clinical and hormone profile of 50 WWE-I and 40 age-matched WWE-F. Subjects were examined and blood samples were drawn in follicular phase (1-14 days for 21 WWE-I and 18 WWE-F, in luteal phase (15-30 days for 23 WWE-I and 15 WWE-F and beyond 30 days for 6 WWE-I and WWE-F who had irregular cycles. Results: The two groups were comparable regarding physical, epilepsy syndrome, duration of epilepsy, body mass index, and serum cholesterol levels. Menstrual periods were irregular for 6 WWE-I and 5 WWE-F. The WWE-I group (compared to the WWE-F group had significantly (P < 0.01 higher levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione (2.0 ± 1.7 ug/mL vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 ug/mL and luteinizing hormone-LH (26.4 ± 37.3 mIU/mL vs. 9.9 ± 14.5 mIU/mL and lower levels of progesterone (5.2 ± 9.2 ng/mL vs. 10.4 ± 13.4 ng/mL. There was no significant difference in the levels of FT3, FT4, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, progesterone, testosterone, or androstenedione levels. The WWE-I had 8.5 times higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.2-59.9 of abnormal LH/FSH ratio. WWE who were on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs (compared to WWE who were not on AEDs had higher risk of elevated LH/FSH ratio. Conclusion: The hormone profile of WWE-I is significantly different from that of WWE-F. These variations need to be interpreted with caution as a causal relationship to epilepsy or use of antiepileptic drugs need to be established through further studies.

  2. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulat...

  3. Insect lipids mobilized by adipokinetic hormones.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Tom?ala, Aleš; Bárt?, Iva; Socha, Radomír

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2012 - (Langella, J.), s. 99-122 ISBN 978-1-61209-566-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP501/10/1215; GA ?R GAP502/10/1734 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adipokinetic hormones Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. LEARNING HORMONE ACTION MECHANISMS WITH BIOINFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Sousa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to manage the constantly growing information in genetics availableon the internet is becoming crucial in biochemical education and medicalpractice. Therefore, developing students skills in working with bioinformaticstools is a challenge to undergraduate courses in the molecular life sciences.The regulation of gene transcription by hormones and vitamins is a complextopic that influences all body systems. We describe a student centered activityused in a multidisciplinary “Functional Organ System“ course on the EndocrineSystem. By receiving, as teams, a nucleotide sequence of a hormone orvitamin-response element, students navigate through internet databases to findthe gene to which it belongs. Subsequently, student’s search how thecorresponding hormone/vitamin influences the expression of that particulargene and how a dysfunctional interaction might cause disease. This activity,proposed for 4 consecutive years to cohorts of 50-60 students/year enrolled inthe 2nd year our undergraduate medical degree, revealed that 90% of thestudents developed a better understanding of the usefulness of bioinformaticsand that 98% intend to use them in the future. Since hormones and vitaminsregulate genes of all body organ systems, this web-based activity successfullyintegrates the whole body physiology of the medical curriculum and can be ofrelevance to other courses on molecular life sciences.

  5. Sex chromosome anomalies, hormones, and aggressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, R C; Theilgaard, A; Owen, D R; White, D

    1984-01-01

    This double-blind, controlled study of XYY and XXY men found in a birth cohort of 4,591 tall men born in Copenhagen assessed evidence of delinquent and aggressive behavior and explored the role of hormonal determinants in the behavioral and psychological differences noted among groups. Information from social records, a structured psychological interview, and projective tests did not support the notion that men with sex chromosome anomalies are particularly violent or aggressive. Hormonally, XYY men had significantly higher concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) than matched control groups. In contrast, XXY men had higher levels of LH, FSH, and prolactin, but low concentrations of testosterone. There was a significantly positive relation among all subjects as well as XY controls alone between plasma testosterone level and evidence of criminal convictions. A proportionate increase in testosterone levels was noted when subjects were divided into nondelinquents, delinquents without violent convictions, and delinquents with violent convictions. The relation between testosterone level and criminal behavior was not reflected in measures of aggression derived from the psychological interview and projective tests. There was no specific evidence that testosterone is a mediating factor in the criminal behavior of XYY men. PMID:6419709

  6. Enhancement of insecticide efficacy by adipokinetic hormones.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Plavšin, Ivana; Velki, Mirna; Stašková, Tereza

    New York : NovaScience Publishers,Inc, 2015 - (Montgomery, J.), s. 77-91 ISBN 978-1-63483-475-9 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adipokinetic hormones Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  7. Personal view: Hormones and depression in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studd, J

    2015-02-01

    Depression is more common in women, occurring at times of hormonal fluctuations as premenstrual depression, postnatal depression and perimenopausal depression. These are all related to changes in hormone levels and constitute the diagnosis of reproductive depression. There is a risk that severe premenstrual depression can be misdiagnosed as bipolar disorder and that women will be started on inappropriate antidepressants or mood-stabilizing therapy. The most effective treatment for severe premenstrual syndrome is by suppression of ovulation and suppression of the cyclical hormonal changes by transdermal estrogens or by GnRH analogs. Postnatal depression is more common in women with a history of premenstrual depression and also responds to transdermal estrogens. Transdermal testosterone gel can be also used in women who suffer loss of energy and loss of libido which may be due to the inappropriate prescription of antidepressants. There is also a role for the Mirena IUS and laparoscopic hysterectomy and oophorectomy in women who are progestogen-intolerant. The hormonal causation of certain common types of depression in women and the successful treatment by estrogens should be understood by psychiatrists and gynecologists. PMID:25040604

  8. Molecular mechanisms of incretin hormone secretion?

    OpenAIRE

    Ezcurra, Marina; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.; Emery, Edward

    2013-01-01

    •Fluorescent tagging enables detailed analysis of enteroendocrine cell physiology.•Electrogenic nutrient uptake evokes electrical activity and hormone secretion.•G protein coupled receptors play key roles in lipid stimulated incretin secretion.•Targeting enteroendocrine cells is under investigation to treat diabetes and obesity.

  9. Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration.

  10. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1988-01-01

    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  11. Determination of hormone parathyroid by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of bovine parathyroid hormone and its employment for the determination of seric PTH by radioimmunoanalysis is described. The specific activity of 131I PTH is 200-350mCi/mg and the damage 3-5%. The method used for radioimmunoanalysis was that of C.D. Arnaud and coworkers. (author)

  12. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer - immediate initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostak, M; Miller, K; Schrader, M

    2008-01-01

    Although hormone therapy is widely used in the management of prostate cancer, the optimal timing of its initiation remains a matter of debate. Many studies of the last decades have reported a small but significant survival benefit and a clear delay in the development of clinical symptoms after early initiation of therapy. Patients who have localized or locally advanced prostate cancer and are not suitable for curative options like radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy can best be managed by hormone therapy alone, which has already been recognized as the optimal treatment for metastatic disease. On the other hand, long-term hormone treatment will expose the patient to the risk of substantial adverse effects, including muscle wasting, chronic fatigue and osteoporosis. Prognostic and quality-of-life factors also have an impact on the treatment decision, particularly in patients most likely to profit from an extension of the remaining life span. Based on available evidence, early hormone therapy may be recommended for men with poorly differentiated tumors or advanced disease and for those infrequently seen by their physicians. This management can prevent prostate cancer from migrating to the bones, where treatment becomes extremely difficult and cure or even longterm control of the disease is an exception. PMID:18544985

  13. Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    July 17, 2014 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove, Room TE406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker: Neal E. Craft, Ph.D. President Craft Technologies, Inc. Print This Page Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies DCEG Seminar News & Events

  14. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K; van Schie, Annelies; Ghatei, Mohammed A; Holst, Jens Juul; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Diamant, Michaela; Eekhoff, E Marelise W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb...

  15. Multiple aberrant hormone receptors in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghorayeb, Nada; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms regulating cortisol production when ACTH of pituitary origin is suppressed in primary adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome (CS) include diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. These can lead either to constitutive activation of the cAMP system and steroidogenesis or to its regulation exerted by the aberrant adrenal expression of several hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) and their ligands. Screening for aberrant expression of GPCR in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) and unilateral adrenal tumors of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrates the frequent co-expression of several receptors. Aberrant hormone receptors can also exert their activity by regulating the paracrine secretion of ACTH or other ligands for those receptors in BMAH or unilateral tumors. The aberrant expression of hormone receptors is not limited to adrenal CS but can be implicated in other endocrine tumors including primary aldosteronism and Cushing's disease. Targeted therapies to block the aberrant receptors or their ligands could become useful in the future. PMID:25971648

  16. Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Thomas; Tu, Meng-Ping; Tatar, Marc

    2005-10-01

    Understanding how traits are integrated at the organismal level remains a fundamental problem at the interface of developmental and evolutionary biology. Hormones, regulatory signaling molecules that coordinate multiple developmental and physiological processes, are major determinants underlying phenotypic integration. The probably best example for this is the lipid-like juvenile hormone (JH) in insects. Here we review the manifold effects of JH, the most versatile animal hormone, with an emphasis on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an organism amenable to both genetics and endocrinology. JH affects a remarkable number of processes and traits in Drosophila development and life history, including metamorphosis, behavior, reproduction, diapause, stress resistance and aging. While many molecular details underlying JH signaling remain unknown, we argue that studying "hormonal pleiotropy" offers intriguing insights into phenotypic integration and the mechanisms underlying life history evolution. In particular, we illustrate the role of JH as a key mediator of life history trade-offs. PMID:16163709

  17. Minireview: Cracking the Metabolic Code for Thyroid Hormone Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Antonio C.

    2011-01-01

    Cells are not passive bystanders in the process of hormonal signaling and instead can actively customize hormonal action. Thyroid hormone gains access to the intracellular environment via membrane transporters, and while diffusing from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, thyroid hormone signaling is modified via the action of the deiodinases. Although the type 2 deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone T4 to the biologically active T3, the type 3 deiodinase (D3) converts it to reverse T3, an i...

  18. Hormonal exposures and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Kaerlev, Linda; Cree, Ian; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Afonso, Noemia; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Merletti, Franco; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Stengrevics, Aivars; Sabroe, Svend; Cyr, Diane; Llopis-González, Agustin; Gorini, Giuseppe; Sharkova, Galina; Hardell, Lennart; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries.......Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries....

  19. Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated with significant fatigue

  20. Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.85±0.50 kg; treatment: 3.82±0.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.36±0.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.10±0.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.17±1.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.5±1.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm.Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

  1. Growth hormone treatment in non-growth hormone-deficient children

    OpenAIRE

    Loche, Sandro; Carta, Luisanna; Ibba, Anastasia; Guzzetti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Until 1985 growth hormone (GH) was obtained from pituitary extracts, and was available in limited amounts only to treat severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD). With the availability of unlimited quantities of GH obtained from recombinant DNA technology, researchers started to explore new modalities to treat GHD children, as well as to treat a number of other non-GHD conditions. Although with some differences between different countries, GH treatment is indicated in children with Turner syndro...

  2. Electrical and synaptic properties of embryonic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons in explant cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Kusano, K.; Fueshko, S; Gainer, H; Wray, S

    1995-01-01

    Voltage- and ligand-activated channels in embryonic neurons containing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) were studied by patch-pipette, whole-cell current and voltage clamp techniques. LHRH neurons were maintained in explant cultures derived from olfactory pit regions of embryonic mice. Cells were marked intracellularly with Lucifer yellow following recording. Sixty-two cells were unequivocally identified as LHRH neurons by Lucifer yellow and LHRH immunocytochemistry. The cultured ...

  3. Enhanced adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol responses to corticotrophin-releasing hormone in central idiopathic diabetes insipidus.

    OpenAIRE

    ARVAT, Emanuela; GHIGO, Ezio; CAMANNI, Franco

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that arginine vasopressin (AVP) exerts a stimulatory effect on adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion. Moreover, there is consistent evidence that the hypothalamic AVP-secreting neurons are involved in the neuroregulation of ACTH secretion. With the aim to throw further light on the interaction between AVP and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the neuroregulation of ACTH secretion, in this study we compared the ACTH and cortisol responses to human CRH (100 micr...

  4. Growth hormone releasing hormone induces the expression of nitric oxide synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Barabutis, Nektarios; Siejka, Agnieszka; Schally, Andrew V.

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and its receptors are expressed in a wide variety of human tumours and established cancer cell lines and are involved in carcinogenesis. In addition, GHRH antagonists exert an antitumour activity in experimental cancer models. Recent studies indicate that the mechanisms involved in the mediation of the effects of GHRH include the regulation of the metabolism of the reactive oxygen species. This work demonstrates the expression of GHRH receptors and GHRH...

  5. Ghrelin stimulation of growth hormone release and appetite is mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuxiang; Wang, Pei; Zheng, Hui; Smith, Roy G

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic agonists of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) rejuvenate the pulsatile pattern of GH-release in the elderly, and increase lean but not fat mass in obese subjects. Screening of tissue extracts in a cell line engineered to overexpress the GHSR led to the identification of a natural agonist called ghrelin. Paradoxically, this hormone was linked to obesity. However, it had not been directly shown that the GHSR is a physiologically relevant ghrelin receptor. Furthermore, gh...

  6. Activation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor stimulates cardiac reverse remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M.; Takeuchi, Lauro M; Rick, Ferenc G.; Dulce, Raul; Treuer, Adriana V; Florea, Victoria; Rodrigues, Claudia O.; Paulino, Ellena C.; Konstantinos E. Hatzistergos; Selem, Sarah M; Gonzalez, Daniel R.; Block, Norman L; Schally, Andrew V.; Hare, Joshua M

    2011-01-01

    Both cardiac myocytes and cardiac stem cells (CSCs) express the receptor of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), activation of which improves injury responses after myocardial infarction (MI). Here we show that a GHRH-agonist (GHRH-A; JI-38) reverses ventricular remodeling and enhances functional recovery in the setting of chronic MI. This response is mediated entirely by activation of GHRH receptor (GHRHR), as demonstrated by the use of a highly selective GHRH antagonist (MIA-602). One m...

  7. Growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor mRNA in acromegalic pituitary tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, M B; Gaylinn, B. D.; Thorner, M.O.; Stoler, M H

    1997-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) has been recently cloned and found to be a member of a new family of seven transmembrane receptors that includes secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, calcitonin, and corticotropin-releasing factor. GHRH-R mRNA has been demonstrated by Northern blot analyses to be present specifically in the anterior pituitary gland. To determine the precise cellular localization of this receptor in normal anterior pituitary and pituitary adenomas...

  8. Localized suppression of cortical growth hormone releasing hormone receptors state-specifically attenuates EEG delta waves

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Fan; Taishi, Ping; Churchill, Lynn; Urza, Marcus J.; Krueger, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), in part via a well-characterized hypothalamic sleep-promoting site. However, GHRH may also act in the cortex to influence sleep. Application of GHRH to the surface of the cortex changes electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power. GHRH and the GHRH receptor (GHRHR) mRNAs are detectable in the rat cortex and the expression of cortical GHRHR is activity-dependent. Here we microinjected a GHRH antagonist or GHRH...

  9. Correlations between endogen amylin hormone and some hormonal, biochemical and bone parameters in pullets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Guzel; N, Gunes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the correlations of amylin (a pancreatic polypeptide hormone) with some hormonal, biochemical and bone parameters in pullets. Forty 18-week-old pullets were used. Plasma amylin, CT (calcitonin), 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol ), serum os [...] teocalcin, glucose, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as weight, length and total volume of tibiotarsi were measured. Plasma amylin concentration was negatively correlated with serum cholesterol (p

  10. Radiation and neuroregulatory control of growth hormone secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial irradiation frequently results in growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Patients with radiation-induced GH deficiency usually remain responsive to exogenous growth hormone releasing hormone, implying radiation damages the hypothalamus rather than the pituitary. Little is known about the effect of cranial irradiation on the neuroendocrine control of GH secretion. This study was to determine the effect of cranial irradiation on somatostatin tone. (Author)

  11. Research Progress of the Hormone Regulation of Insect Diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Zheng?bo?

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects growth and development are controlled by hormone. Diapause is a special development state. In this state, the significant characteristics are metabolism reducing and arrest of development. In the process of diapause development, a variety of hormone tends to create a network by intercoordination. Diapause plays an important regulatory role in diapause development. Insect neuroendocrine hormone is synthesized by neuroendocrine system and acts as upstream factor to affect insect diapause by regulating the synthesis and release of the downstream hormone. The regulation function of diapause hormone?pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide and prothoracicotropic hormone in the different type of diapause, insects has been widely studied. Located at the downstream in the network of neuropeptide hormone, the hormones ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone also play important regulatory roles but less studied so far. In addition, the research of hormone receptors will provide an important basis to explain the interaction between hormones; and by adjusting the hormone levels in diapause insect which will provide a new method in the biological control of harmful insects.?

  12. Structural Basis for Antibody Discrimination between Two Hormones That Recognize the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinstry, William J.; Polekhina, Galina; Diefenbach-Jagger, Hannelore; Ho, Patricia W.M.; Sato, Koh; Onuma, Etsuro; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Parker, Michael W.; (SVIMR-A); (Chugai); (Melbourne)

    2009-08-18

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a vital role in the embryonic development of the skeleton and other tissues. When it is produced in excess by cancers it can cause hypercalcemia, and its local production by breast cancer cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis formation in that disease. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the action of PTHrP through its receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, without influencing parathyroid hormone action through the same receptor. Such neutralizing antibodies against PTHrP are therapeutically effective in animal models of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and of bone metastasis formation. We have determined the crystal structure of the complex between PTHrP (residues 1-108) and a neutralizing monoclonal anti-PTHrP antibody that reveals the only point of contact is an {alpha}-helical structure extending from residues 14-29. Another striking feature is that the same residues that interact with the antibody also interact with parathyroid hormone receptor 1, showing that the antibody and the receptor binding site on the hormone closely overlap. The structure explains how the antibody discriminates between the two hormones and provides information that could be used in the development of novel agonists and antagonists of their common receptor.

  13. Photoperiod-dependent negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones in Fundulus heteroclitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Fundulus heteroclitus, an annual cycle in the response of the thyroid to ovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (oTSH) is characterized by maximal thyroxin (T4) secretion in mid-winter and minimal T4 secretion in summer. Four daily injections of oTSH, given in winter caused serum T4 to plateau at elevated levels for several days, while in summer fish similar treatment resulted in far more fluctuating titers of serum T4; maximum levels were similar in both groups. The difference in sustenance rather than magnitude of Peak T4 led to an examination of the negative feedback effects of thyroid hormones as they might relate to these seasonal changes. Radioiodine uptake by thyroid follicles served as a simple, but effective bioassay for endogenous TSH. Fish collected in summer were more sensitive to negative feedback of T3 than those collected in winter; feedback effects of T4 in the two groups were not significantly different. The effects of specific photoperiods on negative feedback sensitivity to T3 and T4 were also tested. Exposure of winter fish for one month to long days (LD 14:10) enhanced the degree of reduction of iodine uptake caused by T4 in the aquarium water (10 micrograms/100 ml). Negative feedback in short-day (LD 8:16) winter fish was not demonstrated. It is concluded that long days increase and short days diminish the negative feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis to thyroid hormones in F. heteroclitus. Such photoperiodically induced changes may act to aid in the year-round maintenance of T4 levels necessary for seasonal adaptation and survival

  14. Identification and consequences of polymorphisms in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Helena Gásdal; van der Deure, Wendy M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetic factors exert considerable influence on thyroid function variables. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in thyroid hormone pathway genes have been associated with serum thyroid parameters implying small alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, little is known about SNPs in the THRA (17q11.2) and THRB (3p24.2) genes. The aim of this study was to map THRA and THRB for the occurrence and frequencies of SNPs and relate these to thyroid parameters. DESIGN AND METHODS: SNPs were identified by sequencing all THRA and THRB exons and flanking regions in 52 randomly selected subjects. SNPs were genotyped in 1116 healthy Danish twins by TaqMan assays and related to thyroid parameters. One SNP in THRB was additionally genotyped in the elderly population of the Rotterdam Scan Study (n = 940). MAIN OUTCOME: 15 SNPs (7 novel) in THRA and THRB were identified. Two SNPs in the 3' untranslated region of THRA were genotyped: a novel SNP (2390A/G) and 1895C/A (rs12939700). In THRB,a synonymous (735C/T; rs3752874) and an intronic SNP (in9-G/A; rs13063628) were genotyped. No associations between SNPs and thyroid hormone levels (total and free 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine [T3] and thyroxine, reverse T3) were found. THRB-in9-G/A was significantly associated with higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (p(lnTSH) = 0.01) in the Danish twins, but not in subjects of the Rotterdam Scan Study, although it showed a similar trend. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the T3 receptor genes revealed 15 SNPs, including 7 novel. Only THRB-in9-G/A was associated with higher serum TSH in a large population of Danish twins.

  15. Serum thyroid hormone reference intervals in the apparently healthy individuals of Zhengzhou area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Gao, Y J; Cheng, J; Kong, G L; Wang, Y; Wu, X Y; Zhao, Z G; Yuan, H J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish reference intervals for serum thyroid hormones [serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (TT3), thyroxine (TT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4)] in apparently healthy individuals living in Zhengzhou. According to the requirement for laboratory support for the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid diseases in the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) laboratory medicine practice guidelines, a total of 211 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled (94 men, 117 women, 23-77 years old) from Zhengzhou for measurement of serum levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, FT3, and FT4 by using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP analyzer. All markers were analyzed across gender- and age-specific groups by using the t-test and ANOVA. The reference intervals of all markers were determined by P2.5-P97.5. We detected gender-associated statistical significances for TT3, TT4, FT3, and FT4 (t=3.299, 2.141, 5.868, 5.358; P0.05). Correlation analysis showed that all markers were negatively correlated with age (P>0.05). The new reference intervals for TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, and TSH were established: 0.76-1.38 ng/mL, 5.96-11.27 ?g/dL, 3.88-5.59 pM, 11.69-18.84 pM, 0.89-5.93 ?IU/mL, respectively. In conclusion, we added a new database of reference intervals of the serum thyroid hormones for the Chinese adult population. PMID:24782216

  16. Differential Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lori; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to reduce serum thyroxine (T4) in rats, but the relative effects of individual PCB congeners on thyroid hormones are not known. Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1242 (4, 8, 16, or 32 mg/kg/day), PCB 95 (2,2?,3,5?,6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 99 (2,2?,4,4?,5-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 118 (2,3?,4,4?,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) (2, 4, 8, or 16 mg/kg/day), PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) (2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 ?g/kg/day), TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) (0.14, 0.43, 1.3, or 3.9 ?g/kg/day), or corn oil via oral gavage for 7 days. Rats were necropsied 24 h after the last dose. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated by radioimmunoassay, and induction of hepatic Cyp1a (a TCDD-inducible protein) and Cyp2b (a phenobarbital [PB]-inducible protein) activity was determined by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays, respectively. Significant increases in Cyp1a activity occurred in response to PCBs, except PCB 95 and PCB 99. Aroclor 1254, PCB 99, and PCB 118 significantly induced Cyp2b activity. Serum total T4 and free T4 were dramatically reduced in response to each of the seven treatments in a dose-dependent manner. The marked T4 reductions occurred in response to Aroclor 1254, PCB 99 (a PB-type congener), and PCB 118 (a mixed-type congener). In contrast, reductions in serum triiodothyronine (total and free) were variable and mild, and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was not significantly affected by any of the compounds. These data indicate that the PB and mixed-type PCB congeners are more effective than the TCDD-type PCB congeners at reducing serum T4. PMID:20573785

  17. The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital; Profil des hormones thyroidiennes chez les femmes enceintes: analyse de 125 cas a l'hopital general de Yaounde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong a ZOK, F. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Yaounde (Cameroon); Mbodj, M. [Hopital General Grand Yoff, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Dakar (Senegal); Mayer, E. [Hopital General de Yaounde, Service de Gyneco-Obstetrique, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2009-10-15

    This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

  18. Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos / Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Forga; E., Anda; J. P., Martínez de Esteban.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonal [...] es o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1) Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2) Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3) Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética), síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP). Abstract in english We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and [...] , more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1) It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2) It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3) It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone), ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP).

  19. Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Administration on the Levels of Thyroid Hormones and Testosterone in the ?-Irradiated Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) is an adrenal hormone and is the most abundant circulatory steroid hormone in the body. This study intended to determine the role of exogenous DHEAS administration (20 mg/100 g b.wt.) and its possible protective and/or mitigating effect (s) against ?- irradiation (6 Gy) induced disorders in the irradiated rats. Five groups of male Albino rats were used. Samples were collected after one day, one week and two weeks post irradiation and/or DHEAS treatment. The levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone (T) and acid phosphatase (ACP) enzyme activity were measured in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) were estimated in testicular tissue. Obtained results showed that DHEAS administration pre-irradiation improved the disturbances induced by irradiation on the tested parameters: TSH, T3, T4, T and ACP. It also elevated reduced GSH level and decreased lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissue. DHEAS treatment pre-irradiation, rather than post-irradiation, exerts a prophylactic effect, by protecting the cellular vital components from ROS, generated by gamma radiation

  20. The evolution of thyroid hormones in pregnancy. An analysis of 125 cases in the Yaounde general hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed at determining the evolution and the kinetics of thyroid hormones in a sub-population of pregnant women in Cameroon. We carried out a prospective study (from January 2005 to January 2006) on 125 consenting pregnant women at the Yaounde General Hospital. Clinical and gyneco-obstetric data with the gestational age were noted on a pre-designed questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serum assay of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone. The results were read with the 'Oakfield health care' Gamma ' 12 counter using the RIASTAT software. These patients, divided into four groups consisted of: 32 non pregnant women in the control group; 33 pregnant women in the first trimester; 30 pregnant women in the second trimester and 30 at the third trimester. The mean serum levels of T3 and T4 were relatively high in all pregnant women (irrespective of the gestational age) than in the control group. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were raised the first trimester with and progressively reduced in 2. and 3. trimester. On other hand, TSH levels progressively increased as from the 2. trimester to attain a maximum in the 3. trimester. We can therefore conclude that blood levels of thyroid hormone as well as TSH vary during pregnancy and differ in titres with respect to the gestation age. (authors)

  1. Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving Anticonvulsive Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl MAHYAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Dalirani R, Hosseini SM, Daneshi Kohan MM. Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving AnticonvulsiveDrugs. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2011;5(4:21-24.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate serum thyroid hormone levels in epileptic children receiving anticonvulsive drugs.Materials & MethodsIn this case- control study, 30 epileptic children who were receiving anticonvulsive drugs (case group were compared with 30 healthy children (control group. This study was carried out in the Qazvin Children's Hospital (Qazvin, Iran from October to December 2007. Both groups were matched for age and sex. Thyroid hormone levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Student's t-tests.ResultsThe mean serum T3 and T4 levels in the case group were 2.36 ± 0.73 nmol/L and 95.96 ± 27.01 nmol/L, respectively, and the corresponding values in the control group were 1.88 ± 0.93 nmol/L and 147.46 ± 35.77 nmol/L, respectively. The mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in the case and control groups were 2.73±0.73 mIU/mL and 2.49 ± 2.17mIU/mL, respectively.ConclusionThis study revealed that long-term consumption of anticonvulsive drugs resulted in a decline in serum T4 levels and an increase in serum T3 levels, but had no effect on TSH levels. 1. Johnston M. Neurodegenerative disorders of childhood;Spingolipidoses. Nelson textbook of pediatrics, 17th edPhiladelphia: Saunders; 2004.P.2031-2.2. Sankar R, Koh S, Wu J, Menkes J. Paroxysmal disorders.In(eds: Menkes JH, Sarnat HB, Maria BL. ChildNeurology; 2006.P.7:877.3. Shiva S, Ashrafi M, Mostafavi F, Abasi F, RahbariA, Shabanian R. Effects of anticonvulsant drugs onthyroid function tests. Iranian Journal of pediatrics2003;13(02:101.4. Kimura M, Yoshino K, Suzuki N, Maeoka Y. Effect ofantiepileptic drugs on thyroid function. Psychiatry andclinical neurosciences. 1995;49(4:227-9.5. Eris Pural J, Delrio-Garma M, Delrio - Castro – GagoM. Long Term treatment of children with epilepsy withvalprovats or carbamazepin, may cause subclinicalhypothyroidism. Epilepsia 1999;40(12:1961.6. Isojärvi JIT, Turkka J, Pakarinen AJ, Kotila M,Rättyä J, Myllylä VV. Thyroid function in men takingcarbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, or valproate for epilepsy.Epilepsia 2001;42(7:930-4.7. Vainionpää LK, Mikkonen K, Rättyä J, Knip M,Pakarinen AJ, Myllylä VV, et al. Thyroid function ingirls with epilepsy with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine,or valproate monotherapy and after withdrawal ofmedication. Epilepsia 2004;45(3:197-203.8. Verrotti A, Basciani F, Morresi S, Morgese G, ChiarelliF. Thyroid hormones in epileptic children receivingcarbamazepine and valproic acid. Pediatric neurology2001;25(1:43-6.9. Kantrowitz L, Peterson M, Trepanier L, Melian C,Nichols R. Serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine,free thyroxine, and thyrotropin concentrations in epilepticdogs treated with anticonvulsants. Journal of the AmericanVeterinary Medical Association 1999;214(12:1804.10. Schröder-van der Elst J, Van der Heide D, Van der BentC, Kaptein E, Visser T, DiStefano J. Effects of 5, 5 -diphenylhydantoin on the thyroid status in rats. Europeanjournal of endocrinology 1996;134(2:221.11. Schonberger W, Grimm W, Schonberger G, SinterhaufK, Scheidt E, Ziegler R. [The influence of primidone onthyroid function (author’s transl]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr1979;104(25:915-7.12. Tiihonen M, Liewendahl K, Waltimo O, Ojala M,Valimaki M. Thyroid status of patients receiving longtermanticonvulsant therapy assessed by peripheralparameters: a placebo-controlled thyroxine therapy trial.Epilepsia 1995;36(11:1118-25.13. Benedetti MS, Whomsley R, Baltes E, Tonner F. Alterationof thyroid hormone homeostasis by antiepileptic drugsin humans: involvement of glucuronosyltransferaseinduction. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005;61(12:863-72.

  2. Deficiência progressiva dos hormônios adeno-hipofisários após radioterapia em adultos Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela A. Loureiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A radioterapia é um dos fatores desencadeantes do hipopituitarismo, mesmo quando não direcionada diretamente para o eixo hipotálamo-hipofisário, podendo resultar em redução de hormônios adeno-hipofisários, principalmente por lesão hipotalâmica. A perda da função da hipófise anterior é progressiva e geralmente na seguinte ordem: hormônio do crescimento, gonadotrofinas, adrenocorticotrofina e o hormônio estimulante da tireóide. Vários testes estão disponíveis para a confirmação das deficiências, sendo discutidos, neste artigo, os melhores testes para pacientes submetidos à irradiação. Enfatizamos que o desenvolvimento do hipopituitarismo após a radioterapia é dose e tempo dependente de irradiação, com algumas diferenças entre os eixos hipofisários. Portanto, a conscientização da necessidade de terapia em conjunto de endocrinologistas e oncologistas otimizará o tratamento e a qualidade de vida do paciente.Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients.

  3. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn; Hansen, Harald S.; Din, N.

    2003-01-01

    Lipid storage and breakdown is mainly controlled by lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. The aim of this work was to elucidate whether growth hormone mediated loss of adipose tissue involves a concerted action on tissue lipases, and to what degree such events are modulated by dietary...... regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...

  4. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn; Hansen, Harald S.; Din, N.

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  5. Sex chromosome anomalies, hormones, and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, R C; Theilgaard, A; Owen, D R; White, D

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral investigation of men with sex chromosome anomalies has been primarily limited to the study of institutionalized individuals or patient groups. A double-blind controlled investigation of XYY and XXY men found in a birth cohort of 4591 tall men born in Copenhagen gathered sexual information and assessed the role of hormonal determinants on sexual behavior. There were significant differences in several sexual dimensions and in gender role between XYY men and their controls and XXY men and their controls as well as between XYY and XXY men. Although both proband groups differed from each other and from their controls in pituitary gonadal function, there was no evidence that adult hormonal levels mediate the effect of sex chromosome anomalies on male sexuality. PMID:3122695

  6. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D; Schwarz, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during......, blood PTH/ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared tothe normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal...... failure. By the use of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure....

  7. Changes in thyroid hormones in surgical trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunabh

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of 20 patients who underwent elective surgery, is presented reporting the effect of surgical trauma on circulating thyroid hormone levels. Although no increase in the serum T4 levels was observed following surgery, serum T3 values were found to decrease and serum rT3 values were found to increase in the post-operative period, representing activation of an alternate pathway in the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. Since trauma induces a hypermetabolic state due to hypersecretion of cortisol, alterations in thyroid hormone levels were concluded to represent an appropriate response in trauma to counter the effects of trauma-induced cortisol hypersecretion.

  8. Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Forga

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En términos generales, podemos definir los síndromes paraneoplásicos como una combinación de efectos que ocurren lejos del lugar originario del tumor e independientemente de la repercusión local de sus metástasis. Los síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos dependen de la secreción de péptidos hormonales o sus precursores, de citokinas y, más raramente, de hormonas tiroideas y vitamina D, que actúan de forma endocrina, paracrina o autocrina. A veces, los síndromes paraneoplásicos pueden ser más graves que las consecuencias del propio tumor primario y pueden preceder, ir en paralelo o seguir a las manifestaciones clínicas de dicho tumor. Es importante reconocer un síndrome hormonal paraneoplásico por diversas razones entre las que cabe destacar tres: 1 Puede conducir al diagnóstico de una neoplasia subyacente, benigna o maligna, previamente desconocida; 2 Puede dominar el cuadro clínico y, por tanto, inducir a errores en cuanto al origen y tipo de tumor primario y 3 Puede seguir el curso clínico del tumor subyacente y así ser útil para monitorizar su evolución. Son poco conocidos los mecanismos moleculares responsables del desarrollo de estos síndromes pero se considera que pueden ser inherentes a las mutaciones responsables del tumor primario o depender de factores epigenéticos como la metilación. En esta revisión contemplaremos los siguientes síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos: hipercalcemia de malignidad, hiponatremia (secreción inadecuada de hormona antidiurética, síndrome de Cushing ectópico, acromegalia ectópica, hipoglucemia por tumores distintos a los de células de los islotes, ginecomastia paraneoplásica y una breve referencia final a otras hormonas (calcitonina, somatostatina y VIP.We can define paraneoplastic syndromes as a combination of effects occurring far from the original location of the tumour and independently from the local repercussion of its metastases. Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and, more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1 It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2 It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3 It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone, ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP.

  9. HORMONES, LIFE-HISTORY, AND PHENOTYPIC VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D Williams

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this talk I will argue that life-histories provide a powerful, conceptual framework for integration of endocrinology, evolutionary biology and ecology. This has been a commonly articulated statement (e.g. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. System. 38:793; TREE 22:80 but I will show, in the context of avian reproduction, that true integration of ultimate and proximate approaches has been slow. We have only a very rudimentary understanding of the physiological and hormonal basis of phenotypic variation in reproductive traits that contribute to individual variation in lifetime fitness in birds (e.g. laying date, clutch size, parental effort and of trade-offs that link these traits or that link reproduction to other life stages (e.g. costs of reproduction. I will explore some of the reasons for this including, a an increasingly reductionist and centralist focus which is more and more removed from ecological/evolutionary ‘context’ and from ‘peripheral’ physiological mechanisms that actually determine how phenotypes work, b a long-standing male-bias in experimental studies, even though the key reproductive traits which contribute most to variation in fitness are female-specific traits (e.g. egg size or number. Endocrine systems provide strong candidate mechanisms for generation of phenotypic variation in single traits as well as trade-offs between traits due to, a hormonal ‘pleiotropy’: single hormones having both positive and negative effects on multiple physiological systems and, b hormonal or physiological ‘conflict’ between regulatory systems required for different but over-lapping or linked life-history stages. I will illustrate this with examples involving reproductive anemia in egg-producing females, parental care in starlings, migration-reproduction interactions in penguins and albatrosses, and moult-breeding overlap in petrels (Supported by NSERC Discovery Grant.

  10. Cigarette smoking and steroid hormones in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Key, TJ; Pike, MC; Baron, JA; Moore, JW; Wang, DY; Thomas, BS; Bulbrook, RD

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has suggested that cigarette smoking has an anti-oestrogenic effect in women, but the effects of smoking on steroid hormone metabolism are not fully understood. We compared serum concentrations of oestradiol, progesterone (luteal phase) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), and urinary excretion rates of six steroids of predominantly adrenal origin, in healthy premenopausal and postmenopausal female smokers and non-smokers. Serum concentrations of oestradiol, ...

  11. Incretin hormones as immunomodulators of atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Nuria; Julián, M. Teresa; Puig-Domingo, Manuel; Vives-Pi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis results from endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammatory processes affecting both macro- and microvasculature which are involved in vascular diabetic complications. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally as opposed to intravenously and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). GLP-1 based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) a...

  12. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper; Ravn, Pernille; Gaist, David

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma in a nationwide setting. Methods: Using population-based registries we conducted a case-control study nested in the Danish female population. We identified all women aged 55-84 years with a first diagnosis...

  13. Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og tumorinduceret osteomalaci. Hyperfosfatæmisk familiær tumoral calcinosis er derimod associeret med forhøjet nedbrydning af FGF23. Måling af FGF23 er et differentialdiagnostisk redskab ved udredning af tilstande med længerevarende hypofosfatæmi. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May 17

  14. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gupta,; Marilyn Lee

    2012-01-01

    Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height) is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have ...

  15. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.; Ashley Cetola Pettia, Pharm.D.; Albert I. Wertheimer, PhD, MBA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique) when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the l...

  16. Interactions between hormonal contraception and antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Arne; Brodtkorb, Eylert; Sabers, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and hormonal contraceptives may affect each other's metabolism and clinical efficacy. Loss of seizure control and unplanned pregnancy may occur when these compounds are used concomitantly. Although a large number of available preparations yield a plethora of possible drug combinations, most of these drug interactions are predictable and, thus, avoidable. Unfortunately, there is a substantial lack of data regarding the newer AEDs. Detailed understanding of these issues ...

  17. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

  18. [New aspects of hormone replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fait, Tomáš

    2014-11-01

    All existing recommendations sign hormone replacement therapy (HRT) as first therapy for acute climacteric syndrome. The low dose vaginal therapy is the first choice for prevention and therapy of urogenital atrophy and its complications. Early start of HRT has neutral or slightly beneficial influence on ischaemic heart disease. It is sure that HRT is effective in prevention and therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Long term therapy must be individualized on base of benefits to risks ratio with differences by type of HRT. PMID:25600040

  19. Transdermal hormone therapy and bone health

    OpenAIRE

    Shulman, Lee P.

    2008-01-01

    Lee P ShulmanDivision of Reproductive Genetics, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: The clinical aftermath of the reporting of the initial findings of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002 was a profound reduction in the use of hormone therapies by menopausal women. This reduction led to a well documented increase in vasomotor symptoms and vaginal atrophy among those women who disconti...

  20. Metabolic effects of growth hormone in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N; Jørgensen, J O; Møller, J; Orskov, L; Ovesen, Per Glud; Schmitz, O; Christiansen, J S; Orskov, H

    1995-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has acute actions to stimulate lipolysis and ketogenesis after 2 to 3 hours, effects that may be important in the adaptation to stress and fasting. This is accompanied by a decrease in insulin sensitivity in both liver and muscle. These combined effects may be very deleterious to insulin-dependent diabetic patients, in whom increased GH secretion may precipitate and maintain acute metabolic derangement (ketoacidosis) and be a major initiator of the dawn phenomenon. On the oth...

  1. Ageing, growth hormone and physical performance.

    OpenAIRE

    GIORDANO, Roberta; LANFRANCO, Fabio; ARVAT, Emanuela; MACCARIO, Mauro

    2003-01-01

    Human ageing is associated to a declining activity of the GH/IGF-I axis and to several changes in body composition, function and metabolism which show strict similarities with those of younger adults with pathological GH deficiency. The age-related changes of the GH/IGF-I axis activity are mainly dependent on age-related variations in the hypothalamic control of somatotroph function, which is also affected by changes in peripheral hormones and metabolic input. The term "somatopause" indicates...

  2. Stress hormone dynamics: an adaptation to migration?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna L. K.; Sandell, Maria I.

    2009-01-01

    The hormone corticosterone (CORT) is an important component of a bird’s response to environmental stress, but it can also have negative effects. Therefore, birds on migration are hypothesized to have repressed stress responses (migration-modulation hypothesis). In contrast to earlier studies on long-distance migrants, we evaluate this hypothesis in a population containing both migratory and resident individuals. We use a population of partially migratory blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in sou...

  3. Neuroendocrine Disruption: More than Hormones are Upset

    OpenAIRE

    Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L

    2011-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are ...

  4. Hormonal regulation of hepatocyte tight junctional permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, [14C]sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase the authors have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of [14C]sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors [Sar1,Thr8]angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the [14C]sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile

  5. Incretin hormones as immunomodulators of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NuriaAlonso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis results from endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammatory processes affecting both macro-and microvasculature which are involved in vascular diabetic complications. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally as opposed to intravenously and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. GLP-1 based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor (R agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4, an enzyme that degrades endogenous GLP-1 are routinely used to treat patients with T2D. Recent experimental model studies have established that GLP-1R mRNA is widely expressed in several immune cells. Moreover, its activation contributes to the regulation of both thymocyte and peripheral T cells proliferation and is involved in the maintenance of peripheral regulatory T cells. GLP-1 R is also expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The effect of incretin hormones on atherosclerogenesis have recently been studied in animal models of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apo E-/-. These studies have demonstrated that treatment with incretin hormones or related compounds suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis and macrophage infiltration in the arterial wall as well as a marked anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells. This effect may have a major impact on the attenuation of atherosclerosis and may help in the design of new therapies for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Hormone profile of menopausal women in Havana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daysi, Navarro; Alina, Acosta; Erick, Robles; Cóssette, Díaz.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a tendency among women today to delay the age at which they have their first child or subsequent children. This creates a dilemma for couples, since health professionals tend to counsel against pregnancy in women aged >40 years without considering their reproductive potential [...] and their ability to and likelihood of conceiving and carrying to term a healthy newborn at little or no risk. OBJECTIVE: Assess hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in menopausal women in Havana, to evaluate relevance to reproductive potential. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted from March 2006 through March 2008 of 230 healthy women aged 40-59 years seen in the Menopause and Osteoporosis Clinic in Havana, Cuba. Chart review yielded data on current age, stage of climacteric and hormone levels expressed in means and standard deviations: serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and testosterone. Analysis of variance was used for assesment by age group and stage of menopause (eumenorrheic, perimenopausal and postmenopausal), with a p value of

  7. HORMONAL EVALUATION IN FEMALES HAVING MELASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharique

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melasma is a commonly acquired hyperpigmentation which present as irregular, light to dark brown macules on sun exposed skin due to various etiological factors including hormonal imbalance. AIM : To assist the level of various hormones and study the clinical and hormonal correlation in patients of melasma. METHODS : 50 female patients of melasma between age group 18 - 50 with equal number of age matched females with no signs of melasma, hirsutism and any other endocrinal abnormality, were enrolled. They were examined by woods’ lamp to see the type of melasma whether epidermal, dermal or mixed. 10 ml of venous blood sample was drawn after overnight fasting on 3 rd - 5 th day of the menstrual cycle in mid follicular phase for the assessment of LH, FSH, Prolactin, Estradiol and Progesterone by chemiluminescence method. RESULT : Out of 50 patients, 8 patients had deranged level of LH, 7 patients had deranged level of FSH, 14 patients had deranged prolactein, 18 patients had deranged estradiol and 6 patients had deranged level of progesterone. 70% patients were married and belong to age group of 31 - 40 years. 18 % patients has onset of melasma during pregnancy while 52% patients after the delivery. CONCLUSIONS : LH, estradiol and progesterone are found to be contributory factors in development of melasma.

  8. Transport of thyroid hormone in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JosefKöhrle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating thyroid hormone uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and the blood-CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8 play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed.

  9. Metabolic effects of growth hormone in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, N; JØrgensen, J O

    1995-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has acute actions to stimulate lipolysis and ketogenesis after 2 to 3 hours, effects that may be important in the adaptation to stress and fasting. This is accompanied by a decrease in insulin sensitivity in both liver and muscle. These combined effects may be very deleterious to insulin-dependent diabetic patients, in whom increased GH secretion may precipitate and maintain acute metabolic derangement (ketoacidosis) and be a major initiator of the dawn phenomenon. On the other hand, augmented GH secretion plays a beneficial role in the defense against hypoglycemia, in particular during prolonged hypoglycemia and in patients with impaired ability to secrete other counterregulatory hormones appropriately. It is also certain that GH is a potent anabolic hormone in terms of promoted nitrogen retention, but the extent to which these well-known actions are direct or secondary to hyperinsulinemia, increased activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), or release of protein-conserving lipid intermediates has eluded precise characterization.

  10. Biochemical endpoints of glucocorticoid hormone action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.A.; Nicholson, M.L.; Guyette, W.A.; Giddings, S.J.; Mendelsohn, S.L.; Nordeen, S.K.; Lyons, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Both the rapidly evolving metabolic effects of glucocorticoids and the more slowly developing lethal actions appear to be initiated via the synthesis of new mRNAs and proteins. The chronic suppression of cell growth may be the consequence of suppression of overall rates of protein synthesis (and probably RNA and DNA synthesis as well) that in turn may represent the cellular response to the small changes in ratios of adenine nucleotides that result from the suppression of oxidative ATP production. The inhibition of glucose transport may also play a role here to prevent a compensatory increase in glycolytic ATP production. Some other hormone actions, the decrease in the ability of cells to concentrate AIB and the increase in nuclear fragility are unrelated to, and evolve separately from, the hormonal inhibitions on energy production. Cell killing is not the result of suppression of protein synthesis, nor of hormone-induced increases in calcium uptake. While the mechanisms are unknown, the increase in nuclear fragility appears to be the earliest measure of their operation. In tumor cells resistance to lethal actions of glucocorticoids may emerge via the selection of cells with hardier membranes, that are better able to withstand the intracellular destructive events set in motion by high levels of glucocorticoids.

  11. Dexamethasone suppresses sex-hormone binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R E; Rajguru, S; Nolan, G H; Ahluwalia, B S

    1988-01-01

    Dexamethasone suppression (DEX-S) for 14 days has been used to determine the probable source of androgen excess. The exact mechanism(s) of DEX-S is still unclear. The authors postulated that dexamethasone (DEX) inhibits either the synthesis or secretion of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG). To examine this hypothesis, 14 women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and 3 volunteers were given DEX for 14 days. The PCOD group included obese and nonobese women (+/- 15% ideal body weight). Plasma determinations by radioimmunoassay of total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, luteinizing hormone; follicle-stimulating hormone; cortisol, and SHBG were made. DEX suppressed SHBG levels (P less than 0.01). SHBG levels were significantly lower in the obese than in the nonobese (P less than 0.01). All androgens were suppressed by DEX, with the exception of androstenedione post-DEX levels, which were significantly greater than pre-DEX levels in 6 of 14 subjects (P greater than 0.05). This observation is consistent with DEX suppression of SHBG. PMID:3121398

  12. Recovery of hormone sensitivity after salvage brachytherapy for hormone refractory localized prostate cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dan, Smith; P. Nick, Plowman.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent work has demonstrated the return of hormone sensitivity after palliative chemotherapy in androgen independent prostate cancer. We wished to establish whether a similar phenomenon existed in patients with no exposure to chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of “hormone resista [...] nt” patients who had received salvage brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer after previous external beam radiotherapy was undertaken. Three patients with subsequent biochemical relapse responded to the rechallenge with hormonal treatment. RESULTS: The series of patients presented here demonstrates this phenomenon occurs after salvage brachytherapy with no exposure to chemotherapy. Recovery of sensitivity is demonstrated both to androgen deprivation and to androgen receptor antagonism. The recovery of hormone sensitivity was surprisingly durable, ranging from eight months to over twenty-one months. CONCLUSIONS: Hormone sensitivity may be recovered after salvage brachytherapy. Potential mechanisms underlying these observations are discussed and the likely central role of the activity of the androgen receptor highlighted. The relevance of these findings to the management of advanced prostate cancer is considered including thoughts on the practice of intermittent anti-androgen therapy.

  13. The reciprocal regulation of stress hormones and GABAA receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Mody

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-derived steroid hormones regulate the expression and function of GABAA receptors (GABAARs. Changes in GABAAR subunit expression have been demonstrated under conditions of altered steroid hormone levels, such as stress, as well as following exogenous steroid hormone administration. In addition to the effects of stress-derived steroid hormones on GABAAR subunit expression, stress hormones can also be metabolized to neuroactive derivatives which can alter the function of GABAARs. Neurosteroids allosterically modulate GABAARs at concentrations comparable to those during stress. In addition to the actions of stress-derived steroid hormones on GABAARs, GABAARs reciprocally regulate the production of stress hormones. The stress response is mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the activity of which is governed by corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH neurons. The activity of CRH neurons is largely controlled by robust GABAergic inhibition. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CRH neurons are regulated by neurosteroid-sensitive, GABAAR δ subunit-containing receptors representing a novel feedback mechanism onto the HPA axis. Further, it has been demonstrated that neurosteroidogenesis and neurosteroid actions on GABAAR δ subunit-containing receptors on CRH neurons are necessary to mount the physiological response to stress. Here we review the literature describing the effects of steroid hormones on GABAARs as well as the importance of GABAARs in regulating the production of steroid hormones. This review incorporates what we currently know about changes in GABAARs following stress and the role in HPA axis regulation.

  14. The role of reproductive hormones in postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Rubinow, David R

    2015-02-01

    Despite decades of research aimed at identifying the causes of postpartum depression (PPD), PPD remains common, and the causes are poorly understood. Many have attributed the onset of PPD to the rapid perinatal change in reproductive hormones. Although a number of human and nonhuman animal studies support the role of reproductive hormones in PPD, several studies have failed to detect an association between hormone concentrations and PPD. The purpose of this review is to examine the hypothesis that fluctuations in reproductive hormone levels during pregnancy and the postpartum period trigger PPD in susceptible women. We discuss and integrate the literature on animal models of PPD and human studies of reproductive hormones and PPD. We also discuss alternative biological models of PPD to demonstrate the potential for multiple PPD phenotypes and to describe the complex interplay of changing reproductive hormones and alterations in thyroid function, immune function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, lactogenic hormones, and genetic expression that may contribute to affective dysfunction. There are 3 primary lines of inquiry that have addressed the role of reproductive hormones in PPD: nonhuman animal studies, correlational studies of postpartum hormone levels and mood symptoms, and hormone manipulation studies. Reproductive hormones influence virtually every biological system implicated in PPD, and a subgroup of women seem to be particularly sensitive to the effects of perinatal changes in hormone levels. We propose that these women constitute a "hormone-sensitive" PPD phenotype, which should be studied independent of other PPD phenotypes to identify underlying pathophysiology and develop novel treatment targets. PMID:25263255

  15. Growth Hormone Responses to Thyroid Hormone in the Neonatal Rat: RESISTANCE AND ANAMNESTIC RESPONSE

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hisao; Wunderlich, Caryn; Vassart, Gilbert; Refetoff, Samuel

    1981-01-01

    Differences in the growth hormone (GH) responses to primary and to secondary stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) were studied in rats deprived of thyroid hormone from birth. Neonatal hypothyroidism was induced in pups by feeding pregnant rats an iodine-deficient, propylthiouracil-containing diet. T3 stimulation was carried out in pups by subcutaneous injection of a single dose of 50 μg T3/100 g body wt. Pituitary GH content, rate of GH synthesis in vitro, and GH messenger (m)RNA activity i...

  16. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mortensen, Gerda Krogh

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies have reported endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals used commonly as additives in cosmetics and skin care products. We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans after topical application. In a two-week single-blinded study, 26 healthy young male volunteers were assigned to daily whole-body topical application of 2 mg/cm2 basic cream formulation each without (week one) and with (week two) the three 2% (w/w) compounds. The concentrations of BP and the main phthalate metabolites monoethyl (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) were measured in serum together with the following reproductive hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), lutenising hormone (LH), testosterone, estradiol, and inhibin B and thyroid hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyroxine (T3), and total thyroxine (T4)). MEP, MBP, and BP peaked in serum a few hours after application, reaching mean +/- SEM levels of 1001 +/- 81 microg/L, 51 +/- 6 microg/ L, and 135 +/- 11 microg/L, respectively. Only MEP was detectable in serum before treatment. Minor differences in inhibin B, LH, estradiol, T4, FT4, and TSH were observed between the two weeks, but these were not related to exposure. We demonstrated for the first time that DEP, DBP, and BP could be systemically absorbed in man after topical application. The systemic absorption of these compounds did not seem to have any short-term influence on the levels of reproductive and thyroid hormones in the examined young men.

  17. Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Samantha J; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C; D'Souza, Damian G; Darras, Veerle M; Van Herck, Stijn L J

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms. PMID:25784853

  18. Sustained Administration of Hormones Exploiting Nanoconfined Diffusion through Nanochannel Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geninatti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Implantable devices may provide a superior means for hormone delivery through maintaining serum levels within target therapeutic windows. Zero-order administration has been shown to reach an equilibrium with metabolic clearance, resulting in a constant serum concentration and bioavailability of released hormones. By exploiting surface-to-molecule interaction within nanochannel membranes, it is possible to achieve a long-term, constant diffusive release of agents from implantable reservoirs. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the controlled release of model hormones from a novel nanochannel system. We investigated the delivery of hormones through our nanochannel membrane over a period of 40 days. Levothyroxine, osteocalcin and testosterone were selected as representative hormones based on their different molecular properties and structures. The release mechanisms and transport behaviors of these hormones within 3, 5 and 40 nm channels were characterized. Results further supported the suitability of the nanochannels for sustained administration from implantable platforms.

  19. The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, G; Hayashi, I

    1976-12-01

    The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media. (Reemplazo del suero por hormonas en el medio de cultivo de células). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 120-121, 1976. The serum used in cell culture media can be replaced by a mixture of hormones and some accesory blood factors. The pituitary cell line GH3 can be grown in a medium in which serum is replaced by triiodothyronine, transferrin, parathormone, tyrotrophin releasing hormone and somatomedins. Hela and BHK cell strains can also be grown in serum free medium supplemented with hormones. Each cell type appears to have different hormonal requirements yet it may found that some hormones are required for most cell types. PMID:1026199

  20. Hormone therapy for reproductive depression in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studd, John

    2014-12-01

    An email survey of patients attending a PMS and Menopause Centre produced 238 patients whose principal presenting symptom was depression. Seventy-seven percent claimed to have had severe or moderate depression, 17% had had at least one psychotic episode and 14% had attempted suicide. Fifty-eight percent had seen a psychiatrist. Seventy-one percent had received antidepressants and 17% had received mood stabilising drugs. Twelve percent had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and 3.8% had received electroconvulsive therapy. Sixty-eight percent had premenstrual syndrome as a teenager and 145 women (89%) out of 165 women who had been pregnant had no depression during pregnancy but 110 (66%) developed postnatal depression. Ninety-seven women (58%) who had been pregnant had suffered both premenstrual depression and postnatal depression. All were treated with transdermal estrogens and 93% also had transdermal testosterone. One hundred and seventy-one patients had a uterus and received cyclical progestogen to protect the endometrium and 63% of these developed the premenstrual syndrome-type symptoms of progesterone intolerance during the progestogen days. Thirty-five percent of patients claimed to be cured and 55% had a considerable improvement with estrogen therapy. Only 3.7% reported that there was no improvement. For 94%, the hormone therapy was a life-changing event for the better. None were worse. Forty patients had hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for progesterone intolerance or heavy uterine bleeding and 38 replied that it was life changing for the better with less or no depression. It is concluded that premenstrual and postnatal depressions appear in the same vulnerable women. These women are typically well during pregnancy and are a sub group of reproductive depression which also develops climacteric depression in the transition phase. These types of depression are the product of hormonal changes and respond well to transdermal hormone therapy. PMID:25398672

  1. [Causative hormonal prevention of premature labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Labour is the most important caesura in the life of every human being, as it is the ultimate test of the child's fetal maturity to self dependent life, whose onset is connected with a violent change in the circulatory system and the commencement of breathing. Maturity assessment scale comprises such features as, among others: posture, angle forearm, pulling an elbow to the middle line of the body, distribution of lanugo, plantar creases, breast development. They can be objectified through their technical quantification the same way as we give the appropriate number of grams and centimeters when assessing the weight and length of the newborn. However, two equally mature fetuses call differ in mass by 800g, body length by 6 cm, and gestational age by 6 weeks. Relativity of pregnancy duration clearly demonstrates that only the quantitativization of maturity enabled its prenatal assessment on the basis of the rate of increase of the spatial parameters of the baby developing in the mother's womb. The date of the end of pregnancy is determined depending equally on the child's fetal maturity and the mother's readiness to birth, where the placenta plays an important role, as its existence coincides with the individual duration of every pregnancy. The use of industrially synthesized hormones means that those pharmaceuticals contain the whole mixture of side-products of the synthesis of the hormones. The biologically alien corticoid analogues like dexamethasone and betamethasone must, when exerting prolonged action, cause unwanted side effects. In contrast the ACTH-depot administration leads to desired production and secretion of corticoids through the control of the whole body function of the adrenals. Such naturally stimulated endogenous steroid hormones are free from unwanted side effects of drugs from the group of their synthetic analogues. An enormous body of evidence supports the link between the administration of corticotrophin and fetal body mass, maturity and age of neonates. PMID:15537244

  2. Oncogenic mutations of thyroid hormone receptor ?

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeong Won; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    The C-terminal frame-shift mutant of the thyroid hormone receptor TR?1, PV, functions as an oncogene. An important question is whether the oncogenic activity of mutated TR?1 is uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Using four C-terminal frame-shift mutants—PV, Mkar, Mdbs, and AM—we examined that region in the oncogenic actions of TR?1 mutants. Remarkably, these C-terminal mutants induced similar growth of tumors in mouse xenograft models. Molecular analyses showed that they physicall...

  3. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen; Sjögren, I; Laursen, Torben

    Abstract Growth hormone (GH) treatment is a successful medical therapy for children and adults with GH deficiency as well as for growth retardation due to chronic renal disease, Turner syndrome and in children born small for gestational age. For all of these conditions, treatment is long term and...... reactions have been observed following subcutaneous administration of phenol (7.5 mg/ml), m-cresol (3-4 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (9 mg/ml). No general toxicity reactions were observed after subcutaneous administration of these agents. Clinical evaluation of the preservatives and buffers used in Norditropin...

  4. DETEKSI RESIDU HORMON PERTUMBUHAN PADA DAGING AYAM DI KOTA MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Kesuma Sari; Lucia Muslimin; Fika Fika Yuliza PurbaYuliza Purba; Magfirah Satya Apada

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi residu hormon pertumbuhan terutama 17?? estradiol dan growth hormon pada daging dan hati ayam ayam di Kota Makassar menggunakan metode immunohistokimia. Sampel diambil dari pasar tradisional dan pasar modern. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh hasil bahwa tidak ditemukan residu hormone GH dan estradiol 17 beta pada daging dan hati ayam vaik dari pasar tradisonal maupun dari pasar swalayan. Dari hasil ini dapat diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa daging broiler ya...

  5. Growth hormone rescues hippocampal synaptic function after sleep deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunyoung; Grover, Lawrence M.; Bertolotti, Don; Green, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is required for, and sleep loss impairs, normal hippocampal synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function and expression, hippocampal NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity, and hippocampal-dependent memory function. Although sleep is essential, the signals linking sleep to hippocampal function are not known. One potential signal is growth hormone. Growth hormone is released during sleep, and its release is suppressed during sleep deprivation. If growth hormone l...

  6. Anaerobic degradation of steroid hormones by novel denitrifying bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrbach, Michael

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, the endocrine disrupting activity of steroid hormones both of natural and of anthropogenic origin was recognized as a potential risk to the fertility of wildlife populations in various ecosystems and the human population. Concerns about potential negative ecological effects of steroid hormones have resulted in an increased interest with regard to the elimination of these compounds in soil, sediments, and during wastewater treatment. Analysis of steroid hormones showed ...

  7. Growth hormone and prolactin stimulation by Madopar in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Campos, A.; Giovannini, P.; Parati, E.; Novelli, A.; Caraceni, T; Müller, EE

    1981-01-01

    Madopar, a combination of levodopa with benserazide, induced an inconsistent rise in plasma growth hormone in unmedicated patients with Parkinson's disease and in controls, and a greater growth hormone rise in Parkinsonian subjects on chronic Madopar therapy. In subjects on chronic therapy with levodopa and carbidopa (Sinemet), the growth hormone releasing effect of Madopar was blunted. Madopar increased plasma prolactin (PRL) in controls, unmedicated patients and patients on Madopar therapy ...

  8. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and reproductive hormones in adult sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Thulstrup, A M; Olsen, J; Ernst, E; Andersen, C Y; Bonde, J P

    2008-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to alter levels of reproductive hormones in adult sons. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected according to their exposure to tobacco smoke in foetal life. From February 2005 to January 2006, a blood sample from each young man (18-21 years) was collected and analysed for reproductive hormones. There were no apparent trends of increasing or decreasing hormonal levels with increased exposure to maternal...

  9. Thyroid Hormone Crosstalk with Nuclear Receptor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-Yun; Brent, Gregory A

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormone influences diverse metabolic pathways important in lipid and glucose metabolism, lipolysis, and regulation of body weight. Recently, it has been recognized that thyroid hormone receptor (TR) interacts with transcription factors that predominantly respond to nutrient signals including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver X receptor (LXR), and others. Crosstalk between thyroid hormone signaling and these nutrient responsive factors occurs through a vari...

  10. The role of steroid hormones in skeletal muscle metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Salehzadeh, Firoozeh

    2011-01-01

    Steroid hormones play important roles in the regulation of whole body metabolism. Skeletal muscle is an insulin-responsive organ with a key role in overall substrate metabolism. Disturbances in skeletal muscle metabolism, as a result of hormonal imbalance may be an underlying defect in metabolic disease. Reduced insulin-responsive glucose disposal in skeletal muscle is a characteristic feature of metabolic syndrome. The overall aim of this thesis work is to identify the role of steroid hormon...

  11. Benefits and risks of hormonal contraception for women

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja; Schönermark, Matthias P.; Gorenoi, Vitali

    2007-01-01

    Scientific background: A large proportion of women of reproductive age in Germany use various methods of pregnancy prevention (contraception), among them various hormone-based methods. Hormonal contraceptives may be divided into combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives (pills, skin patches, vaginal rings), progestogen-only contraceptives (pills, injections, implants, hormone spirals) and emergency contraceptives. Research questions: The evaluation addressed the question of benefits and ri...

  12. Chemical proteomics strategies for elucidation of cellular steroid hormone targets

    OpenAIRE

    Golkowski, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the given work was the development and improvement of affinity chromatography-based methodologies as a means to elucidate the cellular target structures of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones. Steroid hormones are among the most important regulators of physiological processes in mammals. Moreover, pharmacological agents based on or derived from steroid hormones are indispensable for the treatment of diseases related inflammation, the immune defense and the deregulation of the...

  13. Interactions of polyhalogeneted aromatic hydrocarbons with thyroid hormone metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Schuur, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possible interactions of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their metabolites with thyroid hormone metabolism. This chapter summarizes firstly the effects of thyroid hormone on the induction of biotransformation enzymes by PHAHs. Secondly, the results on the inhibition of thyroid hormone sulfation by hydroxylated metabolites of PHAH are summarized. Some conclusions and remarks on the overall implications of the results are given at the end of this chapter....

  14. Risk Assessment of Growth Hormones and Antimicrobial Residues in Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Sang-Hee; Kang, Daejin; Lim, Myung-Woon; Kang, Chang Soo; Sung, Ha Jung

    2010-01-01

    Growth promoters including hormonal substances and antibiotics are used legally and illegally in food producing animals for the growth promotion of livestock animals. Hormonal substances still under debate in terms of their human health impacts are estradiol-17?, progesterone, testosterone, zeranol, trenbolone, and melengestrol acetate (MGA) . Many of the risk assessment results of natural steroid hormones have presented negligible impacts when they are used under good veterinary practices. F...

  15. Hormones and their Interaction with the Pain Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Katy; Tracey, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in the prevalence of painful conditions appear after pubertyVariation in symptom severity across the menstrual cycle occurs in a number of clinical pain conditionsSex steroid hormones act at a number of sites in both the peripheral and central nervous systems and in both reproductive and non-reproductive tissuesSex steroid hormones have traditionally been thought to alter transcription; however, there is evidence that there are also non-genomic effectsSex steroid hormones can ...

  16. Hormonal Therapy and Risk of Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    OpenAIRE

    Amadou, Amina; Fabre, Alban; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Hainaut, Pierre; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal therapies, including hormonal contraceptives (HC) and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been shown to influence breast cancer (BC) risk. However, the variations of these effects among populations and ethnic groups are not completely documented, especially among Hispanic women. We evaluated the association between HC and premenopausal BC risk, and between HRT and postmenopausal BC risk in Mexican women. Data from a Mexican multi-center population-based c...

  17. Estrous cycle phase and gonadal hormones influence conditioned fear extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Milad, Mohammed R; Igoe, Sarah A.; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Novales, Juan E

    2009-01-01

    Gonadal hormones modulate fear acquisition, but less is known about the influence of gonadal hormones on fear extinction. We assessed sex differences and the influence of gonadal hormone fluctuations and exogenous manipulations of estrogen and progesterone on acquisition, extinction learning and extinction recall in a 3-day auditory fear conditioning and extinction protocol. Experiments were conducted on males and naturally cycling female rats. Regarding female rats, significant differences i...

  18. Coupling of antibodies to magnetic particles for radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silanized magnetic particles have been developed by means of a number of different methods for coupling antibodies for use in radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) of thyroid related hormones. Coarse and fine iron oxide particles were prepared by use of chemical precipitation of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride in NaOH or NH4OH under different reaction conditions. Carbodiimide, glutaraldehyde, glutaric anhydride and spacer arms coupling methods were studied for immobilization of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) antibodies on magnetic particles, respectively. The effect of the magnetic particle preparation and the properties of the particles on the couplings was discussed. The influence of coupling conditions, such as reaction time, coupling media and pH, concentration of coupling reagent and coupling ratio of antibody and magnetic particles, on the preparation of magnetic particle antibodies and the assay performance was also investigated. A comparison of five types of magnetic particles from different sources for coupling TSH antibody for TSH IRMA application was made. Silanized magnetic particles and other types of particles showed comparable results. Five TSH antibodies, including two polyclonal and three monoclonal antibodies coupled to silanized magnetic particles respectively, were used in TSH IRMA. It was found that each of them and a commercial monoclonal TSH antibody as label formed good sandwich partners and gave a high signal to low levels of TSH. T3, T4 and TSH antibodies coupled to silanized magnetic particles have been used in total T3, total T4, blood spot total T4 RIA and TSH IRMA. The storage stability and reproducibility were satisfactory. These magnetic antibodies have also been employed for free T3, free T4 RIA and blood spot TSH IRMA, but some of the technical problems remained to be solved. 13 refs, 7 tabs

  19. Developmental and hormonal regulation of juvenile hormone esterase gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethidi, Damu R; Xi, Zhiyong; Palli, Subba R

    2005-04-01

    Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to study developmental expression and hormonal regulation of the juvenile hormone esterase gene (DmJhe) in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The levels of DmJhe mRNA were low during the embryonic stage. A peak of Dmjhe mRNA was detected in the first, second and third instar larvae. The Dmjhe mRNA levels also increased soon after pupal ecdysis. The Dmjhe mRNA was detected in both male and female adult flies. The peaks of Dmjhe mRNA observed in the larvae coincided with the peaks of juvenile hormone (JH). In contrast, the mRNA for ecdysone-induced transcription factor, Drosophila hormone receptor 3 (DHR3) showed peaks of expression that coincided with the ecdysteroid peaks in embryo, larva and pupa. JH III induced Dmjhe mRNA but not DHR3 mRNA in explanted tissues cultured in Grace's medium. 20-hydroxyecdysone induced DHR3 mRNA and suppressed JH III induction of DmJhe mRNA. These studies show that the expression of jhe in D. melanogaster is regulated by both JH and 20E. PMID:15890182

  20. [Coordinative paramagnetic enzyme centers during hormonal carcinogenesis and tumor regression under conditions of hormonal regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorik, E P; Beregovskaia, N N

    1976-01-01

    The ESR method was employed to study the distribution of the coordinative paramegnetic centers on the energy chain of electron transport and on the detoxifying system during carcinogenesis caused by a disturbance of the normal hormonal balance in the organism and at the tumour regression stage achieved with estrogen - in tumours of the ovary, spleen, liver and adrenals. At various stages of the hormonal carcinogenesis and under hormonal control both quantitative and qualitative changes on the paramagnetic centers were found. The tumour growth on liver and adrenals lowers the level of the catalytic form of the cytochrome P-450 and of the non-heme iron complexes. In metastases of ovarian tumours the kinetics of the triplet signal development is registered. In the tumour and on the liver an antibate change of the intensities of the signal was observed with g-factors of 2,1 and 2,15. At the tumour tissues a shift of the g-factor of free radicals was found - from g=2.005 to g=2.000. When a complete regression of tumours occured under hormonal balance control, the characteristics of the ESR spectra on the liver and adrenals restores to their values on intact tissues. PMID:191093

  1. Molecular mechanisms of hormone resistance of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbakov, A M; Krasil'nikov, M A; Kushlinskii, N E

    2013-07-01

    More than 70% malignant mammary tumors contain steroid hormone receptors; this suggests the possibility of hormone therapy in the majority of patients with breast cancer (BC). The main cause of inefficiency of hormone therapy in BC is hormone resistance (tumor resistance to hormonal cytostatics). Here we discuss the main mechanisms of hormone resistance of BC and the mechanisms underlying the formation of hormone resistance of the tumors are analyzed at the molecular level. The data on the signal pathways of estrogen receptors (ER), the key regulators of BC cell proliferation, are presented. The most important factors of BC hormone resistance are: high activity/expression of receptor tyrosine kinases; high activity of proteins regulating cell defense mechanisms (Akt PI3K, mTOR); changes in the activities of cell cycle regulator proteins (Myc, c-Fos, Cyclin D1). Our experiments have demonstrated that estrogen-independent BC cell growth is supported by VEGF/VEGFR2 and EGF/EGFR mitogenic signal pathways. Our data indicate that NF-kappaB transcription factor is directly involved in the regulation of hormone-resistant BC cell growth and survival, while NF-kappaB suppression determines cell sensitivity to apoptotic activity of antitumor compounds. On the whole, the results indicate good prospects of using EGFR, HER-2/neu, mTOR, VEGFR, PI3K/Akt molecular pathways as targets for BC therapy, including therapy for BC resistant forms. PMID:24137610

  2. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amilton Cesar dos, Santos; Diego Carvalho, Viana; Gleidson Benevides de, Oliveira; Luis Miguel, Lobo; Antônio Chaves, Assis-Neto.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. [...] Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  3. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  4. Thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction with hormonal contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Keiding, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have assessed the risk of venous thromboembolism with newer hormonal contraception, few have examined thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction, and results have been conflicting.

  5. Genetic characterization of growth hormone 1 gene in patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Birla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growth hormone (GH secretion and release is a complex and highly regulated process. Any alteration disturbing synthesis, secretion or biological action of GH, results into growth hormone deficiency (GHD. GHD is of two types-isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD and combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD,of which IGHDis more common. The genes implicated in its etiology are growth hormone 1(GH1 and receptor of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRHR. Mutations within the coding region and/or either entire or partial deletions of the GH1gene lead to IGHD. In addition,GH1 possesses upstream regulatory elements and a promoter with binding sites for various transcription factors, which control its expression. Aim: The study was planned with an aim to identify entire GH1 locus deletion, mutations in the GH1 coding region and sequence variations (polymorphisms in the promoter region of the gene in patients with IGHD. Materialsand Methods: Thirty patients clinically diagnosed with IGHD and 30 healthy individuals who formed the controls were enrolled for the study. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood sample and processed for amplification of the desired regions followed by direct sequencing and/or restriction endonuclease digestion. Results: Out of the 30 IGHD patients screened, 20% of the cases showed consanguinity and 16% had a positive family history. Seven percentage of the patients showed homozygous deletion of the GH1gene while rest of them had heterozygous deletion. Screening of the coding region of GH1 showed sequence variations in exon 1 in 20% of the patients whereas the promoter region showed the presence of polymorphisms-rs2005171 in 20%, rs2005172 in 15% and rs11568828 in 18% of the cases. The haplotype comprising rs2005171 and rs2005172 was observed in four patients. Conclusion: The present study is an attempt to characterize the GH1 locus in IGHD patients. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of its kind where entire GH1locus, upstream regulatory elements and promoter region have been studied. Such an analysis would provide valuable information on the etiology of IGHD.

  6. Radioimmunological determination of plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone, folliculostimulating hormone and prolactin levels in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hormone levels were measured before and after hormonal therapy. Statistically significant changes in the levels of the hormones in this study were recognized (p<0,001) as a result of treatment with estrogen preparations. Plasma prolactin was raised before estrogen therapy (statistically significant rise, p<0,001), as compared to the levels in a control group of normal subjects. A mild tendency was observed toward its increase, depending on the duration of treatment. The results of this study show that control of the hormonal status of patients with prostate cancer may serve as reliable criterion in evaluating the effectiveness of hormonal therapy. The changes in prolactin levels are evidence of hormonal disbalance, which may be observed in these patients

  7. Síndrome metabólico en menopausia: implicaciones de la terapia hormonal / Menopause syndrome: implications of hormone therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Katherine, Tabares-Trujillo; Jesús Rafael, Aguilera-Pérez; Beatriz, Velázquez-Valassi; Pablo, Garza-Ríos; Lizbeth Citlalli, Angulo-Torres; Rosalía, García-Ruiz.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La incidencia de enfermedad cardiovascular y síndrome metabólico en mujeres postmenopáusicas es de 35%. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la relación entre los diferentes parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos en pacientes con o sin terapia hormonal de reemplazo con síndrome [...] metabólico. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio en una cohorte retrospectiva, con el análisis de casos de la Coordinación de Peri y Postmenopausia del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes en el periodo comprendido entre 1998 y 2009; se incluyeron aquellas pacientes con diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico. Las variables analizadas fueron: a) indicadores antropométricos; b) indicadores bioquímicos y c) niveles de tensión arterial. Se formaron dos grupos: pacientes con terapia de reemplazo hormonal (Grupo I) y el otro con pacientes sin terapia hormonal (Grupo II). El análisis estadístico se realizó dependiendo de la variable, con prueba de chi cuadrada y t de Student y se calculó OR (IC 95%). Resultados: Se incluyeron 310 casos; el Grupo I se conformó por 121 casos y el Grupo II por 189 casos. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en relación a los índices antropométricos; de los indicadores bioquímicos, se encontraron diferencias en los valores de colesterol (p = 0. 024) y de la tensión arterial, las diferencias se encontraron en la diastólica con (p de 90 mmHg. Conclusiones: Las pacientes con síndrome metabólico sin terapia hormonal tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar TAD > 90 mmHg y una tendencia a mantener rangos más elevados en el perfil de lípidos y mayor riesgo de desarrollar ECV, aunque la investigación sobre los diferentes factores de riesgo, así como las implicaciones de la terapia hormonal, aún son insuficientes para reconocer la dimensión del problema en el climaterio. Abstract in english Introduction: The incidence of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome during the menopause is around 35%. The objective of this study was to establish the relation between anthropometric and biochemical values in those patients with metabolic syndrome with and without hormone replacement ther [...] apy during menopause. Methods: A retrospective cohort study with case analysis of the Coordination of Peri and Postmenopause at the Instituto Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes during the period between 1998 and 2009; the study included those patients with diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The variables analyzed were: a) anthropometric, b) biochemical indicators and c) blood pressure levels, divided in two groups: patients with hormone replacement therapy (Group I) and patients without hormonal therapy (Group II). The statistical analysis were performed depending on the variable, with chi-square, Student t test and OR, CI (95%). Results: 310 cases were included: Group I, 121 cases and Group II 189 cases. There were no statistically significant differences on anthropometric and biochemical indicators, but significant differences in cholesterol (p=0.024) and diastolic blood pressure levels, were found (p 90 mmHg. Conclusions: Patients with metabolic syndrome without hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk for diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and a tendency to maintain higher cholesterol levels and increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, although research on the different risk factors, and the implications of hormone therapy, are still insufficient to recognize the scale of the problem in the climacteric woman.

  8. Hypothalamic hypopituitarism in a patient with a basal encephalocoele--treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, D V; Mason, W. P.; Wilson-Holt, N; Adams, J; Keene, M.; TANNER, J; Jacobs, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A 20-year-old patient presented with primary amenorrhoea and growth hormone deficiency caused by a basal encephalocoele. She was found to have developed diabetes insipidus in the 8 years following diagnosis. Gonadotrophin release in response to bolus injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was normal, as was thyrotrophin and adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretion. Pulsatile administration of LHRH by the subcutaneous route resulted in normal ovulation and subsequent menstruati...

  9. Hypoparathyroidism - Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Underbjerg, Line

    2015-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human intact PTH (rhPTH(1-84)) as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34)) have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once-a-day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice-a-day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve quality of life and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy.

  10. Nuclear hormone receptors put immunity on sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santori, Fabio R

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are transcription factors regulated by small molecules. The functions of NHRs range from development of primary and secondary lymphoid organs, to regulation of differentiation and function of DCs, macrophages and T cells. The human genome has 48 classic (hormone and vitamin receptors) and nonclassic (all others) NHRs; 17 nonclassic receptors are orphans, meaning that the endogenous ligand is unknown. Understanding the function of orphan NHRs requires the identification of their natural ligands. The mevalonate pathway, including its sterol and nonsterol intermediates and derivatives, is a source of ligands for many classic and nonclassic NHRs. For example, cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates (CBIs) are natural ligands for ROR?/?t. CBIs are universal endogenous metabolites in mammalian cells, and to study NHRs that bind CBIs requires ligand-free reporters system in sterol auxotroph cells. Furthermore, ROR?/?t shows broad specificity to sterol lipids, suggesting that ROR?/?t is either a general sterol sensor or specificity is defined by an abundant endogenous ligand. Unlike other NHRs, which regulate specific metabolic pathways, there is no connection between the genetic programs induced by ROR?/?t and ligand biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the roles of nonclassic NHRs and their potential ligands in the immune system. PMID:26222181

  11. [Hormonal contraception and breast cancer risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Petru, Edgar

    2010-11-01

    The largest meta-analysis comprised a total of 54 epidemiologic studies (Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer) and included 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 controls. Women currently using hormonal contraceptives had a modestly elevated risk for breast cancer (RR 1.24). This risk continuously decreased over years and did not exist after discontinuation of the drugs after ten years. Women who had started on contraceptives before the age of 20, had an elevated risk for breast cancer over the subsequent years (relative risk = RR 1.95 until the 30th year of age, RR 1.54 between 30 and 34 years, and RR 1.27 between the age of 35 and 40 years, respectively) compared to those who started to use contraceptives after 20 years of age. There was no difference in the risk between the different dosages, combined or gestagen-based contraceptives. However, the proportion of women using gestagens only was small. Study data on the effect of oral contraceptives in women with BRCA1/2 mutation or women with a positive familial history are controversial. A recently published systematic overview of 10 studies including a pooled analysis of 54 studies did not reveal an elevated breast cancer risk for women carrying an elevated breast cancer risk taking contraceptives. PMID:20714815

  12. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are dying every year from obesity-related diseases. Recently, incretin-based therapy was proposed for the treatment of obesity. Currently two different incretin therapies are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: 1) the GLP-1 receptor agonists which cause significant and sustained weight loss in overweight patients, and 2) dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors being weight neutral. These findings have led to a greater interest in the physiology of intestinal peptides with potential weight-reducing properties. This review discusses the effects of the incretin-based therapies in obesity, and provides an overview of intestinal peptides with promising effects as potential new treatments for obesity.

  13. Growth hormone and aging: A challenging controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bartke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrzej BartkeGeriatrics Research, Departments of Internal Medicine and Physiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USAAbstract: Although advanced age or symptoms of aging are not among approved indications for growth hormone (GH therapy, recombinant human GH (rhGH and various GH-related products are aggressively promoted as anti-aging therapies. Well-controlled studies of the effects of rhGH treatment in endocrinologically normal elderly subjects report some improvements in body composition and a number of undesirable side effects in sharp contrast to major benefits of GH therapy in patients with GH deficiency. Controversies surrounding the potential utility of GH in treatment of a geriatric patient are fueled by increasing evidence linking GH and cancer and by remarkably increased lifespan of GH-resistant and GH-deficient mice. Conservation of cellular signaling mechanisms that influence aging in organisms ranging from worms to mammals suggests that at least some of the results obtained in mutant mice are applicable to the human. We suggest that the normal, physiological functions of GH in promoting growth, sexual maturation and fecundity involve significant costs in  terms of aging and life expectancy. Natural decline in GH levels during aging likely contributes to concomitant alterations in body composition and vigor but also may be offering important protection from cancer and other age-associated diseases.Keywords: growth hormone, longevity, cancer, anti-aging therapies, mutant mice

  14. Thyroid hormones: Possible roles in epilepsy pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamijani, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhoseini; Karimi, Benyamin; Amini, Elham; Golpich, Mojtaba; Dargahi, Leila; Ali, Raymond Azman; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine and L-triiodothyronine, primarily known as metabolism regulators, are tyrosine-derived hormones produced by the thyroid gland. They play an essential role in normal central nervous system development and physiological function. By binding to nuclear receptors and modulating gene expression, THs influence neuronal migration, differentiation, myelination, synaptogenesis and neurogenesis in developing and adult brains. Any uncorrected THs supply deficiency in early life may result in irreversible neurological and motor deficits. The development and function of GABAergic neurons as well as glutamatergic transmission are also affected by THs. Though the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unknown, the effects of THs on inhibitory and excitatory neurons may affect brain seizure activity. The enduring predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures leads to a complex chronic brain disorder known as epilepsy. Pathologically, epilepsy may be accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and eventually dysregulation of excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. Based on the latest evidence on the association between THs and epilepsy, we hypothesize that THs abnormalities may contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We also review gender differences and the presumed underlying mechanisms through which TH abnormalities may affect epilepsy here. PMID:26362394

  15. Proinsulin: from hormonal precursor to neuroprotective factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora De Pablo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, non-canonical functions have been described for several molecules with hormone-like activities in different stages of vertebrate development. Since its purification in the 1960s, proinsulin has been one of the best described hormonal precursors, though it has been overwhelmingly studied in the context of insulin, the mature protein secreted by the pancreas. Beginning with our discovery of the presence and precise regulation of proinsulin mRNA in early neurulation and neurogenesis, we uncovered a role for proinsulin in cell survival in the developing nervous system. We subsequently demonstrated the ability of proinsulin to prevent pathological cell death and delay photoreceptor degeneration in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. In this review, we focus on the evolution of proinsulin/insulin, beginning with insulin-like peptides expressed in mainly the neurosecretory cells of some invertebrates. We summarize findings related to the regulation of proinsulin expression during development and discuss the possible effects of proinsulin in neural cells or tissue, and its potential as a neuroprotective molecule.

  16. Granuloma telangiectásico asociado a alteración hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estephannia Mora Solano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Title: Telangiecticum granuloma associated to hormonal alterations.ResumenEl granuloma telangiectásico es una lesión mucocutánea benigna no neoplásica, de origen epitelial, contenido vascular y crecimiento rápido, cuya etiología es atribuible a un trauma menor pero constante. Se asocia a alteraciones hormonales propias del embarazo y la pubertad. En la cavidad oral tiene predilección a nivel de la encía. A continuación se presenta caso clínico de una paciente de 25 años de edad, quien acude a consulta odontológica por presentar una lesión tumoral que se desarrolló mientras estaba en el tercer mes de embarazo, localizada en el sector anteroinferior, dificultando la fonación, masticación y deglución. Se realizó escisión quirúrgica y al efectuar estudio histopatológico se confirmó diagnóstico de granuloma telangiectásico. (DUAZARY 2012 No. 1, 65 - 67AbstractTelangiecticum granuloma is a nonneoplastic benign mucocutaneous lesion of epitelial origin, vascular content and fast growing, etiology is attributable to minor and constant trauma. In the oral cavity it has a predilection to the gum. We present a case of a female 25 years old patient who goes to dental consult for presenting a tumor lesion while she was in the third month of pregnancy, located in the jaw, making difficult the phonation, mastication and swallowing. We proceed to surgical excision and pathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of telangiectaticum granuloma.Key words: Pyogenic granuloma; pregnancy; hyperplasia; hormones. (Mesh Database.

  17. The Effect of High Altitude on Blood Hormones in Male Westar Rats in South Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahaid H. Al-Hashem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Living in high altitude areas results in chronic hypoxia, which induces complex metabolic and endocrine adaptations. The current study investigated the endocrine responses of male Westar rats chronically exposed to high altitude-induced hypoxia in Abha City, in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Approach: The rats were separated in to 2 groups of 10 rats. The first group was kept at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in the King Saud University animal house in Riyadh City and designated the low altitude group; the second group of rats was transferred to the King Khalid University animal house in Abha City, which is 2800 m height above sea level and was designated the high altitude group. All rats were housed under the same laboratory conditions and fed the same diet. Blood samples were collected from both groups of animals 45 days after transferring the high altitude group to Abha City. Results: The data revealed that the rats transferred to the high altitude area had significant decreases in serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and testosterone levels and significant increases in the levels of serum cortisol, free Triiodothyronine (T3 and free Thyroxin (T4 compared to rats kept at low altitude. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that rats chronically exposed to high altitude hypoxia experienced alternations in various hormones. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of human endocrine and metabolic physiology in hypoxic conditions.

  18. Effects of aging on thermoregulatory responses and hormonal changes in humans during the four seasons in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Sugenoya, Junichi; Inukai, Yoko; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Iwase, Satoshi

    2011-03-01

    Physiological functions are impaired in various organs in aged people, as manifest by, e.g., renal and cardiac dysfunction and muscle atrophy. The elderly are also at increased risk of both hypothermia and hyperthermia in extreme temperatures. The majority of those over 65 years old have elevated serum osmolality. Our hypothesis is that the elderly have suppressed osmolality control in different seasons compared to the young. Eight healthy young men and six healthy older men participated in this study. The experiments were performed during spring, summer, autumn and winter in Japan, with average atmospheric temperatures of 15-20°C in spring, 25-30°C in summer, 15-23°C in autumn and 5-10°C in winter. Each subject immersed his lower legs in warm water at 40°C for 30 min. Core (tympanic) temperature and sweat rate at chest were recorded continuously. Blood was taken pre-immersion to measure the concentrations of antidiuretic hormone, serum osmolality, plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, aldosterone, leptin, thyroid stimulating hormone, fT3 and fT4. The results suggested that the elderly have suppressed osmolality control compared to the young; osmolality was especially elevated in winter compared to the summer in elderly subjects. Therefore, particularly in the elderly, balancing fluid by drinking water should be encouraged to maintain euhydration status in winter.

  19. Novel approaches for the study of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Satomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-10-01

    Steroid hormones are essential for the normal function of most organ systems in vertebrates. Reproductive activities in females and males, such as the differentiation, growth and maintenance of the reproductive system, require signaling by sex steroid hormones. Although extensively studied in mammals and a few fish and bird species, the evolution and molecular mechanisms associated with the nuclear steroid hormone receptors are still poorly understood in amphibians and reptiles. Given our interest in environmental signaling of sex determination as well as a major interest in environmental contaminants that can mimic steroid hormone signaling, we have established an approach to study the molecular function (ligand binding and trans-activation) of steroid hormone receptors cloned from reptiles. This approach involves molecular cloning and sequencing of steroid hormone receptors, phylogenic analysis and in vitro trans-activation assays using endogenous or exogenous ligands. Comparing the in vitro trans-activation induced by different ligands with receptors cloned from different species would develop additional functional relationships (classification) among steroid hormone receptors. This approach can provide insight into understanding why each species could have different responses to exogenous ligands. Further, we have developed a novel and less invasive approach to obtaining mRNA for molecular cloning and sequencing of steroid hormone receptors in reptiles and other non-mammalian species, using blood cells as a source of genetic material. For example, white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) of the American alligator both express steroid hormone receptors and have adequate amounts of mRNA for molecular cloning. This approach would allow us to analyze components of endocrine function of steroid hormones without sacrificing animals. Especially in endangered species, this approach could provide an understanding of endocrine functions, elucidate the phylogenic relationships of various receptors in vitro, such as the steroid hormone receptors, and determine possible effects of environmental contaminants in a minimally invasive manner. PMID:21669814

  20. Hormonal regulation in insects: facts, gaps, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, G; Hoffmann, K H; Spring, J H

    1997-10-01

    There are two main classes of hormones in insects: 1) the true hormones produced by epithelial glands and belonging to the ecdysteroids or juvenile hormones and 2) the neuropeptide hormones produced by neurosecretory cells. Members of these classes regulate physiological, developmental, and behavioral events in insects. Detailed accounts are given on isolation, identification, structure-activity relationships, mode of action, biological function, biosynthesis, inactivation, metabolism, and feedback for hormones involved in 1) metabolic regulation such as the adipokinetic/hypertrehalosemic peptides and the diuretic and antidiuretic peptides; 2) stimulation or inhibition of muscle activity such as the myotropic peptides; 3) control of reproduction, growth, and development such as allatotropins, allatostatins, juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, folliculostimulins and folliculostatins, ecdysis-triggering and eclosion hormones, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptides, and diapause hormones; and 4) regulation of tanning and of color change. Because of the improvements in techniques for isolation and structure elucidation, there has been rapid progress in our knowledge of the chemistry of certain neuropeptide families. With the employment of molecular biological techniques, the genes of some neuropeptides have been successfully characterized. There are, however, areas that are still quite underdeveloped. These are, for example, 1) receptor studies, which are still in their infancy; 2) the hormonal status of certain sequenced peptides is not clarified; and 3) functional studies are lacking even for established hormones. The authors plead for a concerted effort to continue research in this field, which will also advance our knowledge into the use of insect hormones as safer and species-specific molecules for insect pest management. PMID:9354810

  1. Effect of growth hormone-releasing factor on growth hormone release in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five male children who received cranial irradiation for extrahypothalamic intracranial neoplasms or leukemia and subsequently developed severe growth hormone (GH) deficiency were challenged with synthetic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF-44), in an attempt to distinguish hypothalamic from pituitary dysfunction as a cause of their GH deficiency, and to assess the readily releasable GH reserve in the pituitary. In response to a pulse of GRF-44 (5 micrograms/kg intravenously), mean peak GH levels rose to values higher than those evoked by the pharmacologic agents L-dopa or arginine (6.4 +/- 1.3 ng/mL v 1.5 +/- 0.4 ng/mL, P less than .05). The peak GH value occurred at a mean of 26.0 minutes after administration of GRF-44. These responses were similar to those obtained in children with severe GH deficiency due to other etiologies (peak GH 6.3 +/- 1.7 ng/mL, mean 28.0 minutes). In addition, there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between peak GH response to GRF-44 and the postirradiation interval. Prolactin and somatomedin-C levels did not change significantly after the administration of a single dose of GRF-44. The results of this study support the hypothesis that cranial irradiation in children can lead to hypothalamic GRF deficiency secondary to radiation injury of hypothalamic GRF-secreting neurons. This study also lends support to the potential therapeutic usefulness of GRF-44 or an analog for GH deficiency secondary to cranial irradiation

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  3. Alimentary triggers of hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Lykholat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC consistently holds the leading positions in the structure of morbidity and mortality of the female population. Food containing veterinary hormones is extremely dangerous to human health: estrogens are female sex hormones. Excessive level of estrogen in the body gives rise to diseases of varying severity: in women (especially of older age it may cause breast cancer. The paper investigates the processes of lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidant protection system in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens. The purpose of the work is to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection status in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens for determining the trigger mechanisms for tumor development. Experiments were conducted on female Wistar rats exposed to exogenous estrogen for 45 days. At the beginning of the experiment, age of experimental animals was 3 months in pubertal period and 6 months as mature ones. The control groups consisted of intact animals of appropriate age. To simulate the influence of exogenous estrogen, rats’ food was treated with the Sinestron drug at the rate of 2 mg per kg. The research materials were serum and liver of rats. Objects of the research were indicators of lipid peroxidation activity (content of TBA-active products and antioxidant protection system (reduced glutathione (RG level, glutathione transferase (GT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GP, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and total antioxidative activity (AOA. Data obtained was treated with standard methods of estimation of variation series. Various degrees of peroxidation intensification depending on the age and organs were determined. Maximum excess of control indexes in the serum was observed and it indicated synthetic estrogen effect of on all major body systems. In prepubertal period females’ liver the reaction of prooxidant system and tension in the antioxidant protection system exceeded the strength of response in the body of mature animals. The organ discreteness of changes in the activity of antioxidant protection enzymes depending on the age of the animals was recorded. Given the involvement of glutathione system in the deactivation of estrogens through their conjugation in reactions catalyzed by glutathione transferase, decreased enzyme activity may lead to accumulation of highly active intermediate metabolites with subsequent damage to intracellular structures. Later on, these phenomena may become a trigger of reduction of the compensatory mechanisms’ potential, which together with the genotoxic effect of exogenous estrogens is an important pathogenetic element in carcinogenesis: they initiate the development of proliferative processes and occurrence of cancer conditions, in particular, hormone dependent breast tumors, in future.

  4. Steroid hormone receptors and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    The 1st step in the action of a steroid hormone involves entering a target cell where it is recognized and bound by a soluble macromolecule called a cytosol receptor (Re) specific for that hormone. The receptor hormone complex (ReS) is translocated to the cell's nucleus (RnS) where it binds to a large number of sites on chromatin. The binding of RnS to acceptor sites is thought to make gene sites available for transcription by RNA polymerase which subsequently results in elevated cellular RNA and protein synthesis. The 3-H steroid exchange assay based on the temperature dependence of the rate of steroid dissociation can be used to differentiate occupied and unoccupied receptors. The method has been used to examine the relationship between nuclear binding of the Rn estradiol complex and the stimulation of growth processes in the rat uterus. A single injection of .2 mcg/100 g body weight of estradiol causes the nuclear accumulation and retention of approximately 10-20% of the total number of uterine Re sites. Nuclear occupancy for 6 or more hours appears to be a requirement for stimulation of late uterotrophic events such as DNA synthesis, sustained stimulation of RNA polymerase activities, and cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Estriol, a short-acting estrogen, has been classified as a weak estrogen, but it acts as such only when administered in a single injection, in which case it stimulates all early uterotrophic events but does not stimulate significant uterine growth. When estriol is present in a continuous fashion it is a highly effective estrogen. Longterm nuclear retention of the RnE complexes is necessary for uterine hypertrophy and hyperplasia. RnE complexes appear to interact with the genome to open gene sites for transcription; continued transcriptional activity is required for full uterine growth. Nonsteroidal estrogen antagonists have estrogen properties in some cells but act as estrogen antagonists in others. Progesterone appears to modify or redirect estrogen action by modulating estrogen receptor levels. Progesterone may act by reducing the level of available cytoplasmic estrogen receptors and hence decreasing the likelihood of receptor binding or by interfering with the nuclear retention of the RnE complex and decreasing the ability of these complexes to stimulate transcriptional events. PMID:12299912

  5. Effect of Marshmallow's Root Extract on Thyroid Hormones in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Roshangar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L. is belonging to Malvaceae family. Previous studies have shown that this plant has many physiological effects on hormone systems. The goal of this study was investigating the effect of root extract of this plant on concentrations of thyroid hormones in broilers. 240 broilers were divided into four groups with five replications and twelve members in each replication. A group was control group and other groups were fed by various doses of extract (0.25, 0.5 and 1% for 42 days in drinking water. At last two broilers were selected randomly from each replication, blood samples were taken and concentration of T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured using Eliza method and Monibind Kit. Obtained data were analyzed using SAS program and means were compared using Duncan multiple ranges test. Concentration of T3 hormone was decreased significantly (p<0.05 in third and fourth groups (doses 0.5 and 1% but 0.25% of extract (group 2 increased it none significantly. Concentration of T4 hormone was not affected by treatments. There was significant differences between TSH hormone of third and fourth group with control group (p<0.05, but second group didn’t affect this hormone. On the whole the extract of marshmallows root can affect T3 and TSH hormones dose dependently and is effective in metabolism in this way.

  6. Radiochemical Assay of Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Rate in Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is an important insect hormone known to have many effects on development, reproduction,and behavior in both solitary and social insects. This protocol describes how to quantify in vitro biosynthesis rates from excised corpora allata (CA), the glands responsible for JH productio...

  7. Sex hormones, personality characters and professional status among Saudi females.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The relationship between male and female sex hormones (testosterone, estradiol and progesterone), personality characters and professional status was studied. METHODS The study was conducted in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2003 and May 2003. The participants completed a questionnaire consisting of personal information regarding age, profession, educational level and medical history. Then the participant went through an adjective checklist. Hormones...

  8. Hormonal status of diabetes mellitus patients with microcirculation disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the study of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and anti-insular hormones show their correlation with homorheological disorders in patients with diabetic angiopathies. The results obtained indicate a possble involvement of the anti-insular hormones in the development of vascular changes in diabetes mellitus

  9. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Savino; Liguori, Stefania A.; Maria F. Fissore; Roberto Oggero

    2009-01-01

    Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk f...

  10. Hormonal actions in the Protozoan stress: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2015-12-01

    In the higher ranked animals the alteration of the environment can provoke a uniform reaction named general adaptation system (GAS), which is a manifestation of stress, caused by different stressors. During GAS certain organs show typical reactions and two members of the hormonal system are activated: epinephine and glucocorticoids. As the unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena also synthesize most of the mammalian-like hormones (except steroids), it can respond to stress by a hormonal reaction. The main differences, related to the mammalian GAS hormonal reaction are, that 1) in Tetrahymena the level of all of the hormones studied significantly elevates under the effect of heat, osmotic or chemical stress and 2) the single stress effect is durable. It is manifested at least to the 100th generations, which means that it is inherited epigenetically. Not only hormone synthesis but the receptorial hormone binding is also elevated, which means that the whole hormonal system is activated. The stress reaction (GAS) phylogenetically can be deduced to a unicellular (Protozoan) level however, prokaryotes - which are also stress-reactive - are using another mechanisms. PMID:26689872

  11. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  12. Hubungan Obesitas dengan Hormon Testosteron pada Mahasiswa STIKes Indonesia Padang

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim; Fadil Oenzil; Arni Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Obesitas menjadi epidemik seluruh dunia dan dua pertiga penduduk negara berkembang menderita obesitas. Pada pria obesitas terdapat lebih banyak sel lemak melepaskan enzim aromatase yang mengkatalisis testosteron menjadi estradiol. Bertambahnya berat badan akan mempercepat penurunan hormon testosteron. Tujuan penelitian iniadalah menentukan hubungan obesitas dengan hormon testosteron. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional.  Total sampling ber...

  13. Hormones and the Resistance of Women to Paracoccidioidomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Jata; Restrepo, Angela; Clemons, Karl V.; Stevens, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most important endemic and systemic mycoses in Latin America, presents several clinical pictures. Epidemiological studies indicate a striking rarity of disease (but not infection) in females, but only during the reproductive years. This suggested a hormonal interaction between female hormones and the etiologic dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Many fungi have been shown to use hormonal (pheromonal) fungal molecules for intercellular communication, and there are increasing numbers of examples of interactions between mammalian hormones and fungi, including the specific binding of mammalian hormones by fungal proteins, and suggestions of mammalian hormonal modulation of fungal behavior. This suggests an evolutionary conservation of hormonal receptor systems. We recount studies showing the specific hormonal binding of mammalian estrogen to proteins in P. brasiliensis and an action of estrogen to specifically block the transition from the saprophytic form to the invasive form of the fungus in vitro. This block has been demonstrated to occur in vivo in animal studies. These unique observations are consistent with an estrogen-fungus receptor-mediated effect on pathogenesis. The fungal genes responsive to estrogen action are under study. PMID:21482727

  14. Labelling and standardizing some pituitary hormones for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimum conditions for efficient 125I labelling of human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) using chloramine-T have been established for radioimmunoassay (RIA). The amount of the hormone, chloramine-T, 125I, and the reaction time were, respetively, controlled evaluating the yield and the bindability of the labelled hormone to its antibody. To measure the bindability, the labelled hormone was incubated together with its antibody for a definite temperature. In the separation of the free hormone (F) from the antibody bound (B), a double antibody technique was applied comparing with the chromatoelectrophoresis. For the efficient separation of the labelled hormone, two methods of separation such as gel filtration and gel electrophoresis were compared in the sensitivity and in the immunological activity points of view. Experiments for the production of HCG antibody were also conducted. The produced antisera were tested in two ways; i.e., the incubation test with the labelled hormone, and the Ouchterlony test. Using the produced anti-HCG serum and the purchased anti-FSH serum, standard dose-response curves were plotted correlating with the international standard preparation of the hormones

  15. DITHIOCARBAMATE FUNGICIDE THIRAM DISRUPTS THE HORMONAL CONTROL OF OVULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiram has been reported to inhibit dopamine-B-hydroxylase and orepinephrine (NE) synthesis. NE is a neurotransmitter important to the control of pituitary function. n this study, the acute effects of thiram on the hormonal control of ovulation [luteinizing hormone (LH) surge] in...

  16. Improving compliance with hormonal replacement therapy in primary osteoporosis prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P; Gram, J; Jensen, L B; Kolthoff, Niels-Ulrik; Abrahamsen, Bo; Brot, C; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule.......To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule....

  17. Hormone Abuse Prevention and What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Body in Balance › Diseases and Conditions › Hormone Abuse › Prevention Share: Overview Hormonal Substances of Abuse Health Effects, ... may be able to see symptoms of steroid abuse in your child. Check out the section of this Web page ...

  18. Growth hormone and adipose differentiation: growth hormone-induced antimitogenic state in 3T3-F442A preadipose cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corin, R E; Guller, S; Wu, K Y; Sonenberg, M

    1990-10-01

    An additional activity for pituitary growth hormone is described--i.e., the in vitro induction of an antimitogenic state in murine 3T3-F442A preadipocyte fibroblasts. We previously developed a serum-free, hormonally defined medium permissive for the adipose differentiation of 3T3-F442A cells. When 3T3-F442A fibroblasts were maintained in serum-free medium without insulin but with growth hormone (2 nM), typical adipose differentiation did not occur. However, we found that growth hormone induced a state of cellular refractoriness to the mitogenic stimulus of fetal bovine serum as assayed by de novo DNA synthesis. The mitogen refractory condition (i.e., the antimitogenic state) was time-dependent (half maximal at approximately 2.5 days) and growth hormone concentration-dependent (half maximal and maximal at approximately 0.05 and 2.0 nM, respectively). The antimitogenic state was specifically induced by growth hormone and was not mediated by insulin-like growth factor I or prolactin. The growth hormone-induced antimitogenic state was completely reversible. The antimitogenic state was not induced by growth hormone in 3T3-C2 cells, a sister clone of 3T3 cells that exhibits essentially no adipose conversion. The kinetics for growth hormone-dependent commitment to adipose differentiation and induction of the antimitogenic state were similar. We suggest a relationship of growth hormone-induced antimitogenic state and the growth hormone-induced adipose differentiation of 3T3-F442A cells. PMID:2217181

  19. The study of endocrine hormone changes in patients with CLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojgani M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of some cancer researches show that a number of hormones in ceratin tumors are growing up. Often, the majority of these hormones are produced by tumor cells or by an unknown origin in the neoplastic area. Also, it is clear that some of these ectopic hormones are produced only by specific tumors. In addition, different effects of these abnormally produced hormones on the immune system are shown in recent years. Thus, we decided to study the hormonal status of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients. The results of this study showed that the LH and FSH levels in the majority of patients are rising above normal while testosterone level in many of them is decreased. In the next step, we are going to study the immunological effects of LH, FSH, and testosterone one the lymphocyte function in vitro.

  20. Growth Hormone Therapy in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Vogt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is characterized by hyperphagia, obesity if food intake is not strictly controlled, abnormal body composition with decreased lean body mass and increased fat mass, decreased basal metabolic rate, short stature, low muscle tone, cognitive disability, and hypogonadism. In addition to improvements in linear growth, the benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition and motor function in children with PWS are well established. Evidence is now emerging on the benefits of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. This review summarizes the current literature on growth hormone status and the use of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. The benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition, muscle strength, exercise capacity, certain measures of sleep-disordered breathing, metabolic parameters, quality of life, and cognition are covered in detail along with potential adverse effects and guidelines for initiating and monitoring therapy.

  1. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.)

  2. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Thulstrup, A M; Gabel, P; Toft, G; Bonde, J P; Olsen, Jørn; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Summary No human study has investigated the possible impact of breastfeeding on semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones, but a recent study of another hypothesis indicated an association with oligozoospermia. We investigated the association between breastfeeding, semen quality and levels....... Breastfeeding was not statistically significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility or morphology, oligozoospermia, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the calculated level of free testosterone, free oestradiol...... SHBG into account, neither free testosterone nor free oestradiol was different between the two groups. This study shows no association between breastfeeding and sperm quality or reproductive hormones and a strong association is unlikely. A larger study would be needed to detect more subtle effects....

  3. Hormonal relations of radiation-induced tumors of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When gamma-irradiated Arabidopsis seed was germinated, tumors appeared on hypocotyls and apical meristems of the resulting plants. Several tumors have been cultured on hormone free medium for over two years since excision from the plants. The tumor lines display a range of phenotypes suggestive of abnormal hormone balance. To determine whether hormone overproduction or hypersensitivity is involved in tumorigenesis, we are measuring hormone levels in the tumor lines and characterizing their response to exogenously supplied growth regulators. Growth of two tumor lines is stimulated by either NAA or BAP, one is stimulated by NAA only, two by BAP only, and one is stimulated by neither. Growth of all lines tested thus far is inhibited by gibberellic acid, ethephon and ACC. The tumor lines appear more sensitive to ACC than normal callus tissue. Most tumors studied to date appear unlikely to have arisen due to increased hormone sensitivity. Experiments are in progress to determine auxin and cytokinin levels in the tumor lines

  4. Hormone und Doping: Missbrauchspotenzial und analytische Möglichkeiten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thevis M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mit den kontinuierlich wachsenden Kenntnissen hinsichtlich neuer Möglichkeiten des pharmakologischen Eingriffs in potenziell leistungsbeeinflussende Mechanismen des menschlichen Organismus ergeben sich für die Dopinganalytik stets neue An- und Herausforderungen. Einerseits sind anabole Wirkstoffe, insbesondere anabol-androgene Steroide, nach wie vor häufige Vertreter unter den in Dopingkontrollen aufgefundenen verbotenen Substanzen, andererseits erfordern neue Kandidaten der Medikamentenentwicklung, wie zum Beispiel peptidische Wachstumshormon-Releaser (?growth hormone- releasing peptides? [GHRP] erweiterte analytische Verfahren, um einen Missbrauch dieser Verbindungen weitestgehend einzuschränken. Die klinische Zulassung der GHRPs liegt in den meisten Fällen nicht vor, dennoch ist eine einfache Verfügbarkeit durch Beschlagnahmungen belegt worden und somit der illegale Gebrauch nicht auszuschließen. Im folgenden Beitrag werden kürzlich gewonnene Erkenntnisse zum Ge-/ Missbrauch und Nachweis eines steroidhaltigen Produkts tierischer Herkunft sowie analytische Ansätze zur Bestimmung von GHRPs und deren Stoffwechselprodukten aus Humanurin für dopinganalytische Zwecke vorgestellt.

  5. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M; Petersen, J H; Simell, T; Simell, O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1998-01-01

    The gonads are usually considered quiescent organs in infancy and childhood. However, during the first few postnatal months of life, levels of gonadotropins and sex hormones are elevated in humans. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that environmental factors operating perinatally may...... the adult male. In the adult woman, inhibin B is secreted by the granulosa cells. Longitudinal serum levels of inhibin B were measured in healthy boys (n = 15) and girls (n = 15), in cord blood, and every third month during the first 2 yr of life. In addition, serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone...... high interindividual variation in levels of inhibin B, FSH, and LH within each age. In conclusion, the sustained elevation of inhibin B to supraadult levels in infant boys indicates that the neonatal period may be a developmental window important for Sertoli cell proliferation and maturation. Thus, the...

  6. Genetic features of thyroid hormone receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maha Rebaï; Imen Kallel; Ahmed Rebaï

    2012-12-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are prototypes of nuclear transcription factors that regulate the expression of target genes. These receptors play an important role in many physiological processes. Moreover, a dysfunction of these proteins is often implicated in several human diseases and malignancies. Here we report genetic variations and alterations of the TRs that have been described in the literature as well as their potential role in the development of some human diseases including cancers. The functional effects of some mutations and polymorphisms in TRs on disease susceptibility, especially on cancer risk, are now established. Therefore, further investigations are needed in order to use these receptors as therapeutic targets or as biological markers to decide on appropriate forms of treatment.

  7. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M; Skakkebaek, N E

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly of...... different activity by comparing it to serum GH, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and clinical activity. There were highly significant, positive correlations between urinary GH and serum GH, serum IGF-I as well as clinical activity score (p < 0.00005), although some overlap between the groups was...... observed. In seven patients with low serum GH values (< 2.0 micrograms/l) discordant results were found. Two of the seven patients were clinically mildly active, but only IGF-I was either elevated or within the upper normal range; in three other patients who appeared clinically cured either IGF-I (N = 1...

  8. Inhibin A, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in 473 healthy infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, M; Schmidt, I M; Haavisto, A M; Boisen, K A; Damgaard, I N; Mau, C; Petersen, J H; Juul, A; Skakkebaek, N E; Main, K M

    2003-01-01

    The early postnatal regulation of reproductive hormones seems to be more complex in girls than in boys. The aim of this study was to describe inhibins A and B, FSH, LH, estradiol, and SHBG in a large prospective cohort of 473 unselected, healthy, 3-month-old girls. In full term, appropriate-for- gestational-age girls (n = 355) hormones showed a marked interindividual variation, with concentrations up to pubertal values [medians (95% confidence intervals): inhibin B, 82 pg/ml (

  9. Thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone receptors: Effects of thyromimetics on reverse cholesterol transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pedrelli, Camilla Pramfalk, Paolo Parini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT is a complex process which transfers cholesterol from peripheral cells to the liver for subsequent elimination from the body via feces. Thyroid hormones (THs affect growth, development, and metabolism in almost all tissues. THs exert their actions by binding to thyroid hormone receptors (TRs. There are two major subtypes of TRs, TR? and TR?, and several isoforms (e.g. TR?1, TR?2, TR?1, and TR?2. Activation of TR?1 affects heart rate, whereas activation of TR?1 has positive effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Consequently, particular interest has been focused on the development of thyromimetic compounds targeting TR?1, not only because of their ability to lower plasma cholesterol but also due their ability to stimulate RCT, at least in pre-clinical models. In this review we focus on THs, TRs, and on the effects of TR?1-modulating thyromimetics on RCT in various animal models and in humans.

  10. The effects of growht hormone therapy in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy were studied in 6 children, previously treated for brain tumours which did not directly involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and who had received cranial irradiation between 2.1 and 10 years earlier. All 6 were short with a standing height standard deviation score (SDS) from -1.7 to -3.3. Impaired growth hormone responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) were observed in all 6 and a Bovril stimulation test in 5 children. The remainder of pituitary function was essentially normal. All 6 were prepubertal and 5 had a retarded bone age. Subsequently all received human GH in a dose of 5 units 3 times weekly for 1 year. The growth rate in each was at least 2 cm greater during the treatment year than the pre-treatment year.(author)

  11. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia. PMID:26407873

  12. Role of the metabolism of parathyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heterogeneity of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in plasma has prompted investigations of the metabolism of PTH and its relationship to hormone action. The time course of tissue distribution and metabolism of electrolytically iodinated PTH (E-PTH) previously shown to retain biological activity was compared with that of inactive PTH iodinated with Chloramine-T (CT-PTH). Labeled PTH (0.4 ?g) was injected in the saphenous veins of anesthetized rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 min. Tissue extracts from kidney, liver, and serum were chromatographed to separate intact PTH from its metabolites. In the kidney, the initial rate of degradation of E-PTH was greater than that of CT-PTH. The difference in initial rates of metabolism may be due, in part, to receptor-specific hydrolysis on peritubular cell membranes which selectively act on biologically active PTH molecules. PTH-responsive adenyl cyclase activity in isolated kidney cortex plasma membranes was measured and PTH metabolism was monitored simultaneously. When degradation was completely blocked by histone f3 (1 mg/ml), adenyl cyclase activity was significantly increased over control. In addition, when adenyl cyclase activity was negligible, the rate of PTH degradation by the membranes was not significantly diminished. Consistent with the in vivo data was the observation that E-PTH is metabolized by these membranes at a greater rate than CT-PTH. The data demonstrate the existence of a receptor-specific metabolism at sites which are independent of PTH receptor mediated adenyl cyclase activity

  13. Pituitary carcinoma with different hormone expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao LU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To introduce the experience of diagnosing and treating one case of pituitary carcinoma with distinct hormone expressions in primary and metastatic lesions and to improve understanding of this disease.  Methods Retrospective study was performed to analyze the clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, histopathologic findings, and treatment information of the patient. Immunohistochemical staining was done to both primary and metastatic lesions.  Results The patient presented with eye pain and discomfort 4 months posterior to pituitary adenoma surgery. Head MRI showed multiple abnormal intracranial signals, irregular pituitary contour, and abnormal enhancements of the sellar region. PET-CT scan showed multiple hypermetabolic lesions. After the first surgery, histological study of the pituitary tumor showed disseminated tumor cells. The cells were round-shaped or polygonal, with mild atypia, moderate amount of eosinophilic plasma and round-shaped nuclei with fine chromatin and unconspicuous nucleoli; mitosis was abundant, while necrosis was absent. The tumor cells expressed P53, chromogranin A (CgA, with scattered expression for growth hormone (GH and a Ki-67 index of 80% by immunohistochemistry. The first pathologic diagnosis was atypical pituitary adenoma. The parietal tumor cells infiltrated parenchymal after the tumor recurrence. Immunohistochemistry findings were different from the first one. The tumor cells expressed GH diffusely, with a decreased Ki-67 index of 75%. The second pathologic diagnosis was metastatic pituitary carcinoma.  Conclusions Pituitary carcinoma is a rare malignant pituitary tumor. Diagnosis relies on radiology and pathology. Surgical resection and radiochemotherapy are the current treatment of choice but yield poor response. General prognosis of the disease is poor. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.013

  14. Thyroid Hormone and Estrogen Regulate Exercise-Induced Growth Hormone Release

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio, Daniele Leão; da S. Silvestre, Diego H.; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Louzada, Ruy Andrade; de Carvalho, Denise P.; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues w...

  15. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Amos-Landgraf, James M; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J.; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F.; Van Den Brink, Gijs R.

    2014-01-01

    The age-adjusted incidence of colonic adenomas and colorectal cancer is higher in men than in women. In a careful analysis of two established animal models, we found that castration reduced, and testosterone supplementation restored, the number of adenomas in the male rat and mouse colon, whereas ovariectomy and replacement of female hormones had no measureable effect on colonic adenomagenesis. In Min mice, in which most of the tumors arise in the small intestine, this testosterone-dependent ...

  16. Psychological effects of withdrawal of growth hormone therapy from adults with growth hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, CV; Bradley, Clare; Gibney, J.; Healy , ML; Russell-Jones , DL; Sönksen , PH

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Growth hormone (GH) is known to be required for physical well-being. Whilst it is also widely believed to be important for quality of life (QoL) and psychological health, there is less supportive evidence. The objective of this study was to investigate the psychological effects of discontinuation of GH replacement from adults with severe GH deficiency (GHD). Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which GH replacement therapy was discontinued for 3 months from 12 of...

  17. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency – Benefits, Side Effects, and Risks of Growth Hormone Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    GeorgeR.Merriam; MaryLimReed; AtilYKargi

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT) is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD)...

  18. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often enc...

  19. Continuation of growth hormone therapy versus placebo in transition-phase patients with growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens; Nørrelund, Helene; Vahl, Nina; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    In a placebo-controlled, parallel study of 18 patients with a mean age of 20 years who had confirmed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we evaluated body composition, insulin sensitivity, and glucose turnover at baseline (when all were receiving GH replacement); after 12 months of continued GH therapy...... or placebo; and after a 12-month open phase of GH therapy. In the placebo group, insulin sensitivity and fat mass increased and lipid oxidation decreased, whereas glucose oxidation increased (p...

  20. Terapia hormonal na menopausa: quando não usar Hormone therapy in menopause: when not to use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poli Mara Spritzer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A menopausa corresponde à cessação permanente da menstruação, conseqüente à perda da função folicular ovariana ou à remoção cirúrgica dos ovários. A idade média para ocorrência da menopausa natural gira em torno de 50 anos. A deficiência estrogênica decorrente da menopausa está associada com sintomas vasomotores, atrofia urogenital, declínio cognitivo, assim como a um aumento no risco de doenças crônico-degenerativas, aterosclerose e doença cardiovascular, osteoporose e doença de Alzheimer. A estrogenioterapia permanece sendo o tratamento mais efetivo para o manejo dos sintomas vasomotores e atrofia urogenital. Em mulheres com útero presente, a progesterona natural ou os progestogênios devem ser associados ao tratamento com estradiol para antagonizar os efeitos proliferativos deste hormônio sobre o endométrio e anular o risco de hiperplasia/carcinoma endometrial. Por outro lado, em determinadas condições clínicas, a terapia hormonal não é recomendada ou é mesmo contra-indicada. Neste artigo, focalizamos criticamente essas situações clínicas em que não se deve indicar a terapia hormonal na menopausa.Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of menses, as a result of the loss of ovarian follicular function or of surgical removal of ovaries. The mean age for occurrence of natural menopause is around 50 years. Estrogen deficiency has been associated with vasomotor symptoms, urogenital atrophy, and cognitive impairment, as well as increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Estrogen therapy remains the most effective treatment for the management of vasomotor symptoms and urogenital atrophy. Progesterone or progestins should be added to estrogen treatment in women with uterus, in order to antagonize the estrogen-induced endometrial proliferation. In turn, in specific clinical conditions hormone therapy is not recommended. In the present article, the authors critically focus these clinical conditions in which hormone therapy should not be used.

  1. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  2. Hormones talking: Does hormonal cross-talk shape the Arabidopsis gynoecium?

    OpenAIRE

    Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Reyes-Olalde, J. Irepan; Ramos-Cruz, Daniela; Lozano-Sotomayor, Paulina; Zúñiga-Mayo, Victor M.; de Folter, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The proper development of fruits is important for the sexual reproduction and propagation of many plant species. The fruit of Arabidopsis derives from the fertilized gynoecium, which initiates at the center of the flower and obtains its final shape, size, and functional tissues through progressive stages of development. Hormones, specially auxins, play important roles in gynoecium and fruit patterning. Cytokinins, which act as counterparts to auxins in other plant tissues, have been studied m...

  3. The Role of Anabolic Hormones for Wound Healing in Catabolic States

    OpenAIRE

    Demling, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the interrelationship between hormones, nutrition, and wound healing. Methods: The data on various hormones and their effects on specific elements of nutrition and wound healing are reviewed. Results: The key anabolic hormones are human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and testosterone and its analogs. Although each has specific metabolic actions, there is also a very important hormone-hormone interaction....

  4. Half-life of exogenous growth hormone following suppression of endogenous growth hormone secretion with somatostatin in type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Mullis, PE; Pal, BR; MATTHEWS, DR; Hindmarsh, PC; Phillips, PE; Dunger, DB

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the half-life of growth hormone in young adult patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus following bolus injection and prolonged exposure for the purpose of deconvolution analysis of plasma growth hormone profiles to determine growth hormone secretory rates. DESIGN: In the bolus study, an intravenous bolus injection of 100 mU of biosynthetic human growth hormone was given while endogenous growth hormone was suppressed by a continuous infusion of somatos...

  5. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of growth hormone gene expression in cultured rat pituitary cells by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cultured GC cells, a rat pituitary tumor cell line, growth hormone [GH] is induced in a synergistic fashion by physiologic concentrations of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones. Abundant evidence indicates that these hormones mediate this response via their specific receptors. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the mechanisms by which these hormones affect GH production. When poly (A)+ RNA was isolated from cells grown both with and without hormones and translated in a cell-free wheat germ system, the preGH translation products were shown to be proportional to immunoassayable GH production under all combinations of hormonal milieux, indicating that changes in GH production is modulated at a pretranslational level. A cDNA library was constructed from poly (A)+RNA and one clone containing GH cDNA sequences was isolated. This was used to confirm the above results by Northern dot blot analysis. This probe was also used to assess hormonal effects on GH mRNA half-life and synthetic rates as well as GH gene transcription rates in isolated nuclei. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cellular RNA was labeled in vivo with [3H]uridine, and quantitating [3H]GHmRNA directly by hybridization to GH cDNA bound to nitrocellulose filters, GHmRNA was found to have a half-life of approximately 50 hours, and was not significantly altered by the presence of inducing hormones

  6. Growth hormone releasing factor: comparison of two analogues and demonstration of hypothalamic defect in growth hormone release after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human pancreatic growth hormone releasing factor (hpGHRF(1-40)) stimulates the release of growth hormone in normal subjects and some patients with growth hormone deficiency. A study comparing the shorter chain amidated analogue hpGHRF(1-29) with an equivalent dose of hpGHRF(1-40) in seven normal subjects showed no significant difference in growth hormone response between the two preparations. Six patients with prolactinomas were also tested; these patients had received megavoltage radiotherapy previously but had developed growth hormone deficiency as shown by insulin induced hypoglycaemia. In all six patients 200 ?g hpGHRF(1-40) or hpGHRF(1-29)NH2 produced an increase in the serum growth hormone concentration. These data suggest that hpGHRF(1-29)NH2 may be useful for testing the readily releasable pool of growth hormone in the pituitary and that cases of hypothalamopituitary irradiation resulting in growth hormone deficiency may be due to failure of synthesis or delivery of endogenous GHRF from the hypothalamus to pituitary cells. (author)

  7. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of a lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varasteh Moradi, Shayli; Varamini, Pegah; Steyn, Frederik; Toth, Istvan

    2015-11-10

    In the current study, the efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) was examined following oral administration in male rats. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique was developed and applied for measuring the concentration of lactose[Q(1)][w(6)]LHRH (compound 1) in rat plasma in order to allow measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters. LH release was evaluated using a sandwich ELISA. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax=0.11?g/ml) was reached at 2h (Tmax) following oral administration of the compound at 10mg/kg. The half-life was determined to be 2.6h. The absolute bioavailability of the orally administered compound was found to be 14%, which was a remarkable improvement compared to zero-to-low oral bioavailability of the native peptide. Compound 1 was effective in stimulating LH release at 20mg/kg after oral administration. The method was validated at a linear range of 0.01-20.0?g/ml and a correlation coefficient of r(2)?0.999. The accuracy and precision values showed the reliability and reproducibility of the method for evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters. These findings showed that the lactose derivative of LHRH has a therapeutic potential to be further developed as an orally active therapeutics for the treatment of hormone-dependent diseases. PMID:26325323

  8. INDUCED SPAWNING OF SILVER CARP, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix USING HORMONES/HORMONAL ANALOGUE WITH DOPAMINE ANTAGONISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.N. EL-HAWARRY

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was made to investigate the effects of using carp pituitary extract, human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogues (Receptal, with or without dopamine antagonists on the spawning performance parameters of silver carp. Results of the current study indicted successful induction of spawning silver carp using different spawning agents. The breeding response and fecundity were comparable among all treatment groups. Moreover, the current experiment clearly indicated that the use of hCG, or mammalian LNRH together with dopamine antagonists was more effective in induction of ovulation and increasing fecundity and hatching rate compared to the other spawning stimulators used in the current study. The results also demonstrated that using dopamine inhibitors potentiate the effect of the hormones used for spawning induction together with reduction of its dose (i.e. dose of carp pituitary extract, human chorionic gonadotropin. Meanwhile, it is well established that domperidone is preferred than metoclopramide as a dopamine antagonists for spawning induction of fish. In view of these results it is clear that not only carp pituitary extract and human chorionic gonadotropin but also the mammalian LHRH analogue (i.e. Receptal was effective to induce spawning in silver carp. This is important in the view of the fact that mammalian LNRH analogues are available more widely and their price is much more attractive. This would result in cost reduction of induced breeding by using mammalian LNRH analogues in combination with a dopamine antagonist or alone.

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and Adipokinetic hormone signaling systems share a common evolutionary origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarleenLindemans

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a critical and central hormone that regulates vertebrate reproduction. The high conservation of GnRH signaling within the chordates (deuterostomians raises the important question as to whether its appearance might date back prior to the divergence of protostomian and deuterostomian lineages, about 700 million years ago. This leads to several important questions regarding the evolution of the GnRH family. Has GnRH been retained in most protostomian lineages? And was regulation of reproduction already a function of ancestral GnRH? The first question can undoubtedly be answered affirmatively since several GnRH-like sequences have been found in wide variety of protostomian and deuterostomian phyla. However, based on their different primary functions in different phyla – which implies a less unanimous answer on the second question – consistency in the nomenclature of this peptide family has been lost. A comparative and phylogenetic approach shows that the ecdysozoan adipokinetic hormones (AKHs, lophotrozoan GnRHs and chordate GnRHs are structurally related and that they all originate from a common ancestor. This review supports the view that the AKH-GnRH signaling system probably arose very early in metazoan evolution, prior to the divergence of protostomians and deuterostomians.

  10. Discordances between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH in female infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weghofer Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH represent the two most frequently utilized laboratory tests in determining ovarian reserve (OR. This study determined the clinical significance of their concordance and discordance in female infertility patients. Methods We investigated 366 consecutive infertility patients (350 reached IVF, excluding women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. They were considered to have normal FSH and AMH if values fell within age-specific (as- 95% confidence intervals (CI, and to suffer from diminished ovarian reserve (DOR if FSH exceeded and/or AMH fell below those. The two hormones, thus, could be concordant (Group I, both normal (IA or abnormal (IB, show normal AMH/abnormal FSH (Group II or normal FSH/abnormal AMH (Group III. Oocyte yields, stratified for age categories, were then studied in each group as reflection of OR. Results Oocyte yields significantly decreased from groups IA to II to III and IB. Predictive values of as-FSH/AMH patterns changed, however, at different ages. Except at very young and very old ages, normal as-AMH better predicted higher oocytes yields than normal as-FSH, though above age 42 years normal as-FSH predicts good oocyte yields even with abnormally low AMH. Under age 42 discrepancies between as- FSH and as-AMH remain similarly predictive of oocyte yields at all ages. Discussion Concordances and discordances between as-FSH and as-AMH improve OR assessments and predictability of oocyte yields in IVF.

  11. Changes in calcium regulating hormone and sex hormone in male patients with liver cirrhosis and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the significance of the changes in calcium regulating hormone and sex hormone in male patients with liver cirrhosis, a prospective study was performed on 48 male patients with liver cirrhosis and 43 controls. The serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT), osteocalcin (BGP), estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) were determined by IRMA or RIA. Serum levels of calcium(Ca2+), phosphorus (P3+) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in all patients and controls. Cirrhotic patients showed lower serum CT, BGP, Ca2+, P3+ T, and BMD. The serum levels of PTH, E2, ALP and BLP were increased significantly in the cirrhosis group. When the condition of cirrhosis deteriorated, above-mentioned changes became much more obvious. Significant disorders of calcium regulating hormone and sex hormone in end-stage cirrhotic patients resulted in osteoporosis

  12. Opiate action on adenohypophyseal hormone secretion during anesthesia and gynecologic surgery in different phases of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassays of cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol (E2) and progesterone were carried out in order to elucidate opiate action an adenohypophyseal hormone secretion during anesthesia in gynecologie surgery. (EG)

  13. The predictive value of thyroid hormone levels on the neurological outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-dong CHEN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation between thyroid hormone levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke and the severity of disease and short-term prognosis. Methods According to the level of serum total triiodothyronine (TT3, 98 patients who presented first acute ischemic stroke and without history of thyroid abnormality were divided into low TT3 group and normal TT3 group. Thyroid hormone levels and neurological function defect of those patients were tested, and their neural functional recovery after 3 months was evaluated.  Results Low TT3 group had more severe neural function defect compared to normal TT3 group (?2 = 58.134, P = 0.000. There were no significant differences on total thyroxine (TT4; t = 1.636, P = 0.105 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH; t = 1.059, P = 0.292 between 2 groups. There was a significantly negative correlation between TT3 levels and National Insititute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score on admission (r = -0.672, P = 0.000. Patients with low TT3 showed a significantly smaller percentage of neurological function improvement on both NIHSS ( ?2 = 8.993, P = 0.003 and modified Rankin Scale (mRS; ?2 = 6.247, P = 0.012 scores compared to those with normal TT3 at 90 d after onset.  Conclusions Low T3 level is associated with the severity of acute ischemic stroke and neural functional recovery, suggesting serum T3 level may be a predictor of neural function improvement in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.009

  14. A Prospective Investigation of Graves' Disease and Selenium: Thyroid Hormones, Auto-Antibodies and Self-Rated Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Mikulski, Emil; Larsen, Erik H.; Möller, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Background In Graves' thyrotoxicosis tachycardia, weight loss and mental symptoms are common. Recovery takes time and varies between patients. Treatment with methimazole reduces thyroid hormone levels. According to previous research, this reduction has been faster if selenium (Se) is added. Objective The objective was to investigate whether supplementing the pharmacologic treatment with Se could change the immune mechanisms, hormone levels and/or depression and anxiety. Methods We prospectively investigated 38 patients with initially untreated thyrotoxicosis by measuring the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid receptor antibodies and thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies before medication and at 6, 18 and 36 weeks after commencing treatment with methimazole and levo-thyroxine, with a randomized blinded oral administration of 200 µg Se/day or placebo. The selenoprotein P concentration was determined in plasma at inclusion and after 36 weeks. The patients were also assessed with questionnaires about depression, anxiety and self-rated symptoms before medication was started and after 36 weeks. Results FT4 decreased more in the Se group at 18 weeks (14 vs. 17 pmol/l compared to the placebo group, p = 0.01) and also at 36 weeks (15 vs. 18 pmol/l, p = 0.01). The TSH increased more in the Se group at 18 weeks (0.05 vs. 0.02 mIU/l, p = 0.04). The depression and anxiety scores were similar in both groups. In the Se group, the depression rates correlated negatively with FT3 and positively with TSH. This was not seen in the placebo group. Conclusions Se supplementation can enhance biochemical restoration of hyperthyroidism, but whether this could shorten clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis and reduce mental symptoms must be investigated further. PMID:26279994

  15. A Prospective Investigation of Graves' Disease and Selenium: Thyroid Hormones, Auto-Antibodies and Self-Rated Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Mikulski, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Graves' thyrotoxicosis tachycardia, weight loss and mental symptoms are common. Recovery takes time and varies between patients. Treatment with methimazole reduces thyroid hormone levels. According to previous research, this reduction has been faster if selenium (Se) is added. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether supplementing the pharmacologic treatment with Se could change the immune mechanisms, hormone levels and/or depression and anxiety. Methods: We prospectively investigated 38 patients with initially untreated thyrotoxicosis by measuring the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid receptor antibodies and thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies before medication and at 6, 18 and 36 weeks after commencing treatment with methimazole and levo-thyroxine, with a randomized blinded oral administration of 200 µg Se/day or placebo. The selenoprotein P concentration was determined in plasma at inclusion and after 36 weeks. The patients were also assessed with questionnaires about depression, anxiety and self-rated symptoms before medication was started and after 36 weeks. Results: FT4 decreased more in the Se group at 18 weeks (14 vs. 17 pmol/l compared to the placebo group, p = 0.01) and also at 36 weeks (15 vs. 18 pmol/l, p = 0.01). The TSH increased more in the Se group at 18 weeks (0.05 vs. 0.02 mIU/l, p = 0.04). The depression and anxiety scores were similar in both groups. In the Se group, the depression rates correlated negatively with FT3 and positively with TSH. This was not seen in the placebo group. Conclusions: Se supplementation can enhance biochemical restoration of hyperthyroidism, but whether this could shorten clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis and reduce mental symptoms must be investigated further.© 2015 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Endocrine archeology: Do insects retain ancestrally inherited counterparts of the vertebrate releasing hormones GnRH, GHRH, TRH, and CRF?

    OpenAIRE

    De Loof, Arnold; Lindemans, Marleen; Liu, Feng; De Groef, Bert; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate releasing hormones include gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRF), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). They are synthesized in the hypothalamus and stimulate the release of pituitary hormones. Here we review the knowledge on hormone releasing systems in the protostomian lineage. We address the question: do insects have peptides that may be phylogenetically related to an ancestral GnRH, GHRH, TRH, an...

  17. The ketotic effects of glucocorticoid and growth hormone in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D S; Eaton, R P; Peake, G T

    1980-01-01

    The ketotic effects of both glucocorticoid and growth hormone were assessed in normal man. Experimental protocols, previously shown to induce marked ketosis in diabetic man, were utilized to explore the metabolic effects of these two stress hormones in subjects with normal insulin secretory capacity. Glucocorticoid was administered orally as 1 mg of dexamethasone at 24 and 8 h prior to study. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously at a dosage of 1 mg, 12 h prior to study. During the 90-min study of the ketotic activity of these hormones, plasma nonesterified fatty acids were acutely increased by heparin administration to support hepatic ketogenesis. This technique permitted an assessment of the ketotic activity of glucocorticoid and growth hormone independent of their lipolytic activity. The results of this study demonstrate that glucocorticoid may cause minimal hyperketonemia in spite of hyperinsulinemia in normal man. However, this effect is accompanied by a glucocorticoid-induced instability in basal ketone body and nonesterified fatty acid concentration. In contrast, no effect of growth hormone on plasma ketone body concentration or insulin levels was observed. These results in normal man contrast to the marked ketosis previously induced by these two stress hormones in diabetic man. PMID:7004043

  18. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S

    2011-01-01

    No human study has investigated the possible impact of breastfeeding on semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones, but a recent study of another hypothesis indicated an association with oligozoospermia. We investigated the association between breastfeeding, semen quality and levels of reproductive hormones. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 sons were selected according to maternal smoking during pregnancy and followed up with questionnaires, semen analysis and blood sampling in 2005-2006. Complete data were available for 269 men aged 18-21 years. Breastfeeding was not statistically significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility or morphology, oligozoospermia, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the calculated level of free testosterone, free oestradiol, the free testosterone/free oestradiol ratio or the follicle-stimulating hormone/inhibin B ratio. Total testosterone and total oestradiol was 16% (p = 0.01) and 14% (p = 0.06), respectively, lower among men never breastfed in comparison with men breastfed exclusively for 1 month or longer. When taking SHBG into account, neither free testosterone nor free oestradiol was different between the two groups. This study shows no association between breastfeeding and sperm quality or reproductive hormones and a strong association is unlikely. A larger study would be needed to detect more subtle effects.

  19. Hatching the cleidoic egg: the role of thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VeerleM.Darras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A major life stage transition in birds and other oviparous sauropsids is the hatching of the cleidoic egg. Not unlike amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in these species can be regarded as a transition from a relatively well-protected “aqueous” environment to a more hazardous and terrestrial life outside the egg, a transition in which thyroid hormones (often in concert with glucocorticoids play an important role. In precocial birds such as the chicken, the perihatch period is characterised by peak values of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are implicated in the control of muscle development, lung maturation and the switch from chorioallantoic to pulmonary respiration, yolk sac retraction, gut development and induction of hepatic genes to accommodate the change in dietary energy source, initiation of thermoregulation, and the final stages of brain maturation as well as early posthatch imprinting behavior. There is evidence that, at least for some of these processes, thyroid hormones may have similar roles in non-avian sauropsids. In altricial birds such as passerines on the other hand, thyroid hormones do not rise significantly until well after hatching and peak values coincide with the development of endothermy. It is not known how hatching-associated processes are regulated by hormones in these animals or how this developmental mode evolved from thyroid hormone-dependent precocial hatching.

  20. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces secretion of anorexigenic gut hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Young; Aihara, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Mizuno, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    The anorexigenic gut hormones, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), are released in response to food intake from the intestines. Dietary nutrients have been shown to stimulate these hormones. Some non-nutrients such as polyphenols show anorexigenic effects on humans. In the present study, we examined whether dietary polyphenols can stimulate secretion of these gut hormones. Caco-2 cells expressed mRNA of the gut hormones, CCK, PC1 (prohormone convertase 1), GCG (glucagon) and PYY. CCK, GLP-1 and PYY were secreted from Caco-2 cells after adding sugars, amino acids or fatty acids. Using Caco-2 cells, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid induced secretion of anorexigenic gut hormones. Particularly, EGCG induced secretion of all three hormones. In an ex vivo assay using murine intestines, EGCG also released CCK from the duodenum, and GLP-1 from the ileum. These results suggest that EGCG may affect appetite via gut hormones. PMID:26388676